THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1.1 Testing Drugs 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.2-Thermometers 1.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.2.2.1.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .1.2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2.1.2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.2.2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.1.1.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.2.2-Sieves 1.4.1.) Desv 177 1.1.3.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.1.2.5.1-Sampling of drugs 2.Types of Stomata 2.1.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.1.2.2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2. 1.2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.2.2.

3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.3 Limit Tests 2.2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3.3.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.3.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.6-Sulphated Ash 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.5-Limit Test for lead 2.3.3.2.3.1.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.1.3.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.2-Refractive Index 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.Weights and Measures 5.

If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. Part-I. Part-I. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. Part-I. II. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. the Dangerous Drugs Act.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. accordingly. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). In general. II. Vol. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act.I. II would be official. Vol. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.P. 1930 and the Poisons Act. would be deemed to have been amended vii .).

Odour and Taste . Italics . Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. Weights and Measures . English. Purity and Strength . Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Synonyms . These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. Hindi. If the odour persists to be discernible. Mesh Number .The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India .The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs .Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. distribution and method of collection. Identity. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg).Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. it is described as having odour. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. if any. substances or processes described in Appendix. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Introductory Para . Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. indicated in monograph. When the term “drop” is used. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC.GENERAL NOTICES Title . viii . scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states.

the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. which he uses. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. water-soluble ash. Purity and Strength. wherever given. fungi. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. acid-insoluble ash. if of equivalent accuracy. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. Constituents . colour. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. Constant Weight .soluble extractive.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. moisture content.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. with one of the four meanings given below.For statutory purpose.C. Vol. is used. those of definition of the part and source plants.In defining standards. under Description.Under this head. total ash. water. and show no abnormal odour. statements appearing in the API. However. in 100 grammes of product. Part-I. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement.g. mould or other evidence of deterioration. The quantitative tests e.) .Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. ix . V. arsenic and heavy metals. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance.L. according to circumstances. even by applying known reference standards. ether-soluble extractive. alcohol-soluble extractive. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. pests. pesticides. and other animal matter including animal excreta. However. Percentage of Solutions . micro-organisms. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . Standards . and Identity. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. shall constitute standards. the expression per cent (%). Thin Layer Chromatography (T. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. sliminess.

When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. fibres. and dust particles. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). Statements of solubilities. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. all solutions are prepared with purified water. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. are intended to apply at that temperature. Temperature .000 parts More than 10. at a stated temperature. Reagents and Solutions . Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. such as fragment of filter papers. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known.000 parts x . Solubility . When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. Percentage of alcohol . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent.56 oC. thermometric scale. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Solutions .Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.

l. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . 0.P. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes.I. mg. ml. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. mm. TS. Fam. Kg. unless otherwise stated.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. cm. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. Part –I and Part-II. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. 0. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.5 N. IN.1 N. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. µ. 1M. PS. g.

St. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl.Sansk. Tel. Eng. Rt. Beng. Sd. Pl. xii . Rt. Ori. Lf. Kan. Wd. Punj. Wd. Rz. Fr. Kash. Ht. Mal. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Tam. Bk. Wh. Bk. Guj. Mar. Assam. Pseudo-bulb Rt. St. Tub.

shrivelled. xylem fibres thick-walled. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. slightly aromatic.2 . more and wider vessels found towards peripery. Asteraceae). 53. cambium 2-5 layered. taste. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. elongated.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. brown. thin-walled. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. vessels pitted. characteristically astringent and pungent. 7-15 cm in length. Akravu Akkalakara.8 µ in width. bark upto 3 mm thick.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. cylindrical. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. (Fam. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. an annual. odour. tapering slightly at both ends. not easily separable. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Akallakara. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. Akalakarabha. external surface rough. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. b) Microscopic Root . secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. parenchymatous cells.1. Akarakarabha (Rt.37-28.231 µ in 1 . Akarakara Akkaraka. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 1.

Prati¿y¡ya. uniseriate rays very rare. Grdhras¢.5 -1 g.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. Appendix 8 percent.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma.4. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 22 percent. Kaphahara.3. secondary phloem. medullary rays numerous. bi to tri and multiseriate. also gives positive tests for inulin.2. radially elongated. K¡sa.6.Kum¡ry¡sava. Powder . Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. ray cells thick-walled. Aj¢rna. Appendix 2 percent. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa.2. á£laroga. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. IDENTITY. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. V¡jikara. Buddhivardhaka. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . secondary phloem and medullary rays. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex.Ash coloured.2.length having narrow lumen. secondary phloem and medullary rays. áotha. áv¡sa. Appendix 2.2. D¢pana. 2. running straight. 2. Pittahara. 2 .0. shows vessels having scalariform thickening.7. Appendix 10 percent. NaÀ¶¡rtava. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.2. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. of the drug in powder form. Danta¿£la DOSE . Svedakara. Udararoga. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. 2. áukrala. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.

Shows 1-2 layered. taste. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. thin-walled. odour. Cotyledon . Akshoda (Cotldn. (Fam. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present.2. thin-walled. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. broken pieces. not distinct. endosperm mostly single layered. slightly curved. creamish-brown. oily sweet. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long.) large deciduous. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. Sailabhava. parenchymatous cells. 3 . paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. followed by more or less compressed. Juglandaceae). collapsed. irregularly corrugated. parenchymatous cells. coriaceous. radially elongated. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Powder .Cream coloured. under this. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 2. Appendix Not more than 0.2.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.4.25 g. Appendix 2. 2. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. V¤Àya.2. 4 . KÀaya. V¡taroga. Appendix Not less than 7.2. CONSTITUENTS . Balya. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.7. 2. 2.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. B¤´ha¸a. áukral. Appendix Not less than 10. Sara.Walnut oil and Tannin.KÀata.10 . ViÀ¶ambhi. Kaphakara. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.IDENTITY.0 percent.5 percent. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .3.6.0 percent.

Anacardiaceae). laminated. curved. consisting of tangentially elongated. Amvara -Mampusli. internal surface reddish-yellow.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Amrata (St. parenchymatous. acuminata Roxb. thin. Ambalam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. S.. a small aromatic. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. Amra Indian Hog Plum. deciduous tree. Kurz. Wild Mango Ambeda. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Ranambo Ambada.Bk. mangifera Willd. Syn. and 5 . Marka¶¡mra -Amada. Anbalamu. grey having lenticels.5 m in girth. upto 27 m high and 2. non Gamble (Fam. Ambadam Amratakamu. Stem Bark. Jangli Aam Ambate. a few outer cells exfoliated. radially arranged. fracture. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Mampuiti. S. Ranamba.3. parenchymatous cells. external surface smooth. Ambazham. Ambado. thin-walled cells. tangentially elongated.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. which are thick-walled towards periphery. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. f. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. with reddish-brown contents. Amra. Jangali Ambo.

Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands.5 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. Under U. simple. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.4. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. Not more than 1 per cent. 2.7.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.2. Ka¸¶hya. 0. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. lignified. Powder . 0. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. shows cork cells.87 (all greyish brown).C. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .33. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. T. of the drug in powder form for decoction. IDENTITY.(greyish brown). Raktapitta.75-14 µ in dia.V. thick-walled. Pittakara.33. 2. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.5-10 g.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. 0. CONSTITUENTS .96.L.3.96 (blue).L.2. stone cells. 6 . Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf.KÀata. 2. 2.. D¡ha DOSE . rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.40 and 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2.2.2. Rucik¤t. 0. V¡tahara. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.Light brown. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. prominent lysogenous cavities are present.C. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent.87 (blue) and 0. KÀaya.6. Appendix Not more than 0.2.2.

cylindrical.3-0. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. Kharamaµjar. one spine lipped. erect. yellowish-brown.free. greenish-white. wavy margin. solid. bracteate with two bracteoles. odour. not distinct. hollow when dry.5 cm in cut pieces. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. (Fam. dorsifixed. opposite. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. hairy. filament short. slightly ribbed. erect. perianth segments 5. Leaf .0. 0.9 m high herb. May£raka. secondary and tertiary roots present.0.0 cm in thickness. two celled. membranous. PratyakpuÀpa.) Amaranthaceae).1-1. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m.Cylindrical tap root. Flower . subsessile. yellowish-brown. actinomorphic. decussate. contorted or quincuncial. bisexual. exstipulate. sessile.3 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . branched. numerous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. hypogynous. the perianth lobes. a stiff. Apamarga (W. 0.P. anther.4. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. rough due to presence of some root scars. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Stem . obovate. gradually tapering.Simple. opposite. stamens 5. 7 .

Mature root shows 3-8 layered. on both surfaces. fibres pitted.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. elongated. cortical and pith cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. epidermis single layered. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. tangentially elongated. two medullary bundles. syncarpous. 2-5 celled. thin-walled. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. thin-walled cork cells.Shows a single layered epidermis. oval to rectangular.Shows crescent-shaped outline. cortex 6-10 layered. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Sub-cylindric. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. vessels annular.gynoecium bicarpellary. fibres being absent. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. lignified. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. present in pith. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. Midrib . capitate. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. Seed . thin-walled cork cells. brown. endospermic. Stem . secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. perianth and bracteoles. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. unilocular with single ovule. single. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. xylem composed of usual elements. truncate at the apex. ovary superior. round at the base. Fruit . thin layers of cambium. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. followed 8 . pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. demarcating the xylem rings. spiral. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. b) Microscopic Root . LeafPetiole . micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. stigma. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. either separate throughout or found in some cases. vessels simple pitted. parenchymatous cells. rectangular. scalariform and pitted. style. composed of parenchymatous cells. 3-4 celled stalk.

2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2.0 on upper surface. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. Tikta Sara.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .0 on lower surface.Shows single layered.4. stomatal index 4. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. Lamina .5-9. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. aseptate fibres. palisade ratio 7.2. Apac¢. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. Ka¸·u. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. rectangular. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Ar¿a. IDENTITY. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. spiral. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.2. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. scalariform and pitted thickening. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. V¡tahara. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.2. V¡maka. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. Kaphahara. Appendix 2. P¡cana. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. 9 . Udara Roga.2.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. 2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Light yellow.0-11. 9. 2. Medoroga DOSE .2.20-50 g. slightly elongated in upper. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.7. vessels with annular.á£la. of the drug for decoction. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent.0-20. non-lignified cells. Powder . thin-walled epidermal cells. shows fragments of elongated. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. mm. Medohara. Chedana. Gu·apippali.3.

b) Microscopic Root . secondary xylem consists of usual elements. vessels pitted with oblong. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. thin-walled. lightbrown. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. (Fam. medullary 10 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. fracture. bitter. Fabaceae). very long. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. fibrous. a few showing slit-like pits. colour. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. polygonal. cylindrical. a few solitary fibres also present. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. taste.5.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. 1-5 mm in thickness. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. Aparajita (Rt.

