THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

2.2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.1.1-Sampling of drugs 2.) Desv 177 1.1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1.2.Types of Stomata 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.2.1.2.2.1 Testing Drugs 2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.2-Sieves 1.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.2.2.3.2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.1.1.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.2. 1.1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.1.2.1.2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.2-Thermometers 1.4.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.2.1-Nessler Cylinder.1.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .1.5.

3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.3.Weights and Measures 5.6-Sulphated Ash 2.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.2.3.1.2.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.3 Limit Tests 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.3.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.3.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.1.2-Refractive Index 2.

II would be official.). is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. II. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). accordingly. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable.P. the Dangerous Drugs Act. Vol. would be deemed to have been amended vii . If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. Part-I. Part-I. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Vol. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. 1930 and the Poisons Act. In general. Vol. II.I.

Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. substances or processes described in Appendix.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Ayurvedic Formulary of India.The metric system of weights and measures is employed.GENERAL NOTICES Title . Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. Italics . Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. If the odour persists to be discernible.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Purity and Strength . The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . Odour and Taste .The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . English. Synonyms . Hindi. Introductory Para . it is described as having odour. Identity. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. Mesh Number . The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. Weights and Measures . The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. if any. When the term “drop” is used. viii .Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. indicated in monograph. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. distribution and method of collection.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit.

even by applying known reference standards.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. wherever given. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. Vol. arsenic and heavy metals. fungi. shall constitute standards.) . groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses.soluble extractive. Percentage of Solutions . Thin Layer Chromatography (T. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. according to circumstances. Part-I.Under this head. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. is used. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. alcohol-soluble extractive.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. However. total ash. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects.L. However. ether-soluble extractive. colour. micro-organisms. and Identity. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. acid-insoluble ash. Constituents . and other animal matter including animal excreta. Purity and Strength. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. sliminess. and show no abnormal odour.For statutory purpose. pesticides. moisture content.In defining standards.C. in 100 grammes of product. Standards . under Description. which he uses. statements appearing in the API. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. Constant Weight . if of equivalent accuracy. The quantitative tests e.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. with one of the four meanings given below. ix . be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. V.g. those of definition of the part and source plants. pests. the expression per cent (%). The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. mould or other evidence of deterioration.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. water. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. water-soluble ash.

a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Percentage of alcohol . Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. such as fragment of filter papers. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. Solutions . Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. at a stated temperature. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known.000 parts x . Temperature . and dust particles.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. all solutions are prepared with purified water. Statements of solubilities.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. are intended to apply at that temperature. fibres. Solubility .Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. thermometric scale.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.56 oC. Reagents and Solutions .The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent.000 parts More than 10.

Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. ml. g. cm. l.I. Kg. mg.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi .5 N. TS. IN. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. Part –I and Part-II. 0. unless otherwise stated. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. µ.1 N. Fam. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents.P. mm. 1M. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. 0. PS.

Rt. Eng. Guj. Tel. xii . Punj. Assam. Wd. Kan. Beng. Sd. Rz.Sansk. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Mal. Bk. Lf. Tub. Wh. Pl. Ht. Fr. Tam. St. Mar. Rt. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Ori. Pseudo-bulb Rt. St. Kash. Wd. Bk.

Akarakarabha (Rt. odour. vessels pitted. not easily separable. characteristically astringent and pungent. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. thin-walled. (Fam. shrivelled. Akallakara. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. external surface rough. elongated. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. tapering slightly at both ends. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. xylem fibres thick-walled. an annual. bark upto 3 mm thick. Akarakara Akkaraka. parenchymatous cells. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. slightly aromatic. more and wider vessels found towards peripery.8 µ in width. 1. Akravu Akkalakara. Asteraceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro.37-28. cylindrical. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. Akalakarabha. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. many of which developed as sclerenchyma.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. 7-15 cm in length. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.231 µ in 1 . cambium 2-5 layered. 53. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. b) Microscopic Root . hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. taste.1.2 . brown.

Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. of the drug in powder form. D¢pana.Prati¿y¡ya. bi to tri and multiseriate.2. á£laroga. Appendix 8 percent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Appendix 2 percent. Danta¿£la DOSE . V¡jikara. Grdhras¢. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. Appendix 2. áotha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma.Ash coloured. uniseriate rays very rare.7. 2. Kaphahara. medullary rays numerous.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. Aj¢rna. áukrala.length having narrow lumen. Udararoga. ray cells thick-walled.5 -1 g. also gives positive tests for inulin. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. 2. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. radially elongated. 2.2. Powder .6.0.2. K¡sa.2. IDENTITY. NaÀ¶¡rtava.3.2. Svedakara.4. Pittahara.2. Appendix 10 percent. secondary phloem and medullary rays. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. 2.Kum¡ry¡sava. áv¡sa. Buddhivardhaka. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 22 percent. running straight. 2 . secondary phloem and medullary rays. secondary phloem. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa.

Akshoda (Cotldn.) large deciduous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. parenchymatous cells. Juglandaceae). found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. Powder . coriaceous. thin-walled. creamish-brown. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. slightly curved. oily sweet. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. (Fam. Cotyledon . shows groups of cells of cotyledon. endosperm mostly single layered. not distinct. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. broken pieces. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. taste. irregularly corrugated. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. 3 . Sailabhava. collapsed. under this. parenchymatous cells. odour.2. thin-walled.Cream coloured. radially elongated. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. followed by more or less compressed.Shows 1-2 layered.

H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.0 percent. CONSTITUENTS .6.5 percent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. DOSE .10 .Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.4. 4 .2.Walnut oil and Tannin. V¤Àya. Appendix Not less than 7. Sara.25 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. 2. B¤´ha¸a.0 percent. Appendix 2. 2. Balya. Appendix Not more than 0. ViÀ¶ambhi. 2. Appendix Not less than 10.3. áukral.KÀata.2.IDENTITY. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.2. Kaphakara.7. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 2. KÀaya. V¡taroga.2.

upto 27 m high and 2.Bk. Ambalam. Mampuiti. f. parenchymatous cells. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. consisting of tangentially elongated. tangentially elongated. which are thick-walled towards periphery. grey having lenticels. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Ambazham. Amra Indian Hog Plum. and 5 . external surface smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. non Gamble (Fam. parenchymatous.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. acuminata Roxb. Kurz.5 m in girth. Stem Bark. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. a small aromatic. Ranambo Ambada. Amvara -Mampusli. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. laminated. S. with reddish-brown contents. a few outer cells exfoliated. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. thin. mangifera Willd. Amrata (St. Ambado. Jangali Ambo. radially arranged. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Amra. curved. fracture.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows.. Wild Mango Ambeda. thin-walled cells. Jangli Aam Ambate. S. Anacardiaceae). found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Anbalamu.3. Ambadam Amratakamu. Syn. internal surface reddish-yellow. deciduous tree. Ranamba.

Raktapitta.Light brown.4..2. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows cork cells. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.6.2. lignified. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. Pittakara. Appendix Not more than 0. KÀaya. 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Under U. Not more than 1 per cent. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.V.96. 2. Powder .75-14 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Rucik¤t. 2. CONSTITUENTS . containing rosette crystals and starch grains. Appendix 2.33. 0. simple.40 and 0.5 per cent. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.L. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. stone cells.5-10 g.2. Ka¸¶hya.7.KÀata.33. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. T. D¡ha DOSE .96 (blue).C.C. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. 0. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. 2. 0. V¡tahara. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. IDENTITY.2.(greyish brown).Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.3.2. 0.87 (all greyish brown).2.87 (blue) and 0. 6 . of the drug in powder form for decoction.L. thick-walled. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.

Apamarga (W. odour. hollow when dry. gradually tapering. Flower . not distinct. subsessile.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. numerous. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. anther. two celled. hairy. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .0 cm in thickness. rough due to presence of some root scars. exstipulate.) Amaranthaceae). yellowish-brown.4. sessile. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra.Cylindrical tap root. solid. the perianth lobes. PratyakpuÀpa. contorted or quincuncial. secondary and tertiary roots present. obovate. cylindrical.1-1. dorsifixed. slightly ribbed.0. stamens 5. opposite. greenish-white. Stem .9 m high herb. 0.Simple. a stiff. hypogynous. erect. opposite. (Fam.P. 7 . 0. Leaf .3-0. decussate. membranous. filament short. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita.3 . wavy margin. bracteate with two bracteoles. May£raka.5 cm in cut pieces. branched. bisexual. Kharamaµjar. erect. one spine lipped. actinomorphic.free. perianth segments 5. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. yellowish-brown.0.

elongated. perianth and bracteoles. followed 8 .An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. endospermic. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. either separate throughout or found in some cases. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. demarcating the xylem rings. xylem composed of usual elements. thin-walled cork cells. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. on both surfaces. parenchymatous cells. rectangular. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. Midrib . capitate. epidermis single layered. Stem . epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. vessels annular. 2-5 celled. fibres pitted. thin-walled cork cells. fibres being absent. single. b) Microscopic Root . which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. 3-4 celled stalk. ovary superior. brown. thin-walled. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. round at the base.gynoecium bicarpellary. stigma.Shows a single layered epidermis. two medullary bundles. cortex 6-10 layered. scalariform and pitted. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. tangentially elongated. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. spiral. syncarpous. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. composed of parenchymatous cells.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. style. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. oval to rectangular.Sub-cylindric. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. cortical and pith cells. thin layers of cambium. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. LeafPetiole . lignified. present in pith. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. unilocular with single ovule. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide.Shows crescent-shaped outline.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. Seed . vessels simple pitted. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. Fruit . pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. truncate at the apex.

while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. Gu·apippali.2.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. palisade ratio 7. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. Chedana. aseptate fibres. 9. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent.20-50 g. scalariform and pitted thickening.0 on upper surface.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 2. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.2. Ka¸·u. P¡cana. IDENTITY.2. spiral.7. 2. 2.á£la. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.5-9. 2.6. V¡maka. slightly elongated in upper. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. Medohara. stomatal index 4. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. uniseriate hair with bulbous base.2. Ar¿a. rectangular. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. of the drug for decoction. V¡tahara.Shows single layered. Lamina .Light yellow.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Tikta Sara.2. vessels with annular. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. thin-walled epidermal cells.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder . 2.0-20.3. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. shows fragments of elongated.0 on lower surface. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. Medoroga DOSE .0-11. vein islet number 7-13 per sq.2. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. Udara Roga. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. non-lignified cells. Apac¢. mm. 9 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara.

medullary 10 . colour.5.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. thin-walled. a few solitary fibres also present. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. cylindrical. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. taste. bitter. 1-5 mm in thickness. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. polygonal. Aparajita (Rt. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. a few showing slit-like pits. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. b) Microscopic Root . vessels pitted with oblong. very long. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. fracture. (Fam. lightbrown. fibrous. Fabaceae).Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. T. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. Tikta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.rays 1-5 cells wide. 0.2. CONSTITUENTS . xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. Taraxerol & Taraxerone.2.79 (both yellow).79 (dull yellow) in visible light. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. 2. M£traroga. V¡tahara. phloem and xylem parenchyma.L. Vra¸a DOSE . shows simple and compound starch grains. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . KuÀ¶ha. 0.4.Yellowish-brown. oblong and pitted. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. Buddhiprada. Kaphahara. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.1 .79 (grey).3. 0. Medhya. Appendix per cent.7. 2. Under U. Appendix per cent.2. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. 11 . Resin. of the drug in powder form..79 (blue).V.C.L.Tannin.2. áotha. Starch. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. measuring 3-13 µ in dia.54 and 0.3 g. found in secondary cortex. Appendix 2. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. 2.6. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.á£la. Powder . IDENTITY. 0.C. ViÀahara..2.2. Appendix per cent.Mi¿raka Sneha. 2.

Ale -Adi. pungent Rhizome . fracture. reaching up to 90 cm in height. radially arranged cells of inner cork. lakottai. oblique branches on upper side. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. irregularly arranged. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial.6.Shows a few layered.) Zingiberaceae). isodiametric. each having a depressed scar at its apex. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. widely cultivated in India. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. (Fam. odour. Adrak Injee. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. Ardraka (Rz. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. Inji Allamu. short with projecting fibres.5 cm thick. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. thin-walled. pieces 5-15 cm long. gingery.5-6. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. colourless. tangentially elongated. buds and roots are removed and washed well.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. Allam. 1.

7. phloem. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.69. 0. vessels 2-5 in number.76.63 (grey) & 0.9 T.L.3. 13 .l6 (brownish violet).08 (violet).4. 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. 0. IDENTITY. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.2. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. Powder -Light yellow.03. 0.L.dia.92 (all yellow).2. oleo-resin cells abundent. 0. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.16. 2. conjoint. 0.6.2. reticulate and spiral vessels. Under U.5 per cent. elongated pits on their walls. 0.C. larger bundles consists of 2. 0. 0. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.92 (violet). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.V.47. 0. Appendix 1 per cent. 0. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. 2. 2. endodermis single layered. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf.63. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin.. Appendix 90 per cent. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.35. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.08.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.35 (light violet). shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 0. filled with abundant starch grains. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.13. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.76 (violet) & 0. 0. 0.16 (blue).2. Appendix 8 per cent. free from starch.63 (light violet).35.69 (all light yellow).2.7 vessels.C.69 (light violet). 0. greater number occurring in inner cortical region.63 & 0. 0.16. vessels showing reticulate. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 2. collateral. composed of xylem. walls of oil cells suberised. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. 0.47 (light violet). fibrovascular bundles of two types. septate fibres with oblique. 0. 0. small cells of sieve tube. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.69 (grey). numerous closed. 2. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. Appendix 2 per cent. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS .2.2.83 & 0.

Rocana. Kaphahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. V ¤Àaya. Bhedana. Ën¡ha.á£la. 14 . áopha.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Svarya. Ka¸tharoga. Vibandha. RukÀa.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. H¤dya. V¡tahara.

fracture. fibres and crystal fibres. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. hard. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. Pilobaval. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous.7. secondary phloem wide. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. Velvelam. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. stone cells and phloem cells. (Fam. parenchyma. upto 3 m in height. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres thin-walled. not distinct. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. exfoliating in irregular scales. internally light brown to reddish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. incurved. characteristic of dry regions.5-1 cm thick. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam.Bk. rough. Sadabala -Haramibaval. consisting of sieve elements. lignified. with tapering 15 . all traversed by medullary rays. Fabaceae). thinwalled cortical cells. fibrous. square to rectangular cells.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. odour and taste. Arimeda (St. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd.

radially elongated cells.91 (yellow). Meha. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa. crystal fibres elongated.C. T.2. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. IDENTITY. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. 0 to 0. P¡¸·u.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.39 and a spot at Rf. Appendix 13 per cent. KuÀ¶ha.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga).4.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.7. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. fibres.áopha. β -Amyrin.6.2. Appendix 11 per cent.LC.2.0. Atis¡ra.91 (both blue).78 and 0. sclereid. Meda¿oÀaka. ViÀajavra¸a. 0.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. K¤mi.3-5 g in powder form.40 g for decoction. composed of thin-walled. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.ends. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Appendix 1 per cent. shows groups of cork cells. 16 . 2. Appendix 14 per cent. 2.0 to 0. 0. Powder . Appendix 2. Mukharoga.2.39 and a spot at Rf. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Visarpa.2.2. Ka¸·u.Reddish-brown. 2. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.3.n-Hexacosanol. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. 2. Dantaroga.e. Udardapra áamana DOSE .

Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark.Bk. a large deciduous tree. 0. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. recurved. P¡rtha.& A. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. channelled to half quilled. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. traversed by phloem rays. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Arjuna. Neermatti.8. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . companion cells. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. Mathichakke. (Fam. consisting of sieve tubes. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. Vellamaruthi. Mattimora. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. Bilimatti. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. Kellemasuthu. short in inner and laminated in outer part. taste. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. flat. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. Arjuna (St. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. fracture. bitter and astringent. Torematti Arjuna.) Combretaceae). in the middle and outer phloem region. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.2-1.5 cm thick. curved.

in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. Appendix 1 per cent. round to oval.Reddish-brown. H¤dya. Pittahara. a few rhomboidal crystals.2. DOSE .2..2. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. alternating with fibres. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. starch grains simple and compound. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa.2. 2. T¤À¡. THERAPEUTIC USES . elliptical. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. 2. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. fibres. Vra¸an¡¿ana.Medoroga. alata). Vra¸a.. 2. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. Appendix 20 per cent. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. mostly simple. shows fragments of cork cells. starch grains. Arjuna Gh¤ta. µ Powder .7. 4-12 cells high.3-6 g.in dia.6. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. KÀatakÀaya. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. Appendix 20 per cent.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. H¤droga.. Appendix 25 per cent.3. elliptic. Vya´ga. uniseriate phloem rays.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. sometimes upto 5 components.2. 18 . Prameha. 2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. IDENTITY. compound of 2-3 components. round to oval.4.

nut 2. Scramkotati Nallajidi. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. smooth. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. drupaceous. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. dark brown. 30-40 layers thick. Fruit . Bhallataka (Fr.9. 19 . (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. mesocarp a very broad zone. obliquely ovoid. Nallajidiginga Baladur.) Anacardiaceae).5-3 cm long. shining with residual receptacle. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. mesocarp and endocarp.

Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Ka¶u.2.7. Bhedi. KuÀ¶ha. ether. Tikta. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.2. IDENTITY. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. chloroform. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Krimi. Powder .Ar¿a. Kaphahara.3. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.5 per cent. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS . Gulma. Appendix 11 per cent. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. DOSE .1. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. 2. very much elongated radial walls. Chedi.2. Snigdha.2 g. Appendix 0.I. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. 2. Part-I 20 .4. being highly thickened. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). Appendix 5 per cent..2. Note . V¡tahara. P¡cana.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Ën¡ha..endocarp consists of two distinct layers.2.F. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Dark-brown. innermost prismatic. Appendix 4 per cent. Graha¸¢. 2. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.2.6.

1. cylindrical or flat. erect or prostrate. ovate. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. greenish.2 . strigosely hirsute. Kesari -Bhangaro. Kesuriya. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. spreading. occasionally brownish.50 cm high. often rooting at nodes. sessile to subsessile. strigose with oppressed hairs. Bhringaraja (W. Karisalanganni.10. not toothed. Knnunni Bhangra. Asteraceae). Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja.) herbaceous annual. M¡rkava. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. herbaceous. 30 . scarcely as long as bracts.P.Opposite. disc flowers 21 .. occasionally rooting at nodes. upto about 7 mm in dia. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m.Well developed. rough due to oppressed white hairs. greyish. usually oblong. together on unequal axillary peduncles. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. Stem . Bhringiraja. sub-entire. (Fam.Solitary or 2. sub-acute or acute. 2. Leaf . Keshavardhana. Tekar¡ja. ray flowers ligulate. white. Soppu. branched.8.5 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Flower . ligule small. Gurugada. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. lanceolate.2 . Bhangro Bhangara.3 cm wide. much branched. involucral bracts about 8. obtuse or acute. a number of secondary branches arise from main root.2. Karisalai Guntakalagara.Herbaceous. Bh¤´ga. node distinct. cylindrical.

pistil bicarpellary. tangentially elongated cells. in macerated preparation vessels small. Seed . ray cells pitted. epidermis followed by wide cortex. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. brown. non-glandular. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. xylem composed of vessels. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. covered with striated cuticle. covered with warty excrescences. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. cuneate.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. filaments epipetalous. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled.tubular. consisting of rounded cells.1 cm wide. and with pointed apical cell.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. epidermis followed by cortex. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. drum-shaped. found scattered throughout wood. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. hairy and non endospermic. Midrib . ovary inferior. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. traversed by xylem rays. 1-5 celled. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. b) Microscopic Root . phloem rays broader towards periphery. xylem ray distinct. stamen 5. run straight in tangential section. externally covered with cuticle. trichomes of two types. fibre tracheids. fibre tracheids. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. warty. corolla often 4 toothed. uniseriate. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. one seeded.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. with a narrow wing. pitted. free. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. Fruit . 0. fibres and xylem parenchyma. pappus absent. rarely slightly oblique. with very pointed tips.0. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse.25 cm long.Achenial cypsella.0.2 . dark brown. Leaf- Petiole . vessels numerous. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. simple. unilocular with one basal ovule.

2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. arranged in tangential strands. Powder .Dark green. secondary cortex composed of large.shows a dorsi ventral structure. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. epidermis single layered. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. 23 . normally biseriate and uniseriate. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. pointed. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. Stem . peg-like outgrowth. more abundant on lower surfaces. pitted with spiral thickening. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays.collenehymatous cells on both sides. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. trichomes entire or in pieces. the cork where formed. hairs stiff. externally covered with cuticle. septa thick-walled. vascular bundles in a ring. pointed tips and pitted walls. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. stomatal index 20. wide at the base. while the section cut at apical region. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma.0-22. endarch.5. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. externally covered with cuticle. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. warty. middle cells longest. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. xylem fibres with wide lumen.5 on upper and 23. pericyclic fibres distinct. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. palisade ratio 3. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. Lamina . xylem consists of large number of vessels. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side.0 on lower surface. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. mesophyll traversed by number of veins.5 -26. uniseriate.8 -4. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. some elongated with simple perforations. about 3 celled. collateral.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. K¡sa. Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form for decoction.2.3. H ¤droga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6 ml of the drug in juice form. CakÀusya. THERAPEUTIC USES . ViÀahara. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.2.Alkaloids. Yak¤droga.2.IDENTITY. Ëmahara. Appendix per cent.áotha. K¤miroga.2.2. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila.6. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Tekar¡ja marica. Appendix per cent. 24 . Ras¡yana. V¡tahara. Ke¿ya. 2. Dantya. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. áirah á£la.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila.3 . Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. P¡¸·u. 2. 2. DOSE . 12 . Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. áv¡sa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. Tikta RukÀa.36 g. 2.2.7. Tvacya.

) Wettst. Flower . succulent. pedicels 6-30 mm long. Scrophulariaceae).) H.Capsules upto 5 mm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. small. small. branched creamish-yellow. soft. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. Syn. decussate. prostrate or creeping annual herb.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. 25 . Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. obovate-oblong. a glabrous. Fruit . axillary and solitary.Thin. (Fam. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . wiry. taste. taste.Simple. about 1-2 mm thick. slightly bitter. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. Ondelaga. 1-2 cm long. slightly bitter. opposite. sessile.& K.P. nodes and internodes prominent. found throughout India in wet and damp places. ovoid and glabrous. green or purplish green. Stem . bracteoles shorter than pedicels. Valabrahmi.Thin.11. glabrous. Leaf . Brahmi (W. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi.. Brahmi.B.Small. green. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam.

Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. starch grains simple. simple.Root . 2. no distinct midrib present. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. round and oval starch grains. Medhya. Praj¡sth¡pana..2. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. Appendix per cent. pericycle not distinct. and 8. endodermis single layered. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. 2. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle.3. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. ViÀahara.Yellowish-brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. glandular hairs sessile. Tikta.2.2. ËyuÀya.Shows a single layer of epidermis. round to oval. endodermis single layered. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. V¡tahara. b) Microscopic 26 . Appendix per cent. Powder . cortex having large air cavities.0-14. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. IDENTITY.2. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. Ras¡yana. glandular hairs. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. vascular ring continuous.7. Appendix per cent.0 µ in dia. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings.2. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Svarya.4.0 x 2. respectively. 2. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces.6.5-9. Appendix 2. Stem .2. Appendix per cent. Matiprada.

THERAPEUTIC USES .S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Jvara. Ratnagiri Rasa. Prameha. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . P¡¸·u.KuÀ¶ha. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. 27 . Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. áopha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.1-3 g in powder form.

woody. fracture.12. a very prickly. (Fam. Heggulla. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . oval and tangentially elongated cells. varying greatly in shape and size.5 cm in dia. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai.. secondary cortex composed of 5 . pale yellowish-brown. Putirichunda Dorli. upto 1. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. much branched perennial under shrub.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. Badikateri Kirugullia. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Solanaceae). phloem parenchyma much abundant. Chichuriti. tangentially elongated. Papparamulli. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. traversed by phloem rays.15 layers of thin-walled. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. cylindrical. cork cambium single layered. Ubhibharingani. long. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. thin-walled. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. ribbed.8 m high. no distinct odour and taste. short and splintery. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. 1-2. parenchyma and stone cells. Brihati (Rt.9 layers of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root .

11. CONSTITUENTS .. H¤dya. shows groups of thin-walled.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.2. V¡tahara. all elements being lignified. Kaphahara. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays.2. DOSE . wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . 29 . rounded to oval starch grains.6.2.5 . microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. xylem rays uni to biseriate.4. 2.2.5 -11. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. parenchymatous cells.2. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.Cream coloured. measuring 5. fibres and xylem parenchyma. áv¡sa. Appendix Not more than 6. phloem and medullary rays. of the drug for decoction. H¤droga. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.á£la. Powder . P¡cana. aseptate fibres. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. thick-walled. Agnim¡dya. 2.2. 2. 2.5 per cent.10-20 g. measuring 5. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent.6 µ in diameter.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . cells radially elongated and pitted.3.6 µ in diameter. vessels with simple pits. tracheids.7. Appendix 2. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. IDENTITY. traversed by xylem rays. Jvara. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.

secondary cortex a wide zone. P. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. officinarum DC. endodermis single layered. P. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. greyish-brown. fibres and xylem parenchyma.0 cm in width. brownish cells. b) Microscopic Stem . stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. nodes and internodes distinct. chaba Hunter non Blume. tracheid.. fleshy climber. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. odour. cultivated mainly in Southern India. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . Syn. consisting of round. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. thin-walled. plenty of simple starch granules present. Chavya -Kattumulaku. oval to rectangular. (Fam. Chavya (St.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. fracture. a glabrous. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. Piperaceae). taste. cork cambium not distinct.5-2.13. peppery. short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. acrid.

2.2. Recana. 31 . Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. 2. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Appendix 2.6.2. of the drug in powder form. 2. fibres and simple. cells thin walled. Krimi. starch grains.Alkaloids. round to oval. Appendix 3 per cent. Kaphahara. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. D¢pana. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. medullary rays multi seriate. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. Powder . á£lal DOSE . CONSTITUENTS .2. RukÀa. filled with simple. Udara Roga. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 10 per cent. Ën¡ha. round to oval starch grains.2. 2.2. shows fragments of vessels. 2.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡.1-2 g. Appendix 6 per cent. Gulma.5 per cent. Appendix 1.3.7. Pl¢h¡ Roga.pitted and reticulate thickenings.Ar¿a. IDENTITY. Glycosides and Steroids. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. P¡cana.4.Greyish-brown.

1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. Powder .Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. Punicaceae). reddish-brown pigmented layer present.1-0. taste. triangular and rectangular.2 cm wide. oval. LohitapuÀpa. oil globules. sweetish-sour. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. beneath this. 0. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. round. shows stone cells. Madalam Danimma Anar. found growing wild in the warm valley. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. simple. starch grains present in testa. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. Dadima (Sd. round to oval.5-0. parenchymatous cells. consisting of oval to polygonal.14. Seed . cotyledons coiled. (Fam.Reddish-brown. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. outer hills of Himalayas between 900.6 cm long. endosperm absent. thin walled. 0. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. wedge-shaped. Maadalai. 32 .) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. containing a few oil globules. angular.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

subacute. 1-2. calyx. zig-zag.P.Light greenish-yellow.Yellowish-green. serrate. fibrous.3-0. lanceolate. hairy. characteristic. taste. 1-2. ciliate. Leaf . 1. scaberulous. size variable. taste. more or less pubescent. smooth. Inflorescence . 10 dentate with a villous throat. ovate or ovate. upto 4 mm thick. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. taste. stout herb.5 cm long and 0. slightly bitter. crowded in dense. glabrous in lower part. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . about 0.2-1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. (Fam. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. crenate. quadrangular with four prominent furrows.lanceolate. nodes and internodes distinct. Dronapushpi (W.Cylindrical. thin. erect. long with numerous wiry.5 cm across. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. corolla. white. slightly curved.9 m in high. pungent. tubular. hairy on upper part. 3-9 cm long. about 2-3.Sessile.16. fine rootlets.25 cm long.6-0. an annual.7-2 cm 37 . 1.35 cm wide. white. globose. Gumma. fracture. acute.5 cm wide.) Lamiaceae). Stem . surface rough.

parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 3-4 layers towards upper surface.Schizocarpic carcerule. followed by round to oval parenchyma. consisting of barrel shaped. tangentially elongated.tangentially elongated. Seed . pith wide consisting of circular to oval. oblong.7 layered. smooth. endoderm is single layered. Stem . parenchymatous cells.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. nutlets 3 mm smooth. parenchymatous cells. palisade single layered. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled.1 cm wide. upper lip about 4 mm long. tracheids. Fruit . tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. brown. vessels and tracheids have simple pits.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. dark brown. Lamina . pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. tracheids. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. wooly.shows a single layered epidermis. thin-walled cells. upto 8 cells high. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. Leaf- Petiole . b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled.long. composed of oval to rectangular. thin-walled. thin-walled 38 . cortex consisting of single layered. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. some having simple pits. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. 4 .0. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. lateral lobes small. thin-walled cells. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. vessels long with spurs.3 cm long and 0. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. Midrib . xylem consists of vessels. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. secondary xylem consists of vessels. round to angular collenchyma. fibres and xylem parenchyma. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. trigonous. vascular bundles 4. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. irregular. present in centre. bilipped.vascular bundle arc-shaped. consists of a single layered epidermis.

cells.2.7.2. IDENTITY. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. 2. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Glycoside.Dull yellow. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Agnim¡ndya. K¡sa.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. palisade ratio 7-9. stomatal index 16. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. present on both surfaces.6.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES . 39 .5 on lower surface.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.3.7 on upper surface.Alkaloid. stomata diacytic.6-30. 2. 16. Lava¸a. pitted and spiral vessels. Tamaka áv¡sa.2. a few veins present in this region. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. V¡takara. Appendix 2. aseptate fibres.2.áotha. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Pittakara. Bhedani. RukÀa. 2.4. Powder .6-40. K¡mal¡. Ka¶u Guru. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. ViÀamajvara DOSE .

3-0. straight. Cucurbitaceae). Vellarika Kakadi. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. C. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. -Kakur. radially elongated to squarish. B¤hatphala. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. Hastipani. more or less ellipsoid.4 cm wide. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay.7-10 cm long. cotyledons two.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. thin-walled. creamish-yellow. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. sweetish oily. Hastipani. parenchymatous. rounded and tangentially elongated. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. an annual creeping herb. Karka¶¢. cultivated in many parts of the country. 0.17. shows stone cells. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. 40 . (Fam. glossy. 0. surface smooth. mesophyll cells thinwalled. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. Ervaru (Sd. utilissimus Roxb. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. covered with thick cuticle. taste. parenchymatous cells. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.51. Raktapitta. 0. 0.91 and 0. Appendix 10 per cent. 0. 0. D¢pana. of seeds. 0.3-6 g.0.19.Oil & Sugars. Appendix 5 per cent.83.0.2. Pittahara.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Gulma. T¤À¸¡. 0.58.L.64.83. 41 . 0.5 per cent. Appendix 2.26. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0. 2. 0. RaktadoÀakara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.77.V.IDENTITY.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.35. T.3.L.2. (366 mm).7. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.2.51. Jvara. 0. 2.91 and 0.77. A¿mar¢.97 (all grey). 0.2. V¡takara.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Tikta Guru.6.64.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.4.C.35. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Appendix 4 per cent. Appendix 0.0. 0.58. 0. Rucya. 2.19.91 (blue) under U.97 (all yellow) .26. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.D¡ha. CONSTITUENTS .2. Kaphakara.

(Fam.3-0. brownish-grey.6 cm long. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. odour and taste not distinct.Shows more or less loosely arranged.5 cm thick. thin-walled. shiny.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. cut surface has a central core. 0.4-0.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. greyish-brown with a dent. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . Araceae).4 cm wide.18. a large epiphytic climber.0 cm in diameter and 2. odour and taste not disticnt. 42 . Seed . b) Microscopic Fruit . 0.0-3. rough and scaly. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. Orissa. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.0-3. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. smooth.Kidney-shaped. Gajapippali (Fr.

Atis¡ra. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. 0.5 per cent. 43 . On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. Sugars & Fixed Oil.L.L. in extract (Phant) form.2-3 g. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. 0. V¡tahara. Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS . Stanya. 2.27. 0. 0.C. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.Glucosides viz. Ka¸¶hya. 0.3. DOSE . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. shows lignified. 2. 2-4 layered.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U.27.áiv¡gutik¡. non-lignified. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.65 and 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .V.Seed . Malavi¿oÀana. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.2. T. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. oval to polygonal.Dark brown. 2. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.20.2. IDENTITY.93 (brown). Three spots appear at Rf. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.73 and 0. 0. 0. Appendix T. thin-walled. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. thick-walled.65. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.2.Shows a single layered. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. 2.7.93 (all blue) are visible.6.4. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Agnivardhaka.93 (all yellow). oval to polygonal. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.73 (both light brown) and 0.2. pitted and with concentric striations.C. Powder . 0. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. thick-walled. oval to polygonal. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.65.2. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.65. áv¡sa.2. K¤miroga. 0. Punarnav¡sava.73 and 0. Ka¸ha Roga. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.

(Fam. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. Sr¢par¸¢.A drupe. surface smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. thin-walled cells. black. taste. seed coat thin. ovoid.6 cm wide. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari.4-0.Seed ovate. thin-walled.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. Gambhari (Fr. tangentially elongated.5-1 cm long. sometimes one seeded. crinkled. 0. multilayered. b) Microscopic Fruit . oily. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. parenchymatous cells. P¢takarohi¸¢. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. light yellow. two seeded. 0. Hannu -Kumbil.19. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. Seed . K¡¿marya. Verbenaceae). found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. fleshy mesocarp. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled.) unarmed tree. 1. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel.5-2. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells.0 cm long. Seed . mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . cotyledons consisting of single layered. parenchymatous cells.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. taste. sweetish sour. Shivani. papery. radially 44 .

