THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

4.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.1.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.1.) Desv 177 1. 1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.2.1 Testing Drugs 2.5.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1.2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.1.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1.2-Sieves 1.1.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.2.2.Types of Stomata 2.2.1.1.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .2.2.2.1-Nessler Cylinder.2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.3.2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.1.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2-Thermometers 1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.2.2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.

1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.5-Limit Test for lead 2.1.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.2-Refractive Index 2.3 Limit Tests 2.3.2.2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.1.3.3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.Weights and Measures 5.3.3.3.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3.3.

the Dangerous Drugs Act. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). 1930 and the Poisons Act.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow.). In general. Part-I. II. II. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Vol. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol.I. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. accordingly. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with.P. II would be official. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. would be deemed to have been amended vii . Part-I. Vol.

Synonyms . Italics . English. If the odour persists to be discernible. Purity and Strength . The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water.GENERAL NOTICES Title . Identity. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. Mesh Number . When the term “drop” is used. distribution and method of collection.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India .Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml).Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. indicated in monograph. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. if any. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. Introductory Para . substances or processes described in Appendix. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. viii . scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Hindi.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Odour and Taste . This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg).The metric system of weights and measures is employed. it is described as having odour. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . Weights and Measures . which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC.

water. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. Purity and Strength. total ash. wherever given. water-soluble ash. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. fungi. pesticides. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. V. if of equivalent accuracy. is used.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. Part-I.Under this head. mould or other evidence of deterioration. and show no abnormal odour. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. The quantitative tests e. which he uses. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative.C. However. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . in 100 grammes of product.In defining standards. under Description.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1.) . according to circumstances. colour. Vol. Constant Weight . will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. the expression per cent (%). sliminess.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. statements appearing in the API.For statutory purpose. moisture content. arsenic and heavy metals. Constituents . groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. ether-soluble extractive. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. those of definition of the part and source plants. However.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. micro-organisms. alcohol-soluble extractive. even by applying known reference standards. with one of the four meanings given below. pests. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead.L.soluble extractive. Standards . Percentage of Solutions .g. acid-insoluble ash. and Identity. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. ix . and other animal matter including animal excreta. shall constitute standards. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend.

Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Percentage of alcohol . thermometric scale. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. fibres. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Solutions . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. at a stated temperature.000 parts More than 10. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.56 oC.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. all solutions are prepared with purified water. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given.000 parts x . The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. and dust particles. Solubility .When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. are intended to apply at that temperature. such as fragment of filter papers. Temperature .Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). Reagents and Solutions . Statements of solubilities. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs.

5 N. mm. TS. µ.I. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. IN. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. cm. 0. Part –I and Part-II.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. mg. Fam.P. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. unless otherwise stated. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. PS. ml. g.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. Kg.1 N. 0.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. 1M. l. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes.

Lf. Bk. Rt. Ori. Beng. Wd. Ht. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Mar.Sansk. xii . Tub. Tel. Wd. Fr. St. Tam. Eng. Kash. Sd. Bk. Pl. Rz. St. Assam. Kan. Guj. Mal. Wh. Rt. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Punj.

secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. shrivelled. taste. Akallakara. odour. Akarakarabha (Rt. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Akravu Akkalakara. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. slightly aromatic. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. 1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. 53. thin-walled.8 µ in width. cambium 2-5 layered. vessels pitted. cylindrical. Akarakara Akkaraka. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam. 7-15 cm in length. brown. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. not easily separable. Akalakarabha. an annual. Asteraceae). Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. elongated. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka.2 . bark upto 3 mm thick.231 µ in 1 . xylem fibres thick-walled. tapering slightly at both ends. external surface rough. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root .37-28. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem.1. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. characteristically astringent and pungent.

bi to tri and multiseriate. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. NaÀ¶¡rtava.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2 . Aj¢rna. Udararoga. 2.length having narrow lumen. running straight. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .4.2. Appendix 8 percent.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. Danta¿£la DOSE . 2.Prati¿y¡ya. Grdhras¢.2.Ash coloured. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. uniseriate rays very rare. of the drug in powder form. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. Kaphahara.5 -1 g. secondary phloem. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. secondary phloem and medullary rays. medullary rays numerous. Buddhivardhaka.7. 2. also gives positive tests for inulin.3. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Pittahara.Kum¡ry¡sava. áotha. Appendix 22 percent. secondary phloem and medullary rays. á£laroga. Appendix 2.6. radially elongated. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. K¡sa. áukrala. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. IDENTITY. Svedakara.0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. Appendix 10 percent. 2. D¢pana. Powder . áv¡sa. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2 percent. ray cells thick-walled.2.2. V¡jikara.

slightly curved. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. endosperm mostly single layered. creamish-brown. not distinct. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. Juglandaceae). a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. parenchymatous cells.Shows 1-2 layered. coriaceous. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. odour. irregularly corrugated. Sailabhava.Cream coloured. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal.2. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. Akshoda (Cotldn. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. Powder . (Fam. under this. collapsed. thin-walled. Cotyledon .) large deciduous. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. radially elongated. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. followed by more or less compressed. oily sweet. broken pieces. taste. thin-walled. 3 . parenchymatous cells.

Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.2.KÀata.2. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.7.25 g.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.0 percent. 2.2.5 percent. 2. Balya. V¤Àya.2. Kaphakara. Sara. Appendix Not more than 0.Walnut oil and Tannin. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. V¡taroga. 2. B¤´ha¸a.2.4. THERAPEUTIC USES . 4 . CONSTITUENTS . DOSE . ViÀ¶ambhi.3.0 percent. Appendix Not less than 7. 2. Appendix Not less than 10.2.IDENTITY. áukral. KÀaya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.10 .6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2.

radially arranged. parenchymatous. parenchymatous cells.5 m in girth. Amrata (St.3.Bk. S. Ambazham. Ranambo Ambada. Ambadam Amratakamu. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Jangli Aam Ambate. Amvara -Mampusli. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. Kurz. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. tangentially elongated. Anbalamu. Wild Mango Ambeda. a few outer cells exfoliated. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. consisting of tangentially elongated. acuminata Roxb. mangifera Willd. Ambado. f. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. upto 27 m high and 2. curved. Jangali Ambo. Ranamba. Amra Indian Hog Plum. Syn. grey having lenticels. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. deciduous tree. Stem Bark. a small aromatic. Anacardiaceae). Amra. thin-walled cells. non Gamble (Fam. thin. laminated. and 5 . Ambalam. fracture. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. internal surface reddish-yellow. S. Mampuiti.. external surface smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. with reddish-brown contents.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows.

Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. Under U. D¡ha DOSE . 2. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. lignified. 0.C. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.40 and 0. 2. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. thick-walled.2. KÀaya. Appendix 2.96 (blue).. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.C. Powder . ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.96. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. Rucik¤t. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.Light brown.KÀata. 6 . CONSTITUENTS . Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. 0.75-14 µ in dia. shows cork cells.2.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.7. 0. IDENTITY.2. of the drug in powder form for decoction.87 (all greyish brown). containing rosette crystals and starch grains.6. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. V¡tahara.V. 2. stone cells.33. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. T. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. Pittakara. 0. simple. 0.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.5-10 g.3. Ka¸¶hya.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands.33. Appendix Not more than 0. Not more than 1 per cent. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. 2.L. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.(greyish brown).5 per cent. Raktapitta.4.L.87 (blue) and 0. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.

dorsifixed. yellowish-brown. subsessile. yellowish-brown.9 m high herb. decussate. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Flower . membranous. perianth segments 5.0.) Amaranthaceae). solid. Kharamaµjar. odour. slightly ribbed. Leaf . numerous. sessile. gradually tapering.free. 0. 7 . greenish-white. branched.3-0.0. 0.3 . alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. obovate. the perianth lobes. Stem . hypogynous.0 cm in thickness. stamens 5. erect. rough due to presence of some root scars. hairy. a stiff. two celled. secondary and tertiary roots present. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs.P. erect. Apamarga (W. one spine lipped. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . filament short. cylindrical. contorted or quincuncial. not distinct. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. actinomorphic. (Fam.Simple. hollow when dry.4. bisexual. opposite.1-1. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. PratyakpuÀpa. opposite. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. bracteate with two bracteoles. anther.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes.Cylindrical tap root. exstipulate. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. wavy margin. May£raka.5 cm in cut pieces.

covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. elongated. demarcating the xylem rings. 2-5 celled. composed of parenchymatous cells. epidermis single layered. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. rectangular. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. brown. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. endospermic. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. style. oval to rectangular. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. either separate throughout or found in some cases. Fruit .Mature root shows 3-8 layered. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. b) Microscopic Root . xylem composed of usual elements. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. syncarpous. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. truncate at the apex. single. cortex 6-10 layered. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. Seed . on both surfaces. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. 3-4 celled stalk. perianth and bracteoles. thin layers of cambium. fibres being absent. spiral. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. followed 8 . parenchymatous cells. thin-walled.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges.gynoecium bicarpellary. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. ovary superior. thin-walled cork cells. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. LeafPetiole . Midrib . each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. vessels simple pitted.Sub-cylindric. scalariform and pitted. capitate. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. round at the base. stigma. vessels annular. tangentially elongated. Stem . cortical and pith cells. thin-walled cork cells.Shows crescent-shaped outline. two medullary bundles. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. lignified.Shows a single layered epidermis. unilocular with single ovule. fibres pitted. present in pith. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers.

V¡maka. stomatal index 4. Abhay¡ Lava¸a.á£la. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. 9 . Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. Gu·apippali. mm. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. Udara Roga. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. spiral. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. shows fragments of elongated. 2. Ar¿a.4.2.2. IDENTITY. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled epidermal cells. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Kaphahara. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface.5-9. Lamina . 2. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .2.3.0-20. aseptate fibres. slightly elongated in upper. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. 2. V¡tahara. Appendix 2. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Medohara. of the drug for decoction.2. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. rectangular.Shows single layered. Tikta Sara. non-lignified cells.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. P¡cana. Ka¸·u.2. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Chedana. vessels with annular. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .0 on lower surface. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 9. 2.Light yellow. scalariform and pitted thickening.20-50 g. Medoroga DOSE .2.7.0 on upper surface. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. Apac¢.0-11. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. palisade ratio 7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Powder .6.

colour. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. taste. 1-5 mm in thickness. fracture. thin-walled. vessels pitted with oblong. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. b) Microscopic Root . found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. bitter. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn.5. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. a few showing slit-like pits. lightbrown. Fabaceae). ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. polygonal. cylindrical. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. Aparajita (Rt. a few solitary fibres also present. very long. (Fam. medullary 10 . phloem fibres 2-8 in groups.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. fibrous. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels.

Pittahara. Medhya.2. 2. Buddhiprada. measuring 3-13 µ in dia.. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. Vra¸a DOSE . CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. 0. áotha.54 and 0. 2.2. 11 . Under U. ViÀahara. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components.V. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.rays 1-5 cells wide.4.3. IDENTITY. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.Yellowish-brown.C.1 .Mi¿raka Sneha. Resin. 0. shows simple and compound starch grains.79 (both yellow). Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form.2. Appendix per cent. Tikta. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.C. 2. Appendix per cent. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. T. found in secondary cortex.. Appendix per cent.L.7.á£la.2. oblong and pitted.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.79 (grey). 2. Starch.79 (blue). 0.L.Tannin. 0.79 (dull yellow) in visible light.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. phloem and xylem parenchyma. Kaphahara.3 g. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. Powder . M£traroga. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. KuÀ¶ha. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .

(Fam. colourless. odour.6. each having a depressed scar at its apex. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. 1. pungent Rhizome . lakottai. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. Adrak Injee. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal.Shows a few layered.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. radially arranged cells of inner cork. fracture. Ardraka (Rz.5 cm thick.5-6. irregularly arranged. isodiametric. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. taste. reaching up to 90 cm in height. Ale -Adi. buds and roots are removed and washed well. short with projecting fibres. tangentially elongated. thin-walled. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells.) Zingiberaceae). oblique branches on upper side. widely cultivated in India. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. pieces 5-15 cm long. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. gingery. Inji Allamu. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. Allam.

Appendix 8 per cent.63 & 0. 0. Appendix 5 per cent. collateral. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. CONSTITUENTS .47.35 (light violet). conjoint. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. 0.16.76 (violet) & 0. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. 2. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. Appendix 1 per cent. elongated pits on their walls.C.63. Under U. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. phloem. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.3.l6 (brownish violet). vessels 2-5 in number. 13 .47 (light violet).08 (violet).69 (grey).16 (blue). Appendix 2 per cent.63 (grey) & 0. Powder -Light yellow.2. 0. septate fibres with oblique. 0.92 (all yellow). oleo-resin cells abundent.69 (all light yellow). 0. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.4. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin.7 vessels.V. vessels showing reticulate. larger bundles consists of 2.76. IDENTITY.2.03. 0. composed of xylem. numerous closed. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. 0. 0. 0. small cells of sieve tube.C. 0. 0.35.2.L. 0.9 T. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.69 (light violet).16. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.2. filled with abundant starch grains. walls of oil cells suberised.5 per cent. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.2. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. 0.63 (light violet). fibrovascular bundles of two types. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. Appendix 90 per cent.69. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. Appendix 2.7. 0. 0. free from starch. 0.6.83 & 0. 0.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 0..2.dia.13. reticulate and spiral vessels. 0. endodermis single layered.2.08. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. 0.35. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.92 (violet). 2. 2.

Bhedana.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey.á£la. Rocana. Ën¡ha. 14 . H¤dya. V ¤Àaya. Svarya. RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Vibandha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. DOSE . Kaphahara.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. THERAPEUTIC USES . S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. áopha. Ka¸tharoga.

internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. hard. Sadabala -Haramibaval. (Fam.5-1 cm thick. fibres and crystal fibres. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. lignified. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. parenchyma. internally light brown to reddish-brown. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. characteristic of dry regions. thinwalled cortical cells. consisting of sieve elements. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. stone cells and phloem cells. Arimeda (St. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. Fabaceae). secondary phloem wide.7. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. fracture. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. phloem fibres thin-walled. Pilobaval. upto 3 m in height. incurved.Bk. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. Velvelam. fibrous. not distinct. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. all traversed by medullary rays. exfoliating in irregular scales. odour and taste. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. square to rectangular cells. rough. with tapering 15 .

Appendix 11 per cent.áopha. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.39 and a spot at Rf. Mukharoga. crystal fibres elongated. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Ka¸·u. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.91 (yellow).On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. T. 2. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . Visarpa. 2.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . sclereid. 2. Udardapra áamana DOSE .40 g for decoction. Meha. fibres. 0 to 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0.0.0 to 0. Powder . composed of thin-walled.4.2.78 and 0.91 (both blue).C. Appendix 2. shows groups of cork cells.L.39 and a spot at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 14 per cent. Meda¿oÀaka. IDENTITY. β -Amyrin. Atis¡ra.Reddish-brown. 2. P¡¸·u.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). radially elongated cells. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka.6.LC.2. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.e.2.2. KuÀ¶ha. Appendix 13 per cent. Dantaroga. Appendix 1 per cent.3-5 g in powder form. ViÀajavra¸a.2.3. 16 .n-Hexacosanol. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. β-Sitosterol and Tannin.ends. K¤mi.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. 0. K¡sa.7.

a large deciduous tree. Mattimora. Bilimatti. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. consisting of sieve tubes.& A. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. curved. taste. traversed by phloem rays. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Torematti Arjuna.8. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. bitter and astringent. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.5 cm thick. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. fracture. Mathichakke. Kellemasuthu. 0. Arjuna. companion cells. short in inner and laminated in outer part. Neermatti. (Fam. Vellamaruthi.2-1. in the middle and outer phloem region. flat. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. Arjuna (St. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. P¡rtha. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. recurved. channelled to half quilled.Bk. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country.) Combretaceae).

a few rhomboidal crystals. µ Powder . in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. elliptical. 4-12 cells high. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. compound of 2-3 components. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T¤À¡. alata). Appendix 20 per cent. IDENTITY. fibres.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . shows fragments of cork cells. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum.in dia. alternating with fibres. starch grains.. Pittahara..2.3-6 g. round to oval. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. Appendix 1 per cent.2. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. starch grains simple and compound.7. Vra¸an¡¿ana.6. Appendix 25 per cent. measuring 260-600 µ in dia.Reddish-brown. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 20 per cent.. DOSE . Arjuna Gh¤ta. round to oval. Vya´ga. Prameha.2.4. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. H¤dya. H¤droga.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara.Medoroga. Appendix 2. sometimes upto 5 components. 2.3. elliptic. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter.2. 2.2. 18 . 2. 2. KÀatakÀaya. Vra¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. mostly simple. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. uniseriate phloem rays.

Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. Scramkotati Nallajidi. (Fam. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. shining with residual receptacle. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. Fruit . drupaceous. Nallajidiginga Baladur. Bhallataka (Fr. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. 30-40 layers thick. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp.5-3 cm long. mesocarp and endocarp. dark brown. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. smooth. mesocarp a very broad zone. nut 2.9. obliquely ovoid. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp.) Anacardiaceae). Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. 19 .

KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Ar¿a. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.2 g. Powder .Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.2. IDENTITY. Graha¸¢. ether.F.2. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. KuÀ¶ha. V¡tahara. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance.Dark-brown. Gulma. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 2. P¡cana. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Krimi. Kaphahara. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Tikta. being highly thickened. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Note . Appendix 0. Ka¶u. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.6.3. innermost prismatic. Appendix 4 per cent.2. very much elongated radial walls.1. DOSE . Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Part-I 20 . Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES .endocarp consists of two distinct layers. chloroform. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. 2.5 per cent. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Ën¡ha. Appendix 11 per cent. Snigdha. 2.I. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.4. Bhedi.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid... 2.2.7.2. Chedi. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).

a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . lanceolate. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. Kesuriya. occasionally brownish. Karisalanganni. Bhringiraja. white. not toothed. erect or prostrate. Stem . ligule small. Leaf . (Fam. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. ray flowers ligulate. Bh¤´ga. often rooting at nodes. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces.) herbaceous annual. spreading. Kesari -Bhangaro. cylindrical. Asteraceae). sub-entire.. sub-acute or acute. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. involucral bracts about 8. Flower .Well developed. strigosely hirsute. sessile to subsessile. disc flowers 21 . Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk.2 .Opposite. Bhringaraja (W. Keshavardhana.2 . Bhangro Bhangara. Knnunni Bhangra. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. Karisalai Guntakalagara. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. scarcely as long as bracts.Herbaceous. M¡rkava. much branched. 30 . 1. node distinct. usually oblong. ovate.P. upto about 7 mm in dia. branched. Tekar¡ja. rough due to oppressed white hairs.3 cm wide. cylindrical or flat.Solitary or 2. greenish. Soppu.8. 2. herbaceous. greyish. occasionally rooting at nodes.10.2. Gurugada.50 cm high. together on unequal axillary peduncles.5 cm long. strigose with oppressed hairs. obtuse or acute.

found scattered throughout wood.1 cm wide. epidermis followed by wide cortex. pappus absent. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. run straight in tangential section. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. Midrib . uniseriate. ovary inferior. pitted. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays.2 . xylem ray distinct. hairy and non endospermic. in macerated preparation vessels small. one seeded. dark brown.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. phloem rays broader towards periphery. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. traversed by xylem rays. warty. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. corolla often 4 toothed.tubular. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse.Achenial cypsella. simple. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . b) Microscopic Root . 0. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. covered with striated cuticle. Fruit . epidermis followed by cortex. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. non-glandular. drum-shaped. tangentially elongated cells. externally covered with cuticle. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. xylem composed of vessels. covered with warty excrescences. consisting of rounded cells. filaments epipetalous. rarely slightly oblique. ray cells pitted. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. with a narrow wing. pistil bicarpellary. unilocular with one basal ovule. and with pointed apical cell. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. vessels numerous. fibre tracheids. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. Seed .25 cm long. fibre tracheids. 1-5 celled. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. trichomes of two types. with very pointed tips. brown. Leaf- Petiole . stamen 5. free.0. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. fibres and xylem parenchyma. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles.0. cuneate.

similarly transverse section cut at a basal. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. xylem fibres with wide lumen. externally covered with cuticle. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. wide at the base.5. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. secondary cortex composed of large.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis.shows a dorsi ventral structure. epidermis single layered.0 on lower surface. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. collateral. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. Lamina . in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. pointed tips and pitted walls. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells.5 on upper and 23.8 -4. trichomes entire or in pieces. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. externally covered with cuticle. vascular bundles in a ring.5 -26. Powder .collenehymatous cells on both sides. 23 . pitted with spiral thickening. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. pointed. peg-like outgrowth. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. about 3 celled. middle cells longest. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. endarch. arranged in tangential strands. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side.0-22. septa thick-walled. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. normally biseriate and uniseriate. the cork where formed. palisade ratio 3. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. uniseriate. pericyclic fibres distinct. hairs stiff. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. warty. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. while the section cut at apical region. stomatal index 20. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. some elongated with simple perforations. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. Stem . xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. more abundant on lower surfaces.Dark green. xylem consists of large number of vessels. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina.

Appendix 2. Yak¤droga.3. áv¡sa.2. Ras¡yana.IDENTITY. Tvacya. K¡sa. 2. Appendix per cent.2.7. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. CakÀusya. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. Tekar¡ja marica. Tikta RukÀa. H ¤droga. V¡tahara.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ke¿ya. ViÀahara. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. P¡¸·u. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.6. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. 2.2. CONSTITUENTS .Alkaloids. Appendix per cent. K¤miroga.3 . of the drug in powder form for decoction. áirah á£la.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila.36 g. Appendix per cent. Ëmahara. 2. DOSE .6 ml of the drug in juice form.2. 12 . Dantya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. 24 . 2.áotha. Ecliptine and Nicotine.4.

slightly bitter.B. sessile. Brahmi. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. obovate-oblong.Thin. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi.) Wettst. green or purplish green.. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. Stem . Scrophulariaceae). prostrate or creeping annual herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢.& K. ovoid and glabrous. nodes and internodes prominent.Simple. 25 . Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. Ondelaga.Thin. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . decussate.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. 1-2 cm long. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. Fruit .) H. Brahmi (W. green. small. (Fam. a glabrous. soft. found throughout India in wet and damp places. branched creamish-yellow. taste. pedicels 6-30 mm long. small. succulent. opposite. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. Syn. slightly bitter.P. glabrous. Leaf . about 1-2 mm thick. taste.11. Flower . Valabrahmi. axillary and solitary.Small. wiry.Capsules upto 5 mm long. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi.

7.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix per cent.Root .3. glandular hairs.6. Medhya. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.4. endodermis single layered. no distinct midrib present.0-14. 2. starch grains simple. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. 2. ËyuÀya. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. cortex having large air cavities.Yellowish-brown. and 8. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. pericycle not distinct. glandular hairs sessile. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Powder . Tikta.0 x 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Svarya. respectively.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent.2. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. round to oval. Stem . Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. round and oval starch grains. Matiprada.2. Appendix per cent. Praj¡sth¡pana. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. Appendix per cent.5-9. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces.Shows a single layer of epidermis. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre.2.2. endodermis single layered.0 µ in dia. vascular ring continuous. IDENTITY.2. Ras¡yana. ViÀahara. Appendix 2. 2. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter.2. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. 2.. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. b) Microscopic 26 . V¡tahara. simple.

Ratnagiri Rasa. P¡¸·u.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1-3 g in powder form. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . 27 . Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara. S¡rasvata C£r¸a.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Prameha. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. áopha.KuÀ¶ha. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.

no distinct odour and taste.5 cm in dia. fracture. Papparamulli. Putirichunda Dorli. parenchyma and stone cells.8 m high. tangentially elongated. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. Badikateri Kirugullia. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. cork cambium single layered. woody. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. Ubhibharingani. oval and tangentially elongated cells. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. upto 1. (Fam. Solanaceae). isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . 1-2. secondary cortex composed of 5 . b) Microscopic Root . long.12. Brihati (Rt. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Heggulla. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. much branched perennial under shrub. varying greatly in shape and size. ribbed. cylindrical. phloem parenchyma much abundant.. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. short and splintery. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. thin-walled.9 layers of thin-walled. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. Chichuriti.15 layers of thin-walled. pale yellowish-brown.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . a very prickly. traversed by phloem rays.

phloem and medullary rays. traversed by xylem rays.4. P¡cana. Powder . Jvara.6 µ in diameter. áv¡sa.2. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.3. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. shows groups of thin-walled..11. DOSE . rounded to oval starch grains. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. 2.6 µ in diameter. H¤droga. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. 2.2. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . measuring 5. 2.2.6.2. vessels with simple pits. Appendix 2. all elements being lignified. tracheids. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.á£la. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. H¤dya. 29 . parenchymatous cells. cells radially elongated and pitted.2.2. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.5 -11. IDENTITY. Agnim¡dya. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. xylem rays uni to biseriate. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. Kaphahara. V¡tahara. Appendix Not more than 6. aseptate fibres.5 .7. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug for decoction.10-20 g. measuring 5.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Cream coloured.5 per cent. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. fibres and xylem parenchyma. 2.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. thick-walled.

parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. P. Chavya -Kattumulaku.13. a glabrous. odour.. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. fracture. officinarum DC. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Piperaceae). greyish-brown. Syn.5-2. brownish cells. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. b) Microscopic Stem .0 cm in width. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. cork cambium not distinct. secondary cortex a wide zone. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. fibres and xylem parenchyma.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. endodermis single layered. plenty of simple starch granules present.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. oval to rectangular. taste. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . short. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. chaba Hunter non Blume. thin-walled. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. P. Chavya (St. cultivated mainly in Southern India. tracheid. acrid. peppery. nodes and internodes distinct. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. fleshy climber. consisting of round. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka.

7.2. Powder . Pl¢h¡ Roga.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu.2.Alkaloids. filled with simple. 31 . CONSTITUENTS .2. Recana. 2. starch grains. Appendix 10 per cent.Greyish-brown. Glycosides and Steroids. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Appendix 3 per cent. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. medullary rays multi seriate.2. 2. of the drug in powder form. IDENTITY. round to oval.5 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . P¡cana.2. 2.3. á£lal DOSE . Ën¡ha. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Appendix 2.1-2 g. Krimi. D¢pana.6. Gulma. fibres and simple. Udara Roga. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.pitted and reticulate thickenings. cells thin walled. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. shows fragments of vessels. round to oval starch grains.2. Appendix 1. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. RukÀa. Appendix 6 per cent. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. 2.4.Ar¿a.

Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai.Reddish-brown. shows stone cells. 0.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. consisting of oval to polygonal. Maadalai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. oval. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree.5-0. beneath this. Madalam Danimma Anar.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. sweetish-sour. starch grains present in testa. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. taste. parenchymatous cells. Seed . measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. triangular and rectangular. found growing wild in the warm valley. 0. wedge-shaped. 32 . thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen.6 cm long. endosperm absent.14.1-0. cotyledons coiled. angular. Powder . simple. Punicaceae).2 cm wide. round to oval. round. LohitapuÀpa. containing a few oil globules. thin walled. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. oil globules. Dadima (Sd. (Fam.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

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15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

smooth. quadrangular with four prominent furrows.5 cm long and 0. 1.9 m in high. fracture. about 2-3.16. Dronapushpi (W. upto 4 mm thick.2-1. more or less pubescent. ovate or ovate.6-0. white. fibrous. slightly bitter.Sessile. taste.7-2 cm 37 .5 cm wide.lanceolate. 3-9 cm long.P. glabrous in lower part. Stem . stout herb. 1-2. size variable.Yellowish-green. ciliate. hairy.35 cm wide.Cylindrical. 10 dentate with a villous throat. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. hairy on upper part. Inflorescence . Gumma. scaberulous. about 0. taste. fine rootlets. subacute. acute. taste. long with numerous wiry. crenate. globose.) Lamiaceae).3-0. slightly curved. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. erect. 1-2. calyx. an annual.25 cm long. serrate. white. pungent. Leaf .Light greenish-yellow. zig-zag. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. crowded in dense. 1.5 cm across. (Fam. tubular. lanceolate. nodes and internodes distinct. corolla. surface rough. thin. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . characteristic.

1 cm wide. bilipped. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. followed by round to oval parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root . upper lip about 4 mm long. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. vascular bundles 4.vascular bundle arc-shaped. consists of a single layered epidermis. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. Leaf- Petiole . consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. fibres and xylem parenchyma. tracheids. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. 3-4 layers towards upper surface.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. Seed . brown. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. round to angular collenchyma. xylem consists of vessels. Lamina . trigonous. consisting of barrel shaped. Midrib .7 layered. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. parenchymatous cells. vessels long with spurs.shows a single layered epidermis. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. lateral lobes small.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. dark brown. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. smooth. tangentially elongated.Schizocarpic carcerule.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface.tangentially elongated. palisade single layered. present in centre. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. some having simple pits. nutlets 3 mm smooth. cortex consisting of single layered. thin-walled 38 . thin-walled cells. parenchymatous cells.3 cm long and 0. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. upto 8 cells high. parenchymatous cells. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. 4 . secondary xylem consists of vessels.long. Fruit . wooly. composed of oval to rectangular. thin-walled. Stem . tracheids. endoderm is single layered. thin-walled cells. irregular.0. oblong. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one.

Dull yellow. IDENTITY. pitted and spiral vessels. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent.2.Alkaloid. Agnim¡ndya.2. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. 16. Glycoside. Pittakara. K¡sa. Appendix 2.6-40. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.2.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form.áotha. K¡mal¡.6. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Tamaka áv¡sa. 2. aseptate fibres.5 on lower surface. Lava¸a.3. 2. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. RukÀa.cells. 2. present on both surfaces. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. a few veins present in this region. CONSTITUENTS . Bhedani.2. palisade ratio 7-9.7. V¡takara. ViÀamajvara DOSE . β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.2. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. stomatal index 16. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7 on upper surface. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. Powder .6-30. Ka¶u Guru. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.2. 39 .1-3 g of the drug in powder form.4. 2. stomata diacytic.

an annual creeping herb. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. shows stone cells. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. thin-walled. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. 0. Hastipani. rounded and tangentially elongated. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. creamish-yellow. parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. utilissimus Roxb. Cucurbitaceae). Ervaru (Sd. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells.17. Hastipani. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. taste. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. more or less ellipsoid. cultivated in many parts of the country. mesophyll cells thinwalled. parenchymatous. cotyledons two. straight. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. glossy. sweetish oily. (Fam. 40 . surface smooth.4 cm wide. C. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. -Kakur. Vellarika Kakadi.3-0.7-10 cm long. Karka¶¢. covered with thick cuticle. B¤hatphala. radially elongated to squarish.

C.0. Appendix 5 per cent.64.35.3. T. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.83.4.26. Appendix 2. Kaphakara. 0.7.V.58.51.IDENTITY. T¤À¸¡.Oil & Sugars. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.0.2. 0. 2.19.2. A¿mar¢. Rucya. 2.D¡ha.C. 0.L.51. (366 mm). 0. of seeds.6. 2.64.77. 0.2.77. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.19.97 (all grey). 0. Raktapitta. 0.35. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡takara. 0. 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.5 per cent. Tikta Guru. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. 0.58. Gulma.97 (all yellow) .91 and 0.26.83. D¢pana. Appendix 10 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.0.91 (blue) under U. Appendix 0. 41 . Pittahara.2.3-6 g.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . RaktadoÀakara. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . 0.91 and 0. 0. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.2. Jvara.L.

brownish-grey.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. greyish-brown with a dent. cut surface has a central core. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.18.4-0. a large epiphytic climber. rough and scaly.0-3. 0. odour and taste not distinct. Orissa.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2.Kidney-shaped. (Fam. b) Microscopic Fruit .6 cm long. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.0-3.3-0. odour and taste not disticnt. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. smooth. 0. thin-walled. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . Seed .4 cm wide. 42 .Shows more or less loosely arranged. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal.0 cm in diameter and 2. Araceae). shiny.5 cm thick. Gajapippali (Fr.

Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent.Dark brown. 0. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. V¡tahara. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.C.C. in extract (Phant) form. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.Glucosides viz. Powder . Pras¡ri¸i Taila. 43 .27.5 per cent. 2-4 layered. Sugars & Fixed Oil.L.2. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B.65.6. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. non-lignified.93 (all blue) are visible. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. DOSE . Candraprabh¡ va¶i. 0. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. Stanya.65 and 0.Shows a single layered. Three spots appear at Rf. Appendix T.2. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. oval to polygonal. oval to polygonal.3. 0. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. K¤miroga.73 and 0. 0.73 and 0.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. 0. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. Ka¸ha Roga. thick-walled.73 (both light brown) and 0. Agnivardhaka.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. IDENTITY.27. thin-walled. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. T. oval to polygonal. 2. 0.V.Seed . 2. Ka¸¶hya.2.65. 2.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. Punarnav¡sava. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. pitted and with concentric striations. 0.L. 2.2.93 (all yellow).93 (brown). 2. áv¡sa.7.2-3 g. thick-walled.65.Atis¡ra. 0. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. shows lignified.20. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. Malavi¿oÀana.áiv¡gutik¡. CONSTITUENTS . numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.2.

black. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. Seed . light yellow. 0. parenchymatous cells. radially 44 .5-1 cm long. sometimes one seeded.4-0. papery. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. Seed . hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. multilayered. Gambhari (Fr.6 cm wide. taste. oily. ovoid. crinkled. two seeded. thin-walled. tangentially elongated. surface smooth. thin-walled cells. Shivani. fleshy mesocarp. Hannu -Kumbil. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. 1. Verbenaceae). seed coat thin. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Fruit .Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. K¡¿marya.19. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. 0. (Fam. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. taste. sweetish sour.Seed ovate. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari.A drupe.0 cm long.5-2. P¢takarohi¸¢. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. Sr¢par¸¢. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh.) unarmed tree. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . cotyledons consisting of single layered.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp.