.2. Vra¸a DOSE .L. 2.79 (grey).Mi¿raka Sneha. Medhya. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS .7. 0.54 and 0.rays 1-5 cells wide.3. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. Resin. Appendix per cent. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. ViÀahara. 0.C.Yellowish-brown. 2. Tikta.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.79 (dull yellow) in visible light.V.Tannin. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. 0.2. Buddhiprada. Under U. Starch.2. 0. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form. found in secondary cortex.1 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. shows simple and compound starch grains. KuÀ¶ha. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf.4. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.2. 11 ..C.2. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. oblong and pitted. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. phloem and xylem parenchyma. Pittahara. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. V¡tahara.79 (blue).79 (both yellow).á£la. Kaphahara. áotha. T. M£traroga. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. 2.2.3 g. Powder .6.

isodiametric. irregularly arranged. Adrak Injee. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. gingery. oblique branches on upper side.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. tangentially elongated. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. widely cultivated in India. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. colourless. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. lakottai. Allam. taste. Inji Allamu. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells.Shows a few layered. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled.5 cm thick. odour. pungent Rhizome . reaching up to 90 cm in height. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla.6. (Fam. each having a depressed scar at its apex. fracture. pieces 5-15 cm long. Ardraka (Rz. short with projecting fibres. Ale -Adi. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . radially arranged cells of inner cork. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. thin-walled.5-6. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. 1. buds and roots are removed and washed well.) Zingiberaceae).

76 (violet) & 0.47 (light violet).2. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.6. CONSTITUENTS .Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. 0.L. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. 2.63 (grey) & 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0.2.08. 2.. 0.l6 (brownish violet). septate fibres with oblique.16.2.08 (violet). fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.2. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. free from starch.C. 0. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. 13 .L.4. 0.69 (grey). 2. reticulate and spiral vessels.2. IDENTITY. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. 0. walls of oil cells suberised. 2. Appendix 5 per cent.7 vessels. larger bundles consists of 2.69 (all light yellow).13. 0. Under U.35. 0. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. 0.2. numerous closed. Appendix 1 per cent. conjoint.92 (all yellow). oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. 0.16 (blue). Appendix 90 per cent. 0.9 T. 0.83 & 0.35 (light violet).16.V. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. Appendix 8 per cent. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. 2. 0.35. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. small cells of sieve tube. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. 0.03. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. elongated pits on their walls.69 (light violet).5 per cent. Powder -Light yellow. Appendix 2. Appendix 2 per cent. endodermis single layered. greater number occurring in inner cortical region.63 (light violet).63.3. vessels 2-5 in number. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0.92 (violet).63 & 0. composed of xylem. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. filled with abundant starch grains. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 0.dia.69. fibrovascular bundles of two types.C. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T.2. 0.47. collateral. 0. 0. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.7. phloem. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. 0. oleo-resin cells abundent. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. vessels showing reticulate.76. 0.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. Rocana. RukÀa. Vibandha.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. áopha. H¤dya. Svarya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Bhedana. Kaphahara. V ¤Àaya. Ka¸tharoga. Ën¡ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . 14 .á£la. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.

cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. Arimeda (St. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. fibrous. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. Velvelam. exfoliating in irregular scales. lignified. phloem fibres thin-walled. internally light brown to reddish-brown. upto 3 m in height. Sadabala -Haramibaval. characteristic of dry regions. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. parenchyma. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. all traversed by medullary rays. hard. not distinct. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. rough. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. with tapering 15 . Pilobaval. stone cells and phloem cells. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. fracture.7. square to rectangular cells. (Fam. thinwalled cortical cells. incurved. consisting of sieve elements. secondary phloem wide. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays.5-1 cm thick. fibres and crystal fibres.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. odour and taste.Bk. Fabaceae). sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.39 and a spot at Rf. Mukharoga.2. 2.e. K¤mi. β -Amyrin.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. Meda¿oÀaka.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. 0.áopha.39 and a spot at Rf.4. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0.2.91 (yellow).LC.0. 2. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). crystal fibres elongated. Udardapra áamana DOSE . ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.L. shows groups of cork cells. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka.40 g for decoction. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. KuÀ¶ha. 0. P¡¸·u. Appendix 11 per cent. radially elongated cells.6. Ka¸·u.2. Visarpa.Reddish-brown. T. 2.78 and 0.n-Hexacosanol. K¡sa. Appendix 13 per cent. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.7.2. IDENTITY. sclereid. Meha. Atis¡ra. ViÀajavra¸a. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. 2.3. Dantaroga.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . Powder . 16 .91 (both blue). β-Sitosterol and Tannin.2. fibres. Appendix 2. Appendix 1 per cent.C. composed of thin-walled.3-5 g in powder form. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.2.0 to 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0 to 0.ends. Appendix 14 per cent.

Torematti Arjuna. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. Arjuna. P¡rtha. Neermatti. short in inner and laminated in outer part. traversed by phloem rays. companion cells. Sajada Arjuna Matti. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. a large deciduous tree. Kellemasuthu. Mattimora. Mathichakke. Arjuna (St. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. fracture. Bilimatti. in the middle and outer phloem region. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. consisting of sieve tubes.5 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha.2-1. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface.8. curved. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. channelled to half quilled. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. (Fam. bitter and astringent. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter.& A. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. flat. 0. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.Bk.) Combretaceae). Vellamaruthi. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. recurved. taste. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10.

measuring 5-13 µ in diameter.2.6.2. round to oval. compound of 2-3 components. 2. Appendix 20 per cent.2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . alata). H¤dya.7. sometimes upto 5 components.in dia.Reddish-brown. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. Appendix 2. H¤droga. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. DOSE . 4-12 cells high. elliptic. Arjuna Gh¤ta. Appendix 25 per cent. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. fibres.3.. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. KÀatakÀaya. shows fragments of cork cells. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. starch grains simple and compound. round to oval. uniseriate phloem rays. a few rhomboidal crystals. Prameha. Pittahara.4.. 2. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T.3-6 g. elliptical.Medoroga. Appendix 20 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. Vra¸an¡¿ana. alternating with fibres. IDENTITY. Vya´ga. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 18 . µ Powder . T¤À¡.2. Kaphahara.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. 2. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma..2.2. Vra¸a. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form. mostly simple. Appendix 1 per cent.

Bhallataka (Fr. drupaceous. 30-40 layers thick.) Anacardiaceae). Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. smooth. Fruit . mesocarp and endocarp. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. mesocarp a very broad zone. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. dark brown. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. 19 . nut 2. shining with residual receptacle. Nallajidiginga Baladur. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki.9. Scramkotati Nallajidi.5-3 cm long. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. obliquely ovoid. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. (Fam.

P¡cana. Powder . KuÀ¶ha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 5 per cent. Kaphahara.F. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Krimi. 2.Dark-brown.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Tikta. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. 2.I. DOSE .A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Appendix 2. very much elongated radial walls. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢.2. innermost prismatic.2. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. Graha¸¢. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.3. IDENTITY. Part-I 20 .2.6. Ën¡ha. 2. Snigdha. Appendix 0.4..2. Bhedi. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2 g. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. chloroform. Note . Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Appendix 4 per cent.2. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. ether.Ar¿a. Ka¶u..5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Gulma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . being highly thickened.7. Chedi.2. V¡tahara. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Appendix 11 per cent.1.

greyish.3 cm wide. sessile to subsessile. sub-entire. Bh¤´ga.50 cm high. a number of secondary branches arise from main root.2.2 . a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. cylindrical. Bhringaraja (W. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Keshavardhana. often rooting at nodes. white. 1.2 . usually oblong. upto about 7 mm in dia. erect or prostrate. Bhangro Bhangara. Tekar¡ja. Gurugada. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.10. Bhringiraja.Herbaceous. occasionally brownish. scarcely as long as bracts. lanceolate. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. occasionally rooting at nodes. (Fam. spreading. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja.5 cm long. Soppu. rough due to oppressed white hairs. Asteraceae). together on unequal axillary peduncles. cylindrical or flat.Opposite.8. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. Kesuriya. Kesari -Bhangaro. node distinct. Knnunni Bhangra. Karisalai Guntakalagara. Karisalanganni. disc flowers 21 . branched. ray flowers ligulate. obtuse or acute. Flower .Well developed. sub-acute or acute.) herbaceous annual. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja.P. greenish.. ligule small. strigose with oppressed hairs.Solitary or 2. Stem . M¡rkava. not toothed. involucral bracts about 8. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. 30 . Leaf . herbaceous. strigosely hirsute. much branched. ovate.

parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. dark brown. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . fibre tracheids. drum-shaped.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. Leaf- Petiole . a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends.Achenial cypsella. with very pointed tips. and with pointed apical cell. in macerated preparation vessels small. one seeded.0. xylem ray distinct. Seed . ovary inferior. pitted. epidermis followed by wide cortex. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. tangentially elongated cells. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces.2 . parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. trichomes of two types. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. simple. rarely slightly oblique. covered with striated cuticle.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. traversed by xylem rays. ray cells pitted. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. Fruit . run straight in tangential section. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. cuneate. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. unilocular with one basal ovule. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. fibres and xylem parenchyma. found scattered throughout wood. warty. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. brown. stamen 5. phloem rays broader towards periphery. with a narrow wing. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. free. epidermis followed by cortex. Midrib . pappus absent. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. filaments epipetalous. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped.1 cm wide. uniseriate. covered with warty excrescences.0.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. externally covered with cuticle. pistil bicarpellary. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle.tubular. corolla often 4 toothed.25 cm long. consisting of rounded cells. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. 0. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. 1-5 celled. fibre tracheids. non-glandular. vessels numerous. b) Microscopic Root . xylem composed of vessels. hairy and non endospermic.

in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. pointed. the cork where formed. Lamina . endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. externally covered with cuticle. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells.8 -4.5. arranged in tangential strands. stomatal index 20. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina.5 on upper and 23. 23 . anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. externally covered with cuticle.collenehymatous cells on both sides. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. xylem consists of large number of vessels.Dark green.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. endarch. pointed tips and pitted walls. pitted with spiral thickening. normally biseriate and uniseriate. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length.0-22. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. Powder . xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. septa thick-walled. while the section cut at apical region.5 -26. some elongated with simple perforations.0 on lower surface. trichomes entire or in pieces. palisade ratio 3. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. about 3 celled. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. xylem fibres with wide lumen. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. epidermis single layered. middle cells longest. pericyclic fibres distinct. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. secondary cortex composed of large. uniseriate. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. vascular bundles in a ring. collateral. peg-like outgrowth. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. warty. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. wide at the base. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. more abundant on lower surfaces. Stem . 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. hairs stiff. a few often bifurcate and a few other large.shows a dorsi ventral structure.

CakÀusya. Ëmahara. Appendix per cent.7. Tekar¡ja marica. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. ViÀahara.2. Yak¤droga.2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. 24 .Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila.IDENTITY. DOSE . áirah á£la. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¡sa. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. 2. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.36 g. Kaphahara. Tvacya. 2.2. Tikta RukÀa. V¡tahara. K¤miroga. 12 . Appendix 2.2.4. of the drug in powder form for decoction.2. Dantya. H ¤droga. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.3. Appendix per cent.3 .Alkaloids. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya.2. Ecliptine and Nicotine.áotha. Ke¿ya. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ras¡yana.6 ml of the drug in juice form. Appendix per cent. áv¡sa.6. P¡¸·u. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. Appendix per cent.

Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. 1-2 cm long. wiry. 25 . Leaf . about 1-2 mm thick. succulent.Small.Thin. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi.& K. taste. found throughout India in wet and damp places. Valabrahmi.Thin. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. sessile. soft. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Herpestis monnieria (LiM. nodes and internodes prominent. green or purplish green. a glabrous.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Stem . small. Flower .) H. small.Capsules upto 5 mm long.) Wettst. Fruit . Syn.Simple. axillary and solitary. ovoid and glabrous. opposite. pedicels 6-30 mm long. decussate. bracteoles shorter than pedicels.11. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. obovate-oblong. slightly bitter.B. Ondelaga. (Fam. green. prostrate or creeping annual herb. Brahmi (W. Brahmi.P. Scrophulariaceae). slightly bitter.. branched creamish-yellow. glabrous.

3. vascular ring continuous. Appendix 2. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. b) Microscopic 26 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Medhya. round to oval. and 8. Matiprada. V¡tahara.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.0 µ in dia. Powder . IDENTITY.0 x 2. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Tikta. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. ËyuÀya. Svarya. no distinct midrib present.2. pericycle not distinct.2. glandular hairs sessile.2.0-14. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. 2.6. endodermis single layered. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent.Shows a single layer of epidermis. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. Appendix per cent.Root . shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. round and oval starch grains.7. Stem .Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces.5-9. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent.2. 2. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. respectively. measuring 4-14 µ in dia.. endodermis single layered.2. starch grains simple.2.4.Yellowish-brown. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. simple. Appendix per cent. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. glandular hairs. cortex having large air cavities. ViÀahara. 2. Ras¡yana. Praj¡sth¡pana.

Ratnagiri Rasa. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE .KuÀ¶ha.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. S¡rasvata C£r¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. áopha. Jvara. Prameha. P¡¸·u. 27 .1-3 g in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES . Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.

a number of secondary roots and their branches present.8 m high. phloem parenchyma much abundant. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani.Shows thin cork composed of 5 .12. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root . mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region.9 layers of thin-walled. 1-2. Badikateri Kirugullia. short and splintery. much branched perennial under shrub. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. cylindrical. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Brihati (Rt. oval and tangentially elongated cells. Solanaceae). Heggulla..15 layers of thin-walled. no distinct odour and taste. upto 1. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. parenchyma and stone cells. varying greatly in shape and size. traversed by phloem rays. cork cambium single layered. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. a very prickly. (Fam. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata.5 cm in dia. secondary cortex composed of 5 . stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. pale yellowish-brown. Ubhibharingani. woody. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . Papparamulli. Chichuriti. fracture. ribbed. long. Putirichunda Dorli.

Agnim¡dya. Powder . occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. fibres and xylem parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits.7.5 .2.5 per cent. Kaphahara. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. cells radially elongated and pitted. 2. P¡cana.2. aseptate fibres. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent.4.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . simple and rounded to oval starch grains. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. Jvara. phloem and medullary rays.2. traversed by xylem rays. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex..11. measuring 5. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.á£la. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.2. tracheids.6. all elements being lignified. xylem rays uni to biseriate. H¤droga. V¡tahara.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.6 µ in diameter.2.5 -11. Appendix 2. of the drug for decoction.3. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. thick-walled. rounded to oval starch grains.2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. 2. shows groups of thin-walled.Cream coloured. parenchymatous cells.6 µ in diameter. vessels with simple pits. DOSE . IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS . measuring 5.10-20 g. H¤dya. 29 . áv¡sa. 2. Appendix Not more than 6. 2. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .

cork cambium not distinct.. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. a glabrous. P. plenty of simple starch granules present. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces.13. consisting of round. b) Microscopic Stem . P. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. secondary cortex a wide zone. acrid. taste. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. Chavya (St. oval to rectangular.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. fracture. cylindrical and somewhat twisted.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. greyish-brown. odour. thin-walled. (Fam. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. short. chaba Hunter non Blume. fibres and xylem parenchyma. peppery. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. Piperaceae). Chavya -Kattumulaku. tracheid. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. officinarum DC. fleshy climber. nodes and internodes distinct. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi.5-2. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. brownish cells. endodermis single layered. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. Syn.0 cm in width. cultivated mainly in Southern India.

THERAPEUTIC USES .Greyish-brown.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. 2.7. shows fragments of vessels. Ën¡ha.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix 10 per cent. fibres and simple.3.2. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. of the drug in powder form. cells thin walled. Appendix 6 per cent. Kaphahara.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.pitted and reticulate thickenings. Gulma. P¡cana. 2. Appendix 3 per cent. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Glycosides and Steroids. medullary rays multi seriate. 2.1-2 g. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. 31 .2.Ar¿a. Udara Roga.4. RukÀa. Powder . Recana. D¢pana.5 per cent. Krimi. starch grains.6. CONSTITUENTS . measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. á£lal DOSE .Alkaloids. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. round to oval starch grains. Pl¢h¡ Roga. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. round to oval. Appendix 1. filled with simple.

6 cm long.5-0. round to oval.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled.1-0. endosperm absent. Seed . Maadalai. 0. Powder .Reddish-brown. Dadima (Sd.14. round. 32 . containing a few oil globules. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. taste. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. angular. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. thin walled. wedge-shaped. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree.2 cm wide. (Fam. sweetish-sour. found growing wild in the warm valley.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. consisting of oval to polygonal. oval. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. cotyledons coiled. shows stone cells. Punicaceae). oil globules. triangular and rectangular.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. beneath this. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. simple. 0. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. starch grains present in testa. Madalam Danimma Anar. parenchymatous cells. LohitapuÀpa.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

size variable.7-2 cm 37 . about 0. serrate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. white. 10 dentate with a villous throat. smooth. fracture. pungent. Dronapushpi (W.9 m in high. hairy on upper part. Stem . acute.Yellowish-green.2-1. 1-2. Leaf .Light greenish-yellow. quadrangular with four prominent furrows.5 cm across.lanceolate. globose.6-0. glabrous in lower part. corolla. Inflorescence . taste. crenate. crowded in dense. 3-9 cm long. thin. (Fam. erect. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. Gumma. slightly curved.3-0. taste. scaberulous. upto 4 mm thick. fine rootlets. slightly bitter.) Lamiaceae). surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. long with numerous wiry.5 cm long and 0. characteristic. ciliate. 1-2. surface rough.P. about 2-3.16. ovate or ovate. tubular. 1. nodes and internodes distinct. more or less pubescent. fibrous.Cylindrical. stout herb.Sessile. calyx. zig-zag.25 cm long.5 cm wide. taste. lanceolate. an annual. white.35 cm wide. 1. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. subacute. hairy.

oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. tracheids. vascular bundles 4. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. Lamina . parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. irregular. smooth. cortex consisting of single layered. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes.long. thin-walled. Leaf- Petiole . xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. wooly. fibres and xylem parenchyma. consisting of barrel shaped. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. round to angular collenchyma. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. tracheids. trigonous.3 cm long and 0. Stem . parenchymatous cells. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. xylem consists of vessels.shows a single layered epidermis. some having simple pits. bilipped. followed by round to oval parenchyma. Fruit . thin-walled cells. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. parenchymatous cells. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. composed of oval to rectangular. secondary xylem consists of vessels. dark brown. endoderm is single layered.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. brown. parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma.vascular bundle arc-shaped. oblong.tangentially elongated. tangentially elongated. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. upper lip about 4 mm long. thin-walled 38 .7 layered. b) Microscopic Root . lateral lobes small.Schizocarpic carcerule. Midrib .Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. upto 8 cells high. secondary cortex 5-9 layered.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. present in centre. consists of a single layered epidermis. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. palisade single layered. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular.1 cm wide. thin-walled cells. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. nutlets 3 mm smooth.0. Seed . vessels long with spurs. 4 .

present on both surfaces. RukÀa.Dull yellow.áotha.Alkaloid. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. Agnim¡ndya. ViÀamajvara DOSE . 39 .4. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. Powder .2. 16. V¡takara.1-3 g of the drug in powder form.5 on lower surface. stomatal index 16. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittakara. Appendix 2. Bhedani.2.6-30. a few veins present in this region. palisade ratio 7-9. aseptate fibres. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.cells.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.6-40. Glycoside.6. THERAPEUTIC USES . pitted and spiral vessels. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . stomata diacytic. 2. Ka¶u Guru.2. K¡sa. K¡mal¡. IDENTITY. Lava¸a.2. Tamaka áv¡sa.2. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.3.7. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells.2. 2.7 on upper surface.

C. glossy. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. rounded and tangentially elongated. B¤hatphala. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. Vellarika Kakadi. -Kakur. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. Ervaru (Sd. covered with thick cuticle. cultivated in many parts of the country.17. (Fam. parenchymatous cells. 0. Cucurbitaceae). cotyledons two. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. Hastipani. mesophyll cells thinwalled. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. shows stone cells. straight. radially elongated to squarish. 40 . thin-walled. utilissimus Roxb. more or less ellipsoid.7-10 cm long.3-0. Karka¶¢. surface smooth. sweetish oily. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. parenchymatous. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. creamish-yellow. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. an annual creeping herb. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic.4 cm wide. 0. Hastipani.

(366 mm). T.5 per cent. D¢pana.26. Pittahara. 0.3-6 g.97 (all grey). G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. 0.19. of seeds.V.77.91 and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. Appendix 5 per cent.91 and 0.97 (all yellow) .51.35. 2.C. Jvara. A¿mar¢. Rucya. 0.35.26.0. Appendix 2. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. 0.2.0.64. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 10 per cent.2.91 (blue) under U. Gulma.77.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. RaktadoÀakara. THERAPEUTIC USES . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Raktapitta.2. 0.19.51. 0.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0. 0.83. 0.L.0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Appendix 0. V¡takara.Oil & Sugars.C. 0.2. Kaphakara.IDENTITY. 0.2. 2. Tikta Guru. 2. 0.3. 41 .4. 2. T¤À¸¡.7.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.58.D¡ha.58. 0.L.83. 0. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .64.

4 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Fruit . found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. 42 . Gajapippali (Fr. Seed .) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried.6 cm long. (Fam. brownish-grey.Kidney-shaped. rough and scaly. 0.5 cm thick. thin-walled. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .18. greyish-brown with a dent. odour and taste not disticnt.0-3. a large epiphytic climber. Orissa. smooth. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. 0. shiny.0-3. odour and taste not distinct. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2.3-0.4-0. cut surface has a central core.0 cm in diameter and 2. Araceae).Shows more or less loosely arranged.

measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. 2. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.C.Dark brown. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. IDENTITY. 2-4 layered. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.2-3 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.2. 2. 2. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. 2. oval to polygonal. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. Three spots appear at Rf. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.áiv¡gutik¡. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent.5 per cent.20. thin-walled. in extract (Phant) form.2.65 and 0. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .Glucosides viz. Malavi¿oÀana.27.2. Ka¸ha Roga. 0. V¡tahara. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. 0. thick-walled. 0. 43 . 0. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.C. Stanya.2.Seed . numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.2. T.93 (all blue) are visible. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.6.73 and 0. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. K¤miroga.65.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. Powder . 0. 2. oval to polygonal.73 and 0. 0. áv¡sa. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Punarnav¡sava. non-lignified. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. thick-walled. 0.V.L.Shows a single layered. pitted and with concentric striations. Appendix T.93 (brown).4.73 (both light brown) and 0.93 (all yellow).27.65.2. Agnivardhaka. Sugars & Fixed Oil. Kaphahara.L.3. shows lignified.7. oval to polygonal. 0.65. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.Atis¡ra. CONSTITUENTS . DOSE . Ka¸¶hya.

sometimes one seeded. parenchymatous cells. 0.) unarmed tree. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. Sr¢par¸¢. surface smooth. taste.A drupe. cotyledons consisting of single layered.0 cm long.6 cm wide.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. (Fam. sweetish sour. thin-walled. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. oily. multilayered. Verbenaceae). P¢takarohi¸¢. b) Microscopic Fruit . Shivani. fleshy mesocarp. tangentially elongated. seed coat thin. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. two seeded. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. Seed . radially 44 .Seed ovate. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. K¡¿marya.5-2.19. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. Seed . crinkled. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani.5-1 cm long. light yellow. 0. 1. papery.4-0. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. ovoid. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . Gambhari (Fr. taste. Hannu -Kumbil. black. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. thin-walled cells.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. parenchymatous cells.