98 (all yellow).52.94 and 0.V. V¡tahara.98 (all blue). 2. 0.2.D¡ha. Rakta Pitta DOSE .7. KÀaya.2. Resin and Saccharine.Arvind¡sava.C.1-3 g. 0.6. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. Ke¿ya. Medhya. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. oil globules and aleurone grains. Pittahara. Under U.2.12. Appendix 8 per cent. 2.2. 45 .2. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.Butyric acid.03. 0.08. H¤dya.4 per cent.98 (yellow) in visible light. Appendix 6 per cent. Amla. of the drug in powder form. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Appendix 2. H¤droga.22. Sara.2.4.26. Ras¡yana. T¤À¸¡. 0.elongated epidermal cells. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. 2. Powder .18. 0. 0. IDENTITY. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru.L.03. Alkaloid.C. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. KÀata.Blackish-brown. shows stone cells. Appendix 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Appendix 25 per cent.3..98 (orange). 2.93 and 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. T.L. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. M£trak¤cchra. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.42. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Tartaric acid.

radially arranged cells. moderately large in size. 1. rectangular. fibrous. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula.20. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. Tiliaceae). Syn. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. taste. (Fam. oval. fibrous. channelled.. Grewia populifolia Vahl. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. elliptical. parenchymatous cells. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. traversed by wide phloem rays. light yellow. secondary cortex wide.Bk. a few stone cells. fracture.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. a shrub 0. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. thin-walled. Gangeru (St. mucilaginous. consisting of 12-20 layered. external surface smooth. blunt tips and moderately long in size.) Aschers & Schwf. thick-walled.0 m high.Shows a wide cork. arranged in radial groups. 46 .6-1. consisting of tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces.5-5 cm long. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .

27. Appendix per cent. 0.08.).2. 2. 0. DOSE .2. CONSTITUENTS .35 (both light yellow) in visible light. Appendix per cent.61.2.88 (all yellow).29 (blue). 0.08 (violet). Under U.Sugar.48 (violet). 0.L. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara.V.C.7. 0. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2.2-3 g. T.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.35 (violet). β-amyrin etc. Amla. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.L.08 (blue) 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.55. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.6. 0.Vra¸a. 2.27 (light violet).13 (blue).64 (blue).35.17 (light violet).2.4. Appendix per cent. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.35 (dark blue).55 (blue) & 0. 0. 2. 0. 0.J¢rak¡di Modaka. Tikta. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.17. 0.2.88 (light violet). Appendix per cent.68 & 0.Powder .17. Appendix 2.41. 0. 47 .48. α-amyrin.2.Light yellow and fibrous. 0. Two spots are seen at Rf. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. 0. IDENTITY. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. 0. Pittavik¡ra.3. of the drug in powder form. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. Ka¶u.68 (light violet) & 0.

odourless. Chanothee. Gurivinda Ghongchi. cylindrical. feebly sweetish. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. gulagunja -Kunni. composed of 1-2 cells wide.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. slightly corky. a climber. flowering in August-September. present at short intervals. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn.21.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. pitted walls. fruits ripen during winter. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . tangentially elongated cells. Kundumani Guriginga. Chonotee Ratti. light brown. simple or branched. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. Gunja (Rt. some with brownish content. becoming mildly bitter. Ghungchi Guluganji. thinwalled. cork cambium. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. b) Microscopic Root . bark thin. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. most often irregularly curved. when distinct. exfoliating in small flakes. (Fam. soft. Kakananti Rati Kunch. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. spreading throughout the plains. Fabaceae). taste. smaller than stone cells. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture.

7. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . parenchyma thin-walled.Indralupta.75 µ in diameter. pitted walls. CONSTITUENTS .1 . parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. of the drug in powder form. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. small groups of sclerenchyma. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. áula.2.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood.Greyish-brown. stone cells. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. thin-walled and rectangular. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.75 µ in diameter. wood composed of narrow concentric. DOSE .Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin).2.6.5 per cent.3 g. Mukha¿oÀa.diverging towards periphery. shows fragments of cork. Appendix 10 per cent. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5.4. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays.2. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. vessels of varying sizes with thick. 49 . Appendix 4 per cent.5 -13. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.2.2. 2. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. Appendix 9 per cent. Pittahara. Powder . Appendix 2.2. Tikta á¢ta. Appendix 2. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.3. 2. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. 2. numerous xylem fibres. xylem vessels with pitted walls. IDENTITY.5-13. 2.

each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. Poaceae). conjoint. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. juicy and sweet. smooth. (Fam. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. distinct node and internode. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. scattered throughout the ground tissue. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. b) Microscopic Stem . characteristic.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled.22. odour. Ikshu (St. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. solid. more numerous and closer towards periphery. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. besides the xylem and phloem elements. closed type of vascular bundles.) shrub. taste. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. with. 50 . lignified. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. cylindrical. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. Serdi Ikha. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi.

2.400 ml in the juice form. 2.5 per cent.Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.3.6. DOSE .Raktapitta. Sara. Pittahara.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 51 . Appendix 2.200 . ground tissue. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. Appendix Not more than 2. 2.4.7. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. V¡tahara. 2. 2. M£tra KÀaya. Balya. IDENTITY. Kaphahara. vessels and sclerenchyma. shows pieces of epidermis.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. V¤Àya. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.Sucrose. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent.2.Bal¡ Taila. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.Powder light brick red. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2.

2-2. elongated with pointed ends. Paythumatti. Indrayanalata. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. intensively bitter. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Indravaruni. Havumakke.23. áatakratulat¡. dull yellow. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. thin walled. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root . Gav¡kÀ¢. parenchyma and medullary rays. Tuntikai. consisting of vessels. Indravaruni (Rt. xylem forms bulk of root. a few filled with dark brown contents. cylindrical. composed of sieve elements. lying around vessels. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. Bitter apple Indravaran. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana.) Cucurbitaceae). starch grains oval to round in shape 2. parenchyma and medullary rays. Varithummati. tangentially elongated. thick-walled. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Indramanoa. taste. fracture. fibres. Indravarana Gothakakucti. an annual or perennial. thick walled. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. pitted.5-7. mostly simple or rarely 52 .5 cm thick. short. Tumbi Paikamatti. tangentially elongated cork cells. occurring throughout the country. 0. fibres aseptate. longitudinal fissures present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. Valiya Pekkumatti. Indrayan. (Fam. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. slightly twisted. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem.5 µ in dia. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. Myrtaceae). rounded starch grains. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. brownish-black. astringent. 1 cm long. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. oval or roundish.. thin-walled. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. smooth. taste. 1 cm wide. Eugenia jambolana Lam. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. a large evergreen tree. 57 . found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. cuminii Druce. (Fam. E. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter.) Skeels Syn.6 m with a bole up to 15 m.. b) Microscopic Powder . a few schizogenous cavities are also found.25. oval. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. Seed . coriaceous covering.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Jambu (Sd. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.Brown coloured.800 m.

DOSE .Glycoside (Jamboline). 2. 58 . 0. 2. 0.V.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.L.4.95 (all yellow).95 and 0.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.Madhumeha. Pittahara.3-6 g.2. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. 2.2.20.2. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Amla. Tannin.95 (all violet). 0. Appendix 2.12. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.20.C.2.30 (blue). light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. T.2.L.7.3.30 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. Appendix per cent.6. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Udakameha.IDENTITY.30 and 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. 0. three spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form. ViÀ¶ambhi. Kaphahara.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. fibres aseptate. Neralamara -Njaval. lower cork thin and colourless.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. forming a rhytidoma. stone cells. Jambu. Myrtaceae). short and splintery. cork cambium not distinct. (Fam. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape.800 m. oval to angular. stratified and reddish-brown. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Jamneralae. Jam Jammu Naaval. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. rough. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. E. Raja Jambu Merale. cuminii Druce. elongated. younger bark mostly channelled. Navval Sambu. fracture. astringent. taste. 0. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Jamu. and phloem rays.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. a large evergreen tree.) Skeels Syn. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu.. upper few layers thick.26. light grey to ash coloured. and reddish brown.Bk. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Jambuda Jomuna. internal surface fibrous.5 cm thick. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. Jambu (St. Mahamaram.5-2.

10-20 g.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.3. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.region. 2.7. round to oval starch grains.2. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. measuring 5-11µ in diameter.2. IDENTITY.2.2. Pittahara. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.Atis¡ra.6. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. THERAPEUTIC USES . elongated.2. aseptate fibres. 2. Appendix per cent.U¿¢r¡sava. round to oval starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 2. V¡tala. reddish-brown content. stone cells. 60 .Light brown. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . oval to angular. DOSE . Stambhaka. 2. single or in groups.2. Appendix 2.4. Raktapitta. Kaphahara. of the drug for decoction.

61 . 5-7 m high. dull cinnamon-brown. consisting of a large endosperm. kernel yellowish and oily. b) Microscopic Seed . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous.) small evergreen tree. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. Neervalam. Jayapala (Sd. no marked odour. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Neervalam Jepal. Japala. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. Japal beej. consisting of an epidermal layer. (Fam. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. Euphorbiaceae). about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. Nervala -Nervalam. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. thin-walled cells. oblong.Shows a hard testa.27. ovate. filled with brownish content. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. slightly bent at middle. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. found throughout tropical India. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Tinti·¢phala. slightly quadrangular.

endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.54 and 0. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. 62 . (366 nm) three spots at Rf.2. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. 2. 0. Resins & Phorbol esters.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2.39. 0. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. T. 0.34.V.2.90 (all yellow).2. Pittahara. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .84 (all violet). Udararoga.84 (brown). 0.6. 2.29.Jvara.White with black particles of testa. Appendix 7 per cent. of the drug in powder form.7.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.C.10. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 3 per cent.L.2. Appendix 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY.63 and 0.6-12 mg. Powder .34 (grey).2. 0. 2.3. Vibandha DOSE . Appendix 15 per cent. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.54 (yellow). 0.L. 0. Appendix 0.49. 0.Fixed oil. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.2.C. 0.

Lamina . followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. polygonal. -Semp. stomata anisocytic. present on both surfaces. very shortly stalked. parenchymatous cells.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. opposite. 63 .7 layered round. aegyptiaca Pers. 0. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. Jayanti Jaita. entire. Atti. oblong. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . Jay¡. Karijimangai. pith small. leaflets 6-16 pairs.8-6 m high.3 cm long. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢.. a quick growing. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Jalugu. Jayanti (Lf. palisade single layered.shows single layered epidermis. 1. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. consisting of thin-walled.5 cm long. jayata Arinintajinamgi.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. á£kÀma patra. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. (Fam.) Merr.5-15.3-0. mucronate to acuminate. linear. 1.8 cm wide.0-3. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. glabrous.Syn. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. 7. having secretory cavities in phloem. Arishimajingai.28. paripinnate. short lived shrub. S. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings.

0. 0. ViÀaroga. Appendix per cent.L. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 64 .11. 0.2. Appendix 2.48. Galaga¸·a. Pittahara.05.56.6.91 and 0.11.25-4. Ras¡yana.29. shows spongy parenchyma. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. CONSTITUENTS .4. Appendix per cent.Protein. 0.69. THERAPEUTIC USES .97 (yellow). palisade cells.M£trak¤cchra. 0. Calcium and Phosphorus. 0.Dull green. 0.C. 0.2. 2. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. 0.91 and 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.V. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. IDENTITY. 2. V¡tahara.29. 0. 0. 0. 2. 2. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.37. 0.7. 0. 0.Ratnagiri Rasa.97 (all yellow).50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.3-6 g. 0. Appendix per cent.2.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.29.05.56. DOSE . in powder form. 0. Appendix per cent.2.C. 0.19.97 (all grey). 0.05.3.2.2. 0.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.19. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. T.48.37. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. 0.11.19. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. palisade ratio 3. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.56 (all pink) and 0. Powder .

devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. Jyotishmati (Sd. collapsed. taste.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried.5-3. surface generally smooth and. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. Gangunge humpu. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Gangunge beeja. brownish-orange. unpleasant. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. bitter. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. Seed . endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . colour. ripe seeds.29. (Fam. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril.35 mm in breadth. light to dark brown. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. seed without aril also prescent. odour. a large climbing shrub.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. Celastraceae).hard. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.

2.6. UÀ¸a.4. 2. Appendix 20 per cent.8 IDENTITY.2. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.Oily.35. 0.89 (all yellow).composed of polygonal. Appendix 45 per cent.63. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.3. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. 2. Appendix 6 per cent. 0.C. 2. 2. Meddhya 66 .2. 0.82 & 0. 0.04.2. Tikta Sara.54 (both blue).89.V. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).82.C. Under U. 0. 0.7. (all blue) & 0.54.54.L. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.35. Appendix 9 per cent. Oil and Tannins.5 per cent. 0.V.Alkaloids.82 (pink) & 0. D¢pana. áirovirecanopaga. dark brown. 0. Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. stone cells.2. Appendix 2. Powder . light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.82.L. 0.2.2. 0. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. V¡maka. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.94 (yellow) in visible light. 0.94 (yellow). 0.89 (both greenish blue). 0. Virecaka. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. Appendix 1.20. thin-walled. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.15.

Oil : 5-15 drops. DOSE . Sm¤tidaurbalya. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. ávitra.Seed: 1-2 g.V¡tavy¡dh¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . 67 .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

some cells contain chlorophyll. Kadam Kadam. Vellaikhadambu. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. elongated cells of phloem rays. Kadamba (St. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. a deciduous. Rubiaceae). Kadamba Nipo. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. indicus A. traversed by uni to triseriate. (Fam. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. A. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Kadamba mara. Priyka Roghu. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Kadappai.30. bitter. 68 b) Microscopic .. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. taste. Indulam.Bk.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Vellai Kadambam. Syn. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. rectangular cells. Kadavala. Kadamba Kadamba. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. a few cells with brown contents. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Kadambu Needam. large tree. Rich. composed of thin-walled.

Appendix 1.1.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.63 (yellowish grey).2. shows fragments of cork cells.2. 0.2. 0. T. 0. Steroids. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. Appendix 9 per cent. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal.13. 0.0. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Vra¸aropa¸a. Raktapitta.79.6.5 . Appendix 5 per cent. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. fibres.90 (grey). Appendix 2.5:10) shows under U.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.79 (grey) and 0. DOSE . and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.4.D¡ha.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.21.C.Alkaloids. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.83 and 0. 2. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. 2.2. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). 0. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.03. 0. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.Brown. Lava¸a. 0. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.70 (orange yellow). phloem cells.2. L C.phloem fibres. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. 69 . Vra¸a. YonidoÀa.57.64. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. cells distinct and slightly elongated.7. Appendix 3 per cent.L.2.31. 2.3. V¡tahara.5 per cent. Powder . 2. 0.5 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

) Solanaceae). filaments short. Pikachia. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. toothed or lobed. oblong. slightly woody and branched. Manitakkali. anther 1. ganike. green. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. Ganikesopu. Manatakkali. slender. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. pale brown. road sides and gardens. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali.Small. bark thin. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. hairy in lower part.5 cm long and 2.25 mm long.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. glabrous.Simple.5 mm long. thin. extra-axillary. narrowed at both ends. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. 2. flattened. glabrous. yellowish. externally smooth. Kakamachi (W. Ganikegida. hairy at base. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . very slender. ovary globose. five lobed. oblong. obtuse notched at apex.P.5 cm wide. ovate or oblong. found throughout the country in dry parts. corolla 4-8 mm long. 70 . Manaththakkali. petiolate. (Fam. white or pale violet. pedicels 6-10 mm long. sub-umbellate.Erect. 3-8 flowered cymes.31. quite common in cultivated lands. a herbaceous annual weed.5-8. calyx 2-3 mm long. Leaf . Flower . Stem . 1. obtuse. sinuate. glabrous or pubescent.2-2. 30-45 cm high. style cylindric. peduncles 6-20 mm long.

slightly elongated. Midrib .A berry.. but 4. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. obtuse.5-8. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. in small or large patches. 6mm in dia. measuring 2. Stem . radially elongated cells. covered with thick. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. conjoint and open. compactly arranged. filled with starch grains. yellow or black. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. uniseriate.Fruit . trichomes similar to those found on petiole. starch grains. 1. LeafPetiole . 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. slightly striated cuticle. central vascular bundle shallow.. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. arcshaped. parenchyma 4-6 layered. tangentially elongated. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. epidermis single layered. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. cortex of large. composed of thin-walled. covering trichomes.. single or with two or rarely 3 components. oval to round starch grains. uniseriate. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. embedded in perimedullary zones. cambium 2-4 layered. polygonal cells. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. uniseriate.. minutely pitted. trichomes multicellular. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. vascular bundles-collateral.Discoid. bicollateral. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. phloem consists of thin-walled.' oval parenchymatous cells.5-11 µ in dia. phloem rays uniseriate.Shows single layered. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. pith large.10 layered in angular parts. covered with striated cuticle. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. smooth shining Seed . usually accompanied by fibres. covered with striated cuticle. measuring 2. xylem rays homogenous. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. rays composed of thin-walled. arc71 . smooth. endoderrnis single layered.5 mm in dia.25 µ in dia. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. internal phloem. yellow.

oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.5 . Powder .34 (both pink).L.dorsiventral. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis.7. vein islet number 7-10. 0. 2. 72 .C.V. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle.Creamish-green. Appendix per cent. Fruit . 0.C. 034 and 0.Shows thin. palisade ratio 2-4. 2.2.4.2.2. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.34 (both brown) in visible light. Under U.L.06 & 0. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. T. stomata anisocytic.2.3. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. present beneath palisade parenchyma. Appendix 2. a few vessels with spiral thickenings. Appendix per cent. 0. Appendix per cent. palisade single layered. a few broken pieces of pointed. Lamina . 2. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS .6. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.97 (all yellow). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.06.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally.11 µ in diameter. papery epicarp. IDENTITY. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. single.2.2. measuring 2. epidermis with irregular outline.Alkaloids and Saponins.06 & 0. unicellular hairs. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.