0.08. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.98 (orange). 2.4.42. T¤À¸¡.2. Ras¡yana.C. Resin and Saccharine.2.2. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru.Blackish-brown. Rakta Pitta DOSE .D¡ha. 2.26. H¤dya.2. Powder . filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. V¡tahara. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Under U. 0. 0.6. Appendix 8 per cent.2.22.03. 0.Arvind¡sava.4 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .98 (all yellow). KÀaya.98 (yellow) in visible light. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.12. H¤droga. Amla.52. 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.2. 0. 2. Appendix 0. Ke¿ya.V. Appendix 25 per cent. Appendix 2. Sara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 6 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. 0. T. Alkaloid. 0. 0. 0.L.elongated epidermal cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.C.3.1-3 g. shows stone cells. IDENTITY. 0. Medhya.03.18. oil globules and aleurone grains. Pittahara.94 and 0.L. 2.93 and 0. 0.Butyric acid. CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. KÀata. 45 . M£trak¤cchra.98 (all blue).. Tartaric acid. of the drug in powder form.7. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

radially arranged cells. a few stone cells.20. fracture. traversed by wide phloem rays. Syn. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. 46 . fibrous. (Fam. arranged in radial groups. fibrous. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. oval.5-5 cm long. consisting of 12-20 layered. Gangeru (St.6-1. a shrub 0. Tiliaceae). blunt tips and moderately long in size.Bk. secondary cortex wide. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. 1.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. thin-walled. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate..0 m high. taste. channelled. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . moderately large in size. light yellow.) Aschers & Schwf. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. consisting of tangentially elongated. Grewia populifolia Vahl. rectangular. elliptical. external surface smooth. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. mucilaginous.Shows a wide cork. thick-walled.

17 (light violet).88 (light violet).68 (light violet) & 0.55.2.L.48.88 (all yellow). Ka¶u. 2. 0. Two spots are seen at Rf.35 (dark blue).61.3.2-3 g. of the drug in powder form. 0. 0.4. 0.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. 0.Powder .2.Light yellow and fibrous.35. Amla.08. α-amyrin. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.C.35 (both light yellow) in visible light.2. T.2.2. 0. 0. 0. β-amyrin etc.08 (violet). (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.Vra¸a. 47 . 0.L.08 (blue) 0. Appendix per cent.J¢rak¡di Modaka.35 (violet).29 (blue).68 & 0. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix 2.27 (light violet).27.6. Tikta. 2. 0. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.7.48 (violet). 0. 0.17. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. 0. 0. 0. Pittavik¡ra. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. 0.). 0.17. Under U. CONSTITUENTS . 2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. DOSE .13 (blue). 0. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles.55 (blue) & 0.V. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10).41. 0.Sugar.64 (blue).

bark thin. most often irregularly curved. taste. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. Kundumani Guriginga. Chanothee. light brown.21. feebly sweetish. exfoliating in small flakes. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. (Fam. soft. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. Kakananti Rati Kunch. smaller than stone cells. when distinct. flowering in August-September. a climber. slightly corky. cork cambium. tangentially elongated cells. gulagunja -Kunni. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. cylindrical. Gunja (Rt. composed of 1-2 cells wide. odourless. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. pitted walls. becoming mildly bitter. some with brownish content. present at short intervals. simple or branched. spreading throughout the plains. fruits ripen during winter.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. Gurivinda Ghongchi. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. b) Microscopic Root . Ghungchi Guluganji. Chonotee Ratti. thinwalled. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 .

2. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5.1 .2. 2. Tikta á¢ta. vessels of varying sizes with thick.5 -13. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. Appendix 2. small groups of sclerenchyma.75 µ in diameter.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral.5 per cent. of the drug in powder form.3 g.diverging towards periphery. numerous xylem fibres. IDENTITY. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. Appendix 4 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. parenchyma thin-walled.2.Greyish-brown.2. Mukha¿oÀa.75 µ in diameter. wood composed of narrow concentric. 2.Indralupta. stone cells. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. Powder . Appendix 9 per cent. 2. Pittahara. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. 2. pitted walls. shows fragments of cork. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. THERAPEUTIC USES . in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. DOSE . Appendix 2. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.6.7. xylem vessels with pitted walls. CONSTITUENTS . áula.2. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. thin-walled and rectangular.5-13.2. Appendix 10 per cent. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.3.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. 49 .4.

closed type of vascular bundles.) shrub.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. lignified. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. solid. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. 50 . Ikshu (St. taste. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. Serdi Ikha. with. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. juicy and sweet. more numerous and closer towards periphery. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. b) Microscopic Stem . (Fam. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow.22. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. odour. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. characteristic. conjoint. Poaceae). scattered throughout the ground tissue. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. cylindrical. besides the xylem and phloem elements. smooth. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. distinct node and internode.

Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.Bal¡ Taila. IDENTITY. 2.2. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. Balya.Raktapitta. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¤Àya. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. ground tissue. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. 2.2.6. shows pieces of epidermis.400 ml in the juice form.Powder .2. Appendix 2.7.5 per cent. V¡tahara.2. Kaphahara. 51 .3. M£tra KÀaya. Sara. DOSE .2.Sucrose. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. vessels and sclerenchyma.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not more than 2. 2.Powder light brick red. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara.200 .4.

) Cucurbitaceae). (Fam. pitted. Gav¡kÀ¢. composed of sieve elements. slightly twisted. short. b) Microscopic Root . an annual or perennial. Valiya Pekkumatti. consisting of vessels. parenchyma and medullary rays. thick walled. fracture. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Indravarana Gothakakucti. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. Indramanoa.5 µ in dia. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. Tumbi Paikamatti. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. a few filled with dark brown contents. cylindrical. thin walled. áatakratulat¡. taste.23.5-7. tangentially elongated. Indrayanalata. Varithummati. elongated with pointed ends. tangentially elongated cork cells. fibres aseptate.5 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. fibres. Havumakke. dull yellow. xylem forms bulk of root. Indravaruni (Rt.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Bitter apple Indravaran. parenchyma and medullary rays. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. intensively bitter. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. thick-walled. occurring throughout the country.2-2. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. longitudinal fissures present. Paythumatti. Indrayan. Indravaruni. mostly simple or rarely 52 . Tuntikai. lying around vessels. parenchymatous cells. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. 0.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

57 . Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. Jambu (Sd. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. (Fam. coriaceous covering. Eugenia jambolana Lam. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed.) Skeels Syn. Seed . found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Myrtaceae).25. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. astringent. thin-walled.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. cuminii Druce. oval. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. smooth. rounded starch grains. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. b) Microscopic Powder .Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. 1 cm long. a few schizogenous cavities are also found.. brownish-black. a large evergreen tree. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. 1 cm wide. E. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam.. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. mesophyll composed of isodiametric.6 m with a bole up to 15 m.Brown coloured.800 m. oval or roundish. taste.

95 (all yellow). 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.30 (blue). light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Guru. three spots appear at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES .3-6 g.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.20.3. of the drug in powder form. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid.L. 2.2.L. DOSE . 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. 0.95 and 0.7.Glycoside (Jamboline). Appendix per cent. T. 2. Amla. Appendix per cent.6.IDENTITY.30 and 0. Tannin. 2.20. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. 58 . 0. CONSTITUENTS .2.2. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.2. Udakameha. 2.C.95 (all violet). 0.C.4.V. ViÀ¶ambhi.Madhumeha. 0.30 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U.2.12. Appendix 2.

attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. and reddish brown.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Myrtaceae).800 m. 0. (Fam. E. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. cork cambium not distinct. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Jambu (St. forming a rhytidoma. lower cork thin and colourless. internal surface fibrous. Jam Jammu Naaval. and phloem rays.Bk. stone cells. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. Navval Sambu. light grey to ash coloured.5 cm thick. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. cuminii Druce. astringent. taste.26. fibres aseptate. Jambuda Jomuna. fracture. Neralamara -Njaval. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 .) Skeels Syn. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. Mahamaram.. oval to angular. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Jamneralae. upper few layers thick. younger bark mostly channelled. short and splintery. Jambu. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. stratified and reddish-brown. rough. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape.5-2. Raja Jambu Merale. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. a large evergreen tree. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Jamu. elongated.

Light brown. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. IDENTITY.3. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . stone cells. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.2. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . reddish-brown content.4. 60 . shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. Appendix 2. Raktapitta. single or in groups.2. V¡tala. THERAPEUTIC USES . elongated. Appendix per cent. round to oval starch grains. 2.region. round to oval starch grains.2. 2.2.U¿¢r¡sava. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. DOSE . Appendix per cent.Atis¡ra. oval to angular.7. 2. Stambhaka. aseptate fibres. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder .10-20 g.2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix per cent.2. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.6. Kaphahara.

about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Jayapala (Sd. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. Japal beej. found throughout tropical India. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. ovate. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. no marked odour. Tinti·¢phala. oblong. Euphorbiaceae). terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. consisting of an epidermal layer.) small evergreen tree. 5-7 m high. kernel yellowish and oily. consisting of a large endosperm. Japala. dull cinnamon-brown. slightly quadrangular. thin-walled cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. Neervalam Jepal. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. (Fam. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. filled with brownish content. Neervalam.Shows a hard testa. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. 61 . Nervala -Nervalam. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. slightly bent at middle. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. b) Microscopic Seed . Japal -Japolota Nervalam.27. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous.

endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.10. Vibandha DOSE . central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Appendix 15 per cent.V.6-12 mg.39.84 (all violet). (366 nm) three spots at Rf. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. 0.49.Jvara. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L. IDENTITY.54 and 0.C.3. T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.White with black particles of testa.L. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. 0. of the drug in powder form. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 0. Powder .63 and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.4. Pittahara.84 (brown). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.34 (grey). 2.2. 0.C. 2. 0.2. Appendix 7 per cent.2.2.2. 62 . On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.5 per cent. Udararoga.90 (all yellow).29. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Appendix 3 per cent.54 (yellow). Resins & Phorbol esters. 0. Appendix 2.7. 2.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.2. 0. CONSTITUENTS .6.34.Fixed oil. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 0. 0.

a quick growing. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. Jayanti Jaita. 7. Lamina . oblong. aegyptiaca Pers. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. 63 . glabrous. (Fam. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. polygonal. 0.0-3. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. paripinnate.7 layered round.Syn. Jayanti (Lf. parenchymatous cells. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. S.5 cm long.5-15. present on both surfaces. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. very shortly stalked. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells.28. mucronate to acuminate. á£kÀma patra. pith small. palisade single layered. opposite. Fabaceae). Atti.3-0. having secretory cavities in phloem. Arishimajingai..8 cm wide. 1. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. short lived shrub. Karijimangai. jayata Arinintajinamgi. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. entire.3 cm long. -Semp. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn.) Merr. 1. stomata anisocytic. consisting of thin-walled. linear. Jalugu.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.8-6 m high.shows single layered epidermis. Jay¡. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. leaflets 6-16 pairs. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis .

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Protein. 0. 2.05.2.69. 0. 0.19.56 (all pink) and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.V.C.29. 0.7. ViÀaroga.2.19. shows spongy parenchyma. Pittahara. 0.56.11. 0.L.29. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0. 0. IDENTITY. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 2. DOSE . 0.Ratnagiri Rasa.2. 0.2.97 (all grey). Appendix 2.19. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.6.3-6 g. Appendix per cent.29.2. palisade cells.05. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa.2. Powder .97 (all yellow).97 (yellow).37. 0. in powder form.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. Galaga¸·a.C.M£trak¤cchra. Ras¡yana.48. CONSTITUENTS . T.91 and 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.Dull green. V¡tahara. 0. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. 2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .4.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.25-4.56. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.L. palisade ratio 3. 0. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.48. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.37. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 64 .05.3.11. Appendix per cent. Calcium and Phosphorus. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.11.91 and 0.

light to dark brown. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic .5-3. seed without aril also prescent. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.29. unpleasant. (Fam. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. a large climbing shrub. Celastraceae). Gangunge beeja. surface generally smooth and. colour. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari.35 mm in breadth. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. bitter. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. Seed .Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. collapsed.hard. brownish-orange. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. ripe seeds. Gangunge humpu.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. Jyotishmati (Sd. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. odour. taste. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents.

V¡tahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2.35. Appendix 45 per cent. 2.20. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. Tikta Sara.6.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.2. 2. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. 0. Oil and Tannins. 0.89 (all yellow). Powder . 0.2. Appendix 20 per cent. 0.L.2.4. Kaphahara.V.82.Oily.V.35.82 & 0.82.2. UÀ¸a. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. dark brown. 2.54 (both blue). 0. V¡maka.15. 0.C. Virecaka.C.8 IDENTITY. 2.82 (pink) & 0.54. stone cells. 0.89 (both greenish blue).composed of polygonal.5 per cent. 0. Appendix 1. Meddhya 66 .3.89.04. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Alkaloids. 0. (all blue) & 0.54. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. thin-walled. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. áirovirecanopaga. D¢pana.2. Appendix 9 per cent. Under U. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.7. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.L. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.94 (yellow) in visible light.94 (yellow). light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. 0.63. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. 0.2.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V¡tavy¡dh¢. 67 .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Seed: 1-2 g. Sm¤tidaurbalya. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . Oil : 5-15 drops. ávitra.

Kadam Kadam. Kadambu Needam. rectangular cells. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Vellai Kadambam. Kadamba mara. A. Kadavala. indicus A. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Kadamba (St. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. some cells contain chlorophyll. a deciduous. Rubiaceae). inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. Indulam. Priyka Roghu. 68 b) Microscopic .) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa.Bk. Syn.30. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. large tree. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Vellaikhadambu. Kadamba Kadamba. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadamba Nipo. traversed by uni to triseriate. bitter. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few cells with brown contents. (Fam. taste. Kadappai. elongated cells of phloem rays. phloem composed of sieve tubes. composed of thin-walled. Rich.

64.2.2.2.4. fibres. 0.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. YonidoÀa. Lava¸a. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. Vra¸a.03.70 (orange yellow). Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. 0.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.D¡ha. of the drug in powder form. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.2. T. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tahara. 2. DOSE .0.Alkaloids. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. 0. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).5 g.5 .31.7. Appendix 5 per cent. 69 .21. Raktapitta. cells distinct and slightly elongated. 2.83 and 0. phloem cells.2.C. 0. Appendix 1. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Appendix 2.57. L C.1. 0. Appendix 3 per cent.5:10) shows under U. 0.5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Graha¸¢mihira Taila.3. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. Appendix 9 per cent. 0.phloem fibres.Brown. 2. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.13.6. Powder . 0.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.L.79.63 (yellowish grey). companion cells and phloem parenchyma. 0.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸aropa¸a. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.79 (grey) and 0. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. 2. Steroids.90 (grey). shows fragments of cork cells.

Simple. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. 70 . obtuse notched at apex. white or pale violet.2-2. oblong. Leaf . Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. peduncles 6-20 mm long.5 mm long.5 cm long and 2. Manatakkali. ovary globose. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region.25 mm long. road sides and gardens. ovate or oblong. Pikachia. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. five lobed. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. Manitakkali.) Solanaceae). corolla 4-8 mm long.5-8. pedicels 6-10 mm long. sub-umbellate. flattened. green. 2. slightly woody and branched. (Fam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . style cylindric. Stem . slender. sinuate. Ganikesopu. externally smooth. found throughout the country in dry parts. glabrous or pubescent.5 cm wide. 30-45 cm high.P. toothed or lobed. very slender. yellowish. glabrous. pale brown. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida.Erect. oblong. calyx 2-3 mm long. Manaththakkali. ganike. filaments short. extra-axillary. 1. hairy in lower part. a herbaceous annual weed. thin. 3-8 flowered cymes.31. glabrous. Kakamachi (W.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. anther 1. quite common in cultivated lands. narrowed at both ends. hairy at base. Ganikegida. Flower . Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali.Small. petiolate. bark thin. obtuse.

10 layered in angular parts. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. 1. bicollateral. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. radially elongated cells.' oval parenchymatous cells. polygonal cells. obtuse. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. arcshaped. parenchyma 4-6 layered. minutely pitted. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. covered with striated cuticle. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. epidermis single layered. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. central vascular bundle shallow. Stem . usually accompanied by fibres.. 6mm in dia. measuring 2. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. internal phloem. but 4. conjoint and open. uniseriate. smooth shining Seed . thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. pith large. smooth. compactly arranged. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. trichomes similar to those found on petiole.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. composed of thin-walled. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. covered with thick. covered with striated cuticle. cambium 2-4 layered. arc71 . oval to round starch grains. yellow or black. yellow. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. uniseriate. rays composed of thin-walled. covering trichomes. embedded in perimedullary zones.Fruit .5-11 µ in dia.5-8. in small or large patches. filled with starch grains. phloem consists of thin-walled. xylem rays homogenous. measuring 2. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. single or with two or rarely 3 components. uniseriate. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres..25 µ in dia.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces.. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.A berry.. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. slightly striated cuticle. vascular bundles-collateral. LeafPetiole . a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces.Shows single layered. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. trichomes multicellular. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Midrib . slightly elongated. phloem rays uniseriate. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. starch grains. cortex of large. endoderrnis single layered. tangentially elongated.Discoid.5 mm in dia.