1-3 g. Appendix 8 per cent.2. KÀata.Butyric acid. 0.98 (orange). 0. Appendix 0.03. Under U.V.98 (all yellow). 2. H¤droga. THERAPEUTIC USES .. 0. Ke¿ya. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. IDENTITY.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Amla. 0. T. of the drug in powder form. T¤À¸¡.L. 2. Rakta Pitta DOSE . 0. 0.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. Appendix 25 per cent. Appendix 2. Sara.4. CONSTITUENTS . H¤dya. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. 0. 45 . Medhya. M£trak¤cchra.4 per cent.2.94 and 0.6. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. 2.18. Powder . On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. KÀaya.elongated epidermal cells. KaÀ¡ya Guru. V¡tahara. Ras¡yana. oil globules and aleurone grains.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.98 (all blue). Pittahara. 0.7.08.Blackish-brown. Alkaloid. 0.2. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.12.52.D¡ha.26. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Resin and Saccharine.L.03.42. 0.22.Arvind¡sava.2. 2.98 (yellow) in visible light. 0. Tartaric acid. Appendix 6 per cent.93 and 0. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. shows stone cells.2.3.

thick-walled. arranged in radial groups. Grewia populifolia Vahl. taste. fibrous. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. external surface smooth. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals.5-5 cm long. (Fam. mucilaginous. fracture. oval. blunt tips and moderately long in size.) Aschers & Schwf.20. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. a few stone cells. consisting of tangentially elongated. 46 . a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. moderately large in size. consisting of 12-20 layered. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Gangeru (St. fibrous.Bk. light yellow. rectangular. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen.Shows a wide cork. thin-walled. 1. Syn. channelled. Tiliaceae).6-1. parenchymatous cells. elliptical. a shrub 0.. radially arranged cells.0 m high. secondary cortex wide. traversed by wide phloem rays. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces.

68 & 0.41. 2. of the drug in powder form. 0. 2. 0.08. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.48 (violet).C. DOSE . α-amyrin. Appendix per cent. 2.).6. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.J¢rak¡di Modaka. Amla.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. CONSTITUENTS .2.55 (blue) & 0. 0. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles.3.17.4.29 (blue). Two spots are seen at Rf.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 2. Ka¶u. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.55.2.68 (light violet) & 0. 0. 0. 0.48. T.2.88 (light violet). Appendix 2. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.35 (violet).2-3 g. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10).2. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. 47 . KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara.Sugar. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. 0. 0.35. 0. 0. β-amyrin etc. Pittavik¡ra.Powder .27. IDENTITY.08 (violet). 0.Vra¸a.2. 0.17.27 (light violet).88 (all yellow). 0.64 (blue).7. Under U.08 (blue) 0.61.35 (dark blue). 0. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .13 (blue). THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Appendix per cent. 0.C.V.L.Light yellow and fibrous.L. Tikta. Appendix per cent.17 (light violet). 0.

flowering in August-September. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. Kakananti Rati Kunch. Chanothee. Kundumani Guriginga. most often irregularly curved. light brown. thinwalled.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. some with brownish content. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. Gurivinda Ghongchi. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. becoming mildly bitter. gulagunja -Kunni. bark thin. pitted walls. fruits ripen during winter. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. b) Microscopic Root . exfoliating in small flakes. feebly sweetish. odourless. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. (Fam. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. taste. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. when distinct. spreading throughout the plains. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. smaller than stone cells. cylindrical. Gunja (Rt. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. Ghungchi Guluganji. slightly corky. soft. present at short intervals. composed of 1-2 cells wide.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. cork cambium. Chonotee Ratti. simple or branched. Fabaceae). secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 .21. a climber. tangentially elongated cells.

in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. shows fragments of cork. CONSTITUENTS . stone cells. IDENTITY. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. Appendix 9 per cent.3.75 µ in diameter. 2.6. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. small groups of sclerenchyma. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. xylem vessels with pitted walls.75 µ in diameter.2.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.2. Appendix 2. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. Tikta á¢ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. vessels of varying sizes with thick. thin-walled and rectangular. parenchyma thin-walled.5 -13. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 4 per cent. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes.7.Greyish-brown. áula. 2.1 . medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). pitted walls. wood composed of narrow concentric.5-13. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. Mukha¿oÀa. 2. 49 . annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. Powder .Indralupta.2. numerous xylem fibres. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.5 per cent.2.2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.3 g. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. Appendix 2.diverging towards periphery. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. Pittahara.

characteristic. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. Ikshu (St. Poaceae). more numerous and closer towards periphery. taste. cylindrical. closed type of vascular bundles. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn.) shrub. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. b) Microscopic Stem . distinct node and internode. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. lignified. scattered throughout the ground tissue. smooth. (Fam. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. odour. 50 . conjoint. juicy and sweet. solid.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. with. besides the xylem and phloem elements. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. Serdi Ikha.22. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow.

M£tra KÀaya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¤Àya.Sucrose. 51 .200 . Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. shows pieces of epidermis. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.2. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.4.400 ml in the juice form. 2.3. Pittahara.Powder . Sara.Powder light brick red.7.5 per cent. Appendix Not more than 2. Kaphahara.2. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. IDENTITY.2. V¡tahara. ground tissue. 2.2.6.2. vessels and sclerenchyma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.Bal¡ Taila. Balya. 2.Raktapitta. DOSE . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.2. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .

an annual or perennial. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. mostly simple or rarely 52 . parenchymatous cells. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. a few filled with dark brown contents. Tuntikai. Varithummati.5-7. intensively bitter. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Indravaruni (Rt. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. 0.23. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. Paythumatti. xylem forms bulk of root. thick-walled. áatakratulat¡. short. pitted. Bitter apple Indravaran. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. consisting of vessels. fracture. thin walled. Havumakke. taste. composed of sieve elements. Tumbi Paikamatti. Indrayan. parenchyma and medullary rays. b) Microscopic Root . Gav¡kÀ¢. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth.2-2. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. elongated with pointed ends. occurring throughout the country. parenchyma and medullary rays. fibres. lying around vessels. cylindrical. Indravaruni. Indravarana Gothakakucti. fibres aseptate. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. tangentially elongated cork cells. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. dull yellow. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. Valiya Pekkumatti. tangentially elongated.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular.) Cucurbitaceae). thick walled. Indrayanalata. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem.5 µ in dia. longitudinal fissures present. secondary phloem a narrow-zone.5 cm thick. slightly twisted. (Fam. Indramanoa.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn..800 m. oval. oval or roundish. b) Microscopic Powder .Brown coloured. 1 cm wide. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. taste. coriaceous covering. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. (Fam. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. Myrtaceae). found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. astringent. rounded starch grains. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. a large evergreen tree. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains.25. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. Jambu (Sd.. Eugenia jambolana Lam. cuminii Druce. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. brownish-black.) Skeels Syn. 1 cm long. E.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. 57 . Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Seed . thin-walled. smooth.

0.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Glycoside (Jamboline).3-6 g. Tannin.L.20. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0. DOSE . ViÀ¶ambhi. of the drug in powder form.7.IDENTITY. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.L. Pittahara. 2. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Amla.2.12.2. three spots appear at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 0. 2.Madhumeha. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.3. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. T.30 and 0.95 (all violet). 2. 2.6. CONSTITUENTS .95 (all yellow).2. 58 . RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 0.30 and 0.2. 0.4.2.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. Udakameha.V.20.95 and 0. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.C. Appendix 2.30 (blue).

stratified and reddish-brown. E. Neralamara -Njaval. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem.) Skeels Syn. Navval Sambu. lower cork thin and colourless. internal surface fibrous.Bk.5-2.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. Jam Jammu Naaval. Jambu (St. younger bark mostly channelled. oval to angular. elongated. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Myrtaceae). cuminii Druce.26. taste. a large evergreen tree. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. upper few layers thick. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . cork cambium not distinct.800 m. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. Raja Jambu Merale. and reddish brown. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. Jambuda Jomuna. fibres aseptate. short and splintery. forming a rhytidoma. (Fam. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Jambu.. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape.5 cm thick. light grey to ash coloured. 0. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. rough.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Jamu. and phloem rays. stone cells. fracture. astringent. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Mahamaram. Jamneralae.

2.2. Raktapitta. IDENTITY. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . 60 .2. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. round to oval starch grains.7. stone cells. single or in groups.U¿¢r¡sava. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.Atis¡ra. 2. V¡tala. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. measuring 5-11µ in diameter.6.Light brown. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Pittahara.3. aseptate fibres. reddish-brown content.region. Stambhaka. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.2. 2.4.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.2. DOSE . Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. round to oval starch grains. Appendix per cent. oval to angular. Appendix per cent.10-20 g. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. Appendix per cent. elongated. of the drug for decoction. Appendix 2. 2.

Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn.27. Euphorbiaceae). epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. thin-walled cells. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. oblong. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. 61 . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. Neervalam. b) Microscopic Seed . ovate. Nervala -Nervalam. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. filled with brownish content. (Fam. consisting of a large endosperm. kernel yellowish and oily. slightly quadrangular.) small evergreen tree. consisting of an epidermal layer. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. Japala. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Jayapala (Sd. Japal beej. Tinti·¢phala. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. 5-7 m high. dull cinnamon-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. slightly bent at middle. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. found throughout tropical India.Shows a hard testa. no marked odour. Neervalam Jepal. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle.

Resins & Phorbol esters. 0. IDENTITY. 62 .54 (yellow). Appendix 15 per cent.6.54 and 0. 0. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.2. 2.34.90 (all yellow).10.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. 0. Appendix 0. Appendix 3 per cent. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.C.4.Fixed oil. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.84 (brown).2. of the drug in powder form.5 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.L. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. 0.C.63 and 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.84 (all violet).7.34 (grey). 0. 0.2.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.Jvara. 0.2.V. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.29. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2. T. Powder . Vibandha DOSE .3. Udararoga. 0. Pittahara.6-12 mg. 2.2.White with black particles of testa.39. Appendix 7 per cent.49. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa.

mucronate to acuminate. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta.Syn. jayata Arinintajinamgi. Fabaceae).) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4.0-3.3-0. -Semp. linear. palisade single layered. Karijimangai. Lamina . opposite.8 cm wide. present on both surfaces. Arishimajingai. stomata anisocytic. a quick growing.) Merr. 1. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. 0.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. 63 . leaflets 6-16 pairs. glabrous.8-6 m high. Jalugu. (Fam. polygonal. Jayanti Jaita.5 cm long. very shortly stalked. 7. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound.shows single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings.3 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. Atti. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. entire. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Jay¡. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. consisting of thin-walled. short lived shrub. á£kÀma patra. pith small. aegyptiaca Pers.5-15. having secretory cavities in phloem. 1. oblong. S..28.7 layered round. paripinnate. Jayanti (Lf. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath.