DOSE . Ras¡yana. Ar¿a. Kaphahara.áotha. Pittahara. Tikta Laghu. 73 . Hikk¡. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Jvara. Svarya. Ka¸·u.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. H¤dya.5 -10 ml. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. V¡tahara. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. H¤droga. of the drug in juice form. Prameha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. KuÀ¶ha. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sara. Chardi. THERAPEUTIC USES . Netraroga.

Nymphaeaceae). top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. embedded in a creamy. Aravinda.4-2 cm long. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Thamaraipoo. erect. obtuse. starchy and large. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. 1. broken pieces also occur. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Pamposh Tamarai. 74 . androecium. extended into clavate appendages. Venthamara. black. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. corolla. carpels many. seed hard.3-2 cm wide. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. dark brown. crimp led. (Fam. Kamala (Fl. Sitopala. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Aravindan. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. gynoecium and thalamus. comprising of calyx.32.. Paduman. free. Kanwal Kamal. Syn. Naidile. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Kamalam. gynoceium apocarpous. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. elliptic. Kalh¡ra. Sarojam Kaluva. finely veined. 3-5 cm long. fruit an etaerio of achenes. 1. linear 1. membranous. 2-4 cm long. Tavare.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. sepals leaf-like. Chenthamara. anther. Kamal.5-3 cm wide. crimpled. petals numerous. a large. yellowish-brown. Padma.

consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. THERAPEUTIC USES .b) Microscopic Flower Petal .2. Visarpa. Powder .3.2. 2. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls.Raktapitta. vascular bundle single. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis.filament appears circular in outline. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. of the drug for decoction. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. spore sac contains yellow. measuring 50-61 µ in dia.shows four chambered anther. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta.12 -24 g.6. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. columnar. . ViÀavik¡ra. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. angular. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. 2. yellow pollen grains. followed by ground tissue of oval.4. Stamen Filament . Appendix per cent. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. IDENTITY. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. Appendix 2. 2. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. 2. spherical.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. Appendix per cent.2. composed of thin-walled. having smooth exine and intine. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.2. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. Tikta. Anther . connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.Dusty brown. DOSE .2.7. two on either sides.2. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. M£tra Virajan¢ya. rectangular. Pittahara. Sant¡pahara.Aravind¡sava. parenchymatous cell.

reddish brown. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. Kavataleal. slightly triangular and oval. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. stone cells. aromatic. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . rough.Reddish-brown.shows irregular. sharp. found throughout the plains of India. thin-walled. Bilvara. sour. F. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. Rutaceae). Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. often cultivated in many parts of India. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. Belada hannu.33. odour. taste. found in groups. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Haminamara -Vilar maram. Kapittha (Fr. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. a deciduous. parenchymatous cells. Siwalik range and forests.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. stone cells. Belalu. hard. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Pulp. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. straight. axillary thorns. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. Syn. Powder . with concentric striations and narrow lumen. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. 76 . elephantum Correa (Faro.) Swingle. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. glabrous tree with strong. Balada. semicircular.

Citric acid and Mucilage. 0. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸an¡¿aka. 0. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.C. Ripe-T¤À¡.95 (blue). Appendix 2. DOSE .06. Appendix per cent.C.12. 0. 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Amla. 2.91 (blue) and 0. CONSTITUENTS .50 (violet). Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. KaÀ¡ya. 77 .2. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.4.91 (grey) in visible light.L.3. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf.95 (all yellow).12 (brown). Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. 0.2.V. 6. Gr¡h¢.14 (sky blue). KaÀ¡ya Laghu.95 (violet) .L. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.7.37 (brown). Unripe Pulp: Amla.2. 0.91 and 0. Pittav¡tahara.2. Lekhana. Hikk¡. of the drug in powder form.2. 2.áv¡sa. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. 2. 0.50. 0.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. Appendix per cent.1-3 g. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta.91 (violet) and 0.6. Under U. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. V¡mi.IDENTITY. Agnim¡ndya. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T. Sangr¡h¢. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.37.2. Appendix per cent.

sometimes cultivated. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. internal surface grey and smooth. b) Microscopic Powder . measuring 3-7 µ in dia. short. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. external surface brownish-grey. shows single and groups of stone cells. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres.Greyish-brown. met throughout India in wild state. tubular. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.Bk. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. (Fam . and compound having 2-3 components.) Apocynaceae). light in weight. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. flat or slightly curved pieces. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. fracture. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. starch grains simple. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. simple and compound starch grains.34. 78 . Karamarda (St. rough due to longitudinal striations.

2.2.V.52 (light sky blue).Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.2.4. Appendix per cent.90 (pink) and 0. Appendix 2. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.2.2. 0.48 g. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.IDENTITY.L. Pittakara.2. T. of the drug for decoction. 0. 2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 79 . DOSE .6.3. 2.L.35. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.C. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.97 (violet). Appendix per cent.C.Marma Gu¶¢k¡.KuÀthahara. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. 0.58 (both light grey).2.7. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Bk. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 3-11 µ in dia. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite.. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. a glabrous tree. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. secondary phloem very wide. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. P. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. single cells of varying shape and size.) Merr. internally. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. thin-walled. Fabaceae). due to peeling off. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. tangentially elongated cells.. very bitter. Nakt¡hv¡. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. (Fam. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. external surface rough. Naktam¡la. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. traversed by phloem rays. most of phloem 80 . fracture. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. Karanja (Rt. taste. fibrous.) glabra Vent. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. cells. Syn.35. tangentially elongated.

81 . V¡tahara. DOSE . IDENTITY. Ka¸·£ghna.98 (all yellow).2. 0.7. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. Powder -Creamish-yellow.08 (greenish blue). 0. mostly straight.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. Appendix 3.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.25 (sky blue). 0.04 (blue). Pittahara. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery.2.47. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. Prameha.6.09.47 (greenish yellow). similar to those present in secondary cortex.31.2. 0.42 (sky blue).1-3 g. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 2. most of ray cells contain starch grain. 0.C. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Appendix 2 per cent. 0.47.K¤miroga. 0. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 11 per cent.2. 2. 2. 0.5 per cent.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. of the drug for decoction. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. ViÀaghma.2.3. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0.L. KuÀtha. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.13 (Sky blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ka¸·u. Ëntravidradhi.37. Appendix 2. parenchymatous cells.51 (light blue).37 (greenish yellow).4. 0. T. consisting of thin-walled. phloem fibres. 0.18 (blue) 0. 1-2 seriate.80 (light blue). DuÀ¶avra¸a. shows thin-walled.51.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Yoniroga.18. 0. Appendix 17 per cent.Flavones Kanugin. Tikta. 0.V. 2.2. cork cells.80 and 0.31 (sky blue). phloem rays many.

bitter. (Fam. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary phloem a very wide zone. light in weight. internally light yellow. rounded to oval in shape. irregularly distributed.) Merr. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. consisting of 82 . bark. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. 1-2 seriate. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Syn.. bark does not easily separate from xylem.36. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. tangentially elongated cells. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. tangentially elongated. Karaµjaka. 3-11 µ in dia.) Vent. fracture. Nakt¡hv¡. a glabrous tree. rough due to the presence of numerous. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. P. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. thin-walled. reddish-brown or dull brown. Karanja (Rt. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. taste.. cells. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.

2. 2. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. fibres and parenchyma. Prameha.2. thin-waned cells towards inner region. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Kaphahara. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. V¡tahara. tangentially elongated towards outer region. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.radially elongated. CONSTITUENTS . 83 .DuÀ¶avra¸a. Ëntravidradh¢. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells.1-2 g. Appendix 2. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Appendix per cent.2. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Yoniroga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.Karanjin.6. Ka¸·£. more. Appendix per cent. 2..2.4.2.7. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. Powder -Light yellow. tracheids.2. KuÀ¶ha. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. rounded to oval in shape. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. starch grains.3. shows fibres in singles or groups. IDENTITY. ViÀaghna. of the drug in powder form. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. Demethoxy-kanugin. Vidradh¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. 2. Appendix per cent.2.Methylfisetin.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. DOSE . Pittahara. Appendix per cent. Kanugin. consisting of 2-3 components. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. Vra¸a¿odhana.

tangentially elongated. short and fibrous. alternating with stone cells. b) Microscopic Bark . forming a continuous or discontinuous band. Karanja (St. a glabrous tree.) Merr. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled.Bk. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. parenchymatous cells. lenticellate pieces. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. filled with reddish-brown content. Syn. usually 0. traversed by medullary rays. unpleasant. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. phloem fibre and stone cells. fracture. slightly quilled. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. Nakt¡hv¡. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. 84 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Fabaceae).) glabra Vent.37. (Fam. recurved. at some places lenticels also appear. P. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.2-1 cm thick. phloem parenchyma. thick-walled cells. Karaµjaka. odour.. more or less smooth. composed of rectangular. arranged in a tangential manner. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Karanja. fibre small.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. bitter. thin-walled. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. taste.

medullary rays wavy. present in secondary cortex. IDENTITY. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". Appendix 2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. THERAPEUTIC USES .B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II.5 per cent.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. CONSTITUENTS . Pittahara. of the drug in powder form.2. ViÀaghma. Kanugin. Tikta. Ëntravidradh¢. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. 2. Pongapin. Ka¶u. Ka¸·u. aseptate fibre and stone cells. thin-walled and aseptate..1-2 g. 85 . Appendix 13 per cent. Kaphahara. Appendix 3 per cent.2. V¡tahara. Appendix 18 per cent.3. Yoniroga DOSE . starch grains simple. simple and compound starch grains. 5Methoxyfurano (2". Pinnatin. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin.6. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . elongated. 2.2.7. Vidradh¢. 3". a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. Gamatin. and rarely. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. Appendix 1. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.polygonal.2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate.2. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. K¤miroga. rounded to oval.4.2. Powder -Yellowish-cream. 3" 7 : 8). usually 2-4 cells wide. KuÀ¶ha. Prameha. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Demethoxy- kanugin. oil globules. 2.DuÀ¶avra¸a.

(Fam. consisting of xylem and phloem. a glabrous tree. Pongana Ganuga. traversed by xylem rays. P.38. covered with cuticle. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. 0. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.) Vent. Karaµjaka. Dithouri Honge. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. Karanja.) Merr. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. xylem vessels arranged radially. leaflets 2-3 pairs. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Fabaceae). Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. 86 .11. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. petiolule short.circular in outline. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. consistig of tabular cells. Ungu.. dark green.9-8. arcshaped.8 cm. Syn.2 . vascular bundle single. Nakt¡hv¡. Hulagilu -Pungu. Karanja (Lf. cortex consisting of angular. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. 6.3 cm wide. Unu. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.5-0.5 cm long and 3. Kanajo Karuaini. isodiametric. epidermis single layered.

2. V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Ka¶u. present in lower surface.2. 2. consisting of tabular cells. palisade two layered.2. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . mesophyll cells.6.5 per cent. K¤imihara. collateral. cortex consists of round to oval. 7) -flavone. stomata anisocytic.6. 2. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.4. . phloem and pith.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". Appendix 16 per cent. Powder -Green. CONSTITUENTS .methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.5-50.A new Furanoflavone -3' .6. Appendix 3. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.shows single layered epidermis. Pittavardhaka.3. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Ka¸·ughna. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. palisade ratio 3.5".Mid rib . Tikta. 2. Appendix 11 per cent.2. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.5) . occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.2. Appendix 10 per cent. stomatal index 12. 5". prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.(4". Kaphahara. covered with thick cuticle.2. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. vascular bundle. shows spiral xylem vessels. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. Appendix 2.7.5-20. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 5" . Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.2. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.6.

Vra¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . 88 . KuÀ¶ha. DOSE .For external use only.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .K¤miroga. Ka¸·au.J¡ty¡di Taila.

Karavallaka (Fresh. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. Varivall¢. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. usually pointed or beaked. Kakiral. upto an altitude of 1500 m. Appendix 6 per cent. fusiform.6 per cent. Appendix 28 per cent. extremely bitter.3. 2. Appendix 0. oblong.7. (Fam. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . Appendix 2.39.2.5 per cent. 2.2.2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. IDENTITY.25 cm long. K¡ravall¢.6.2.2. taste.) Cucurbitaceae). Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. pendulous.4. Nil Appendix 8. Kathilla. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. surface rough. 3 valved at the apex when mature. 2. 2.Fr.5 .

C.16.17. 0.96 (sky blue).67 and 0.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. Jvara. D¢pana. K¡sa. 90 .10 . Aruci. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. 0.15 ml.50. 0. 0.23 (red).áv¡sa. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U.T. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. DOSE . 0.L.46.V. T. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¤miroga. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.98 (red & sky blue).75. THERAPEUTIC USES .98 (all yellow). juice of fresh drug.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 0. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0. Prameha. KuÀ¶ha. 0.03. V¡tahara.43. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 0. H¤dya.81 and 0. 0. Kaphahara. Raktavik¡ra. 0.61 (light sky blue). P¡¸·u. K¡mal¡. 0.98 (all blue).L. CONSTITUENTS .C.34.60. 0.

05-0. fracture. Kav¢. 0. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. Tiktarohi¸¢. Rohi¸¢. primary cortex persists 91 . Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. taste. b) Microscopic Rhizome . Kaurohi¸¢. bitter. Root . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. short. 5-10 cm long. cortex single layered or absent. kaur Katuka rohini. odour. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . (Fam. inner surface black with whitish xylem. subcylindrical. mostly attached with rhizomes. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. cylindrical. bitter.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. short. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Sutiktaka.40. Katuka (Rz.2. . straight or slightly curved. pleasant. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Katki. Katuka rohini Kutki. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. fracture. dusty grey.Thin.1 cm in diameter. odour. pleasant. cork cambium 1-2 layered. Scrophulariaceae). a perennial. suberised cells. taste.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. externally greyish-brown. Katuku rohini. Kauka.

of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. tracheids. T.3. thick-walled cells of endodermis. Powder .2.. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. some cylindrical with taillike. 2. Appendix per cent. 0. parenchyma and fibres.2.84 (all brownish grey). hypodermis single layered. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres.62. measuring 25 .05 (blue). 0. 92 .10. thick-walled. 0. lignified. 0.10.7. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. consisting of oval to polygonal.30.2. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. fibres aseptate.72 and 0. 0.41. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. parenchyma. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends.30 (blue) and 0. thick-walled. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells.2. 0.21. 0. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. Appendix per cent.104 µ in diameter. thick-walled. thick-walled. secondary xylem consists of vessels.C.41 and 0. tapering ends.L. simple round to oval. 0.4. 0. 0. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex.84 (all yellow). secondary xylem consisting of vessels.21. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. Appendix per cent. secondary phloem poorly developed. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. tracheids long. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. cortex 8-14 layered.V.37. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. 2. 2.05. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.2. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. cambium 2-4 layered.L. simple round to oval. abundantly found in all cells. parenchymatous cells. starch grains.17. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. 0.35 (green). vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. 0. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. IDENTITY.2.in some cases.30. 0. 2.C.17. 0. 0. 0. Appendix 2. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. vessels have varying shape and size. starch grains. tracheids. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork.Dusty grey. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends.6.