L. papery epicarp. 2.V.2.97 (all yellow). T.06 & 0. single. measuring 2.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. Powder .6.3. Appendix per cent. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.Alkaloids and Saponins. palisade single layered. 0. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.2.34 (both brown) in visible light. 0.Creamish-green.L.dorsiventral. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.C. 72 . unicellular hairs. present beneath palisade parenchyma. Fruit .06. Appendix per cent. 2. IDENTITY. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. both upper and lower epidermis single layered.34 (both pink). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.2. 0.06 & 0. Lamina .Shows thin.4. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. palisade ratio 2-4. 2. Appendix per cent.11 µ in diameter.2. 034 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation.2. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. epidermis with irregular outline. stomata anisocytic.2. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. Appendix per cent.7. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis.5 . light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. a few broken pieces of pointed. Under U. vein islet number 7-10. 2.C.

of the drug in juice form. DOSE . H¤droga. 73 . Ar¿a. Tikta Laghu. H¤dya. THERAPEUTIC USES . Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. KuÀ¶ha. Hikk¡. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Jvara. Ka¸·u. Ras¡yana. Chardi. Svarya. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Pittahara. V¡tahara.áotha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sara.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Netraroga. Prameha.5 -10 ml.

gynoceium apocarpous. crimp led. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Tavare.5-3 cm wide. membranous. Thamaraipoo. a large. Nymphaeaceae). Pamposh Tamarai. comprising of calyx. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. Syn. finely veined. crimpled. black. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Kanwal Kamal. Sitopala. corolla. Padma. broken pieces also occur. free. starchy and large. dark brown. Naidile. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. androecium. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. aquatic herb with creeping stem. embedded in a creamy. Kamalam. seed hard. Aravinda. 74 . Venthamara. carpels many. Chenthamara. 2-4 cm long. gynoecium and thalamus.4-2 cm long.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Aravindan. obtuse. Kamal. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. Sarojam Kaluva. 1. anther. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe.3-2 cm wide. elliptic. (Fam. Paduman. Kalh¡ra. Kamala (Fl. extended into clavate appendages.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. linear 1.32. petals numerous. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. 1.. sepals leaf-like. yellowish-brown. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Tavaregedd -Tamara. erect. 3-5 cm long.

Appendix 2. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.2. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .12 -24 g. 2. Appendix per cent. Sant¡pahara. followed by ground tissue of oval. rectangular. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. of the drug for decoction. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. spherical. 2.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.2. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.4. . present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. spore sac contains yellow. vascular bundle single. Stamen Filament . 2. columnar.shows four chambered anther. having smooth exine and intine. composed of thin-walled. Appendix per cent.2. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. Anther .2. angular. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. Appendix per cent. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. Tikta.filament appears circular in outline.6. parenchymatous cell. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.Raktapitta. two on either sides. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.Alkaloid (Nelumbine).b) Microscopic Flower Petal . M£tra Virajan¢ya. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. ViÀavik¡ra. Pittahara.Dusty brown. DOSE .3. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . Powder .Aravind¡sava. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells. yellow pollen grains.2. Visarpa.2.7. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. IDENTITY. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.

straight. Powder . Siwalik range and forests. 76 . axillary thorns. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Pulp. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . semicircular. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. hard.Reddish-brown. rough. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. sour. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. a deciduous. found throughout the plains of India. elephantum Correa (Faro.shows irregular. Rutaceae). slightly triangular and oval. reddish brown. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. glabrous tree with strong. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. found in groups. Bilvara. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. F. stone cells. aromatic.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. odour.33. Belada hannu. Haminamara -Vilar maram. stone cells. Kapittha (Fr. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. often cultivated in many parts of India. Balada.) Swingle. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. Belalu. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. sharp. thin-walled. Kavataleal. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. taste. parenchymatous cells. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Syn.

0.91 and 0. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. T. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya. 0.L. Lekhana.12. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. of the drug in powder form. 0. Gr¡h¢.12 (brown). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. Appendix per cent.95 (violet) .95 (all yellow). 0.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. Amla.2.91 (blue) and 0.V. 0. 0. 0. 0.C. V¡mi. Sangr¡h¢.50. 6. Ripe-T¤À¡. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.50 (violet). Vra¸an¡¿aka.37 (brown).7.2.1-3 g.6. 0. 2.95 (blue). V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.91 (grey) in visible light. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. Agnim¡ndya. Pittav¡tahara.4. DOSE .IDENTITY.L. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.14 (sky blue). 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent.3.2. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.2. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. 77 . Hikk¡.Citric acid and Mucilage. Under U. Unripe Pulp: Amla.2. 0.37.06. Appendix 2.91 (violet) and 0. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.áv¡sa.C. CONSTITUENTS .

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. internal surface grey and smooth. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. starch grains simple. light in weight. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. sometimes cultivated. met throughout India in wild state. Karamarda (St. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled.Bk. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. fracture. and compound having 2-3 components. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells.34. tubular. b) Microscopic Powder .Greyish-brown. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. short. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. flat or slightly curved pieces. simple and compound starch grains.) Apocynaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. 78 . shows single and groups of stone cells. rough due to longitudinal striations. external surface brownish-grey. (Fam .

0. 0.C.3.2. CONSTITUENTS .52 (light sky blue). of the drug for decoction. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. 0.6. 2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V.97 (violet). 79 .2. Appendix per cent.2.Marma Gu¶¢k¡.4. 2.2.L.90 (pink) and 0. Appendix per cent. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .35.48 g. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.58 (both light grey). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.KuÀthahara.IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.L. DOSE . 2. 2.7. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. Appendix 2.C. T.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. Appendix per cent. Pittakara. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.2. 0.

Fabaceae). tangentially elongated cells. Syn. most of phloem 80 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. very bitter. due to peeling off. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. external surface rough. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. secondary phloem very wide. thin-walled. taste. tangentially elongated.) glabra Vent. Bk.35. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja.. (Fam. traversed by phloem rays. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. a glabrous tree. P. internally. Naktam¡la. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite.) Merr.. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. single cells of varying shape and size. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Nakt¡hv¡. Karanja (Rt. 3-11 µ in dia. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. cells. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. fracture. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. fibrous.

consisting of thin-walled.51.09.98 (all yellow). 2. Appendix 17 per cent. 0.L. 0.25 (sky blue).18. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.04 (blue).4.47 (greenish yellow). IDENTITY. 0.3. 0.47. 0.C. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.V. Appendix 3.42 (sky blue). phloem fibres. Yoniroga. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.37. 0.L. T. Ka¸·u.37 (greenish yellow).08 (greenish blue).2. 2. Ka¸·£ghna. 0.47. 0. 0. 0. cork cells.Flavones Kanugin. Prameha. 0. 0.5 per cent. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex.18 (blue) 0. Appendix 11 per cent.51 (light blue). Tikta.2.13 (Sky blue). parenchymatous cells. 0.31 (sky blue).7. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. ViÀaghma. phloem rays many. shows thin-walled. Appendix 2 per cent. V¡tahara. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 2. similar to those present in secondary cortex.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.1-3 g. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter.80 and 0.2. 0.2. Powder -Creamish-yellow. 2. 1-2 seriate.80 (light blue). most of ray cells contain starch grain. 0. Appendix 2.K¤miroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara. DOSE . DuÀ¶avra¸a.C.2. CONSTITUENTS .6. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. of the drug for decoction. mostly straight.31. KuÀtha. 81 . Ëntravidradhi.

Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. secondary phloem a very wide zone.36. bitter. (Fam. 3-11 µ in dia. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. a glabrous tree. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Nakt¡hv¡. tangentially elongated cells. thin-walled. rough due to the presence of numerous. Syn. consisting of 82 . most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. Karanja (Rt. cells. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. fracture. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga.) Vent.) Merr. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. taste. reddish-brown or dull brown. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Fabaceae). bark. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. 1-2 seriate. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. P. Karaµjaka. light in weight. irregularly distributed. internally light yellow. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated. rounded to oval in shape.. bark does not easily separate from xylem. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels.

6. Kaphahara. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. tangentially elongated towards outer region. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ëntravidradh¢. Appendix per cent. Yoniroga. Vidradh¢.2.2. Appendix 2. 2.2. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely.. V¡tahara. Ka¸·£. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. CONSTITUENTS .2. Demethoxy-kanugin. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. more. 83 .Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.Methylfisetin. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. Prameha. IDENTITY. ViÀaghna.1-2 g. thin-waned cells towards inner region.4. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. DOSE . starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Powder -Light yellow.Karanjin. fibres and parenchyma. K¤miroga. shows fibres in singles or groups. Appendix per cent. rounded to oval in shape. Appendix per cent. Tikta. tracheids. Kanugin. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.radially elongated.2. Vra¸a¿odhana. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. 2. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. of the drug in powder form.2.7. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. consisting of 2-3 components. starch grains.DuÀ¶avra¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. KuÀ¶ha.3.

. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells.2-1 cm thick. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. short and fibrous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled.37. Karaµjaka. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. P. filled with reddish-brown content. thin-walled. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. odour. taste. more or less smooth. alternating with stone cells. thick-walled cells. lenticellate pieces. 84 . upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. at some places lenticels also appear. phloem fibre and stone cells. parenchymatous cells. phloem parenchyma. usually 0.Bk. fracture.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. Karanja (St. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. arranged in a tangential manner.) Merr. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Syn. bitter. Nakt¡hv¡. slightly quilled. fibre small. recurved. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Karanja. traversed by medullary rays. a glabrous tree. Fabaceae). unpleasant. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. (Fam. b) Microscopic Bark . composed of rectangular. tangentially elongated. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells.) glabra Vent.

5Methoxyfurano (2". 3" 7 : 8).B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pinnatin.1-2 g.6. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. simple and compound starch grains. Appendix 13 per cent. starch grains simple. 2.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Pittahara.4. Kaphahara. Gamatin. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Prameha. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . phloem parenchyma and rays cells. Appendix 1.. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. present in secondary cortex. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. measuring 3-14 µ in dia.5 per cent. rounded to oval. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. 2.polygonal. THERAPEUTIC USES . thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2. 2.2. 2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 18 per cent. Ëntravidradh¢. Yoniroga DOSE . V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". KuÀ¶ha. Pongapin. Kanugin. 85 . CONSTITUENTS . Demethoxy- kanugin.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. and rarely. Vidradh¢. 3". elongated. K¤miroga. Ka¶u. ViÀaghma. Powder -Yellowish-cream. IDENTITY. oil globules.2. Appendix 2. medullary rays wavy. Tikta. Ka¸·u.2. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. usually 2-4 cells wide. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. Appendix 3 per cent. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. thin-walled and aseptate.2.7. aseptate fibre and stone cells. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin.2.

Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. Ungu.9-8. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. dark green. (Fam. covered with cuticle. Dithouri Honge. Karanja (Lf. arcshaped.8 cm. Kanajo Karuaini.. Unu. Pongana Ganuga.2 . consistig of tabular cells. Karanja. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule .) Vent.5-0. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. a glabrous tree. vascular bundle single. P. Hulagilu -Pungu. leaflets 2-3 pairs.38. traversed by xylem rays. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. consisting of xylem and phloem. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Nakt¡hv¡.circular in outline. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. cortex consisting of angular. 86 . petiolule short.3 cm wide. isodiametric. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces.5 cm long and 3. Syn. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. epidermis single layered. Fabaceae).11. 0. 6. Karaµjaka. xylem vessels arranged radially. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Merr.

. Ka¶u.6. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.2. 5" . CONSTITUENTS .(4". Pittavardhaka. consisting of tabular cells. Appendix 16 per cent. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. 5". mesophyll cells.5 per cent.4. Appendix 2.6.2. shows spiral xylem vessels. palisade two layered. Powder -Green. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. Appendix 11 per cent. collateral. Ka¸·ughna.2. present in lower surface. 2. V¡tahara. Appendix 10 per cent.5-50.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4".5-20.6. 2. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. Tikta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. covered with thick cuticle. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". 7) -flavone. Kaphahara.6. stomata anisocytic. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.A new Furanoflavone -3' .2. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . stomatal index 12. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. 2.7. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. cortex consists of round to oval. K¤imihara. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.3.shows single layered epidermis. palisade ratio 3.2. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. phloem and pith. Appendix 3.2. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.Mid rib . 2.5) .5". vascular bundle.

J¡ty¡di Taila. 88 .For external use only.K¤miroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. Vra¸a. DOSE . Ka¸·au. THERAPEUTIC USES .

light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds.2. surface rough. usually pointed or beaked. oblong.2.2.4. Appendix 0.) Cucurbitaceae). a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. (Fam.7. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles.25 cm long. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. 2. 3 valved at the apex when mature.2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella.5 .6. IDENTITY. Appendix 28 per cent.Fr. extremely bitter. 2.39. K¡ravall¢.3. Kathilla. pendulous. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . Kakiral. taste. Karavallaka (Fresh. fusiform. 2.2. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.5 per cent. Appendix 2. Appendix 6 per cent. Nil Appendix 8.2. upto an altitude of 1500 m. Varivall¢. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. 2.6 per cent.

juice of fresh drug. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. T. 0. Aruci. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .96 (sky blue). 0.10 . V¡tahara. KuÀ¶ha. P¡¸·u.81 and 0. 0. 0. 0.L.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides.L.98 (all yellow). D¢pana. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.46. 0.17.43.16. 0. DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.50.34. K¡sa.áv¡sa. 0.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. 90 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.15 ml. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. Prameha. 0.61 (light sky blue). CONSTITUENTS . 0. K¤miroga. K¡mal¡. Kaphahara.V.60.03. H¤dya.98 (all blue).C.98 (red & sky blue). 0.67 and 0. 0. 0. Raktavik¡ra. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.C. 0. Jvara.75.23 (red).T.

bitter. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. Katuka (Rz. Katki. inner surface black with whitish xylem. Tiktarohi¸¢. Rohi¸¢.05-0. 0. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . subcylindrical. Root . primary cortex persists 91 .Thin. cortex single layered or absent.2. fracture. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. Sutiktaka. b) Microscopic Rhizome . taste. taste. dusty grey. Kauka. fracture. cylindrical. Katuku rohini. . mostly attached with rhizomes. cork cambium 1-2 layered.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Kaurohi¸¢. bitter. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini.40.1 cm in diameter. a perennial. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. Scrophulariaceae). odour. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. 5-10 cm long. straight or slightly curved. (Fam. pleasant. odour. kaur Katuka rohini. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Katuka rohini Kutki. short. suberised cells. externally greyish-brown. short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. Kav¢. pleasant.

measuring 25-104 µ in dia.2. 0. tracheids long.17.104 µ in diameter. 0. tracheids. hypodermis single layered.C.7. 0.41. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. lignified. 2.21. parenchyma and fibres.2. 0.35 (green). T. parenchyma.21.4.2. 0. cambium 2-4 layered. 0.72 and 0.L. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex.V.41 and 0. 0. thick-walled. Powder . vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. abundantly found in all cells..in some cases.84 (all yellow).C. 0. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. Appendix per cent.Dusty grey. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. simple round to oval.05. secondary phloem poorly developed. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation.3.10. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. 2. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.05 (blue). cortex 8-14 layered.6. tapering ends. 0. 0. thick-walled. 92 . On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 1-2 layers of cork cambium.84 (all brownish grey). shows groups of fragments of cork cells. IDENTITY.30 (blue) and 0. simple round to oval. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. Appendix per cent. measuring 25 . vessels have varying shape and size. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. thick-walled. thick-walled cells of endodermis. thick-walled. 0. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs.30. 2. tracheids.2.2. 0. starch grains. 0. fibres aseptate. 0.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. some cylindrical with taillike. Appendix per cent. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. secondary xylem consists of vessels.30.62. starch grains. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U.17. parenchymatous cells. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. 0.10. consisting of oval to polygonal. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. 2. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork.37.

Glucoside (Picrorhizin). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. ViÀamajvara. of the drug in powder form.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. KuÀ¶ha. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . D¢pan¢. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. D¡ha.3 g. Arocaka.1 . Jvara. 93 . Pittahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .CONSTITUENTS .áv¡sa. K¡mal¡. Bhedin¢. DOSE .