Ratnagiri Rasa. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. 0.2.97 (yellow). IDENTITY.2.48.91 and 0. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.2.C. THERAPEUTIC USES . ViÀaroga.11.19. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. DOSE . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.29. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. 0.05.19.69. Appendix per cent.L. 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.29. palisade ratio 3.3.11. shows spongy parenchyma. palisade cells.Protein.05. 0.37.48. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.L. Ras¡yana.56 (all pink) and 0. 0. T.56. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Galaga¸·a. 0.V.91 and 0.05.2. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. 64 . 0.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.M£trak¤cchra. 0. 0.37.C. V¡tahara. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.3-6 g. 2. 0. Appendix 2. Powder . 0.2. 0.11. 0. 0.97 (all yellow). 0. 0.Dull green. 2.4. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.25-4. Pittahara.97 (all grey). 0.2. Calcium and Phosphorus. 0. 0.19.56.29.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 0. in powder form. 2. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.7.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

Gangunge beeja. brownish-orange. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . light to dark brown. colour. (Fam. surface generally smooth and. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. taste. collapsed. ripe seeds. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. seed without aril also prescent. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. bitter. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. a large climbing shrub.hard. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. odour. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. Jyotishmati (Sd. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.35 mm in breadth. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. unpleasant. Gangunge humpu.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. Celastraceae). Seed . followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.29.5-3.

Appendix 1. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.V. 2. Appendix 9 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).82 & 0. Kaphahara. (all blue) & 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.Oily.89 (all yellow).2. 0.89.2.54. 0.2.82.L. thin-walled.6. 0.54. 2. áirovirecanopaga.7.35.04. Appendix 20 per cent. Tikta Sara. 0.V.15. UÀ¸a. Appendix 6 per cent. stone cells. Appendix 45 per cent.C. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.82 (pink) & 0. dark brown.89 (both greenish blue).8 IDENTITY.94 (yellow) in visible light. Meddhya 66 . V¡tahara.5 per cent. 0. Appendix 2.94 (yellow). oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.63. Under U. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.35.3. 2.54 (both blue). Powder . light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.2.L. 0. 0.4. V¡maka.composed of polygonal. 0. 0. 0.Alkaloids. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. D¢pana.20.2. Oil and Tannins.C. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains.82. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. 0. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Virecaka.2. 0. 2.2. 0.

Sm¤tidaurbalya.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.V¡tavy¡dh¢. Oil : 5-15 drops. 67 . THERAPEUTIC USES . ávitra.Seed: 1-2 g.

a few cells with brown contents.Bk. rectangular cells. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. traversed by uni to triseriate. Kadambu Needam. Rubiaceae). Vellaikhadambu. Kadam Kadam. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. bitter. Syn.30. Kadamba (St. A. a deciduous. Kadavala. Vellai Kadambam. indicus A. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. some cells contain chlorophyll. (Fam. 68 b) Microscopic . Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. Priyka Roghu. elongated cells of phloem rays. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark.. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Kadappai. composed of thin-walled. large tree. Kadamba Nipo. Rich. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kadamba Kadamba. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Indulam. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. Kadamba mara. taste.

0.5 .1.2.2.4.57. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.31. V¡tahara. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.03. 0. 0.L.Alkaloids.70 (orange yellow). phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.2.C. Powder .Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. cells distinct and slightly elongated. DOSE .2.21. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. YonidoÀa. Appendix 5 per cent. fibres.3. THERAPEUTIC USES . and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. shows fragments of cork cells. T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5 per cent. Appendix 2.6. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. Appendix 3 per cent.79.13.2.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 0. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . companion cells and phloem parenchyma.90 (grey). Appendix 1. 0.83 and 0.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.0. 0.D¡ha. Appendix 9 per cent. 2.Brown. 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Vra¸aropa¸a. 0. phloem cells. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. 0.phloem fibres.64.7. 0.5 g. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. of the drug in powder form. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.5:10) shows under U. L C.79 (grey) and 0.2. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). 2. 69 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. Vra¸a. Raktapitta. Steroids.63 (yellowish grey). Lava¸a.

quite common in cultivated lands. filaments short.5 cm long and 2. 3-8 flowered cymes. 30-45 cm high.Erect. found throughout the country in dry parts. calyx 2-3 mm long. glabrous. extra-axillary. sub-umbellate. glabrous or pubescent. very slender. Stem . ganike. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. Pikachia.Simple. peduncles 6-20 mm long. yellowish. Kakamachi (W. road sides and gardens. anther 1. Manaththakkali. 2. externally smooth. flattened. oblong. pale brown. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. toothed or lobed. Ganikegida. Manitakkali. Ganikesopu. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. narrowed at both ends. ovary globose. obtuse notched at apex. white or pale violet.31. oblong. hairy in lower part. slender. Leaf .2-2. petiolate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. corolla 4-8 mm long. slightly woody and branched. thin. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. ovate or oblong. Flower . sinuate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 70 . Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. style cylindric.5-8.5 cm wide. Manatakkali. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood.25 mm long.) Solanaceae). bark thin. green. pedicels 6-10 mm long.P.5 mm long.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. (Fam. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. glabrous. 1.Small. a herbaceous annual weed. obtuse. hairy at base. five lobed.

covered with thick. single or with two or rarely 3 components. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4.25 µ in dia. yellow or black. tangentially elongated.5-8. covered with striated cuticle.. covering trichomes. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. composed of thin-walled. slightly striated cuticle. smooth shining Seed . a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. arc71 . 1. smooth. bicollateral. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. cortex of large.Fruit . vascular bundles-collateral. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. phloem consists of thin-walled. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. usually accompanied by fibres. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.5-11 µ in dia.. uniseriate. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. trichomes multicellular. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. Midrib . thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. central vascular bundle shallow. arcshaped. polygonal cells. yellow.A berry. starch grains. epidermis single layered. slightly elongated. obtuse. rays composed of thin-walled. measuring 2.' oval parenchymatous cells. filled with starch grains. 6mm in dia. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. compactly arranged. oval to round starch grains. parenchyma 4-6 layered. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. minutely pitted. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces.Discoid.Shows single layered. covered with striated cuticle. phloem rays uniseriate.. embedded in perimedullary zones. Stem .10 layered in angular parts. uniseriate. endoderrnis single layered. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. xylem rays homogenous. uniseriate. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. measuring 2. conjoint and open. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. LeafPetiole . epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. cambium 2-4 layered. radially elongated cells. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. internal phloem.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells.5 mm in dia. pith large. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. but 4. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. in small or large patches.

warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. 0. papery epicarp. 2. Under U. 2. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.2. Lamina . CONSTITUENTS . light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. T.Alkaloids and Saponins.Creamish-green. vein islet number 7-10.11 µ in diameter. Fruit . 034 and 0. palisade single layered.Shows thin. IDENTITY. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. a few broken pieces of pointed. Appendix 2.2.2.7.06 & 0.dorsiventral. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.6. palisade ratio 2-4. Appendix per cent. unicellular hairs.L. single. 0. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. 2.2. 2. 0. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit.2.3.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. epidermis with irregular outline.2. stomata anisocytic. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. present beneath palisade parenchyma. Appendix per cent. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C.C. Powder . a few vessels with spiral thickenings. Appendix per cent.V.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation.06 & 0.34 (both pink).97 (all yellow).4. both upper and lower epidermis single layered.34 (both brown) in visible light. measuring 2.5 .06. 72 . spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces.

DOSE . Ras¡yana. THERAPEUTIC USES . H¤droga. Pittahara. V¡tahara. Hikk¡. Rasar¡ja Rasa. KuÀ¶ha.5 -10 ml. Ar¿a. Prameha.áotha. H¤dya. Netraroga. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Chardi.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Jvara. Sara. Tikta Laghu. Svarya.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Kaphahara. Ka¸·u. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. of the drug in juice form. 73 .

74 . black. Kanwal Kamal. elliptic. seed hard. Kamal. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. anther. 2-4 cm long. comprising of calyx. 1. corolla. carpels many. Syn. Pamposh Tamarai. Aravindan. broken pieces also occur. crimpled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Chenthamara. Paduman. Kalh¡ra. Sarojam Kaluva. linear 1. 1. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. gynoceium apocarpous. dark brown. erect. androecium.4-2 cm long. embedded in a creamy. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Tavare.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. fruit an etaerio of achenes.. Sitopala. Nymphaeaceae). occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Kamalam. Thamaraipoo. obtuse.32. Tavaregedd -Tamara. extended into clavate appendages. free. petals numerous. (Fam. Kamala (Fl. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia.5-3 cm wide. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. membranous. Naidile. starchy and large. Venthamara.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 3-5 cm long. Padma. a large. finely veined. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. gynoecium and thalamus. yellowish-brown.3-2 cm wide. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Aravinda. sepals leaf-like. crimp led.

yellow pollen grains.6.2. two on either sides. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. ViÀavik¡ra. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle.shows four chambered anther. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled.12 -24 g. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. DOSE . Tikta. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. parenchymatous cells. THERAPEUTIC USES .filament appears circular in outline. spherical. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. spore sac contains yellow.Dusty brown. of the drug for decoction.2. composed of thin-walled. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. IDENTITY. Stamen Filament . 2. Pittahara. 2. ground tissue consisting of polygonal.2. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. columnar.b) Microscopic Flower Petal .7. angular. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.4.2.2. rectangular. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. 2. M£tra Virajan¢ya.2. parenchymatous cell. vascular bundle single.3.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. 2.Raktapitta. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. having smooth exine and intine. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. Appendix per cent. Visarpa. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. Anther . Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. Sant¡pahara.Aravind¡sava. . Powder . followed by ground tissue of oval.

shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn.33. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. reddish brown. slightly triangular and oval. a deciduous. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. glabrous tree with strong.shows irregular. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. Bilvara. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. parenchymatous cells.) Swingle. stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. straight. taste. Kavataleal. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. found in groups. semicircular. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. rough. Balada. thin-walled. axillary thorns. Powder . 76 . odour. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. sour. hard. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. F. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Pulp. elephantum Correa (Faro. Rutaceae). often cultivated in many parts of India. Kapittha (Fr. sharp. Siwalik range and forests. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. stone cells. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp .Reddish-brown. Syn. found throughout the plains of India. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. aromatic. Belalu. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. Haminamara -Vilar maram. Belada hannu.