3 g. Bhedin¢. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. of the drug in powder form.áv¡sa. ViÀamajvara. 93 .Glucoside (Picrorhizin). Pittahara.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. D¢pan¢. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Arocaka. D¡ha. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. KuÀ¶ha.1 . K¡mal¡.CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. DOSE . Jvara. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Hygrophila spinosa T. externally greyish-brown.6 cm long. bracts about 2. entire and hairy. swollen at nodes. didynamous. no characteristic odour and taste. Vayalculli Talikhana.41. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. Kokilaksha (W. lanceolate. no characteristic odour and taste. Culli. 0. Flower . with long white hairs. Kettu. whitish to brown. Kolavankal ---. sub-quadrangular. corolla 3.Greenish-brown. fasciculate. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. abruptly swollen at top.Usually unbranched. IkÀuraka. Kalsunda --Golmidi. annual herb.2 cm long. stamens 4.6-2 cm long.P. calyx 4-partite. 1-7 cm long. tube 1. acute.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees.Acanthaceae). Leaf . all linear-lanceolate. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. Syn. which are 1. common in water logged places throughout the country.Mostly adventitious.5 cm long.Yellowish-brown. a spiny.Anders (Fam. Kolarind. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. upper sepal 1.5-1 cm wide. Nirchulli. subsessile. Stem . Nirguvireru. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. broader than the other three.3 cm long. widely 2 lipped. second pair 94 . stout.

hairy but appearing smooth. 0. light brown. ray cells thin walled. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. pointed. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. broader towards centre. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. single or in groups of 2-3.0.8 cm long.15 cm wide. consisting of round to polygonal cells. peripheral ones larger. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. glabrous.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. radially elongated in secondary xylem.2-0. pith large. composed of transversely elongate. phloem narrow. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. phloem fibres thick-walled. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. stigma simple. Seed . flat or compressed. compressed. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. Fruit . secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. anthers two celled. rectangular to cubical. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. thin-walled cells. with a number of large air cavities. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. 95 . transversely elongated in secondary phloem. polygonal cells. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. linear-oblong. Stem . capsule about 0.25 cm long and 0. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. vessels angular. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. truncate at the base. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. having small intercellular spaces. fibre walls uniformly thickened. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. radially elongated in xylem region. 4seeded. fibres thick-walled. filament quite glabrous. cortical cells thin-walled. ray cells thin-walled. subequal. variable in size. radially arranged. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. round. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. inner cells smaller.Two celled. scattered throughout the phloem region.Ovate.1 . endodermis single layered. pubescent. xylem present in a ring. vessels with spiral thickenings. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. style filiform. a few thick-walled. oblong. involute with a fissure on upper side. brownish cells. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. isolated cells found scattered in this zone.larger. arranged in radial rows. composed of polygonal. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. moderately thick-walled. arranged radially. b) Microscopic Root . thin-walled.

Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Appendix per cent.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. unicellular hairs and globules.24-30. palisade.78.3. Tikta Picchila. . Seed . oval to hexagonal. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. shows aseptate. palisade ratio 6. stomata diacytic.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered.75. 2. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. stomatal index 17. Rucya.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. sclerenchymatous cells.4. vein islet number 17-42.2. Appendix per cent. thick-walled. collenchyma 2-5 layered. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins.2. IDENTITY. elongated fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . embryo composed of oval to polygonal. thin-walled.6. Lamina . M£trala.2. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.Light brown.25-15. 2. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle.2. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. tangentially elongated cells. V¡jikara. covered with thick cuticle. Appendix per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.7. 2. Amla. Powder .Shows concavo-convex outline.2. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous. palisade 1-2 layered. 2.LeafMidrib . stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. V¤Àya. Fruit . lignified. composed of thin-walled.2.

V¡tarakta.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form.3 -6 g. DOSE . Ëmav¡ta áotha.T¤À¸¡. 97 .

thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces.42. slightly transversely elongated. Kolavulike.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. Syn. stout. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. thin-walled. Nerugobbi. branches on nodes. Hygrophila spinosa T. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. polygonal cells. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size.Acanthaceae). a spiny. Culli --. IkÀuraka. Anders (Fam. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. Root-Appears circular in outline. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. secondary phloem narrow. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. thinwalled cells. no characteristic odour and taste. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. consisting of small. the size of these cells. Kokil¡kÀ¢. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. annual herb. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. whitish to brownish. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Kokilaksha (Rt. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. 98 . common in water logged places throughout the country.

A¿ma¤¢. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. scattered throughout the phloem region. 99 . lignified fibres. Appendix per cent. fibre walls uniformly thickened. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. 2.2. V¡tahara.2. broader towards centre. V¡tarakta. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. Tikta Picchila. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells.Light brown to ash coloured. angular. Appendix 2.2.6. M£trala. shows fragments of pitted. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Powder . vessels with spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. 2.3. 2. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . 2. Amla. radially elongated in the xylem region. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. having spiral thickening.Ëmav¡ta áotha.3 -6 g. each group composed of 2-6 cells.2. Appendix per cent.7. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.4. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. ray cells thin-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY.

light yellowish-brown. truncate at the base. thinwalled.Greyish-brown. IkÀuraka. hairy but appearing smooth. common in water logged places throughout the country. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide.43. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. taste. Powder . (Fam. oil globules present in this region. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. parenchymatous cells. the 100 . a spiny. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Swelling Index . Syn. flat or compressed. Kokilaksha (Sd. Maradarishana. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.8 -10. Anders. b) Microscopic Seed . white. annual herb.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Daruhuladur Darhald. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Maradarishina -Maramannal. shows hairs and oil globules. stout. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Hygrophila spinosa T. Acanthaceae). embryo composed of oval to polygonal.

Protease and an Alkaloid. 101 .. V¤Àya. enzymes like Diastase.24. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.2. 0.03. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. related to 1 g of seeds.55 (light blue). 0.L.17. 2. Santarpa¸a. 2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.áotha. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. CONSTITUENTS . Lipase.31. V¡tarakta.C.2. Appendix 2. Pitt¡¿mar¢.93 (sky blue). IDENTITY.10 (light brown).3 -6 g.2.52 (dark brown) and 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.6. Appendix per cent.72 (all yellow).4.38 (light brown). 0.41 (light blue). 0. Kaphahara. 0. 0.2. 0. 0. 2. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.24 (dark brown).An yellow semi-drying oil. 0. 0.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.03 (light brown). T.L.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.72 (dark brown). 0.24 (red). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.2. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .76 (sky blue) and 0. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. of the drug in powder form. 0.V.52 and 0. including any sticky mucilage. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .31 (dark brown).C.17 (light brown). and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Appendix per cent. DOSE . 0. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. 0.3. Add 25 ml of water. Appendix per cent.38. 0.

Almost cylindrical. small. found throughout the country.Cylindrical. sepal 0.4 cm long.2 cm in diameter. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Badi Lona Dudagorai. Payilikura. Kozuppa. style 5-6 fid. Peddapavila Kura.P) Portulacaceae). Loni -Koricchira. bright yellow. 50 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5 cm long. dehiscing above the base. Kozhuppu Pappukura. Baranunia Garden Purslane. ribbed. stamens 8-12.25-0. characteristic. 0. 0.5 cm long and 0. surface smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. Kuzuppa (W. swollen at the nodes. Kulfa. Kozhuppa. brownish-grey. petals obovate. 0. rounded and truncate at the apex. Chhotalunia. short. Leaf . smooth and greenish-brown. Lonika. short.3 to 2. odour. Khurfa. Pulikkirai. oblique.1 to 0. root hairs abundant in upper region. Gho¶ik¡.A few. (Fam. secondary roots. 102 . Kozuppaccira Kurfah. branched. fracture.1 to 0. -Baraloniya. Moti Luni Khursa. less in number. 3-4 leaves. Doddagoni Soppu.Simple. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Fruit .35-0. cuneiform. 0. Stem . 0.4 cm long. prostrate herb. Loni. an annual succulent. sub-sessile. Loni. fracture. Badanuni. Paruppukkeerai.3 cm long. Ghola -Lonak. Kwfa Pasalai. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Flower . subtended by an involucre. spathulate.6 cm wide. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. oblong. at terminal heads.An ovoid capsule. very delicate and soon falling off.44.

ray cells and pith. Appendix per cent. parenchyma abundant. covered externally with a thick cuticle. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. simple as well as compound.6. . thick-walled with wide lumen. having simple pits and spiral thickening. having 2-3 components.2. Appendix per cent. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. secondary xylem composed of vessels. solitary or in groups of 2-5. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. fragments of cork cells. phloem. measuring 6-14 µ in dia.. Appendix per cent. vessels. 2. measuring 6-14 µ .Seed -Numerous.2.07 cm across. minute.Greyish-brown.Wavy in outline.2. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.3. dark brown. present in mesophyll cells. tracheids and parenchyma. Lamina . thin-walled. 2.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. pitted and spiral vessels. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. 2. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. parenchymatous cells. tracheids. 2. oval. Stem . IDENTITY. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. shows groups of oval to polygonal.4. tracheids and parenchyma. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. as well as compound. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. stomata paracytic type. LeafMidrib .06-0. having intercellular spaces. pericycle fibre present in patches.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. secondary xylem consists of vessels. oval cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. Powder . black. Appendix 2. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. Appendix per cent. reniform. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. arranged in radial rows. phloem and xylem parenchyma.2. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. 0. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen.2. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells.7.2. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells. palisade single layered.

0.Agnim¡ndya. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.Marma Gu¶ik¡. of the drug in powder form.L. 0. Carbohydrates. 0. Under U. 0. CakÀuÀya. 104 .68. 0. 0. T. Ar¿a.C. 0.6 g. RukÀa.76 and 0.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .61.V.76 (all pinkish red).41.68 and 0. Pittakara.3 . (both green). Vra¸a DOSE . Gulma. THERAPEUTIC USES . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. Prameha.52.C.T. V¡tahara.10. 0. 0. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áotha. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.41.08. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.52 (both faint green).68 (yellow) and 0.10.Protein. 0. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.L..50. 0. 0. 0. 0.76 (green) in visible light.10. 0.08.

Stem . 105 . 25-50 cm high. distinct. alternate. Lajamani Chhuimui. cut surface of pieces pale yellow.2 cm long. Machikegida. 0. odour. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. taste.5 cm in dia.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile.week bristles longitudinally grooved. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. nearly glabrous. external surface light brown. Adamalati Lajaka. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . rependant . (Fam.4 cm broad.6-1. stipulate. Leaf . internal cut surface grey. hairy pinnae. greyish brown to brown. acute. petiolate. Lajjalu (W. woody. Lajauni Muttidasenui. linear lanceolate.Cylindrical. covered with long. with secondary and tertiary branches. bark fibrous. upto 2 cm thick. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. easily separable from wood. bark fibrous. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. varying in length. Lajavanti. 0.Cylindrical. tapering.3-0. sensitive to touch. slightly astringent. sessile.P) diffused undershrub. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. sparsely prickly. Var¡kr¡nt¡.45. Fabaceae). fracture hard. obliquely rounded at base. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. upto 2. yellowish-green. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi.

secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. fibres of two types. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. corolla pink.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. 0. oval-elliptic. Seed . tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. parenchymatous cells. glabrous. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.Compressed. xylem rays radially elongated. stamens 4.6 cm long. straw coloured. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. thick-walled. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. 1-1.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. crystal fibres elongated. Fruit . crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. tangentially elongated to oval. dry. ovate oblong. filled with reddish-brown contents. simple. much exserted. rarely multiseriate. 2. 2-3 seriate more common. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. secondary cortex wide. crystal fibres thick-walled. phloem fibres single or in groups. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. peduncles prickly. fibres. calyx very small.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. moderately thick-walled. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. radially elongated. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. tangentially elongated cells. Stem . vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. a number of lignified. b) Microscopic Root . 0. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. phloem rays thick-walled. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. lobes 4. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. respectively. ovules numerous. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. brown to grey. spreading bristle at sutures. 3-25 chambered. arranged in tangential bands. 0. thick-walled. ovary sessile.Pink.3 cm long. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. consisting of large.4-0. parenchyma. starch grains.Lomentum. pith consisting of polygonal.Flower . secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. scattered throughout secondary xylem. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. scattered throughout.3 long. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. 106 . secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. in globose head. thick-walled. fibres single or in groups.

Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. Powder . rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma.Leaf- Petiole . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U.3.6. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. Appendix per cent. 0. spongy parenchyma. palisade cells non glandular. Lamina . covered with thin-cuticle. pitted vessels. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. vascular bundle single.2. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. 2. palisade single layered.2. fibres.Reddish-brown.2. embryo straight with short and thick radicle.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. shaggy hairs. Fruit .2.C. 2. lignified cells followed by single layered.2. branched. 2. with 2 . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent.3 components IDENTITY.69 (all blue) and 0. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Midrib .2. reticulate. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.shows single layered epidermis. endocarp of thick-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.81 (bluish-pink). single and compound starch grains. shaggy hairs.7. thin-walled.62.V.L. T.L. shows. 0. parenchymatous cells Seed . measuring 6-25 µ in dia. crystal fibres. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. 2.35. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells.4. pericycle same as in petiole. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. 0. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. spongy parenchyma single layered. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. branched.C. pericycle arranged in a ring.shows epidermis on both surfaces. one in each wing.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. parenchymatous cells. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

Raktapita DOSE .spots appear at Rf.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. Kaphahara. 108 . THERAPEUTIC USES .35 and 0.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Vra¸a. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS . Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . D¡ha.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. KuÀ¶ha.35 (orange). RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Atis¡ra.áopha. áv¡sa. Ku¶aj¡valeha. 0. 0. Yoniroga. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.

followed by thin-walled. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida.) Macbride. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. Ippa. tabular.Gmel. latifolia (Roxb.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. Hippenara. Mahawash tree Mahudo. basifixed. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. anther sub-sessile. Bassia latifolia Roxb. reddish-brown. short. Halippe. Androecium . Sapotaceae) . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. lanceolate.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Mahua Katiluppai. and also cultivated.F. Madhuka (Fl. erect 0. b) Microscopic Corolla . stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. epipetalous. Hippe. Eppimara -Irippa. taste.5-2 cm long.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. M. sweet. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. (Fam. Madhuka. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. corolla fleshy. ovate lanceolate. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Ilippa. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. Syn.46. epipetalous and arranged in two series. a few 109 . Iluppa. Kattu Iluppai.

Appendix 70 per cent. 2.7. Appendix 2. Appendix 5 per cent.2.Dark brown. V¡tahara. 2. T¤À¸¡.Madh£k¡sava. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. tapetum not distinct.2.4.unicellular hairs present on one side. pollen grains single or in groups. endothecium composed of radially elongated. Balya. oval shaped.2. Appendix 0. Powder . lignified cells. Pittakara.10 . Appendix 10 per cent. Ah¤dya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS .áv¡sa. árama DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. KÀata. unicellular hairs.2.5 per cent. áramahara. round. 2. KÀaya. 110 . 2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls.2. of the drug. 2. spherical. El¡di Modaka.2. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY.2.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.3.15 g. Appendix 25 per cent. shows fragments of epidermal cells.6. D¡ha.

a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. obtuse or subacute. Flower . short. nodes and internodes distinct. Br. (Fam.Herbaceous. with spreading branches from the base. no characteristic odour and taste.47.. yellowish-brown to light-brown. fracture. no characteristic odour and taste. non Link. A. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. Matshyakshi (W. white often tinged with pink. Leaf .5-5 cm long. Bahli. no characteristic odour and taste.Cylindrical. 2. A. weak. denticulata R.) R..1-0. sometimes reaching 10 cm long.5 cm wide. Gandal¢.6 cm diameter.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. cream to grey.3-2 cm wide. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. short.. nodiflora R. fracture. Syn. internodes 0. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sessile.1. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. linear-oblong. Amaranthaceae). 0. 0. Stem . A.P.5 cm long.. Br.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. A. bracteoles 111 . or elliptic. Matsy¡duni. Br. triandra Lam. often rooting at lower nodes.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡.3-7. repens Gmel.

round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. style very short. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval.Utricle. pith consisting of thin-walled. with anomalous secondary growth. numerous. thin. open and exarch.1. covered wtith striated cuticle. orbicular. with are conjoint. acute. thin-walled. perianth 2.2 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste. 1. vascualr bundles radially arranged. irregular. each consisting of xylem and phloem. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. parenchymatous cells. single layered. palisade 2-3 layers.5-3 mm long. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. thin-walled round or oval. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. parenchymatous cells.5 mm long. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. secondary cortex narrow. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. radially arranged cork cells. Stem . parenchymatous cells.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. no characteristic odour and taste. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem.dorsiventral. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. xylem tissues lignified. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. sepals ovate. isodiametic cells. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Lamina . stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. Leaf- Midrib . round to oval. shows wavy or undulate. capitellate. round or oval. bicollateral. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. present in the centre. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. consisting of thin-walled cells. palisade ratio 3-5. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. compressed. isodiametric. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. 112 . Fruit . vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. scarious. consistig of thin-walled. composed of thin-walled. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. compressed with thickened margins. pith distinct. vascular bundles three. collenchymatous cells. ovate.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. ovary obcordate. stomata paracytic. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. b) Microscopic Root .

18.4.3. of the drug in powder form.54 and 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix 3 per cent. 0. Under U. 0.. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. THERAPEUTIC USES .Olive green. 0.35.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 113 .2 -3 g.81. 2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Powder . Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C. 2.5 per cent.59. 0.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. Appendix 10 per cent. V¡tahara. paracytic stomata.96 (all yellow).2.2. 0. Appendix 2. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.2.2.44.44 (all green). 0.68 (all red). CONSTITUENTS .L. 0. Appendix 4.6. 0. Appendix 19 per cent. Pittavik¡ra.L. Tikta. Kaphahara.V.Sugar.94 and 0.KuÀ¶ha. 0.25.33 and 0.33. T. IDENTITY.44.7.2. 0.16. 2.16. 0. 2.2.

several layers of thin walled. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. dull yellow. parenchymatous cells. varying in size. 30-60 cm tall. thin-walled. columnar palisade. cultivated throughout the country. smooth.5 cm long.2-0. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. mucilaginous cells. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.walled. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. very hard. covered externally with thick cuticle. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. (Fam. odour. Methi (Sd. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. pleasant. Fabaceae). 0.) aromatic. b) Microscopic Seed . 0. bitter.48.15-0. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium.Seed shows a layer of thick.35 cm broad. 114 . cells flat at base. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. annual herb. taste.

2. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.3.2.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 0.5 per cent. aleurone grains. 2. 2. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 5 per cent.3-6 g. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent.2.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Prameha. Jvara. 2.2. Rucya. Appendix 4 per cent. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. oil globules. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.4.Alkaloid. Sapogenins and Mucilage.6.Graha¸¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 115 . IDENTITY. Powder .Yellow. Aruci DOSE .

petals 1. hollow.Root cylindrical. taste. Flower .Slender.7-2. sub-marginate at the apex. slightly pungent. Leaf .3 cm long. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn.Flower in long terminal raceme.0 cm in dia.P. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. petiole 5-5. blade obovate. compressed. odour.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. not distinct. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally.5-10 cm long. regular. cylindrical. yellowish-green. complete 1-2 cm long. coarsely toothed. bright green. an annual or biennial bristly herb. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . lyrate. variable size and thickness. Mulaka (W.Lower leaves hairy.2 cm long. Muli. pedicel with scattered hairs. Stem . (Fam. having a few longitudinal striations. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. oblong. sometimes brown red. white or lilac with yellow or 116 .1-1. 0. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. seplas 6..49. bisexual. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. upper most leaves simple.) Brassicaceae).

continuous or more or less constricted. sometimes flattened. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. longitudinally sulcatus. round to oval. endodermis at some places. traversed by phloem rays. phloem. round to oval. taste. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. pith a wide zone of polygonal. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. Leaf- Petiole . epidermis single layered.1. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. oily. stamen 6 in two whorls. cylindrical. Fruit . epidermis followed by 6. present in cortex and phloem. palisade 2-3 layers. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. ovary superior.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. occasionally pale purple.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.Reddish-brown.8. greenish-yellow. radially arranged. 2 mm wide. covered with thick cuticle. irregularly globose. 10-12 ovuled. solitary or ingroups. starch grains simple.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. thin-walled. 117 . vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. 2-4 mm long. two outer smaller and four inner longer. Seed . cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal.Siliqua. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. thin-walled. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. green or brown-purple. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. traversed by xylem rays. style about 4 mm long. 1-2 chambered. Midrib . anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. vascular bundle three in number. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. elliptical. 3-9 cm long and 0.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.appears biconvex in outline. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring.purple vein. present only on upper side. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. erect. medullary rays four to many cells wide.dorsiventral. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. b) Microscopic Root . cork cells.4 cm thick. Stem . xylem parenchyma and ray cells. one central and two lateral. parenchymatous cells. present in cortex. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. single layered. Lamina . hairs unicellular.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. parenchymatous cells.

Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES .3. covered with a thin-cuticle. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. covered with thin.2.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix per cent. 118 .6.Agnim¡ndya. straight cuticle. parenchymatous cells. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Ud¡varta.4. Pittahara. IDENTITY. P¡cana.2. DOSE . 2. Tikta Laghu. 2. of columnar cells. Appendix per cent.20 . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . oil globules and round to oval starch grains.M£lakakÀ¡ra. Rucya.2.Shows a single layered epidermis. Appendix per cent. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. Ar¿a. Kaphahara. 2.2. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. thin-walled. P¢nasa. H¤dya. Appendix per cent.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. Gandhaka Va¶¢.Yellowish-green. reddish-brown.7.40 ml. Powder .2. Seed . beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. tangentially elongated. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. of the drug in juice form. spiral vessels. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. 2. Svarya.Glucoside. Gulma. thinwalled.Fruit . endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells present. shows aseptate fibres. CONSTITUENTS .

Moclangi gadde. variable in size. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Mulaka (Rt. Appendix 2. taste. Appendix per cent.4.2. (Fam.) annual or biennial bristly herb. 2.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. white in colour. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.2.2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. Mulaka. rarely sweet. 2. fusiform.2. Appendix per cent. Saleya. Brassicaceae). IDENTITY.2. Mula Muli Moolangi. Rakhyasmula Mula.3. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula.7. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. usually 25-40 cm in length. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy.50. having a few lateral fibrous roots. 2. Visra. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. cylindrical. slightly or strongly pungent. 2.6. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 119 . sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth.2. Mullangi.

H¤dya.04. Gulma.V. P¡cana. 0.LC. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. Ud¡varta DOSE . K¡sa.Glucoside.L. Tikta Laghu.04. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.04 & 0. Svarya. of the drug in the juice form 120 .49 & 0. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . Rucya.T. Jvara. T.34.15-30 ml. Galaroga. P¢nasa. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Netraroga.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. Kaphahara.09.09 & 0. 0.Agnim¡ndya.09 (both blue).69 (all yellow). Ar¿a.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. 0. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. áv¡sa. Dadru. Vrana. 0. Pittahara.

2. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. secondary phloem shows wide zone. tenuifolium Wall. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. Syn.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. dull brown. Root . found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 .5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths.3 . colour. secondary cortex composed of rounded. aromatic. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. odour.6 . consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. taste. thin-walled cells.51. thin-walled cells. fibres and parenchyma. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. S. Mura (Rt.) DC. 0. a perennial herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. inner cells thin-walled. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. Daitya. consisting of tangentially elongated. 6-12 cm long and 0. Gandhakuti. cambium 2-4 layered. tangentially elongated.1. (Fam.4 m tall. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . Apiaceae ). cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. rectangular cells. traversed by xylem rays.42000 m. slightly bitter.Shows 10 . traversed by phloem rays.

parenchymatous cells. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. composed of radially arranged. Appendix 17 per cent.2.2. oil globules and simple starch grains. Appendix 3.áv¡sa. somewhat oval cells. round to oval. present in secondary cortex.1-3 g. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. secondary phloem. secretory canals numerous. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Brown. 2. 2. D¡ha.5 per cent. Appendix 9 per cent.2. shows groups of cork cells. Powder . distributed throughout secondary cortex.Arvind¡sava.6. fibres aseptate. secondary xylem and medullary rays. Bhrama. CONSTITUENTS . short with blunt ends. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. of the drug in powder form. starch grains simple. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. secondary phloem.2.2. Appendix 2. Jvara..2.7. M£rchha.having spiral thickenings. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. secretory canals. Tikta. 122 .Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). xylem and phloem rays. Ka¶u. xylem parenchyma. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . Sucrose and Mannitol.4. Appendix 9 per cent. IDENTITY. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. 2.

bark easily separable from wood. odour. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. Koratige.Shows a cork. slightly bitter. twining shrub. & Am. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. some filled with reddish-brown contents. (Fam.) Asclepiadaceae). stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. taste. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. similar to those present in secondary cortex. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. Halukaratige. Madhusrava. Jartor Koratige Hambu.52. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. a large stout. fracture. phloem fibres absent. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells.5-3 cm thick. indistinct. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. tangentially elongated. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. Murva (Rt. rectangular cells. phloem rays 1 123 . Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. resin cells present irregularly in this region. Kallu Shambu. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present.

Mukha áosa. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations.2.2. Appendix 5 per cent. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. Medoroga.5 . fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. composed of vessels. T¤Àn¡. fibretracheids..3. 124 . secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. present in parenchymatous tissues.2-6 g. Prameha Mihira Taila. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. IDENTITY. Meha. Pittahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. vessels with pitted walls.Light brown. 2. tracheids. measuring 5. of the drug for decoction. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .22 µ in diameter.5-22 µ dia.2.Ar¿a.2. Appendix 0. fibres.7. Ka¸·£.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. starch grains simple. of the drug in powder form.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.tracheids.2. K¤miroga. fibres. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent.. 2. DOSE . Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Jvara.2.6.4. simple and compound starch grains. Powder . xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. consisting of small tangential. Appendix 14 per cent. 2. Appendix 7 per cent. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. fragments of cork.3 cells wide. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Tikta Guru. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. 5. 10-20 g. 2. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Raktapitta. H¤droga. shows a number of stone cells. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue.

Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. b) Microscopic Androecium . each stamen 0. Nagakesari -Nangaa. shows elongated cells of filament. anther about 0. Assam.) evergreen tree. Nagchampa.0 cm long. connective not visible with naked eye. N¡ga. odour. Peri.1. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. N¡gapuÀpa. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. linear. astringent. basifixed.Anther shows golden-brown. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. Pilunagkesar. filiform. consisting of thin-walled.9-1. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. often buttressed at the base. 125 . Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. Guttiferae). distinct protuberances on walls. Bengal. Hem¡. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. filament 0. Konkan. containing pollen grains. fragrant. taste. an Ke¿ara.9 cm long. Nahar Nageshvara. Nauga. Nagachampakam. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. slender. thick-walled. Nagppu. parenchymatous cells. Powder . (Fam. Nagakesar (Stmn.5 cm long. Sachunagkeshara. yellowish and thin-walled. Veluthapala. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. quite brittle. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn.8 . Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara.Brown. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. more or less twisted.53. coppery or golden brown. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. exine and intine distinct. connective and filament. Naugaliral. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. soft to touch.

V¡tarakta. THERAPEUTIC USES .Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. 2. Vastiroga DOSE .2. of the drug in powder form. Kum¡ry¡sava.6. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.2.IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1-3 g. Appendix per cent. 2. Tikta. Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. Appendix per cent. 2.7. áopharoga. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara.2.2.2. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. 126 . CONSTITUENTS .2. Appendix per cent.3. 2.Raktapitta. Var¸ya.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.

pith composed of round to oval. 127 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. N¢l¢n¢. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. leaflet 1-2. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. Nili (Lf. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings.5 cm long and 0. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region.1. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu.54. Fabaceae).8 m high.) shrub. vascular bundles collateral and three in number.3-1. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. no characteristic odour and taste.2. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. pale green to greenish-black.2 cm wide. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. (Fam. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . 1.

K¤imiroga.Greenish-grey. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. Ud¡varta.50-100 g. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma.Midrib . Lamina . vascular bundle single.7. Jvara..2. Appendix 10 per cent. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. K¡sa. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. Ke¿ya. Udararoga.2. similar as in petiole and midrib. 128 . 2. IDENTITY. pitted vessels. of decoction. cuticle and hair. Appendix 25 per cent.4. collateral and crescent shaped. cuticle and hair.shows epidermis. similar as in petiole.2. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. 2. V¡tahara.. Appendix 2.. Appendix 7.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. palisade 2-3 layers. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Glycoside (Indican). shows groups of mesophyll cells.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.shows dorsiventral structure. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Pl¢haroga. aseptate fibres.5 per cent. 2. CONSTITUENTS .6. 2. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .Ëmav¡ta. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.3. V¡tarakta. Gulma. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . Appendix 2 per cent. epidermis.2. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.

secondary phloem composed of usual elements. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. slightly bitter. Rangapatr¢. with lenticels. Nila -Neel Avuri.5 cm thick.1 -1. Neeligida.55. Neeli Nili. 0. taste. woody. Nili. (Fam. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. thin-walled cells. hard. Olleneeli -Amari. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. cylindrical. Nila Nili. Nil.2-1. secondary cortex a narrow zone. Fabaceae). measuring 11-17 µ in dia. group of fibres.. 129 . Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Karunili.) shrub. Indian Indigo Gali. Nili Chettu. Gari Nili Kadunili. Nili (Rt. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. consisting of usual elements.8 m high. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. 1. odour not distinct. rectangular. thin-walled cells. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo.10 layers of tangentially elongated.

75.21.80. shows aseptate fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.63. 0. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS .. 0. 2.Arvind¡sava.2. 0.06. 0. Ke¿ya. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. V¡tahara.10.91 (all grey). 130 . 0.14 (blue).6.C. phloem.0. Powder . 0. Ëmav¡ta. of drug for decoction. 0. 0.0. V¡tarakta.63.30 (bluish green).91 (all yellow).Creamish-brown. 0.81 (blue).50.3. Recan¢.33. pitted vessels. 0.47 (blue). 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. K¡sa.75 (blue). 2.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. IDENTITY. 0.58. 0. simple and compound starch grains.27.86 (green) and 0.2. Appendix 4 per cent. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.14.50. 0.2. 0. 0. 0. DOSE . K¤imiroga. xylem parenchyma and rays. 0. Udararoga. 2.81. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.06. and 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. Ud¡varta.2. 0. 0. 0. 0..2.L.10.75. 2.33. 0.86. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.2. Appendix 2.40. present in cortex.63 (bluish green).14. 0. 0.Gulma. Appendix 3 per cent. Pl¢h¡roga. Appendix 0.V. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.91 (blue). measuring 3-11 µ in dia.58.4. 0.L. 0. 0.27. 0.86 and 0.40. 0. round to oval.40 (blue). Appendix 6 per cent.7 per cent. 0. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .7.58 (blue). 0. T.48 g. starch grains simple. ViÀavik¡ra.

Nimbam. acute. Limba. 7-8. (Fam. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Aryaveppu. lanceolate. exstipulate. Bakayan. Bakan. Nim Vemmu. Veppu. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Arulundi. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Bevu. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. odour. Kohumba Nim. Limbado. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves .) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. indistinct. Meliaceae). Veppa Balantanimba. Juss Syn.1 cm thick. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. slightly yellowish-green. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. serrate. taste. crystals also present in phloem region. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a.5 cm long and 1. Nimba (Lf. Kahibevu. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Oilevevu. rachis 15-25 cm long. Bevinama -Veppu. Veppan Vemu.7 cm wide.Compound. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. opposite. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline.56. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. leaflets with oblique base.0-1. 131 . alternate. Limado. Nimba Nimba. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Nim.

2. of the drug in powder form. Netraroga.2. Prameha.4. covered externally with thick cuticle. epidermis on either surface. traversed by a number of veins.0-11. K¤miroga.5 on upper surface. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. Powder . Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .6.Triterpenoids and Sterols.2. Appendix per cent.shows dorsiventral structure. V¡tal¡.0-14.3. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. tangentially elongated cells. Appendix 2.1-3 g. KuÀ¶ha. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY.2.0-4. Vrana.5 on lower surface and 8. 2. Appendix per cent. 2. thin-walled cells. Ëma¿otha. 2.Green. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.5. 2. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. shows vessels.Jvara. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. palisade ratio 3. ViÀarogas DOSE . CONSTITUENTS . spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered.7. composed of thin walled. palisade single layered. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡.Lamina . Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . fibres. stomatal index 13. 132 . fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.

Vembu Vemu. Nimba (St. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. extemal surface rough. fibrous. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. characteristic. Limba Nimba Nim. Nimb Bevu. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nimba. evergreen tree. fissured and rusty-grey. Aruveppu Balantanimba. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. considerably thick in older barks. odour. Bakam Veppai. Kahibevu. Oilevevu -Veppu. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. (Fam. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Meliaceae). thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . woody. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Juss. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. Nimba. Kadunimb. a moderate sized to fairly large. Picumarda Mahanim Nim.57. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. fracture.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Syn.

having wide lumen and distinct striations. Kaphahara. round with central hilum. 0. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. cork cells. 2.86 (blue).measuring 2.4.outer surface. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. and 0.C. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna.2. Pittahara. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.Reddish-brown. 0.90 (green).6. simple starch grains. Appendix 5 per cent. 0.7. 0.2. 2. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.L. 0. 2. Appendix 1. starch grains. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate.2. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.75-5 µ in diameter.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. Appendix 6 per cent.2.L. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .63 and 0. IDENTITY.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.20.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.5 per cent.90 (all blue). Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. T. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. simple. secondary cortex absent in most cases.2.C. ViÀaghna. lignified rectangular to polygonal. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Appendix 2.V. Powder . (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.72 (blue). measuring 2. 2.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 7 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. stone cells mostly in groups.45.

2-4 g. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. Jvara. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Rakta Pitta. Vra¸a DOSE . 135 . Ka¸·u. Nimb¡di C £r¸a.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.. of the drug in powder form. Decoction should be used externally.D¡ha. Prameha. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. K¤miroga.

Paras Moduga. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. 0.2 cm thick usually peels off. fracture. dark-brown. having brown colour.) Kuntze (Fam. Dhak. curved. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m.Bk) Fabaceae). exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. Khakharo. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. pale brown. slightly astringent. often in groups.58. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. Palasha (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka.15 m high with irregular branches. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. exposing light brown surface. 12 . Khakhapado Dhak. cork cells. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. greyish to pale brown. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. tanniniferous cells. thin-walled. Plas.5 . RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. Camata. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. Palash. Muttala -Plasu. 5-10 or more layered. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. rectangular 136 . Muttuga. taste.1 cm thick. Tesu Purasu. internal surface rough. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. Tesu Muttug. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. Chettu Dhak. rhytidoma 0. except in very arid parts. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. moderately thick-walled. rectangular. dark brown. Modugu.