Kolavankal ---. Flower .5-1 cm wide. calyx 4-partite. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. whitish to brown. Vayalculli Talikhana. all linear-lanceolate. didynamous.2 cm long. widely 2 lipped.Mostly adventitious. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node.6-2 cm long. stout. stamens 4. annual herb.6 cm long. Kolarind. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Kokilaksha (W. second pair 94 . Nirchulli. Leaf . no characteristic odour and taste. abruptly swollen at top. acute. subsessile. Syn. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. common in water logged places throughout the country. swollen at nodes. upper sepal 1.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. corolla 3. which are 1.Acanthaceae). 1-7 cm long. Stem .41. bracts about 2. entire and hairy. IkÀuraka. Nirguvireru. tube 1. sub-quadrangular. Kalsunda --Golmidi.5 cm long. broader than the other three. with long white hairs. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. a spiny. lanceolate. 0.Usually unbranched.Greenish-brown. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. Culli.P. Hygrophila spinosa T. Kettu.Anders (Fam. fasciculate. externally greyish-brown.3 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste.Yellowish-brown.

thin-walled cells. glabrous. phloem narrow. radially arranged. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. a few thick-walled. fibres thick-walled. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. ray cells thin-walled. xylem present in a ring. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. 4seeded. consisting of round to polygonal cells. thin-walled.Ovate. broader towards centre. Seed . 95 .0. filament quite glabrous. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. arranged in radial rows. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. style filiform.1 .25 cm long and 0. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. moderately thick-walled. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. radially elongated in xylem region. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. inner cells smaller. pointed.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. phloem fibres thick-walled.larger. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. polygonal cells. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. round.Two celled. vessels angular. having small intercellular spaces. pubescent.8 cm long. linear-oblong. brownish cells. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong.2-0. ray cells thin walled. light brown. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. stigma simple. scattered throughout the phloem region. with a number of large air cavities. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. peripheral ones larger. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. capsule about 0. compressed. variable in size. involute with a fissure on upper side. arranged radially. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. vessels with spiral thickenings. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small.15 cm wide. endodermis single layered. 0. hairy but appearing smooth. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. pith large. single or in groups of 2-3. composed of transversely elongate. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. oblong. b) Microscopic Root . transversely elongated in secondary phloem. truncate at the base. Fruit . subequal. rectangular to cubical. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. fibre walls uniformly thickened. radially elongated in secondary xylem. flat or compressed. Stem . composed of polygonal.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. anthers two celled. cortical cells thin-walled. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts.

collenchyma 2-5 layered.25-15. IDENTITY. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. .Shows concavo-convex outline. sclerenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. parenchymatous cells.78. M£trala. parenchymatous. palisade. stomatal index 17. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells.2.Light brown. Appendix per cent. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. 2. elongated fibres. palisade 1-2 layered. Lamina . stomata diacytic.6. 2. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. Appendix per cent. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . composed of thin-walled. Seed . vein islet number 17-42. covered with thick cuticle. Appendix per cent. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. Powder . oval to hexagonal.3.24-30. V¡jikara. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. V¤Àya. Amla. Rucya. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. lignified.LeafMidrib . Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .75. 2. Appendix per cent.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. unicellular hairs and globules. shows aseptate. tangentially elongated cells.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered.2. Appendix 2. thin-walled. Fruit . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. thick-walled. 2. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface.7.4.2.2. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. palisade ratio 6.2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Tikta Picchila.

P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). THERAPEUTIC USES .T¤À¸¡. of the drug in powder form.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ëmav¡ta áotha. 97 . DOSE . V¡tarakta.3 -6 g.

secondary phloem narrow. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. 98 . epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. Syn. Kokilaksha (Rt. IkÀuraka. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Fam. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. common in water logged places throughout the country. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. whitish to brownish. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. annual herb. the size of these cells. Kolavulike. thinwalled cells. branches on nodes. Nerugobbi. stout. a spiny. Root-Appears circular in outline. Culli --. slightly transversely elongated. no characteristic odour and taste.42. polygonal cells. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Kokil¡kÀ¢. consisting of small. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. thin-walled. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size.Acanthaceae).

shows fragments of pitted. scattered throughout the phloem region. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. A¿ma¤¢. of the drug for decoction. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. Tikta Picchila. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. having spiral thickening. 2.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. Powder . THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. M£trala. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. broader towards centre.6. lignified fibres. fibre walls uniformly thickened. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region.3 -6 g. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. each group composed of 2-6 cells. secondary xylem forms continuous ring.2.2.4. Appendix per cent. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Amla. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Light brown to ash coloured. 99 . vessels with spiral thickening. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. Appendix 2. angular. 2. Pittatis¡ra DOSE .7. V¡tarakta.2. 2.Ëmav¡ta áotha. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. radially elongated in the xylem region.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. ray cells thin-walled.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3.

tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.Greyish-brown. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. light yellowish-brown. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. a spiny. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. flat or compressed. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. white. parenchymatous cells.43. Acanthaceae). taste.8 -10. truncate at the base. Swelling Index . Maradarishina -Maramannal. Powder .) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. shows hairs and oil globules. common in water logged places throughout the country. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Hygrophila spinosa T. the 100 . Anders. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. Daruhuladur Darhald. (Fam. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. oil globules present in this region. Syn. stout. thinwalled. b) Microscopic Seed . Maradarishana. hairy but appearing smooth. annual herb. Kokilaksha (Sd. IkÀuraka.

Appendix 2.C. DOSE . including any sticky mucilage. 0. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.03. 0. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.52 (dark brown) and 0.2. IDENTITY. of the drug in powder form. 2.31 (dark brown). CONSTITUENTS .C. 0.2.An yellow semi-drying oil. enzymes like Diastase.03 (light brown).38 (light brown). Kaphahara. 0.93 (sky blue). 0.L. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.. 0.2.76 (sky blue) and 0. related to 1 g of seeds.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. 0.3.V.2. Santarpa¸a. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. 0.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. Add 25 ml of water.52 and 0. Appendix per cent.3 -6 g. 0.38. 2. 0. V¤Àya. 0.17 (light brown). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.31. Protease and an Alkaloid. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. Pitt¡¿mar¢.41 (light blue). Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.24 (red). Appendix per cent. 101 . Lipase. V¡tarakta. Appendix per cent.72 (dark brown).24 (dark brown). 0. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.2.72 (all yellow).6. 2. 0. 0.17. 0.L. 0. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. T.áotha.4. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.10 (light brown).2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .55 (light blue).24.

Ghola -Lonak. Kuzuppa (W. subtended by an involucre. odour.3 to 2. less in number. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. petals obovate. short. Loni -Koricchira. Moti Luni Khursa. sepal 0.6 cm wide. Pulikkirai. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡.An ovoid capsule. Peddapavila Kura. Loni. Chhotalunia. Loni. Kozhuppu Pappukura. brownish-grey. spathulate. style 5-6 fid.1 to 0. Doddagoni Soppu. fracture.3 cm long. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Gho¶ik¡. stamens 8-12. Paruppukkeerai. short.Almost cylindrical.4 cm long. oblong. Leaf . 0. surface smooth. secondary roots. 3-4 leaves. (Fam. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. smooth and greenish-brown. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. 50 cm long.4 cm long. very delicate and soon falling off. 0.35-0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . oblique.5 cm long and 0.2 cm in diameter. Baranunia Garden Purslane.A few. Kozhuppa. 0. Badanuni. branched.1 to 0. -Baraloniya. small. 102 . characteristic. Fruit . Stem . swollen at the nodes. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. found throughout the country.5 cm long. 0. bright yellow. Kulfa. root hairs abundant in upper region. Payilikura. cuneiform.Simple. an annual succulent. Flower . Kozuppa. dehiscing above the base.44. Khurfa. at terminal heads. Badi Lona Dudagorai. rounded and truncate at the apex.25-0. sub-sessile. prostrate herb. Kwfa Pasalai.P) Portulacaceae).Cylindrical. fracture. ribbed. Lonika.

. Appendix 2. covered externally with a thick cuticle.3. pericycle fibre present in patches.2. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. Stem . having intercellular spaces. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.07 cm across. LeafMidrib . pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. having 2-3 components. 2. tracheids and parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening.2. Appendix per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. oval cells. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. reniform. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. b) Microscopic Root . oval. solitary or in groups of 2-5.2.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. phloem and xylem parenchyma.2. dark brown. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. fragments of cork cells. tracheids. vessels. measuring 6-14 µ . Appendix per cent. having simple pits and spiral thickening. minute. arranged in radial rows. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells.06-0. secondary xylem consists of vessels. simple as well as compound. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. thin-walled.Wavy in outline. 2. pitted and spiral vessels. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. Powder .shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. Lamina . palisade single layered.2. thick-walled with wide lumen.7. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. tracheids and parenchyma. 2.4. stomata paracytic type. shows groups of oval to polygonal.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. as well as compound. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. present in mesophyll cells. secondary xylem composed of vessels. Appendix per cent.. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. phloem. ray cells and pith. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. 0. black. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces.Seed -Numerous.Greyish-brown. 2. parenchymatous cells. parenchyma abundant.2. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia.6.

0.C. 0. Pittakara.Marma Gu¶ik¡. 0.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . 0. (both green).68. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .. 0. 0.Protein.76 and 0.10.50. Prameha.61. Vra¸a DOSE . Under U. Ar¿a.41. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.L.41.76 (all pinkish red).08. CakÀuÀya. RukÀa. 0.68 and 0. of the drug in powder form.T. 0. 104 . 0.L.Agnim¡ndya.3 .V. Carbohydrates. T. V¡tahara. 0.6 g. 0.10. áotha. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. 0.10.52.C. 0.08. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 0. 0.52 (both faint green). On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Gulma.68 (yellow) and 0.76 (green) in visible light.

Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. 0. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. distinct. slightly astringent. linear lanceolate. petiolate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. 105 . sensitive to touch. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. Machikegida. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . (Fam. Lajauni Muttidasenui. leaflets 10-20 pairs.P) diffused undershrub. stipulate. greyish brown to brown. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. acute. Leaf .3-0.2 cm long.Cylindrical. hairy pinnae. cut surface of pieces pale yellow.45. Var¡kr¡nt¡. yellowish-green. obliquely rounded at base. Stem . taste. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi.week bristles longitudinally grooved. woody. bark fibrous. with secondary and tertiary branches. Adamalati Lajaka. bark fibrous.5 cm in dia. Lajjalu (W. odour. fracture hard. nearly glabrous. upto 2. 0. varying in length. Fabaceae). external surface light brown. alternate. tapering. Lajavanti. sparsely prickly. 25-50 cm high. upto 2 cm thick.6-1. rependant . easily separable from wood.Cylindrical. sessile. Lajamani Chhuimui. internal cut surface grey. covered with long.4 cm broad.

fibres of two types. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. in globose head.3 cm long. starch grains. Stem . b) Microscopic Root . 2-3 seriate more common.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. thick-walled. 0. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components.Compressed. dry. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. secondary cortex wide. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. fibres. scattered throughout secondary xylem. 1-1. 2.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. scattered throughout. thick-walled. straw coloured. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. crystal fibres thick-walled. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. ovate oblong. 0. thick-walled. ovary sessile. radially elongated. spreading bristle at sutures. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. 3-25 chambered. arranged in tangential bands. phloem fibres single or in groups. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Flower . moderately thick-walled. simple. lobes 4. respectively. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. stamens 4. Seed . shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. a number of lignified. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. fibres single or in groups. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. phloem rays thick-walled.3 long. xylem rays radially elongated. much exserted. oval-elliptic. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays.6 cm long. glabrous. 0. tangentially elongated to oval. pith consisting of polygonal. rarely multiseriate.4-0. filled with reddish-brown contents. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. corolla pink. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. peduncles prickly. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. calyx very small. ovules numerous. brown to grey.Lomentum. Fruit . parenchymatous cells. parenchyma. crystal fibres elongated. consisting of large.Pink. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. tangentially elongated cells. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. 106 . 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings.

lignified cells followed by single layered. 2. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Midrib .shows epidermis on both surfaces. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells.shows single layered epidermis.Leaf- Petiole .Reddish-brown. parenchymatous cells Seed . Appendix per cent. pericycle same as in petiole.3.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. parenchymatous cells.62. shows. Appendix 2.4. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. reticulate. pericycle arranged in a ring. shaggy hairs. palisade single layered. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells.69 (all blue) and 0. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. pitted vessels. one in each wing.7.C. T. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. branched. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. vascular bundle single.35. with 2 .81 (bluish-pink). shaggy hairs. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .L. 0. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. endocarp of thick-walled.Shows single layered radially elongated cells.2.C. Fruit .V.2. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. 2. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells.L.2. 2. palisade cells non glandular.3 components IDENTITY. spongy parenchyma. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. 0. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. branched. single and compound starch grains. 2. thin-walled. Powder . crystal fibres. covered with thin-cuticle.6. spongy parenchyma single layered. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. fibres.2. Appendix per cent. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. measuring 6-25 µ in dia.2.2. Lamina . Appendix per cent.

Atis¡ra. 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. CONSTITUENTS . PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.áopha.spots appear at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a.35 (orange). D¡ha. Ku¶aj¡valeha. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 108 . Yoniroga.35 and 0.10-20 g of the drug for decoction.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. Kaphahara. KuÀ¶ha. áv¡sa.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. Raktapita DOSE . 0.

a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India.Gmel. Madhuka. epipetalous and arranged in two series. corolla fleshy. Ilippa. Hippenara. basifixed. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua.46.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. epipetalous. b) Microscopic Corolla .) Macbride. Iluppa. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Kattu Iluppai. short. latifolia (Roxb. anther sub-sessile. and also cultivated. Sapotaceae) . Hippe. ovate lanceolate. Ippa. reddish-brown. Halippe. (Fam. sweet. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26).5-2 cm long. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. followed by thin-walled. tabular.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Mahawash tree Mahudo. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. Madhuka (Fl. lanceolate. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. erect 0. Syn. Eppimara -Irippa. Mahua Katiluppai. a few 109 .F. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). Androecium . M. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. Bassia latifolia Roxb.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers.

2. T¤À¸¡. Powder .15 g. Balya. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. unicellular hairs.3. D¡ha. 2. 2. Appendix 0.2.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . pollen grains single or in groups. KÀaya. árama DOSE . endothecium composed of radially elongated. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. 2.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.5 per cent.unicellular hairs present on one side. round. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . KÀata.Dark brown. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.áv¡sa.2.4. 2. IDENTITY.2. V¡tahara. Appendix 10 per cent. Pittakara. of the drug. Appendix 2.2.2.6. oval shaped. Appendix 70 per cent. lignified cells. Appendix 5 per cent.7.2. tapetum not distinct. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. shows fragments of epidermal cells. spherical. Appendix 25 per cent.Madh£k¡sava.10 . 110 . Ah¤dya. áramahara. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. El¡di Modaka.

Br.Cylindrical. Leaf . no characteristic odour and taste. nodes and internodes distinct. linear-oblong. internodes 0. non Link. Stem . Gandal¢. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡.. bracteoles 111 . obtuse or subacute.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. (Fam. Br. A. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. or elliptic. denticulata R.5 cm wide. weak. sessile. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. no characteristic odour and taste.. white often tinged with pink. A. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. no characteristic odour and taste. 2. triandra Lam. yellowish-brown to light-brown.3-2 cm wide. Flower .6 cm diameter..Herbaceous. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. cream to grey.5-5 cm long. 0. short. fracture. fracture. A. Matsy¡duni.. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Matshyakshi (W. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Bahli.P. short..) R. often rooting at lower nodes.5 cm long. Syn. Amaranthaceae).3-7. Br.47. nodiflora R.1-0. repens Gmel. with spreading branches from the base.1. A. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. 0.

5-3 mm long.dorsiventral. round to oval. secondary cortex narrow. numerous.Utricle. compressed. acute. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. compressed with thickened margins. vascualr bundles radially arranged. single layered. covered wtith striated cuticle. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. 112 . a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. composed of thin-walled. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. thin. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. capitellate. xylem tissues lignified. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. pith distinct. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root . open and exarch. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. no characteristic odour and taste. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. sepals ovate. vascular bundles three. thin-walled. isodiametic cells. palisade 2-3 layers. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. thin-walled round or oval. Fruit . Lamina . pith consisting of thin-walled. with anomalous secondary growth. 1. present in the centre.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. parenchymatous cells. ovary obcordate. with are conjoint. isodiametric. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. irregular. Leaf- Midrib . perianth 2. Stem . palisade ratio 3-5. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. collenchymatous cells. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. stomata paracytic. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. consistig of thin-walled. consisting of thin-walled cells. radially arranged cork cells.2 cm long. parenchymatous cells.1. orbicular. scarious. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays.5 mm long. shows wavy or undulate. no characteristic odour and taste. style very short. ovate. bicollateral. each consisting of xylem and phloem. round or oval.

33. Appendix 10 per cent. IDENTITY.94 and 0. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view.81. 0.44 (all green). 0. 0.KuÀ¶ha.54 and 0.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. V¡tahara. 0. 0.33 and 0. 0.3. 2.L.25.2. Appendix 19 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. CONSTITUENTS . (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.6. 0. 0. Under U. Appendix 2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.2.35.Olive green. Appendix 4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.18. 113 .2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.44.. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . of the drug in powder form.68 (all red). Tikta.7.44. 0. Pittavik¡ra. Kaphahara. Appendix 3 per cent.16.2. 2.Powder . T. 0.C.96 (all yellow). 0.V.C.Sugar.L.16.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.2 -3 g. paracytic stomata.4. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent.59. 2. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. 0.