Appendix 2.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.95 (all yellow). 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Lekhana.91 (violet) and 0.C. Ripe-T¤À¡.91 (grey) in visible light. Appendix per cent. 2. 0.3.L. 0. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. 0.6.1-3 g.91 and 0.14 (sky blue). of the drug in powder form. 0. Under U. Appendix per cent. Vra¸an¡¿aka.2. Amla. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.12 (brown). Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.95 (violet) . Agnim¡ndya. 77 . 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.95 (blue).Citric acid and Mucilage.50. CONSTITUENTS .50 (violet).2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. DOSE .4.C. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya.L. V¡mi.37. T. 6. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.37 (brown).7.V.06. Appendix per cent.2. Hikk¡. 0. Sangr¡h¢.IDENTITY. 0. 0.2. Pittav¡tahara.91 (blue) and 0.áv¡sa.2. Gr¡h¢.12. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KaÀ¡ya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. Unripe Pulp: Amla.2. 2.

sometimes cultivated. starch grains simple.) Apocynaceae). external surface brownish-grey. shows single and groups of stone cells. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. tubular. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. Karamarda (St.Bk. met throughout India in wild state. simple and compound starch grains. 78 . parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. (Fam . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. and compound having 2-3 components. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. rough due to longitudinal striations. flat or slightly curved pieces. internal surface grey and smooth. short. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. light in weight. b) Microscopic Powder .Greyish-brown. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells.34. fracture.

2.L.6. DOSE .58 (both light grey). 79 .IDENTITY. T. 0.7. Appendix per cent. 0.4.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .KuÀthahara. Appendix 2.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. 2.L.2. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. Pittakara. Appendix per cent. 2.V. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.97 (violet).2.52 (light sky blue). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. Appendix per cent. 0.90 (pink) and 0. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Appendix per cent.C.35.2.C.48 g. 0. of the drug for decoction.

Nakt¡hv¡. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.) Merr. fracture. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. taste. Bk. (Fam. thin-walled. 3-11 µ in dia. single cells of varying shape and size. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. tangentially elongated. tangentially elongated cells.. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. very bitter. P. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. traversed by phloem rays. due to peeling off. a glabrous tree. most of phloem 80 .35. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. Karanja (Rt. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. cells. internally. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels.) glabra Vent. fibrous. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. secondary phloem very wide. external surface rough. Syn. Naktam¡la. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Fabaceae). upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.

37 (greenish yellow). 0. consisting of thin-walled. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. most of ray cells contain starch grain. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf.09.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. phloem rays many.18 (blue) 0. 2. similar to those present in secondary cortex.98 (all yellow).31 (sky blue). Ëntravidradhi. of the drug for decoction.1-3 g.2. mostly straight.37. 0. Powder -Creamish-yellow. DOSE .K¤miroga. 0. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 81 . stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. cork cells. phloem fibres. shows thin-walled.13 (Sky blue). Ka¸·£ghna. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.V. ViÀaghma. V¡tahara.25 (sky blue).4.47. 2. 0. Tikta. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.47. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2.3.80 and 0.51.04 (blue).47 (greenish yellow).2. Prameha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 17 per cent.C. 0. 0.08 (greenish blue). radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. IDENTITY. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.5 per cent. Appendix 3.31. Pittahara. DuÀ¶avra¸a. 1-2 seriate.18. 0. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2 per cent. Ka¸·u. 2.L.80 (light blue).C. KuÀtha. 0.L. 0.2.6. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 11 per cent. Appendix 2.51 (light blue). similar to those present in secondary cortex. T. Yoniroga.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. 2. 0. 0. 0. 0.7.42 (sky blue).Flavones Kanugin.

consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. Syn. light in weight. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. internally light yellow. P. cells. consisting of 82 . bark does not easily separate from xylem. a glabrous tree. fracture. rough due to the presence of numerous. Nakt¡hv¡.) Vent. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. (Fam. bark.. Fabaceae). b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. reddish-brown or dull brown. rounded to oval in shape. bitter.36. irregularly distributed. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. 3-11 µ in dia. tangentially elongated. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size.. tangentially elongated cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Merr. 1-2 seriate. Karanja (Rt. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. taste. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. secondary phloem a very wide zone. Karaµjaka. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes.

Ëntravidradh¢. rounded to oval in shape. Ka¸·£. Appendix per cent. KuÀ¶ha. Powder -Light yellow. DOSE . Appendix per cent. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. tangentially elongated towards outer region.2.6. IDENTITY.Karanjin. Appendix per cent. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.radially elongated. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.2. Vidradh¢. Tikta. Kanugin. Demethoxy-kanugin.2. consisting of 2-3 components.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¤miroga.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Yoniroga. Kaphahara. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. 2. Pongachromene & Tetra-O.1-2 g.2.3. ViÀaghna. V¡tahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. of the drug in powder form. CONSTITUENTS . 2.2. Appendix per cent. 2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 2. starch grains. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Prameha. fibres and parenchyma. more. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely.4. Vra¸a¿odhana.7. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. Pittahara. tracheids. shows fibres in singles or groups. Appendix 2.Methylfisetin. thin-waned cells towards inner region. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. 83 .. THERAPEUTIC USES .Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja.2-1 cm thick. alternating with stone cells. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. tangentially elongated. unpleasant. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. short and fibrous. P. composed of rectangular.37. Fabaceae). a glabrous tree. b) Microscopic Bark . taste. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Syn. recurved. parenchymatous cells. Karanja. traversed by medullary rays. filled with reddish-brown content. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured.) glabra Vent. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. 84 . odour. usually 0. Nakt¡hv¡. Karaµjaka. arranged in a tangential manner. thick-walled cells. fibre small. thin-walled. phloem parenchyma. (Fam. more or less smooth.) Merr. phloem fibre and stone cells.. fracture. lenticellate pieces.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. Karanja (St. bitter. slightly quilled.Bk. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. at some places lenticels also appear.

rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. usually 2-4 cells wide. simple and compound starch grains. Ëntravidradh¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". of the drug in powder form. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. KuÀ¶ha. Ka¶u.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin.3. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. Appendix 18 per cent. 3" 7 : 8). Gamatin. Appendix 3 per cent. Ka¸·u. thin-walled and aseptate. CONSTITUENTS . K¤miroga. present in secondary cortex. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.4. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. IDENTITY.polygonal. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. 5Methoxyfurano (2". Vidradh¢. Appendix 1. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. oil globules.1-2 g. Kaphahara.2. 85 . 2. Pittahara.2. Tikta. medullary rays wavy. Pinnatin. ViÀaghma. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Appendix 2.DuÀ¶avra¸a. rounded to oval. Powder -Yellowish-cream.2. and rarely.2. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Yoniroga DOSE . 2. Appendix 13 per cent. 2.5 per cent. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. elongated.2.7. Demethoxy- kanugin. 3". Prameha. starch grains simple. 2. aseptate fibre and stone cells.. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows groups of rectangular to polygonal.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Kanugin.2.6. Pongapin. V¡tahara.

. epidermis single layered. 6. Karanja. Hulagilu -Pungu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji.3 cm wide.5 cm long and 3. a glabrous tree. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. isodiametric. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Pongana Ganuga.9-8. petiolule short.) Merr. dark green.5-0. Syn. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. xylem vessels arranged radially.8 cm. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. Karanja (Lf. Karaµjaka. 0.circular in outline. Kanajo Karuaini. cortex consisting of angular. 86 . Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule .38. consistig of tabular cells. (Fam. consisting of xylem and phloem. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Nakt¡hv¡. arcshaped. vascular bundle single. P. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Unu.2 .11. Fabaceae). glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. covered with cuticle. leaflets 2-3 pairs. Ungu.) Vent. Dithouri Honge. traversed by xylem rays.

Appendix 11 per cent. Tikta. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square.4. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. 5".2. 2.5-20. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. phloem and pith. mesophyll cells. palisade two layered.6. consisting of tabular cells. 2. collateral. vascular bundle. Appendix 3. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. Ka¶u. Appendix 10 per cent. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. V¡tahara. 2.shows single layered epidermis. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. shows spiral xylem vessels.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 16 per cent.5-50. covered with thick cuticle. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.A new Furanoflavone -3' .6. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.5) . palisade ratio 3. present in lower surface.2.3.5". stomata anisocytic. Kaphahara.2. Pittavardhaka. 2. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. stomatal index 12.6. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. 5" .5 per cent.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. 7) -flavone. cortex consists of round to oval. Powder -Green. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. .(4".6.Mid rib . Appendix 2. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . Ka¸·ughna.2.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". K¤imihara.2.

J¡ty¡di Taila. 88 . DOSE .For external use only.K¤miroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. Vra¸a. Ka¸·au. THERAPEUTIC USES .

surface rough.2. pendulous.6 per cent. oblong.4. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. Kathilla. Karavallaka (Fresh.2. 2. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. 2.2.Fr. taste. extremely bitter. 2. Appendix 0. Kakiral. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 .2. usually pointed or beaked.5 .2. Nil Appendix 8.3. Appendix 6 per cent.) Cucurbitaceae). Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. Varivall¢. 3 valved at the apex when mature. Appendix 28 per cent.2. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa.5 per cent. upto an altitude of 1500 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.25 cm long. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. 2.6.39. fusiform. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. (Fam. K¡ravall¢.7.

46. 0. 0.50.10 .60. H¤dya. 0.67 and 0. Raktavik¡ra. 90 .98 (red & sky blue). 0.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 0. D¢pana. DOSE .98 (all blue). Jvara.V. 0. Aruci. 0.23 (red). RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . P¡¸·u. 0.17. Kaphahara.34.L.81 and 0. 0.61 (light sky blue). 0. V¡tahara.96 (sky blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U.43. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.75.C. KuÀ¶ha.C. 0. Prameha. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.T. K¤miroga. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . 0. K¡sa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.15 ml.98 (all yellow).L. 0.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. juice of fresh drug.16. K¡mal¡. T. 0.áv¡sa. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi.03.

5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. pleasant. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. straight or slightly curved. fracture.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. cortex single layered or absent. Root . straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. taste. short. cylindrical. b) Microscopic Rhizome . Katuku rohini. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Katuka rohini Kutki.40. inner surface black with whitish xylem. 0. Tiktarohi¸¢. (Fam. Scrophulariaceae). bitter. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. fracture. primary cortex persists 91 . 5-10 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. short. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. suberised cells.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. pleasant. externally greyish-brown. kaur Katuka rohini. subcylindrical. dusty grey. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. Kaurohi¸¢. Rohi¸¢.1 cm in diameter. Katki. bitter.Thin. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. Sutiktaka. . odour. a perennial.05-0. cork cambium 1-2 layered. Kauka. Kav¢. odour. taste. mostly attached with rhizomes. Katuka (Rz.2. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles.