L.75 . 2.5 per cent.6.2. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.V. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. starch grains simple and compound with 2 .Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. sclereids mostly in groups. crystal fibres.48 and 0. 0.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.65 (all blue). 2.10. CONSTITUENTS .cells followed by a zone of 2 .13. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. traversed by phloem rays. 137 .4. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.67 (all yellow)..75 µ in dia.Reddish-brown.10. 7 .10. phloem parenchyma.2. 0. 0. dark brown coloured cells.4 layers of sclereids.3. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. 0.2. 0.2. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . Appendix 1. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . measuring 2. Appendix 10 per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.C. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. Appendix 14 per cent. Appendix 12 per cent.50 cells in height. thin-walled cork cells. straight. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. phloem fibres. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7.L. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.12 cells wide. 2.18. 0.48 and 0. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly.2. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.2. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma.3 components. 0. Powder .. 0. T.C.67 (all violet). in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.48. 2. companion cells.

Agnid¢paka. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. of the drug in powder form for decoction.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. K¤miroga. 138 . KaÀ¡ya Sara. Vra¸a. Tikta. DOSE . Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. S¡raka . Graha¸¢. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya.5-10 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . Gulma.Ar¿a.

also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. radially arranged and thin-walled. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. Pangara Hongar. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. inner bark fibrous. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .5-2. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. quick growing tree. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers.Bk) Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. yellowish to cream coloured. tangentially elongated to squarish. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. stone 139 . secondary cortex consists of large. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. exfoliating in narrow strips.59.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. smooth. Paribhadra (St. medium sized. (Fam.0 cm thick. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. Mulmurumgai Badisa. parenchymatous cells.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru.CONSTITUENTS . V¡taroga DOSE .V¡tarakta. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . V¤Àya. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .. of drug in powder form.. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.Alkaloids. 148 . Volatile Oil.2-4 g. Balak¤t.

63. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. 0. Satdhan -Charal. Syn. funicle stout.3-0. B. 0. Korka. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons.6 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed.5 cm wide. taste. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. creamish-brown. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . followed by remnants of disorganised. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. pitted.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. odour. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. Piyar. Priyalam. large. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells.4-0. pleasant. linear. b) Microscopic Seed . Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. micropyle superior. which are of various size. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. occurring mostly in groups. hilum present at the apex of round edge. thick-walled. Priyala (Sd. mottled with darker brown lines. (Farn. Saraparuppu Sara. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. Shalichokha Piyal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. latifolia Roxb.) Anacardiaceae). sclerenchymatous cells. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. sweetish-oily. collapsed cells of integument. Chowl.

27.2.2. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. 150 . 0.0 µ in dia.7. and sclerenchymatous cells. Sara. 0.72.0 µ in dia. H¤dya.20 g. CONSTITUENTS . 0.5-5. 2.2. 0.measuring 2.5 per cent.94 and 0. of the drug in powder form. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 2. KÀata. áukrakara.94 (blue).3.V. Oil and Starch. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. 0.91. BrÆha¸a.08.D¡ha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara.2. Priy¡la Taila. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.L. Powder .91. 0.98 (all yellow).08.98 (all violet).P£gakha¸·a.4. procambium bundles.54. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.94 and 0. 2.5-5.type. shows numerous mesophyll cells.C.A creamish-brown paste. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.72 and 0. Balya.2.C. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. KÀaya. Pittahara. Raktapitta. Appendix 10 per cent.27.72. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. 0.54. and oil globules. V¤Àya.2. T.84. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells.L. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. Kaphakara. Appendix 7 per cent.6. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. 0.10 . 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. Bhagnas¡dhaka.Albuminoids. 0. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 0. 2.

Gnazalpoo Prakhanam.) Verbenaceae). thin-walled. Priyangu (Infl. 1. 1. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. anther ovate. brown. basifixed. long. 2. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. stamens 4. b) Microscopic Peduncle . parenchymatous cells. equal in size. Flower . brown.4 m high shrub.2. tubular. (Fam. stigma minutely capitate. epipetalous. an erect. hairy. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .5 .Shows more or less wavy outline. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.2.5-7. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. style.0. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. and abundant in Bengal plains. peduncle cylindrical. corolla. 4 lobbed spreading. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. ovary 2-4 celled.64. bell-shaped. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. filament very long. calyx. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. densely hairy. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu.5 cm long. densely clothed with wooly hairs.5 cm across.Cymose. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal.3 mm in dia.

D¡ha. Daurgandhyahara. groups of thin-walled. Appendix per cent.2. aseptate fibres. 2.6. Appendix 2. Phenolic compound. V¡tahara. Jvara. 2. Ku´kum¡di Taila. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Sandh¡n¢ya. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. Pras¡dana. El¡di C£r¸a. Appendix per cent. Rakta. THERAPEUTIC USES .Brown. Pakv¡tis¡ra. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. Powder . 152 . Appendix per cent. spiral vessels. Rakta-Pitta.2.3.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. IDENTITY. 2. N¢lik¡dya Taila. fibres aseptate. Terpenes. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Resin and Saponin. (Mukharoga). Appendix per cent.2.2. of the drug in powder form. Vra¸aropa¸a.fibres. M£travirajan¢ya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Glycosides. 2. elliptical. CONSTITUENTS .1-3 g. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs.2. xylem consists of usual elements. DOSE .2.4. Kanaka Taila. Sved¡dhikya.7.

pitted vessels and 153 . Vr¢hi. sclerenchymatous cells. Chawl. Nivara -Chaval. Sali. cylindrical. Biyyamu Chaval. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Akki -Ari. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. an annual herb. Jhona Arishi. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn.Greyish-cream. both consisting of round to oval. Shali (Rt. Corava. Cala. Nellu Tandulamul. composed of thick-walled. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Paddy Shalichokha. Bhata. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Dhanarmul. soft. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Coke Chaval. smooth. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. thin.) cultivated throughout India. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Dh¡nya. Dhan Rice. Damgara. Nelver Dhanyamu. sclerenchymatous cells. (Fam. Poaceae). Powder . thick-walled.65. exodermis 1-2 layered.05-0.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Odalu. Dhana. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. cortex differentiated into three zones. Bhatta. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Nellu. b) Microscopic Root . Dhana Bhatto.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled.

Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.StanyakÀaya. Balya. Pittahara. 154 . V¡tahara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. 2.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. IDENTITY.4. BrÆha¸a. 2. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .3.2. Appendix per cent. H¤dya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Laghu. Svarya. Rucya.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M£trala.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Kaphahara. CakÀuÀya. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. 2.7.50 g. Appendix per cent. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . of the drug for decoction. Var¸ak¤t.2.

5 cm broad. Shankhapushpi. corolla shortly discoid.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. sparsely hairy. 155 . ovary superior and bicarpellary.Usually branched. perennial herb with a woody root stock. Stem . spreading. cylindrical. yellowish-brown to light brown. hairy on both surfaces. inserted deep in the corolla tube. free. found throughout the country. acute. stamen 5. Karakhuratt. light green. hairy. 0. Sankhahuli Kakattam. 1-5 cm long. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam.1-0. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu.P. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. epipetalous. linear-lanceolate.White or pinkish. Sankha pushpin (W. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. alternate with the petals.5-2 cm long and 0. Kakkanangudi. cylindrical.Shortly petiolate. linear-lanceolate. Leaf .1-0.4 cm thick. Flower .66. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. sub-erect. about 0. Sankhapuspi. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sepals narrowly. Shankhavela.) Convolvulaceae). Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.Slender. light green. a prostrate. 0. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis.

minutely puberulous. phloem. Stem . LeafMidrib . medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. present on both surfaces. xylem rays and parenchyma.0. tanniniferous. 156 . Lamina . phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. pale brown pericarp. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.walled cells.Light yellowish-green. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits.8 µ in dia. vascular bundle bicollateral. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. cortex differentiated in two zones. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin.Capsule. covered with thick cuticle.Fruit . palisade two layered. 13. epidermis single layered.Appears nearly circular in outline. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. oblong globose with coriaceous. phloem composed of sieve elements. b) Microscopic Root .Shows single layered epidermis. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. hairs unicellular. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. phloem a narrow zone. elongated.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. fibres and tracheids. elliptical. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. thin. simple and composed of 2-3 components. covered with thick cuticle. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. Powder . and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. secretory cells present in this region. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. measuring 3 . fibres and parenchyma. simple and compound starch grains. starch grains solitary or in groups. round to oval in shape. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. endoderrnis single layered.. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. Seed .. mm.8-17. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. present in cortex. . thick-walled cells. both having round to oval. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. at places unicellular hairs present. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. unicellular hairs.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side.Brown. xylem consists of vessels. xylem consisting of usual elements. mm. palisade ratio 6-9.

ËyuÀya. Appendix per cent. Tikta.2. Medhya. 2. Appendix per cent.4.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2.3-8 g.2. Ras¡yana. 2.2. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent.IDENTITY. Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent. Br¡hma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ras¡yana. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix per cent.M¡nasaroga. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Agastyahar¢tak¢. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Kaphahara.2. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Apasm¡ra DOSE .7.2. Appendix 2.6.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2.3. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Pittahara.

4-5 cm long.7-7 cm long. ribbed. lobes short. odour and taste indistinct. short. having a few secondary roots. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. lanceolate or linear oblong. solitary. Joyachi. ovate. shortly 2-fid at the apex.1. pale brown. Chagulputputi Satala. ciliolate.P. (Fam. cylindrical.Involucre broadly campanulate. Flower .5 mm across at the mouth.Small. 3-4 mm in dia. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. 158 . 20-40 cm high. 1 mm long. greenish-yellow. 2. smooth.Capsule. fracture. filament pubescent. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Siju. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡.5-2 mm thick. sub-sessile. linear. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Leaf . odour and taste not distinct. trilocular. sessile.) Euphorbiaceae). horned. Carmas¡hv¡. Bilikalli.8 cm wide. 0. style. a much branched. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. 3. annual herb. free to the base. gland semilunate. subacute. Saptala Kangi Tillakada.celled with or without attached pedicel. gradually tapering.67.2-0. Saptala (W. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. Fruit . 0. found throughout India in the plains and low hills.

oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. endodermis not distinct. fibres and tracheids.shows slightly convex outline. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. leprous tuberculate testa. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. epidermis single layered. with wide lumen present in this region. covered externally with thick.3 mm long. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. thickwalled and lignified. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. stone cells oval to elongated. rounded at the base. Stem . elliptical. all elements. secondary xylem composed of vessels. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. flattended. simple. fibres.Young root shows exfoliated. centre occupied by a pith. rounded to oval. all elements thick-walled and lignified. mature root shows thin walled cork. found scattered in phloem region.6 layers of oval. filled with yellowish-brown content.25 µ in diameter. fibres and vessels having simple pits. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. starch grains simple. grooved at one side. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells.75 µ in dia. lignified cells with wide lumen. tangentially elongated cells. Leaf- Midrib .Seed . consisting of thick-walled. measuring 5. secondary xylem consists of vessels. rarely a few oil globules also present. rectangular. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. rounded to oval. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. palisade single layered present on both sides. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. parenchymatous cells.5-19. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. 159 . single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells. some rounded. secondary phloem narrow. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. parenchymatous cells. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. traversed by numerous xylem rays. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. striated cuticle. secondary cortex consists of 4. composed of sieve elements. fibres elongated and aseptate. elliptical. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. solitary or in groups. tangentially elongated elliptical. tracheids and medullary rays. vessels having simple pits. b) Microscopic Root . spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. circular to oval. thick-walled lignified. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. 2.

46. shows vessels with simple pits. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. rounded to oval starch grains.7.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.6. simple.4. 2. 0. IDENTITY.2. elliptical. 2. 0. V¡tal¡.Light yellow. Visarpa. Appendix per cent.87 (violet).C.57 (all yellow).67. of the drug for decoction. DOSE .Ën¡ha. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. 2. CONSTITUENTS .04.46 (brown) and 0. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf.L.04 and 0.2.L. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. Vibandha.2. T.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.50 g.C. RaktadoÀahara. stone cells thick-walled. RukÀa. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.V. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. Pittahara. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Udararoga. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. aseptate fibres. 160 . 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Powder . Ud¡vartta. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. oval to elongated. Appendix per cent. and 0. lignified with wide lumen. Mi¿raka Sneha.2.0. Gulma. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara.3.

endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. var.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. Sulpha. often stalk attached. ex Flem.. (Fam.. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. filiform and incospicuous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. graveolens Linn. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. Satahva (Fr. sowa Roxb.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. yellowish membranous wings. akin to caraway. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. graveolens DC. Shulupa. P. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. brown. dark brown. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil.68. graveolens Benth. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. glabrous. glabrous. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. parenchymatous. vittae. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal.. Apiaceae). mericarps usually separate and free. b) Microscopic Fruit . some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. A. slightly sharp taste. slightly raised. 4 mm long. odour. and a warm. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. dorsal 161 . Syn. a tall. Shepa. A. mesocarp.

6.2.2. Kaphahara. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .3-6 g. Appendix 14 per cent.L. Powder . 2.costae three.4. Netra Roga DOSE .59 and 0. Vra¸a. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. 2. 162 .C.2.2. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. 0. 0.68 (violet). carpophore split. Appendix 15 per cent. each costae with vascular strands. CONSTITUENTS .68 (all yellow).2. 2. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Appendix 1. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. Atis¡ra.10 T.5 per cent. V¡tahara.Essential Oil. 2.7. shows spiral vessels.L.2.2. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.59 (blue) and 0. IDENTITY. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. Appendix 3 per cent. of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. cellulosic.3.37 (pink) 0. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a.á£la. Jvara. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 2.C.Brown. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.

vascular bundle collateral. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. Munga. Segata. Sajna. palisade single layered. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. oval to elliptical. Segata pana. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. Tishnagandha.69. Mungna Neegge. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. pith and phloem parenchyma. Leaflet . smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Nugge ele -Murinna. Shewgachi pane Sajana.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. central region 163 b) Microscopic . pericycle forming a broken ring. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. Syn. Muringa. Moringaceae). parenchymatous cells. and articulated at the base. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. (Fam. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. a small or medium sized tree. Muringa Elai Sevaga.5-1 cm wide.2-2 cm long and 0. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. Sekato. Mocaka -Sajina. commonly cultivated throughout the country. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.) Gaertn. thickened. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. parenchymatous cells. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. slender. thin walled. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Shigru (Lf. odour and taste not distinct. Bahala. Rachis . leaflet 1. ovate or obovate. AkÀ¢va. entire. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. elliptic.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure.

Appendix 2. 0.82 (yellow) and 0. K¤mihara. 0. 0. V¡tahara. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.2.94 (blue).94 (violet). stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.05. Appendix per cent.2.69 (yellow).18.05. stomata anornocytic.L. Medohara. T. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.46 (green). collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. spiral vessels. palisade ratio 6-11. 0.36 (green). Appendix per cent. Pittahara. 0. 0.46 (all red) & 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0.20. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.26. B ¤Æhana.59 (blue).05. Under U. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. (all green). 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf.46 (dark green) & 0.18.L. 0.Carbohydrate.4.3.46 (both blue).52 (green). palisade cells.2. Appendix per cent. RukÀa. 2. CONSTITUENTS .V. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.26.26 (all green).36. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.0. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.53 (yellow).occupied by a crescent-shaped.6.C.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. 0. IDENTITY.36 (yellowish green).94 (yellow) in visible light. 0.7. 0.87 (blue). 0. 2.38. vein islets number 50-65. Sirovirecaka 164 . 0. Protein. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Powder -Greyish-green.2.30 (pink). áukra N¡¿aka. 0. 0.69 (blue) and 0. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.2. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. 2. 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.2.

áopha.Ratnagiri Rasa. Medoroga. Gulma.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Vidradhi. K¤miroga. Pl¢haroga. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Galaga¸·a.10 . 165 . DOSE . ViÀatinduka Taila.

cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock.70. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. thin walled. membraneous aril. thin-walled. 0. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. aromatic. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. Beraelam. brown to dark brown. Sthulaela (Sd.) Zingiberaceae).4 cm long. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. sclerenchymatous. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. (Fam.3 cm wide. taste. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia.. odour. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. perisperm consists of polygonal. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. perispenn encloses the 166 . which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. spicy pungent. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam.

thin-walled. simple. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Mukharoga.2.3. Tikta Laghu.endosperm and embryo. 167 . T¤À¸¡. Kaphahara. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. H¤ll¡sa.5 -1 g.7. perisperm cells. K¡sa.Light brown. Rocaka. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . polygonal. rich in protein. 2. rounded to oval. Powder . starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. of the drug in powder form. Chardi. Ka¸·u. thin-walled. 2.4.2.6. IDENTITY. 2. V¡tahara.5 per cent. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta.áv¡sa.2. parenchymatous cells. oil globules.S¡rivady¡sava.2. Appendix 5 per cent.10 CONSTITUENTS .2. (Seed). Appendix 1 v/wper cent. 2.(Seed).0. Appendix 4 per cent.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Appendix 14 per cent. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Note . both composed of polygonal. Appendix 2. RukÀa. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. shows fragments of testa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Appendix 1. DOSE . Mukha¿odhaka.

thin-walled. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. sharp prickles. rather deeply furrowed. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Syn. fracture. (Fam. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. Rutaceae). phloem fibres thickwalled. stone cells found in 168 . Jimmi.71.2 cm thick. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. internal surface smooth. short.1-0. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. parenchymatous cells. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. aromatic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. aromatic pungent. stem and branches. armed with long. Tumbura.) Roxb. brownish. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. odour. Thumbooni.0.Bk. Tejovati (St. Z. thick-walled cells. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. external surface pale brown. taste. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. Tumburudra. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. lignified. light yellow to pale brown.