48. cultivated throughout the country. odour. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. bitter.15-0.Seed shows a layer of thick. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. very hard. covered externally with thick cuticle. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. mucilaginous cells. b) Microscopic Seed . columnar palisade. pleasant. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. Fabaceae). (Fam.5 cm long. 0. several layers of thin walled. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side.35 cm broad. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. Methi (Sd. 114 . taste. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings.) aromatic. varying in size. 30-60 cm tall. annual herb. dull yellow. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. 0.walled. smooth. parenchymatous cells. cells flat at base.2-0.

Appendix 5 per cent.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa.Yellow. Sapogenins and Mucilage.4. Appendix 4 per cent. aleurone grains. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. Rucya. 2. IDENTITY.6.2.3-6 g. Aruci DOSE . Kaphahara. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. oil globules. Prameha. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. Powder . CONSTITUENTS . 2. Jvara.2. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.5 per cent. Appendix 0. 2. 115 .2.Alkaloid. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.Mustak¡riÀ¶a.2.3.Graha¸¢.2.

yellowish-green. upper most leaves simple. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . Mulaka (W. 0. complete 1-2 cm long. sub-marginate at the apex.49. lyrate. taste. pedicel with scattered hairs.1-1.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. odour. cylindrical. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. oblong. petals 1. slightly pungent.5-10 cm long. coarsely toothed. bisexual. (Fam.) Brassicaceae). bright green.. variable size and thickness.Root cylindrical. regular. sub-linear but narrowed at the base.Lower leaves hairy. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. having a few longitudinal striations. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. an annual or biennial bristly herb. sometimes brown red. Muli. Flower . hollow.0 cm in dia. blade obovate. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally.2 cm long.Slender.P. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. Stem .3 cm long.7-2. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. petiole 5-5.Flower in long terminal raceme. seplas 6. Leaf . not distinct. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . compressed.

epidermis followed by 6. parenchymatous cells. cylindrical.4 cm thick. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. 10-12 ovuled. green or brown-purple.dorsiventral. Leaf- Petiole . vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. present only on upper side. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. thin-walled. Lamina . continuous or more or less constricted. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. hairs unicellular. present in cortex and phloem. taste. present in cortex. 117 . anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. one central and two lateral. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. 2-4 mm long. b) Microscopic Root . longitudinally sulcatus. Fruit . vascular bundle three in number.Siliqua. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. oily. phloem. 3-9 cm long and 0.purple vein. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. covered with thick cuticle. round to oval.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. Stem . palisade 2-3 layers. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. 2 mm wide. round to oval.1.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. two outer smaller and four inner longer. medullary rays four to many cells wide. elliptical. epidermis single layered. style about 4 mm long. 1-2 chambered. single layered. cork cells. radially arranged.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. pith a wide zone of polygonal. ovary superior. starch grains simple. traversed by phloem rays. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. parenchymatous cells. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. thin-walled. greenish-yellow. occasionally pale purple.Reddish-brown. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. solitary or ingroups. Midrib . sometimes flattened. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. endodermis at some places.8. traversed by xylem rays.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.appears biconvex in outline. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. erect.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. stamen 6 in two whorls. Seed . parenchymatous cells. irregularly globose.

40 ml.Yellowish-green.2. Kaphahara. parenchymatous cells. P¡cana. P¢nasa. spiral vessels.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells.2. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated.20 . Tikta Laghu. IDENTITY. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. Ar¿a.M£lakakÀ¡ra. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . covered with thin.2. 118 .3. containing aleurone grains and oil globules.4. Appendix per cent. DOSE . reddish-brown. 2. 2. covered with a thin-cuticle.6. 2. straight cuticle. CONSTITUENTS . Rucya. Appendix per cent. Ud¡varta. 2.2. Gulma. tangentially elongated. Powder . Seed . parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Gandhaka Va¶¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Svarya.7. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. parenchymatous cells present. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Shows a single layered epidermis.Agnim¡ndya.Glucoside. shows aseptate fibres. thin-walled. of columnar cells. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. Pittahara. thinwalled. H¤dya.2. of the drug in juice form. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal.Fruit . Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal.2.

having a few lateral fibrous roots. variable in size.2. 2. 2. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Visra.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Appendix per cent. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. usually 25-40 cm in length. (Fam. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. Appendix per cent.3. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent.2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. taste.7. 2.4. fusiform.2. slightly or strongly pungent. Appendix 2. Rakhyasmula Mula. Mulaka (Rt. cylindrical. white in colour. Moclangi gadde. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula.2. IDENTITY. Mula Muli Moolangi. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn.) annual or biennial bristly herb.2. Brassicaceae). 2. Saleya.50. rarely sweet. Mulaka. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. 119 . Mullangi.

Jvara.15-30 ml. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.04.L. Kaphahara. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.34. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 0. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.04 & 0. Pittahara.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. P¡cana. P¢nasa.09 & 0. 0.04. Gulma. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.09.V. Tikta Laghu. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil.49 & 0.Agnim¡ndya. Rucya. 0. Ud¡varta DOSE . Vrana. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .09 (both blue).T. Galaroga. Netraroga. Ar¿a.LC.69 (all yellow). Dadru. of the drug in the juice form 120 . Svarya. áv¡sa.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . T.C. 0. 0.Glucoside. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. K¡sa. H¤dya. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Root . fibres and parenchyma. thin-walled cells.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths.4 m tall. secondary phloem shows wide zone. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. secondary cortex composed of rounded. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. tenuifolium Wall.2. aromatic. cambium 2-4 layered. odour. Gandhakuti. 6-12 cm long and 0. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. rectangular cells.1. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. (Fam. slightly bitter.51. tangentially elongated.3 . Mura (Rt. taste. S.42000 m.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC.Shows 10 . traversed by xylem rays. Daitya. Syn. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. inner cells thin-walled.6 . consisting of tangentially elongated. dull brown. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. colour. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. a perennial herb. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . Apiaceae ). thin-walled cells. traversed by phloem rays.) DC.

short with blunt ends.5 per cent. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. Appendix 9 per cent. shows groups of cork cells. 122 . 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). somewhat oval cells. Appendix 2. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. Jvara. D¡ha. Appendix 17 per cent.6.Brown. composed of radially arranged. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. xylem parenchyma. Appendix 9 per cent.1-3 g. fibres aseptate. 2.3. secretory canals.2. Ka¶u. of the drug in powder form. present in secondary cortex. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide.2. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. starch grains simple. xylem and phloem rays. 2. parenchymatous cells. M£rchha. secretory canals numerous.having spiral thickenings.. oil globules and simple starch grains.2. round to oval.2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix 3. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .áv¡sa. secondary phloem. distributed throughout secondary cortex.2. Powder .4. IDENTITY. secondary phloem. secondary xylem and medullary rays.Arvind¡sava. Sucrose and Mannitol.7. Bhrama.2.

Madhusrava. Jartor Koratige Hambu. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. rectangular cells. (Fam. & Am. phloem fibres absent. indistinct. bark easily separable from wood. resin cells present irregularly in this region. Murva (Rt.Shows a cork. b) Microscopic Root . prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. fracture. phloem rays 1 123 . Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva.) Asclepiadaceae). some filled with reddish-brown contents. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. odour. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness.52.5-3 cm thick. Halukaratige. Koratige. a large stout. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. taste. tangentially elongated. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. similar to those present in secondary cortex. Kallu Shambu. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. slightly bitter. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. twining shrub.

of the drug for decoction. of the drug in powder form. 10-20 g. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.3.7.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.6. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. Jvara. measuring 5. T¤Àn¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Medoroga. fibres. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. H¤droga. fibres. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue.Ar¿a. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. 2.22 µ in diameter. THERAPEUTIC USES . composed of vessels. starch grains simple. fragments of cork. DOSE . Appendix 5 per cent.2. 2. simple and compound starch grains. Mukha áosa.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . vary in shape and size with borderd pits. Appendix 7 per cent. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure.2. Powder . consisting of small tangential. 5. Appendix 2. vessels with pitted walls. present in parenchymatous tissues. Appendix 14 per cent. Prameha Mihira Taila. Meha. 124 . fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. fibretracheids. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5-22 µ dia. 2. tracheids. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.3 cells wide. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified.5 per cent. Pittahara. Tikta Guru. V¡tahara.2.2. K¤miroga. Ka¸·£. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue.2-6 g...2. IDENTITY. shows a number of stone cells.5 .4. Appendix 0.tracheids.2. 2.Light brown. Raktapitta. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

Gajake¿ara Negeshvar.Anther shows golden-brown.53. Konkan. basifixed. Veluthapala. connective not visible with naked eye.5 cm long. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. Hem¡.9 cm long. Nahar Nageshvara. astringent. often buttressed at the base. Nauga. odour. taste. Nagppu. anther about 0. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Naugaliral.9-1. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. Nagchampa. each stamen 0. more or less twisted. soft to touch. shows elongated cells of filament. containing pollen grains.0 cm long. Pilunagkesar. slender. connective and filament. b) Microscopic Androecium . (Fam. thick-walled. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. fragrant. consisting of thin-walled. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. Powder . parenchymatous cells. Nagachampakam. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. quite brittle. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. N¡ga. coppery or golden brown. filiform. Nagakesari -Nangaa.1. filament 0.Brown.) evergreen tree. yellowish and thin-walled. Sachunagkeshara. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. Assam. linear. Bengal. Peri. an Ke¿ara. N¡gapuÀpa. distinct protuberances on walls. exine and intine distinct. Guttiferae). Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. 125 . Nagakesar (Stmn.8 .

7.1-3 g. Var¸ya.Raktapitta. Appendix per cent.3. 2. 2. Vastiroga DOSE .2. 2. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tarakta. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. Appendix per cent.2.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. Tikta.2.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Kaphahara.2. of the drug in powder form. 126 . 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS . áopharoga. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. Kum¡ry¡sava.2.4. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.2. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara.

large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. Fabaceae). pith composed of round to oval.54. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole .) shrub. N¢l¢n¢. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.5 cm long and 0.1. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. pale green to greenish-black. Nili (Lf. 1. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.8 m high. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. no characteristic odour and taste. (Fam. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.2 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. 127 .3-1.2. leaflet 1-2.

Ke¿ya. similar as in petiole. cuticle and hair. cuticle and hair. collateral and crescent shaped.shows dorsiventral structure. Udararoga. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. aseptate fibres. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Pl¢haroga. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . palisade 2-3 layers.7. 2.2.2.6.. shows groups of mesophyll cells. vascular bundle single. similar as in petiole and midrib. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.50-100 g. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .shows epidermis.2. Ud¡varta. IDENTITY. 128 . V¡tarakta.Greenish-grey..5 per cent. K¡sa. Gulma.Midrib .4.2.Ëmav¡ta. Lamina . epidermis. pitted vessels. V¡tahara. 2.2.. Jvara. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. Appendix 2 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .2. Appendix 25 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3. of decoction. Appendix 7. Appendix 2. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. K¤imiroga.Glycoside (Indican). prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .

1 -1. group of fibres. Nila Nili. 129 . medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. slightly bitter. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Olleneeli -Amari. Indian Indigo Gali. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. thin-walled cells. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. Nili Chettu. Nila -Neel Avuri. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. consisting of usual elements. Gari Nili Kadunili. Fabaceae). Neeligida. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels.5 cm thick.2-1. woody. secondary cortex a narrow zone.8 m high. 0. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. 1.10 layers of tangentially elongated. Nili (Rt. wood occupies bulk parts of the root.. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. Rangapatr¢. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. hard. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. rectangular. thin-walled cells. odour not distinct. (Fam.55. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen.) shrub. Nil. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Nili. taste. Neeli Nili. with lenticels. Karunili. cylindrical. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. consisting of rectangular to polygonal.

06.33. 0.91 (all grey).2. 2.Gulma.2.75. 0.91 (all yellow).C.7.40.86 and 0. CONSTITUENTS .75.86 (green) and 0.6. 0.63.4. 0.0.27.14. Ëmav¡ta.81 (blue). measuring 3-11 µ in dia. and 0. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.14 (blue).86. 0. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. 0. pitted vessels. 130 . 2. 2. starch grains simple. of drug for decoction.0.L.7 per cent. 0. T. 0. K¡sa. shows aseptate fibres.40.2. 0. 0. 0.40 (blue). 0. 0. 0.58.27.48 g.75 (blue). present in cortex.. Appendix 0. 0. round to oval..Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. simple and compound starch grains. 0.80.V. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Udararoga. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .14.06. Recan¢.50.58 (blue). Appendix 6 per cent.L. 0. 0. 0.30 (bluish green).3. 2. 0.50. 0. 0. Powder .Creamish-brown. V¡tahara.10. IDENTITY. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.10.58. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0. K¤imiroga.47 (blue). 0. xylem parenchyma and rays.33. V¡tarakta. 0. ViÀavik¡ra. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.21.81. phloem. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. Appendix 3 per cent. 0.2. Appendix 2. 0. 0.91 (blue).63 (bluish green). Ud¡varta. Pl¢h¡roga. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.Arvind¡sava. 0.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.63.2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Ke¿ya. 0.2.

(Fam. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba.Compound. Arulundi. indistinct. Veppan Vemu. 7-8. Kohumba Nim. Veppu. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Limbado. Bakayan. opposite. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Nimba (Lf. alternate. exstipulate. Limado. Juss Syn.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. slightly yellowish-green. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Bakan. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Oilevevu. crystals also present in phloem region.1 cm thick. Bevu. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves .0-1. acute. Kahibevu. Veppa Balantanimba. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. odour. Meliaceae). bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline.56. Nimba Nimba. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Nimbam. 131 . Limba. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. taste.7 cm wide. Nim Vemmu. 0. serrate. Aryaveppu. lanceolate. Bevinama -Veppu.5 cm long and 1. Melia azadirachta Linn. rachis 15-25 cm long. Nim. leaflets with oblique base. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a.

traversed by a number of veins.2.Triterpenoids and Sterols.0-4. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. composed of thin walled. 2. Appendix per cent.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells.0-11. 2. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. tangentially elongated cells. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . shows vessels.2. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡.1-3 g. epidermis on either surface.shows dorsiventral structure. 2.2. Powder . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . stomatal index 13.Green.5 on lower surface and 8.Lamina .2.7. Appendix per cent. V¡tal¡.5. IDENTITY.2. Appendix per cent. palisade single layered. KuÀ¶ha. palisade ratio 3. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.3. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. of the drug in powder form. thin-walled cells. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. CONSTITUENTS . K¤miroga. Ëma¿otha. ViÀarogas DOSE . Vrana. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. 132 . Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.0-14.6. fibres. covered externally with thick cuticle.2.Jvara.4.5 on upper surface. Appendix 2. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. Prameha. Netraroga.

taste. Juss. Kadunimb. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nimb Bevu. considerably thick in older barks. Vembu Vemu. Nimba. Limba Nimba Nim. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Nimba. fissured and rusty-grey. Kahibevu. extemal surface rough. Aruveppu Balantanimba. fibrous. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. fracture. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Syn.57. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . woody. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. characteristic. a moderate sized to fairly large. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Nimba (St. Oilevevu -Veppu. Bakam Veppai. odour. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. (Fam. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Meliaceae). occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. evergreen tree.

90 (all blue). 0. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. lignified rectangular to polygonal. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. Appendix 1.L.63 and 0.2.outer surface. 2. CONSTITUENTS . shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.72 (blue). secondary cortex absent in most cases.measuring 2.Reddish-brown. having wide lumen and distinct striations. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. measuring 2. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. stone cells mostly in groups. Powder . phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.6. 0. Pittahara. simple starch grains. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem.7.5 per cent. ViÀaghna. 0. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. 0.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate.C.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. T. IDENTITY.20. 2. starch grains. 2. 0. Appendix 2. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . Appendix 6 per cent. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. Appendix 5 per cent. and 0.75-5 µ in diameter.C.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. simple. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. cork cells. Kaphahara.2. 2.V.45.90 (green). secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.86 (blue).2.3.2. Appendix 7 per cent.4. round with central hilum. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.

. K¤miroga. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Decoction should be used externally.D¡ha. Pa´canimba C£r¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rakta Pitta. Ka¸·u. Jvara. of the drug in powder form. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Nimb¡di C £r¸a. 135 . Prameha. Vra¸a DOSE . KuÀ¶ha.2-4 g.

Palasha (St. internal surface rough. 0. having brown colour. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. Tesu Purasu.15 m high with irregular branches. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. Plas. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. Paras Moduga. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. Chama Tha Palas -Palash.58. pale brown.1 cm thick. dark-brown.2 cm thick usually peels off. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. rectangular 136 . taste. Tesu Muttug. tanniniferous cells. Modugu. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate.) Kuntze (Fam. thin-walled. Khakharo. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. cork cells. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. moderately thick-walled.5 . Palash. Dhak. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. rhytidoma 0. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo.Bk) Fabaceae). Chettu Dhak. slightly astringent. exposing light brown surface. often in groups. fracture. dark brown. 5-10 or more layered. Khakhapado Dhak. except in very arid parts. curved. greyish to pale brown. Camata. Muttala -Plasu. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. rectangular. 12 . b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. Muttuga.