IDENTITY. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. thick-walled.30 (blue) and 0. tracheids. parenchyma. simple round to oval. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. Appendix per cent. 0. Appendix per cent. 0.17.2. 0. hypodermis single layered.2. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. starch grains. 0.Dusty grey. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.30. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. 2. Appendix per cent. abundantly found in all cells. tapering ends.21. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. lignified. 0. thick-walled cells of endodermis. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. 0.05. measuring 25 . consisting of oval to polygonal.V. 0. parenchyma and fibres.104 µ in diameter.. cambium 2-4 layered. Appendix per cent. 2. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls.72 and 0.6. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. tracheids long. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. cortex 8-14 layered.3. vessels have varying shape and size. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U.17. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. 0.41 and 0. 0. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.37.C. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.84 (all brownish grey).2. 0. 0. thick-walled.in some cases. simple round to oval. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. thick-walled. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.10.35 (green). 0. parenchymatous cells. 0.62. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. Appendix 2.2. secondary xylem consists of vessels.05 (blue). tracheids. some cylindrical with taillike.84 (all yellow).L.L. T.C. shows groups of fragments of cork cells.4. 2. 0. thick-walled.21.2. 0. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Powder . secondary phloem poorly developed. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. starch grains. 92 .7.10.41.30. fibres aseptate.2.

THERAPEUTIC USES . 93 . Bhedin¢. D¢pan¢. Jvara. Arocaka. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. ViÀamajvara. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. K¡mal¡.3 g.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Pittahara. DOSE .Glucoside (Picrorhizin). Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sarvajvarahara Lauha. D¡ha.1 . of the drug in powder form. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.CONSTITUENTS . KuÀ¶ha.áv¡sa.

stout. a spiny.41. sub-quadrangular. subsessile. Nirchulli. Kalsunda --Golmidi. Nirguvireru. all linear-lanceolate.Yellowish-brown. calyx 4-partite. Kettu.3 cm long. externally greyish-brown. tube 1.Usually unbranched. widely 2 lipped. swollen at nodes. annual herb. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. no characteristic odour and taste. broader than the other three.5-1 cm wide. Syn.5 cm long.6 cm long.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. IkÀuraka. corolla 3. bracts about 2. abruptly swollen at top. Stem . Kokilaksha (W. Kolarind. lanceolate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. didynamous. with long white hairs. whitish to brown. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. stamens 4. common in water logged places throughout the country. Hygrophila spinosa T. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. 1-7 cm long.2 cm long. fasciculate.P. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. which are 1. Kolavankal ---.6-2 cm long. Vayalculli Talikhana. Flower . creamishbrown in cut surfaces. no characteristic odour and taste. 0.Acanthaceae). second pair 94 .Greenish-brown.Mostly adventitious. entire and hairy.Anders (Fam. Leaf . upper sepal 1. Culli. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . acute.

a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. arranged in radial rows. broader towards centre. arranged radially. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. vessels angular. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. with a number of large air cavities.15 cm wide. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex.2-0. composed of transversely elongate.1 . single or in groups of 2-3. xylem present in a ring. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. b) Microscopic Root . capsule about 0. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. hairy but appearing smooth. thin-walled. cortical cells thin-walled. compressed. pith large. Fruit . circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. brownish cells. rectangular to cubical. truncate at the base. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. ray cells thin walled. linear-oblong. style filiform.8 cm long.25 cm long and 0.Two celled. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. radially elongated in xylem region. radially arranged. 95 .Ovate. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. variable in size. glabrous. consisting of round to polygonal cells. fibre walls uniformly thickened. thin-walled cells. stigma simple. anthers two celled. pointed. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. round.larger. vessels with spiral thickenings. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. involute with a fissure on upper side. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. a few thick-walled. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. polygonal cells. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. light brown. endodermis single layered. ray cells thin-walled. subequal. flat or compressed. Stem . peripheral ones larger. having small intercellular spaces. composed of polygonal.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. Seed . 0. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. radially elongated in secondary xylem. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. phloem fibres thick-walled.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. 4seeded. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. pubescent. scattered throughout the phloem region. moderately thick-walled. phloem narrow. fibres thick-walled.0. filament quite glabrous. oblong. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. inner cells smaller. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells.

Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. IDENTITY. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. stomata diacytic. lignified. palisade. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. .7. 2. oval to hexagonal. Appendix per cent. Fruit . stomatal index 17. Amla.4.2.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface.75. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle.3.24-30. elongated fibres. tangentially elongated cells. Powder . V¡jikara. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. composed of thin-walled. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. 2. palisade ratio 6. shows aseptate. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. Seed .78. 2. Appendix per cent.Light brown. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. sclerenchymatous cells. parenchymatous. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. Appendix per cent.6. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. covered with thick cuticle. parenchymatous cells. Rucya. collenchyma 2-5 layered. V¤Àya.25-15. palisade 1-2 layered. vein islet number 17-42. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.Shows concavo-convex outline.2. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. thin-walled.2.LeafMidrib . unicellular hairs and globules. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. thick-walled. 2. Lamina . Tikta Picchila.2. Appendix 2.2. M£trala.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.

THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. Ëmav¡ta áotha. DOSE . 97 .3 -6 g.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .T¤À¸¡.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). V¡tarakta.

Syn. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. whitish to brownish. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. common in water logged places throughout the country. Culli --. stout. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. Kokilaksha (Rt. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. Hygrophila spinosa T. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Nerugobbi. the size of these cells. Kolavulike. Root-Appears circular in outline. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. thinwalled cells. secondary phloem narrow. branches on nodes. consisting of small. Kokil¡kÀ¢. annual herb. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. IkÀuraka. slightly transversely elongated. thin-walled.42. 98 . epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. a spiny. polygonal cells. no characteristic odour and taste. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha.Acanthaceae). a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Anders (Fam.

fibre walls uniformly thickened. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY.2. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . V¡tarakta.2. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. ray cells thin-walled. V¡tahara. Tikta Picchila.Light brown to ash coloured. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. radially elongated in the xylem region. Appendix per cent. A¿ma¤¢. shows fragments of pitted. Appendix per cent. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. Appendix per cent. 2.2. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent.2. each group composed of 2-6 cells. THERAPEUTIC USES . vessels with spiral thickening. broader towards centre. Amla.4.3. 99 .phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows.6. lignified fibres. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.Ëmav¡ta áotha. Appendix per cent. of the drug for decoction. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. scattered throughout the phloem region.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. M£trala. 2.3 -6 g. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. Powder . having spiral thickening.7. angular. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. 2.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.

thinwalled. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Powder . parenchymatous cells. Swelling Index . Hygrophila spinosa T.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. oil globules present in this region. Anders. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. (Fam. Kokilaksha (Sd. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. shows hairs and oil globules. a spiny. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.43. taste. Acanthaceae). when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi.8 -10. Syn. truncate at the base. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. white. Daruhuladur Darhald. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. IkÀuraka. hairy but appearing smooth. stout. light yellowish-brown. common in water logged places throughout the country. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. b) Microscopic Seed . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Maradarishina -Maramannal.Greyish-brown. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. the 100 . annual herb.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. flat or compressed. Maradarishana.

V¤Àya. 101 .31.2. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . enzymes like Diastase. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.10 (light brown). Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.31 (dark brown). 0.3 -6 g.52 and 0. 0.C.2.4. Add 25 ml of water.72 (dark brown).2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. 0.17 (light brown). IDENTITY.L. Lipase.03 (light brown). DOSE . Appendix per cent. 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. of the drug in powder form. 0. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. 2.V. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.6. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .2. related to 1 g of seeds.55 (light blue).An yellow semi-drying oil. 0. Pitt¡¿mar¢.24. 0.L. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. CONSTITUENTS . 0.áotha.3.03. V¡tarakta. 0. 0. including any sticky mucilage. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. T.38.2.76 (sky blue) and 0.41 (light blue). Appendix 2.93 (sky blue).52 (dark brown) and 0.24 (red). 0.17. Protease and an Alkaloid. Appendix per cent.72 (all yellow). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.24 (dark brown). Santarpa¸a.C. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. 0.38 (light brown)..Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. 0.

fracture. petals obovate. Loni -Koricchira. found throughout the country. Kwfa Pasalai. smooth and greenish-brown. -Baraloniya. Fruit . small. Paruppukkeerai. Common Indian Purslane Luni.35-0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . bright yellow.3 to 2. Flower . odour. rounded and truncate at the apex.3 cm long. surface smooth. Kozhuppa. Chhotalunia. 102 . cuneiform.P) Portulacaceae). Kulfa. style 5-6 fid. Doddagoni Soppu.2 cm in diameter.5 cm long and 0. Khurfa. Kozuppaccira Kurfah.Simple. Kuzuppa (W.1 to 0. 3-4 leaves. secondary roots.Almost cylindrical. Stem . ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas.4 cm long. swollen at the nodes. 0. 0. at terminal heads. Badi Lona Dudagorai.4 cm long. subtended by an involucre. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6.6 cm wide. very delicate and soon falling off. Ghola -Lonak. 0.44. spathulate.A few.5 cm long. Gho¶ik¡. sepal 0. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. short. Loni. root hairs abundant in upper region. stamens 8-12. Peddapavila Kura. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Pulikkirai. 50 cm long. ribbed.1 to 0. branched. Leaf . less in number. oblique. fracture.An ovoid capsule. Lonika. Moti Luni Khursa. sub-sessile.25-0. dehiscing above the base. (Fam. Baranunia Garden Purslane. Loni. brownish-grey. oblong. Badanuni. characteristic. an annual succulent. Payilikura.Cylindrical. short. 0. Kozhuppu Pappukura. prostrate herb. Kozuppa.

pericycle fibre present in patches.7. secondary xylem composed of vessels.Seed -Numerous. Appendix per cent.3. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. Stem . Appendix per cent. phloem. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. black. having 2-3 components. tracheids and parenchyma. parenchyma abundant. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. simple as well as compound. minute. b) Microscopic Root . rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent.2. ray cells and pith. Appendix per cent. present in mesophyll cells.07 cm across. parenchymatous cells. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen.4.2. oval cells. fragments of cork cells. with reddish-brown content in a few cells.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. 2. parenchymatous cells. tracheids.06-0.2. Lamina . Appendix 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. as well as compound. covered externally with a thick cuticle. 2.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled.6. shows groups of oval to polygonal. having simple pits and spiral thickening. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. reniform. 2. dark brown. solitary or in groups of 2-5. Appendix per cent. secondary xylem consists of vessels. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. tracheids and parenchyma.Wavy in outline. . secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. pitted and spiral vessels. LeafMidrib . palisade single layered. Powder . phloem and xylem parenchyma. 0. thick-walled with wide lumen.Greyish-brown. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. thin-walled.Shows 5-15 layers of cork.2. IDENTITY. arranged in radial rows.2. having intercellular spaces. measuring 6-14 µ . stomata paracytic type. 2. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. oval. vessels.. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents.

0.3 . áotha. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.61. 0.V. 0. 0. RukÀa. CakÀuÀya. T. of the drug in powder form. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.10. 0.C. Vra¸a DOSE .. Pittakara.L.08.76 (all pinkish red). 0.Agnim¡ndya. 104 . 0. 0.50.T. 0.41.10.68 (yellow) and 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.L.41. Prameha.76 (green) in visible light. 0. Under U. Carbohydrates.76 and 0. Gulma. 0.68. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.10. 0.6 g. (both green).Protein.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .08. 0. V¡tahara. Ar¿a.Marma Gu¶ik¡.C. 0.68 and 0.52.52 (both faint green).

covered with long. external surface light brown. Leaf . Machikegida. obliquely rounded at base. Adamalati Lajaka. Lajjalu (W. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Stem .3-0.week bristles longitudinally grooved. upto 2 cm thick. tapering. acute.5 cm in dia. bark fibrous. hairy pinnae. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. petiolate.Cylindrical. Var¡kr¡nt¡. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. Lajavanti. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. rependant . Lajamani Chhuimui. with secondary and tertiary branches. internal cut surface grey. Fabaceae). bark fibrous. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. nearly glabrous. 0. woody. greyish brown to brown. linear lanceolate. sparsely prickly. distinct. 0. stipulate. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. fracture hard.4 cm broad. upto 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. yellowish-green.Cylindrical. slightly astringent. (Fam.2 cm long. odour.45. varying in length. 105 . Lajauni Muttidasenui.P) diffused undershrub. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. 25-50 cm high.6-1. easily separable from wood. sensitive to touch. alternate. sessile. taste.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile.