2.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. round and oval measuring 2. a Volatile Oil and Resin.7.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.2. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.75 .10-20 g. Appendix 12 per cent. Mukharoga.2. áv¡sa. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Yellowish-brown.75 . oil globules and starch grains. Kaphahara. 169 . 2. Rucya. CONSTITUENTS .tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.5 per cent.5 per cent.6.Aruci.3. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 8. Appendix 1. Hikk¡.2.75 µ in diameter. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. stone cells. Ëmav¡ta. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. 2. measuring 2. 2. K¡sa. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. of the drug for decoction. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. Appendix 13 per cent.2. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa).13. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. shows fragments of cork cells. starch grains round and oval. Medhya.13.4. Powder . Appendix 2. DOSE . aseptate fibres.75 µ in diameter. IDENTITY. P¡cana.

Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. pubescent on both sides. obtuse or acute. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. Stem .3. woody. about 1. wiry.Erect. Shree Tulasi. internally cream. shortly apiculate. slender. hairy.2 cm wide. small in close whorls. branched. lower lip 170 . Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. fibrous in bark and short in xylem.Purplish or crimson coloured. annual herb. 30 . violet internally.P. (Fam. blackish-brown externally and pale. Thulasi.6 .5-3 cm long hairy. elliptic oblong. soft. fracture. sub quadrangular. entire or serrate.72. K¤À¸atulas¢. aromatic. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. petiole thin.Thin. odour. hairy. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. herbaceous. odour faintly aromatic. pedicels longer than calyx. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. found throughout the country. externally purplish-brown to black.60 cm high. Tulasi (W. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. taste. Leaf . Flower .5-5 cm long 1. bracts about 3 mm long and broad.) an erect. characteristic. coloured. branched. Lamiaceae).2. much branched. pubescent.

vessels pitted. 0. thin-walled. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. long. no odour.Rounded to oval. pungent. aromatic. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic.1 cm long.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. Leaf- Petiole . pubescent. each with one seed.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. aromatic. parenchymatous cells. slightly mucilaginous. nearly smooth. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. slightly notched at the base. phloem consists of sieve elements. Midrib . enclosed in an enlarged. phloem consisting of sieve elements. taste. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. occasionally a few cells collapsed.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. in groups and rarely in singles. brown. xylem consists of vessels. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. lateral two short and central two largest. vessels pitted. middle one larger than other two. taste.A group of 4 nutlets. found scattered in phloem. pungent. odour. round to oval polygonal. elongated. veined calyx. rectangular. tracheids. xylem surrounded by phloem. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head.epidermis. thin-walled. taste. fibres with pointed ends. slightly compressed. odour. corolla about 4 mm long. pitted with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. measuring 22-27 in dia. filled with brown content. fibre tracheides.shows somewhat cordate outline. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. fibres and parenchyma. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. b) Microscopic Root . cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. glandular trichomes short. membranous. three vascular bundles situated centrally. Stem . Seed . 171 . pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. Fruit . oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. thin-walled. mucilaginous when soaked in water. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. pungent. tracheids fibres and parenchyma.

Durgandhihara 172 .Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .2.Lamina . Kaphahara. in thoroughly vanillin . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. oil globules. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.8. H¤dya.minutes Under observation. RukÀa.7. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. CONSTITUENTS . fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.Greenish: shows thin-walled.4. 2. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.1.2.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. Tikta. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.2. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. thin walled fibres. vein islet number 31 .6. rounded to oval. 2. Appendix 8 per cent. 2. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Appendix 10 per cent. Record Rf. IDENTITY.C. a few containing reddish brown contents. Rucya.2.15 .L.2. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. V¡tahara. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. palisade ratio 3. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix 1. Appendix 2.7. Pittavardhin¢.16 on lower surface.5 per cent.C. Appendix 4 per cent. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. Rf.L.2. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings.3. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. parenchymatous cells. Powder . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.Essential Oil. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. value 0.35. On cooling spray. T.

A¿mar¢. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. 173 . 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa. Hikk¡. Chardi.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¤miroga. Netraroga. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. KuÀ¶ha. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE .Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. áv¡sa.

consisting of xylem and phloem. enclosed in a cuticular bladder.6-3. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells.5-3 cm long. characteristic. three vascular bundles situated centrally. upper epidermis. Tulasi (Lf. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. (Fam. taste. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. aromatic. odour. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan.shows cordate outline. 174 b) Microscopic . K¤À¸atulas¢. measuring 22-27 µ dia. found throughout the country. petiole 1. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Lamiaceae). thin. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. petiolate. 1. covering trichomes multicellular. pubescent on both surfaces. entire or serrate. an erect.2 cm wide. obtuse or acute. balloon-shaped head.73. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. glandular trichomes short. elliptic-oblong. much branched annual herb. and 2-8 celled. Holy Basil Tulasi. LeafPetiole .. hairy.5-5 cm long.) 30-60 cm high. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. middle one larger than the other two.

04. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.33 (violet).75 (violet).Essential Oil (Carvacrol. 0. 2. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.2.98 (blue). 0.). 0. 2.45.93 (pink) & 0. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0.L. palisade and spongy parenchyma. 0.04. 0.30. vein islet number 31-33.93 (all0 yellow).2. 0..75. 2. 0. 0.45 (violet). (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.4. 0. Caryophyllene. Appendix per cent.2.03 (dark green).2.93 (both light green). 0. 0.08 (both green). 0.epidermis.Light-green.8. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. Appendix per cent. Nerol and Camphene etc. 175 . Powder . Under U.08.54.21. 0.12 (light green). anomocytic and diacytic stomata.6.L. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.98 (blue). 0.C.93 (violet) and 0. 2.12 (light violet). palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.85 & 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.7. palisade ratio 3. 0.33. 0.33.88 and 0.83 (blue).83 (all pink) 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.08 (violet).epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.C. 0. shows fragments of polygonal. Appendix per cent. 0.21.2. 0.33 (both green) 0.83.54 (blue). IDENTITY.V. Appendix 2.2. 0.45 (yellowish green). 0.12. Appendix per cent. 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.45.Midrib . Lamina .3. T.04.21 (brown).85 (blue). 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .

176 . Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Prati¿y¡ya. of the drug in powder form. Pittahara. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa.Aruci. Hikk¡. KuÀ¶ha. V¡tahara.2-3 g. Kaphahara. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . K¤miroga. áv¡sa. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES .M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. H¤dya. RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Tikta. K¡sa.

somewhat collenchymatous. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . and 0. triangular. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. short.5-1. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. Vacha (Rz. (Fam.5 cm thick. broadly. Ghodavaca Vasambu. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. pungent and bitter. enclosing large air spaces. Rhizome . cortex composed of spherical to oblong. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. odour. cells towards periphery. large. smaller. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. Ugr¡. Vekhandas -Varch. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes.Shows single layered epidermis. taste. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. Gora-bach Baje. Araceae). rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. buff coloured intemally.74.) semiaquatic herb. upper side marked with alternately arranged. Ghodvach Bach. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. fracture. thin-walled cells of various sizes. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. aromatic. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn.

2. Appendix per cent. Petroleum ether-No change ii.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.14 (violet) and 0. spherical. Chloroform-Light green iii.C. Powder .7. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. 178 . Starch and Tannin. Appendix per cent. 2. shows fibres.6.. starch grains simple. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.2. stele composed of round.Yellowish-cream b. Eugenol and Asarone). 2. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.Buff coloured. 2.2. Appendix per cent.2. 2.2.L. Appendix per cent.L. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. present in cortex and ground tissue.C.2.10 T.4. Powder as such: . 2. Appendix 2. Extracts in i.region. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. CONSTITUENTS .2. 0. Appendix per cent. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. reticulate. endodermis distinct.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent.

V¡tahara. Ëdhm¡na. Vibandha. Unm¡da.2 g. 179 .á£la. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Apasm¡ra. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kar¸a Sr¡va. DOSE . V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting.Vac¡di Taila. Tikta Laghu. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. S¡rasvata. K¤mihara. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Medhya. K¡sa. 1. áv¡sa. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Kaphahara. C£r¸a. Ka¸¶hya.

parenchymatous cells. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. roots are generally collected late in September. Vatsanabha (Rt. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. poisonous.75. 0. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. ovoid. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Mithalelia. plant is an erect. without or with a few intercellular spaces. papillose on outside. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. rarely 5 cm long. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Ranunculaceae). 2-4. Beesh. Teliya Bish Basanalli. dark brown to blackish-brown. taste. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. small portions of stem sometimes attached. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m.8 cm thick.5 cm. tapering downwards to a point. Vatsanabha. Mithatelia Vasanaavi.4 . Mahura. Naabhi Bachnak.) (Fam. perennial herb. conical. rough due to root scars. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated.1. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. Meethabisha. fracture. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. odour indistinct. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Nabhi. cartilaginous. occasionally separated due to breakage. Vatsanabhi. Sth¡varaviÀa. Basanaag Bisa. Vatsanabhi. suberised. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Bachhnaag. thin-walled. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas.

0.2. Trid°Àahara. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia.Light grey. CONSTITUENTS . and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. inner bark parenchymatous.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. 0. present in cortical cells. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. 2. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .4. occupying more than half the radius.74 and 0. Sv®dala. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. Viyav¡yi. 0. Laghu.10. T.2.7. xylem exarch.39 and 0.39. Appendix 2 per cent. RukÀa. 2.L. consisting of round to oval cells. often forming 'V' shaped ring. Powder . Anandabhairava Rasa. some scattered. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. Appendix 8 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf.20.3. UÀ¸a. 0. cambium having 6 10 angles. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.2. Appendix 2. a few aseptate fibres.6. containing a few groups of phloem strands. metaxylem vessels met in centre. 2. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.2.2.endodermis.5 per cent.L. Appendix 5.C. 2. Appendix 24 per cent.56.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.96 (both orange).Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.2. ÙikÀ¸a.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. S £tasekhara Rasa. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. shows vessels. 0. 0. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa.

15 . DOSE . Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.V¡taroga. Sannip¡ta. Jvar¡tis¡ra. V¡takaphajvara.30 mgs of the drug in powder form. 182 . Kanharoga.THERAPEUTIC USES .

Fabaceae). oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. cut surface creamish-brown. Eagio. Vidari (Tub. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. taste. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Bhumikusmanda. sweetish. but pliable. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. smooth except for protuberances at some places. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root .Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. outer surface reddish-brown. (Fam. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. stone cells moderately thick-walled. Nelagumbala.Rt.76. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. thinwalled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. Bhuikumra Vidari. Bhonykoru. starchy and somewhat porous. thin-walled cells. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Nelagumbula. Bhoikolu. Gumadi belli. Vid¡rik¡.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. usually does not break. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). angular to oval.6. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 4 per cent. lignified with narrow lumen. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.and pits. Svarya. Var¸ya. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta.3. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.5 . Manmath¡bhra Rasa. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. radially elongated cells.4. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. IDENTITY.7. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. Daurbalya. and also rarely in stone cells. 184 .5 per cent.75 µ in dia. áoÀa. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. Ras¡yana. Balya.2.Buff coloured. CONSTITUENTS .2. 2.75 µ in dia.2. measuring 5. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. highly thickened. having central hilum and striations. present in all parenchymatous cells.. Pittahara. phloem fibres much elongated. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.13.3-6 g. J¢van¢ya. Stanyada. 2. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. a few latex duct also present. Appendix 4. Angmarda. THERAPEUTIC USES . M£trala. fragments of cork. DOSE . Appendix 2. Appendix 24 per cent. V¡tahara. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content.Marma Gu¶ik¡. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.2.D¡ha.13. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening.Gluconic and Malic acids. Powder .5 . Appendix 17 per cent. Raktapitta. somewhat round. 2. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. distributed throughout this region.2.

sativum Pers. sweetish-acrid. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. (Fam. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. thick-walled. odour.) Poaceae).3 cm wide. about 1 cm long and 0. sclerenchymatous fibres. spongy parenchymatous cells. not distinct. Syn. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. Yava (Fr. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn.2-0. H. square or quadrilateral. pale-greenish-yellow. 50-100 cm high. elliptic. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. erect herb. polygortal inner epidermal cells. Jav Barley Cheno. cultivated chiefly in North India. round to oval wavy walled cells. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. followed by 2-3 layers. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. smooth. taste. seed coat appears as a colourless line. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them.77. followed by more or less. an annual. oblong.

5 per cent.22.2. Appendix 2. 0.65 & 0.31.2. Vitexin etc. Pittahara. round to oval.92 (yellow).) CONSTITUENTS . On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. 2.4. 0. 0.92 (all grey). Appendix 4 per cent. Appendix 2. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.C. Svarya. and the rest starch layers.narrow lumens.68. Sugars. Appendix 1. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. 0. 0. 2.22. 0. IDENTITY.68. simple starch grains. starch grains simple.31. Globulin. Fats.10. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.3.83 and 0. V¤Àya.5 per cent.31.53. Powder .6.2.5 per cent. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.16. sclerenchymatous fibres.5 2. 0. Orientin. Sthairyakara. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. Kaphahara. 0. Lekhana.Creamish-white. Var¸ya 186 . V¡tak¤t. Orientoside. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.V. 0. 2. Appendix 5.24. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.44. 0. 0.36.2. 2. 0. 0. Medahara.7 T.56.C.72 (all pink. 0. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. 0.2. endosperm divided into two zones. 0. 0. Pur¢Àak ¤t. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 0.2. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. Proteins (Albumin.83 (all violet) and 0.L.2. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 0.14.45.L. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. Appendix 4 per cent.Starch. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.06.10. M£trahara.

Prameha.áv¡sa. Tvagroga DOSE . K¡sa. of the drug. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Gandharvahasta Taila.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kanharoga. T¤À¸¡. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Sarsap¡di Pralepa.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. 187 . Medoroga. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana.200 g. El¡dya Modaka.100 . Dh¡nvantara Taila. P¢nasa. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Urustambha. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Y¡sa. 0. Punjab. sharp axillary spines upto 3. glabrous. Neladangara. Desv. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . secondary cortex almost 188 . gradually tapering. oblong. opposite.5-1 cm long. nearly 0.P. slightly rough at basal region with slender. branched. hard. Javasa.78. mucronate obtuse.2-1 cm thick. Yavasaka (W.Well developed. secondary and tertiary root absent. cork cambium single layered. 0. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. (Fam. ballidurabi. extipulate.Simple.Cylindrical.) Fabaceae). fracture.5-0. Leaf . short. stipules green. 20-30 cm long and 0. alternate. radially arranged cork cells.1-1 cm thick. elliptical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. drooping. glabrous. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). dark brown. a small thorny shrub. terete. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. striate. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated.8 cm long. no taste and odour. Stem .7 cm broad. filled with reddish-brown contents.

fibres parenchyma and xylem rays.appears biconvex in outline. parenchyma and fibres. filled with tannin.75 µ in diameter. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. phloem composed of sieve elements. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin.absent. vascular bundle collateral. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. thin-walled. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. covered externally with thick cuticle. 5. Lamina . 189 . pericycle present in form of fibre groups. xylem situated above phlome. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. tracheids and fibres. phloem composed of sieve elements. present throughout the region. tracheids. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. xylem fibres. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. tanniniferous cells. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. pitted vessels. parenchymatous cells.5. some cells filled with tannin. Stem . round and oval starch grains measuring 5. pith composed of a few thin-walled. tracheids. xylem consists of vessels. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. parenchymatous cells. xylem consists of vessels. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. angular.75 µ in dia.14. Midrib . cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. covered with cuticle. hypodermis 1-2 layered. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. starch grains simple. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. elongated. rounded to oval.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. filled with tannin. fibres. a few with thick wall and simple pits.Greenish-brown. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. hypodermis 2-3 layered.5-14. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. Powder . pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. simple.appears circular in outline. epidermis single layered. Leaf- Petiole . 3-45 cells long. tangentially elongated cells.

Appendix 10 per cent.4. Arimed¡di Taila.2. Appendix 2 per cent.6.20 . Visarpa DOSE . 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Invert Sugars). 2.2.IDENTITY. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form for decoction. D¢pana.2. CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara. Appendix 2.Sugars (Melizitose.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.2.2.50 g. T¤À¸¡. Tikta. 190 . Appendix 13. 2.2.Chardi. Jvara. K¡sa. 2. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent.5 per cent.7. V¡tarakta. THERAPEUTIC USES .3. Sucrose. Raktapitta. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 2.

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