2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.C.C.3 components. straight. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.18.75 .. phloem parenchyma.12 cells wide. Appendix 14 per cent. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.50 cells in height. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 7 .67 (all yellow). companion cells. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly.2. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.2. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. sclereids mostly in groups. dark brown coloured cells. measuring 2.cells followed by a zone of 2 . crystal fibres.4.10.2.2. 0.48.L. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.48 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.Reddish-brown. Appendix 2.3.L.V.5 per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.65 (all blue). T. 0. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. CONSTITUENTS . starch grains simple or compound having 2 .. 2. 0.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Appendix 1. thin-walled cork cells. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.7. Powder . 0. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 2. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.10.75 µ in dia. phloem rays multiseriate 4 .6.67 (all violet).4 layers of sclereids. 0. phloem fibres.13. Appendix 10 per cent. 137 . starch grains simple and compound with 2 . Appendix 12 per cent.10.48 and 0. traversed by phloem rays. 2. 0. 0.

Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. S¡raka .5-10 g. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. 138 . Agnid¢paka. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Gulma. Graha¸¢.Ar¿a. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. Vra¸a. KaÀ¡ya Sara. K¤miroga. Tikta. DOSE .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES .

b) Microscopic Stem Bark .59.Bk) Fabaceae). secondary cortex consists of large. parenchymatous cells. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. medium sized. radially arranged and thin-walled. inner bark fibrous. Pangara Hongar. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India.5-2. yellowish to cream coloured. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. stone 139 .0 cm thick. Paribhadra (St. Mulmurumgai Badisa. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. quick growing tree. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. exfoliating in narrow strips. tangentially elongated to squarish. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. (Fam. smooth.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

V¤Àya. Volatile Oil. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of drug in powder form. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .. V¡taroga DOSE .Alkaloids. Balak¤t.CONSTITUENTS . 148 . Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.V¡tarakta.2-4 g..Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.

epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . latifolia Roxb. large.5 cm wide. collapsed cells of integument. mottled with darker brown lines. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. b) Microscopic Seed . sclerenchymatous cells. 0.6 cm long. Piyar. Chowl.63. creamish-brown. hilum present at the apex of round edge. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. linear. sweetish-oily. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. which are of various size. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. Satdhan -Charal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. odour.3-0. Saraparuppu Sara. followed by remnants of disorganised. consisting of elongated or tubular cells.4-0. micropyle superior. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. thick-walled. occurring mostly in groups. pleasant. Priyalam. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. Syn. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. funicle stout.) Anacardiaceae). Shalichokha Piyal. taste. B. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. (Farn. pitted. Korka.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. Priyala (Sd. 0.

0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.L.measuring 2.98 (all violet). Appendix 10 per cent. 0.2. 0. V¡tahara. 2. Pittahara.C. 150 .2. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. 0. BrÆha¸a. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells.4. H¤dya.5-5.98 (all yellow).type.P£gakha¸·a.Albuminoids. and oil globules. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .08. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. DOSE .3. and sclerenchymatous cells.0 µ in dia. Kaphakara. 0. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.54. áukrakara. 0. 0. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.94 and 0. Appendix 0.0 µ in dia.5 per cent. of the drug in powder form. Sara.72 and 0.A creamish-brown paste. Raktapitta. Powder . 2. CONSTITUENTS . V¤Àya. THERAPEUTIC USES .V. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. Appendix 2. KÀaya.2.2.5-5.84.54.6. Appendix 7 per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.72.10 .72.2. 2.94 (blue).91. T. procambium bundles. shows numerous mesophyll cells.L. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.20 g.2.91.7. 0. Oil and Starch. 0. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. Balya. KÀata.08.27.C. IDENTITY. 0.D¡ha. Bhagnas¡dhaka. Priy¡la Taila. 0.27.94 and 0.

hairy. stamens 4. 2. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs.Cymose. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. brown.5 cm long. Priyangu (Infl. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. calyx. b) Microscopic Peduncle . peduncle cylindrical.3 mm in dia.) Verbenaceae). found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. bell-shaped.5 cm across.0. filament very long. basifixed.5 . thin-walled. stigma minutely capitate. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. style. 1. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. 4 lobbed spreading. an erect. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. corolla. densely clothed with wooly hairs. and abundant in Bengal plains. 1. (Fam. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. parenchymatous cells. tubular. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .Shows more or less wavy outline.5-7. densely hairy. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu.4 m high shrub.2.64. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. epipetalous. long. Flower . equal in size. ovary 2-4 celled.2. anther ovate. brown.

2. aseptate fibres. N¢lik¡dya Taila. Vra¸aropa¸a.7.2. 2. DOSE . fibres aseptate. Pakv¡tis¡ra. Resin and Saponin. Powder .2. spiral vessels. of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. 2. 2. Terpenes. Pras¡dana. El¡di C£r¸a. Sved¡dhikya.Brown. Appendix 2. (Mukharoga).4. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Sandh¡n¢ya. M£travirajan¢ya.1-3 g. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara.6. Ku´kum¡di Taila. Phenolic compound.2. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. IDENTITY. 2. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. 152 . Rakta-Pitta. elliptical.2. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. xylem consists of usual elements.D¡ha. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs.fibres.2. groups of thin-walled. Jvara. CONSTITUENTS . Kanaka Taila. Daurgandhyahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Rakta. THERAPEUTIC USES .Glycosides.

Vr¢hi. Chawl. an annual herb. cortex differentiated into three zones. Dhan Rice. thin. composed of thick-walled. Nellu Tandulamul. (Fam. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous.05-0. Dhanarmul. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled.65. Bhata. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Powder . Cala. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. pitted vessels and 153 . sclerenchymatous cells. both consisting of round to oval. Odalu. Nellu. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Corava. Sali. Paddy Shalichokha. b) Microscopic Root . 5-15 cm in length and 0. sclerenchymatous cells. soft. Dh¡nya. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.Greyish-cream.) cultivated throughout India. smooth. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Bhatta. Dhana. Damgara. Dhana Bhatto. cylindrical.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Coke Chaval. Jhona Arishi. Biyyamu Chaval. Nelver Dhanyamu. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. exodermis 1-2 layered. Akki -Ari. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. thick-walled. Nivara -Chaval. Poaceae). Shali (Rt.

Laghu. 2.2.7.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Var¸ak¤t.2. BrÆha¸a. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Appendix per cent. Balya. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. 2. Svarya. Pittahara. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. CakÀuÀya. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Rucya. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara.2. M£trala. Baddh¡lpavarcasa.50 g.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 154 .4.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Kaphahara. H¤dya.StanyakÀaya. Appendix 2. of the drug for decoction. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Appendix per cent. 2.2.3.

yellowish-brown to light brown. light green. Stem . 0. 0. Flower . sepals narrowly. ovary superior and bicarpellary. found throughout the country.5-2 cm long and 0. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. Shankhapushpi. inserted deep in the corolla tube. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam.) Convolvulaceae). spreading. linear-lanceolate. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. Karakhuratt. perennial herb with a woody root stock. Kakkanangudi. Sankhahuli Kakattam. corolla shortly discoid. cylindrical. a prostrate. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. Sankhapuspi.Shortly petiolate.P.4 cm thick.Usually branched.1-0. cylindrical. epipetalous. linear-lanceolate. light green. acute. 155 . sparsely hairy. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . alternate with the petals. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. hairy.66. Shankhavela.1-0. about 0. Leaf . ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. 1-5 cm long. stamen 5. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. hairy on both surfaces. free. Sankha pushpin (W.White or pinkish.5 cm broad. sub-erect.Slender.

Fruit . both having round to oval. at places unicellular hairs present.8-17. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. secretory cells present in this region. Powder .0. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. xylem consists of vessels. elongated. present in cortex. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. phloem. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. mm. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. present on both surfaces. vein islet number 21-25 per sq.Brown. . fibres and tracheids.walled cells. minutely puberulous. elliptical. starch grains solitary or in groups. xylem rays and parenchyma. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. palisade ratio 6-9. palisade two layered. endoderrnis single layered.. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. 156 . stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle.8 µ in dia. Seed . 13. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. oblong globose with coriaceous. Stem . phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. measuring 3-8 µ in dia.Shows single layered epidermis. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. vascular bundle bicollateral. fibres and parenchyma. covered with thick cuticle. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. LeafMidrib . covered with thick cuticle. phloem composed of sieve elements. round to oval in shape. simple and composed of 2-3 components. b) Microscopic Root . thick-walled cells. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq.Light yellowish-green. xylem consisting of usual elements. epidermis single layered. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface.Capsule. pale brown pericarp. thin.Appears nearly circular in outline. cortex differentiated in two zones. phloem a narrow zone. hairs unicellular. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated.. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. measuring 3 . mm. unicellular hairs. simple and compound starch grains. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. tanniniferous. Lamina .

and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.2. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.2.2. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. 2. 2. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . Br¡hma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Apasm¡ra DOSE .3-8 g. Appendix per cent.2.4.6. Agastyahar¢tak¢.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent. Tikta.7. Appendix per cent.2. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Ras¡yana. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.IDENTITY. Appendix 2. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Ras¡yana. 2. ËyuÀya. Pittahara. Medhya.M¡nasaroga.3.

annual herb. 3-4 mm in dia. lanceolate or linear oblong. ciliolate. 2. shortly 2-fid at the apex. a much branched. greenish-yellow.2-0. smooth. trilocular. free to the base. 0. solitary. Fruit . (Fam. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. subacute. cylindrical. style.celled with or without attached pedicel. 4-5 cm long. short. gland semilunate. Leaf . 1 mm long. linear. gradually tapering. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. ribbed. 158 .Small.Capsule. Flower . having a few secondary roots. horned. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. odour and taste not distinct. Chagulputputi Satala.7-7 cm long. Carmas¡hv¡. 3. Saptala (W. sub-sessile. Bilikalli.5-2 mm thick.) Euphorbiaceae).8 cm wide.P. fracture. odour and taste indistinct. ovate. lobes short.1. filament pubescent. sessile. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Siju.Involucre broadly campanulate. 20-40 cm high.67. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. Joyachi. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. found throughout India in the plains and low hills.5 mm across at the mouth. 0. pale brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

starch grains simple. epidermis single layered. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. mature root shows thin walled cork. measuring 5. tangentially elongated cells. stone cells oval to elongated. elliptical. thickwalled and lignified. secondary cortex consists of 4. leprous tuberculate testa. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. elliptical. tangentially elongated elliptical. traversed by numerous xylem rays. some rounded.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. simple. lignified cells with wide lumen. endodermis not distinct. vessels having simple pits. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. parenchymatous cells. composed of sieve elements.6 layers of oval. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. fibres and tracheids. fibres. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. single layered epidermis. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. filled with yellowish-brown content. rounded at the base. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. fibres elongated and aseptate. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. b) Microscopic Root . rounded to oval.Seed . fibres and vessels having simple pits. 159 . grooved at one side. all elements. solitary or in groups. found scattered in phloem region. rarely a few oil globules also present.3 mm long. flattended. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. secondary xylem composed of vessels. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. all elements thick-walled and lignified.5-19. palisade single layered present on both sides. parenchymatous cells.25 µ in diameter. tracheids and medullary rays. Stem . rectangular. consisting of thick-walled. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. rounded to oval. circular to oval. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.Young root shows exfoliated. covered externally with thick. striated cuticle.75 µ in dia. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem narrow.shows slightly convex outline. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. thick-walled lignified. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. 2. with wide lumen present in this region. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. centre occupied by a pith. Leaf- Midrib . Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. secondary xylem consists of vessels. parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells.

of the drug for decoction.7.04. Appendix per cent.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Ud¡vartta. simple.2. 0.2.57 (all yellow). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . stone cells thick-walled.46. 2.L.04 and 0.2.6. Visarpa. Vibandha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).Powder .Light yellow.0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. elliptical. 2.87 (violet).Ën¡ha. 2. 160 . Appendix per cent. RukÀa. shows vessels with simple pits. THERAPEUTIC USES . and 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.V. IDENTITY. 0. lignified with wide lumen. aseptate fibres. Gulma. 0.2. rounded to oval starch grains.C. CONSTITUENTS .4. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. T.C.2. Appendix per cent.L. Appendix per cent.67. Udararoga.2.50 g. V¡tal¡.46 (brown) and 0. DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. RaktadoÀahara. 2.3. oval to elongated. Pittahara. Mi¿raka Sneha. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 2.

endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening.. vittae. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway.. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. dorsal 161 . slightly sharp taste. (Fam. glabrous. b) Microscopic Fruit . Sulpha. var. slightly raised. glabrous. brown. and a warm. Apiaceae). Shepa. Satahva (Fr. A.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. mericarps usually separate and free. parenchymatous. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. 4 mm long. a tall. graveolens DC. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. Peucedanum sowa Roxb.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle.. often stalk attached. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. odour. P. akin to caraway. graveolens Benth. filiform and incospicuous. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. dark brown.68. mesocarp. Syn. A. graveolens Linn. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. yellowish membranous wings. sowa Roxb. Shulupa. ex Flem.

7.10 T.6. 2.2. Appendix 15 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.37 (pink) 0. Appendix 14 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent.2.2. of the drug in powder form. 2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. 162 . one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. 2.59 and 0. 2.2. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Powder .L.59 (blue) and 0.2. 2.68 (all yellow).2. V¡tahara. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. Atis¡ra. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. each costae with vascular strands. CONSTITUENTS .L. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels.3-6 g.C. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. Appendix 2. 0.á£la. Kaphahara. shows spiral vessels. carpophore split. 0.5 per cent. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. cellulosic.Essential Oil. Appendix 3 per cent.costae three. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a.68 (violet).Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.C. Netra Roga DOSE .Brown.3. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. Appendix 1. Jvara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. IDENTITY.2.

69. elliptic. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. and articulated at the base. Leaflet . pericycle forming a broken ring. Bahala. slender. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. parenchymatous cells. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. parenchymatous cells. thickened. Sajna. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. (Fam. ovate or obovate. Munga. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Mungna Neegge. Rachis . odour and taste not distinct. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Muringa.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. palisade single layered. Muringa Elai Sevaga. AkÀ¢va. pith and phloem parenchyma.2-2 cm long and 0. Segata. Tishnagandha. a small or medium sized tree. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Mocaka -Sajina. Moringaceae). entire. Shewgachi pane Sajana. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. central region 163 b) Microscopic . cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Syn.5-1 cm wide. Nugge ele -Murinna. commonly cultivated throughout the country. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. Sekato. Shigru (Lf. vascular bundle collateral. oval to elliptical. thin walled. Segata pana. leaflet 1. consisting of pericyclic fibres.) Gaertn.

05. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.69 (blue) and 0.2.L. stomata anornocytic. 0. Powder -Greyish-green.46 (dark green) & 0.59 (blue).46 (green). unicellular hairs with blunt tip. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. 2. Pittahara. T. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.30 (pink). 0. Medohara. CONSTITUENTS . stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.6.26. Appendix per cent. 0. Under U. K¤mihara. 0.46 (all red) & 0.18.52 (green). 0.2. Sirovirecaka 164 . IDENTITY.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Appendix 2. 0.2. 2. 0.V.05.87 (blue). palisade ratio 6-11.36.26. V¡tahara.3.4.C. 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. Carotene and Ascorbic acid.38.0.18. spiral vessels.2. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya.94 (blue).7.occupied by a crescent-shaped.94 (yellow) in visible light.94 (violet).2.05.46 (both blue). RukÀa. 0.Carbohydrate. 0. 0. 2. B ¤Æhana. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.53 (yellow). (all green). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. 0.69 (yellow). 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. Appendix per cent.36 (green). present on both surface but more on lower sur face. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.20. 2. Protein.L. vein islets number 50-65. 0. 0. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.82 (yellow) and 0.26 (all green). áukra N¡¿aka. Appendix per cent.C. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. palisade cells. 0. 0. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.36 (yellowish green). 0.

Medoroga.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pl¢haroga.10 . Gulma. 165 . DOSE . Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . ViÀatinduka Taila. Vidradhi. K¤miroga.Ratnagiri Rasa. Galaga¸·a.áopha.

perispenn encloses the 166 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. spicy pungent. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. Sthulaela (Sd. brown to dark brown. aromatic. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. thin-walled. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. sclerenchymatous.70. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock.) Zingiberaceae).4 cm long. parenchymatous cells. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. thin walled. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. taste. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. (Fam. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡.. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.3 cm wide. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. membraneous aril. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. 0. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. perisperm consists of polygonal. odour. Beraelam. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.

Note .S¡rivady¡sava.4.6.(Seed). Appendix 1. simple. 2.2.endosperm and embryo. 2. IDENTITY. rich in protein. Appendix 5 per cent.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). thin-walled. T¤À¸¡.2. (Seed).5 per cent.2. 2.5 -1 g. Ka¸·u.2.Light brown. V¡tahara. K¡sa.10 CONSTITUENTS . thin-walled. Appendix 2. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.3. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. Appendix 14 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. Kaphahara.2. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Chardi. perisperm cells.áv¡sa.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. rounded to oval. 2. H¤ll¡sa. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. Powder . Mukharoga. RukÀa. Tikta Laghu. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mukha¿odhaka. 2. 167 .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. polygonal. parenchymatous cells. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. both composed of polygonal. DOSE . M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.0. Rocaka. shows fragments of testa.7.2. of the drug in powder form. oil globules. THERAPEUTIC USES . while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.

stone cells found in 168 . Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. armed with long. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. thin-walled. rather deeply furrowed. external surface pale brown. stem and branches. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. internal surface smooth. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. Syn.Bk. (Fam. short. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. aromatic pungent. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. brownish. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. thick-walled cells.0. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. sharp prickles. phloem fibres thickwalled. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .) Roxb. Rutaceae). Jimmi. Z.2 cm thick.1-0. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. Tejovati (St. taste. parenchymatous cells. Tumburudra. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. Tumbura.71. Thumbooni. odour. lignified. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. light yellow to pale brown. fracture.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. aromatic.

Appendix 12 per cent. DOSE . round and oval measuring 2. 2.4. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. aseptate fibres. Appendix 1. Hikk¡. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. Medhya.2. Ëmav¡ta. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa).A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. 2. 169 . measuring 2.2. Appendix 8.10-20 g.75 µ in diameter.13.13.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.6.75 . stone cells.5 per cent. IDENTITY. oil globules and starch grains.Aruci. CONSTITUENTS . starch grains round and oval.5 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Yellowish-brown. Powder . of the drug for decoction. Appendix 13 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. áv¡sa. 2. Rucya. K¡sa.2.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Mukharoga.3. shows fragments of cork cells. P¡cana.75 . THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2.75 µ in diameter. Kaphahara. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.7. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. a Volatile Oil and Resin.2. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem.2.2.

72. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. 30 .2. internally cream. annual herb. obtuse or acute. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. shortly apiculate. pubescent on both sides.Thin. branched. K¤À¸atulas¢.P. soft. fracture. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. blackish-brown externally and pale. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi.3. elliptic oblong. lower lip 170 . small in close whorls.5-3 cm long hairy. coloured. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. herbaceous. Flower . Lamiaceae). Tulasi (W.6 . taste. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. much branched. pubescent.5-5 cm long 1. Stem . odour faintly aromatic. Leaf .60 cm high. hairy. about 1. woody. entire or serrate. slender. petiole thin.2 cm wide. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. pedicels longer than calyx. externally purplish-brown to black. wiry.Purplish or crimson coloured. Shree Tulasi. (Fam. Thulasi. characteristic. violet internally. aromatic. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . found throughout the country. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. branched. hairy. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. sub quadrangular.) an erect.Erect.

thin-walled. pungent. slightly mucilaginous. parenchymatous cells. 171 .A group of 4 nutlets. fibres and parenchyma. brown. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. xylem consists of vessels. phloem consisting of sieve elements. enclosed in an enlarged. odour. found scattered in phloem. rectangular. elongated. tracheids fibres and parenchyma.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. thin-walled. Fruit . pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. fibre tracheides. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. fibres with pointed ends. taste. b) Microscopic Root . thin-walled. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. nearly smooth. taste. pungent. veined calyx. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. filled with brown content. vessels pitted. taste. three vascular bundles situated centrally. phloem consists of sieve elements. Stem . round to oval polygonal. parenchymatous cells. mucilaginous when soaked in water.shows somewhat cordate outline. lateral two short and central two largest. no odour. measuring 22-27 in dia. tracheids. corolla about 4 mm long. middle one larger than other two. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. thin-walled.Rounded to oval. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. long. Midrib . parenchymatous cells. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. glandular trichomes short. membranous. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. pubescent.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. odour. vessels pitted. Leaf- Petiole .1 cm long. Seed . in groups and rarely in singles. slightly compressed. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. each with one seed. slightly notched at the base.epidermis. aromatic. aromatic. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. pitted with pointed ends. occasionally a few cells collapsed. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. 0. pungent. xylem surrounded by phloem.

2.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. IDENTITY. Tikta. in thoroughly vanillin . oil globules. Appendix 2.2. T. Pittavardhin¢. thin walled fibres. Appendix 8 per cent. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.L. V¡tahara. 2. parenchymatous cells.6. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. 2.3. Rf.Greenish: shows thin-walled.5 per cent. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.7. palisade ratio 3.Essential Oil.2. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.2. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.8.2. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10).C. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. rounded to oval. On cooling spray. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . Powder . Appendix 10 per cent.4. 2.Lamina .7. Rucya.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. a few containing reddish brown contents.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.2. H¤dya.35. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.15 . values of eugenol and caryophyllence. value 0. CONSTITUENTS .1. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.L. Appendix 1. Kaphahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix 4 per cent. RukÀa. vein islet number 31 .16 on lower surface. Durgandhihara 172 . Record Rf. 2.minutes Under observation.

Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. áv¡sa. KuÀ¶ha. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . 173 .Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. K¡sa.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Netraroga. Hikk¡. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. K¤miroga. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed).A¿mar¢. Chardi.

measuring 22-27 µ dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. pubescent on both surfaces. glandular trichomes short. hairy.5-5 cm long. consisting of xylem and phloem. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. found throughout the country.2 cm wide.. K¤À¸atulas¢. covering trichomes multicellular. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. three vascular bundles situated centrally. 174 b) Microscopic . elliptic-oblong. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. obtuse or acute.5-3 cm long. aromatic.73. Tulasi (Lf. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. Lamiaceae). much branched annual herb. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. characteristic. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. petiole 1. thin. entire or serrate. an erect. (Fam. petiolate. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. and 2-8 celled.6-3. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. LeafPetiole . odour. middle one larger than the other two. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil.) 30-60 cm high. upper epidermis. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. 1. balloon-shaped head.shows cordate outline. taste. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. Holy Basil Tulasi.

0.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. Lamina . 0. Appendix per cent. 2.83 (blue). 175 .4. palisade ratio 3. 0.2.04. 2.2. 0.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.08 (both green). 0.7. 2.93 (all0 yellow).Light-green. 0.33 (both green) 0.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0.Midrib . 2.83. 0.L.04. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. palisade and spongy parenchyma. Appendix per cent.08 (violet). Nerol and Camphene etc. 0.85 & 0.12 (light green).30. 0.85 (blue). vein islet number 31-33. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.V.45.54 (blue). Under U. 0. 0. 0.93 (both light green).33. 0.epidermis. 0. 0. 0. 0.04. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.2. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.08.21. IDENTITY.2.L.21. Powder .33. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.2. 0.. Appendix 2.45 (violet). 0. Appendix per cent. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.21 (brown). 0.45.33 (violet). Caryophyllene.).8.54.12 (light violet). shows fragments of polygonal. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.3.03 (dark green).6.C. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.93 (violet) and 0. 0. 0.45 (yellowish green). T.83 (all pink) 0.75.98 (blue). 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.75 (violet).88 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. 0.12. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.98 (blue). 0.2.93 (pink) & 0.

Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. RukÀa. H¤dya. Pittahara. Hikk¡.Aruci. Tikta. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Prati¿y¡ya. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2-3 g. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . K¤miroga. of the drug in powder form. 176 . áv¡sa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. Kaphahara. V¡tahara.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. K¡sa.

âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. (Fam. odour. Gora-bach Baje. Ghodvach Bach. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. Ghodavaca Vasambu. large.Shows single layered epidermis. taste. pungent and bitter. cells towards periphery. Rhizome . more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. thin-walled cells of various sizes. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. Vekhandas -Varch. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. triangular. upper side marked with alternately arranged.5-1. somewhat collenchymatous. Vacha (Rz. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. short. fracture. enclosing large air spaces. Ugr¡. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. buff coloured intemally. Araceae).) semiaquatic herb. smaller. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . aromatic.74. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. broadly. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. and 0. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened.5 cm thick. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas.

2. Chloroform-Light green iii. 2.Buff coloured. Appendix per cent. 2. spherical. 178 . starch grains simple.7.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. present in cortex and ground tissue.2. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. Powder .2.10 T. endodermis distinct. Appendix per cent.3. Starch and Tannin.L.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.2. 2. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside).2.2.6. shows fibres. reticulate. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.. stele composed of round.14 (violet) and 0. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Petroleum ether-No change ii.2.2. Appendix 2.Yellowish-cream b. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. Eugenol and Asarone). CONSTITUENTS . Powder as such: . Extracts in i. Appendix per cent. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.region. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. Methanol-Yellowish green iv.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.C.L. 2.C. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.

á£la. K¤mihara. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Vibandha.Vac¡di Taila. Kar¸a Sr¡va. S¡rasvata. Medhya. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. 1. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Apasm¡ra. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. áv¡sa. Tikta Laghu. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. C£r¸a. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Ka¸¶hya.2 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Kaphahara. K¡sa. 179 . M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Unm¡da. Ëdhm¡na. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. DOSE .

a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Beesh. 0. ovoid. Vatsanabhi. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 .) (Fam. poisonous. Mahura.4 . Mithvisa Mitha Visha. perennial herb. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. dark brown to blackish-brown. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. small portions of stem sometimes attached. fracture. plant is an erect. without or with a few intercellular spaces. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. roots are generally collected late in September. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Naabhi Bachnak. parenchymatous cells. odour indistinct. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. occasionally separated due to breakage. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. Vatsanabha (Rt. Teliya Bish Basanalli. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi.1. rough due to root scars.75. Basanaag Bisa. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. Nabhi. cartilaginous. Vatsanabha. Ranunculaceae). suberised. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. Sth¡varaviÀa. Vatsanabhi. taste. Meethabisha. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. thin-walled. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra.8 cm thick. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. conical. Mithalelia.5 cm. papillose on outside. 2-4. rarely 5 cm long. tapering downwards to a point. Bachhnaag. ViÀa Vajran¡ga.

Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa.Light grey. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. Anandabhairava Rasa. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. 0. Appendix 24 per cent.2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. T.4.56.74 and 0. often forming 'V' shaped ring.L. Powder .5 per cent. 2.10. 0. xylem exarch. some scattered.C.2. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.39 and 0. Viyav¡yi. containing a few groups of phloem strands.L. Appendix 8 per cent. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . 0.20. CONSTITUENTS .2. IDENTITY. a few aseptate fibres.endodermis. 0. Appendix 2 per cent. metaxylem vessels met in centre.C. Laghu. 0.6. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring.2. consisting of round to oval cells. present in cortical cells. cambium having 6 10 angles. RukÀa.96 (both orange). 2. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.39.3. UÀ¸a. Sv®dala. occupying more than half the radius. 2. inner bark parenchymatous. ÙikÀ¸a. Trid°Àahara.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. S £tasekhara Rasa. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. shows vessels.7.2. Appendix 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. 0. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Appendix 5. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia.

15 .V¡taroga. Kanharoga. Sannip¡ta. 182 .30 mgs of the drug in powder form. DOSE .THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvar¡tis¡ra. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. V¡takaphajvara.

thinwalled. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Vid¡rik¡. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. stone cells moderately thick-walled. sweetish. outer surface reddish-brown. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. smooth except for protuberances at some places. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Fabaceae). tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. Bhuikumra Vidari.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC.76. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Eagio. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. thin-walled cells. -Mudakku Bhuikohala.Rt. Bhumikusmanda. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . usually does not break. Nelagumbala. Bhonykoru. Gumadi belli. but pliable. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. (Fam. Nelagumbula.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. starchy and somewhat porous. Bhoikolu. cut surface creamish-brown. Vidari (Tub. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. taste. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex.

vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening.3-6 g. Appendix 2. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.5 . Svarya. Stanyada. Raktapitta. Ras¡yana. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. Powder . Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Appendix 24 per cent.75 µ in dia.. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. a few latex duct also present.75 µ in dia. fragments of cork.5 per cent.6. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. angular to oval.Gluconic and Malic acids.2. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. Balya. 2. of the drug in powder form. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah).2. CONSTITUENTS .5 . radially elongated cells. Var¸ya. Appendix 4. phloem fibres much elongated. 2. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. highly thickened. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.D¡ha.and pits. DOSE . and also rarely in stone cells. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.13. Angmarda. Appendix 17 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells.Buff coloured.2. 184 .2. distributed throughout this region. M£trala.Marma Gu¶ik¡.7. 2. lignified with narrow lumen. áoÀa. J¢van¢ya. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. 2. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. Daurbalya.13.2. somewhat round. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Pittahara. IDENTITY. Appendix 4 per cent. present in all parenchymatous cells. measuring 5. V¡tahara. having central hilum and striations.3.

sativum Pers. erect herb. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. round to oval wavy walled cells. sclerenchymatous fibres. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . an annual. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. cultivated chiefly in North India. 50-100 cm high.3 cm wide. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. smooth. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. Syn. H. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja.77. thick-walled. Jav Barley Cheno. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. square or quadrilateral. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. elliptic. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. odour. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. sweetish-acrid. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. seed coat appears as a colourless line. followed by 2-3 layers. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. spongy parenchymatous cells. oblong.) Poaceae). 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. followed by more or less. pale-greenish-yellow. polygortal inner epidermal cells.2-0. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. Yava (Fr. about 1 cm long and 0. not distinct. (Fam. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. taste.

0. 0.22.72 (all pink.83 (all violet) and 0. 0. 0. 0. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. 0. 2.6. Vitexin etc.68.53. 0.Starch.V.10. IDENTITY. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.5 per cent. Medahara.C. Appendix 2.92 (yellow).2.68.2. 0.) CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5 per cent. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. V¤Àya. 0.06.L.65 & 0.L.2. Appendix 4 per cent.2.narrow lumens.2. Kaphahara. Sugars.14.31. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.10. V¡tak¤t. and the rest starch layers. Var¸ya 186 . Appendix 5. 0. Orientin.31.36. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.31. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. round to oval. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. 0.56.83 and 0. simple starch grains. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.Creamish-white. Orientoside. Pittahara.3. 0. Globulin. Powder .45. M£trahara. endosperm divided into two zones. starch grains simple. 0. 0.5 2. Lekhana. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. Fats.2.7 T.24.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. sclerenchymatous fibres.16. Appendix 1. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Svarya. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. Proteins (Albumin. 2. 0.2. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 0. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.92 (all grey). 0.44.22.C. Pur¢Àak ¤t. Sthairyakara.

Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Urustambha. Gandharvahasta Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES .áv¡sa.100 . K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Tvagroga DOSE . Dh¡nvantara Taila. El¡dya Modaka. of the drug. Prameha. Kanharoga. Medoroga. 187 . B¤hatm¡Àa Taila.200 g. T¤À¸¡. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. K¡sa.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. P¢nasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

5-1 cm long. fracture. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. glabrous. no taste and odour. 0. hard. Punjab. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. dark brown. nearly 0. Stem .P. mucronate obtuse. gradually tapering. Leaf . 0. alternate. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). elliptical.Well developed. 20-30 cm long and 0.7 cm broad. secondary and tertiary root absent. filled with reddish-brown contents. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root .1-1 cm thick. (Fam. glabrous. opposite. striate.78. branched. Y¡sa. extipulate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa.) Fabaceae). Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Desv. a small thorny shrub. Javasa. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. Yavasaka (W. secondary cortex almost 188 . terete. short. radially arranged cork cells.2-1 cm thick. sharp axillary spines upto 3. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan.Cylindrical. Neladangara. oblong. drooping. cork cambium single layered.8 cm long. stipules green. ballidurabi.Simple. slightly rough at basal region with slender.5-0.

5-14. thin-walled.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. tracheids and fibres. tracheids and fibres thick-walled.appears biconvex in outline. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. tracheids. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. present throughout the region.75 µ in dia. vascular bundle collateral.5. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. filled with tannin. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. a few with thick wall and simple pits. Lamina . Stem . xylem consists of vessels. Leaf- Petiole .Greenish-brown. fibres. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. tracheids. hypodermis 2-3 layered. some cells filled with tannin. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin.appears circular in outline. pitted vessels. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. xylem fibres. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. tanniniferous cells. phloem composed of sieve elements. xylem consists of vessels. thin-walled. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. 189 . mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.absent.75 µ in diameter. hypodermis 1-2 layered. 3-45 cells long. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. elongated. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. xylem situated above phlome. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. filled with tannin. Powder . phloem composed of sieve elements. covered with cuticle. epidermis single layered. 5. starch grains simple. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. simple. parenchyma and fibres. covered externally with thick cuticle.14.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. pith composed of a few thin-walled. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. rounded to oval. Midrib . angular. tangentially elongated cells.

Appendix 2. Raktapitta. Arimed¡di Taila.2. Appendix 2 per cent. Appendix 13.6. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Kaphahara.5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .20 . Visarpa DOSE . Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.2. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. Appendix 2.Sugars (Melizitose.7. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent.2. 2.2.50 g. D¢pana. K¡sa. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Jvara.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 190 .Chardi. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Sucrose.IDENTITY. Invert Sugars). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.4. V¡tarakta.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. 2. T¤À¸¡.3. Tikta.