2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. a number of lignified. in globose head.Lomentum. much exserted. thick-walled. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia.Flower . stamens 4. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. Stem . phloem fibres single or in groups. b) Microscopic Root .Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. ovate oblong. tangentially elongated cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. scattered throughout secondary xylem. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. oval-elliptic. arranged in tangential bands. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. peduncles prickly. parenchymatous cells. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. pith consisting of polygonal. moderately thick-walled.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays.Compressed. crystal fibres elongated. 1-1. 0. 2-3 seriate more common. calyx very small. secondary cortex wide. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. 0. corolla pink. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. fibres. brown to grey. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. crystal fibres thick-walled. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. glabrous. Fruit . thick-walled. ovules numerous. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. spreading bristle at sutures.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. filled with reddish-brown contents. thick-walled. starch grains. 3-25 chambered. rarely multiseriate. phloem rays thick-walled. xylem rays radially elongated. scattered throughout. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents.Pink. ovary sessile. parenchyma. 0. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. simple. fibres of two types. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.4-0. respectively. radially elongated. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated.3 cm long. lobes 4. tangentially elongated to oval.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered.6 cm long.3 long. consisting of large. dry. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. 106 . Seed . fibres single or in groups. straw coloured.

0. 0. Appendix 2. 2. 0.Leaf- Petiole . reticulate. Midrib . T.Reddish-brown. 2.62.shows epidermis on both surfaces. covered with thin-cuticle. endocarp of thick-walled. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U.V.2.Shows single layered radially elongated cells.81 (bluish-pink).3. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix per cent.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular.2. shaggy hairs. crystal fibres. Lamina . Appendix per cent.69 (all blue) and 0.3 components IDENTITY.shows single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells Seed . upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. with 2 . spongy parenchyma single layered. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. 2. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. Fruit . single and compound starch grains.7. palisade cells non glandular.6. lignified cells followed by single layered. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. pericycle arranged in a ring. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . pitted vessels.4. parenchymatous cells.2. shows. branched.C.2. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. shaggy hairs. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. palisade single layered.L. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.35. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. 2. fibres. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. measuring 6-25 µ in dia.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. spongy parenchyma. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder . 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. vascular bundle single. branched. one in each wing.L. Appendix per cent.2.C. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells.2. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. pericycle same as in petiole.

Yoniroga. KuÀ¶ha. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Vra¸a. Raktapita DOSE . áv¡sa.35 (orange). CONSTITUENTS .35 and 0.áopha.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. Kaphahara. Atis¡ra.spots appear at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 108 .94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. 0. 0. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. D¡ha. Ku¶aj¡valeha.

Ippa.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J.5-2 cm long. Hippe. Madhuka (Fl. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Androecium . (Fam. reddish-brown. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. followed by thin-walled. Mahua Katiluppai. a few 109 . M. taste. and also cultivated. sweet. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. epipetalous and arranged in two series. Kattu Iluppai. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. basifixed. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Eppimara -Irippa.F. anther sub-sessile. ovate lanceolate. lanceolate. Madhuka. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. epipetalous. b) Microscopic Corolla . Ilippa. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. corolla fleshy. Halippe. erect 0. Mahawash tree Mahudo.Gmel.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Iluppa. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand.) Macbride. Syn. tabular. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). short. Sapotaceae) .46. Hippenara. latifolia (Roxb.

of the drug. 2. oval shaped. round.Dark brown.2.Madh£k¡sava. áramahara. Appendix 2. Appendix 25 per cent.5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.4.6. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. KÀata.2. Appendix 70 per cent. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. D¡ha. pollen grains single or in groups. Appendix 5 per cent.2. Pittakara. 2. árama DOSE .áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . 110 . lignified cells.2. Appendix 0. Powder . Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.unicellular hairs present on one side. Appendix 10 per cent.3. 2.15 g. IDENTITY. 2. Ah¤dya. T¤À¸¡. Balya.2. V¡tahara.2.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS .2. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. El¡di Modaka. tapetum not distinct.10 .9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KÀaya. unicellular hairs. shows fragments of epidermal cells. endothecium composed of radially elongated. 2.7. spherical.

. fracture. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. short.1. triandra Lam. Stem . cream to grey. 0. (Fam. Flower . no characteristic odour and taste. Br. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha.. short. Amaranthaceae). sessile.Cylindrical. A. obtuse or subacute. with spreading branches from the base.5-5 cm long. fracture. A. Syn. nodes and internodes distinct.5 cm long.3-7. or elliptic.47.3-2 cm wide. A. sometimes reaching 10 cm long.P. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. A. linear-oblong. internodes 0.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. Gandal¢.6 cm diameter. no characteristic odour and taste.1-0. bracteoles 111 . Br.Herbaceous. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. white often tinged with pink. Br. yellowish-brown to light-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. repens Gmel. 2. no characteristic odour and taste. denticulata R. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. Matsy¡duni... Bahli.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. 0. weak. Leaf . Matshyakshi (W. non Link.5 cm wide.) R. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . often rooting at lower nodes. nodiflora R..

capitellate. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. pith distinct. palisade 2-3 layers. present in the centre. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. 112 . 1. parenchymatous cells. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. secondary cortex narrow. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. Fruit .2 cm long. scarious. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. thin-walled round or oval. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. style very short. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. b) Microscopic Root . numerous. bicollateral. covered wtith striated cuticle.Utricle. acute. palisade ratio 3-5. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. shows wavy or undulate. vascualr bundles radially arranged. round to oval. parenchymatous cells. Stem .shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. no characteristic odour and taste. open and exarch. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. irregular. radially arranged cork cells. orbicular. perianth 2. Lamina . consistig of thin-walled. isodiametic cells. vascular bundles three. isodiametric. round or oval. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. with anomalous secondary growth.5 mm long. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. each consisting of xylem and phloem. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish.5-3 mm long. xylem tissues lignified.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. with are conjoint. pith consisting of thin-walled. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. stomata paracytic. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. compressed with thickened margins. ovate. no characteristic odour and taste. thin-walled. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells.dorsiventral. single layered. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Leaf- Midrib . collenchymatous cells. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. sepals ovate. ovary obcordate. consisting of thin-walled cells.1. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. compressed. composed of thin-walled.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. thin.

palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.94 and 0.44 (all green). 0.L. Appendix 4. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.68 (all red).. 0. 0. 2.33 and 0. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.V.2.18.4.2. 0.2 -3 g.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. 0. IDENTITY. Appendix 19 per cent. Under U. Tikta. Appendix 10 per cent.Sugar. CONSTITUENTS .Olive green.44. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. of the drug in powder form.KuÀ¶ha. 2.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.3. Kaphahara.Powder .2.35. 2. T. Appendix 2. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .25.L.7. 113 .C. 0. 0.2. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. 0. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view.54 and 0. 0.6. Appendix 3 per cent.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. V¡tahara.59.44.96 (all yellow). 0.81. paracytic stomata.16. Pittavik¡ra. 2.33.16. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . 0. 0.5 per cent. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.

an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.15-0. smooth. cells flat at base. columnar palisade. bitter. Methi (Sd. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. covered externally with thick cuticle. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. b) Microscopic Seed . seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. odour.48. Fabaceae). varying in size. 30-60 cm tall. very hard.Seed shows a layer of thick. several layers of thin walled. thin-walled.) aromatic. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. dull yellow. annual herb. parenchymatous cells.35 cm broad. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. pleasant. taste. mucilaginous cells. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium.walled. 114 . supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings.2-0. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. 0. (Fam. cultivated throughout the country.5 cm long.

Sapogenins and Mucilage. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . endosperm and epidermal cells of testa.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. Prameha. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.2. IDENTITY. aleurone grains.2.2. 115 . 2. Appendix 5 per cent. oil globules. of the drug in powder form.2. CONSTITUENTS .3. Jvara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 0. Rucya.Yellow. Powder .5 per cent. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.6.4. 2. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.Graha¸¢.3-6 g.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. Aruci DOSE . Appendix 2.Alkaloid. Kaphahara.2.

Flower in long terminal raceme. bright green. not distinct.2 cm long. variable size and thickness. upper most leaves simple. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. having a few longitudinal striations. slightly pungent.P. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. petals 1. regular.1-1. sub-marginate at the apex. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. Stem .Slender. lyrate. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. blade obovate. petiole 5-5. seplas 6.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. 0.Lower leaves hairy.49. sometimes brown red.) Brassicaceae).. bisexual.7-2. an annual or biennial bristly herb. Muli. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . taste. Leaf . coarsely toothed.5-10 cm long. pedicel with scattered hairs. oblong. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally.Root cylindrical. (Fam. hollow. yellowish-green.3 cm long. Flower . compressed. Mulaka (W. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula.0 cm in dia. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. cylindrical. odour. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . complete 1-2 cm long.

purple vein. pith a wide zone of polygonal. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. vascular bundle three in number.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. continuous or more or less constricted. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. elliptical. starch grains simple. parenchymatous cells. epidermis followed by 6. one central and two lateral. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. oily. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. parenchymatous cells. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. 1-2 chambered. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. single layered. covered with thick cuticle. solitary or ingroups. Midrib . cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. endodermis at some places. thin-walled. green or brown-purple. Seed . b) Microscopic Root . present in cortex and phloem.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle.4 cm thick. round to oval. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. 10-12 ovuled. cork cells. thin-walled. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. radially arranged. 3-9 cm long and 0. present only on upper side. Leaf- Petiole . pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. irregularly globose.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. round to oval. longitudinally sulcatus. 117 . erect. cylindrical. traversed by xylem rays.appears biconvex in outline.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. phloem. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. occasionally pale purple. taste. parenchymatous cells. greenish-yellow. medullary rays four to many cells wide. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. 2 mm wide.Reddish-brown.1. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. 2-4 mm long. hairs unicellular. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. Lamina .dorsiventral. Stem . style about 4 mm long. sometimes flattened. traversed by phloem rays. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. stamen 6 in two whorls.8. present in cortex. ovary superior. two outer smaller and four inner longer.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. palisade 2-3 layers.Siliqua. Fruit . epidermis single layered.

beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. 118 .Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. parenchymatous cells present. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. thinwalled. 2. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES .M£lakakÀ¡ra. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. Seed .Agnim¡ndya. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Shows a single layered epidermis. 2. shows aseptate fibres. Powder . P¡cana. Appendix per cent. Gulma. parenchymatous cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Ar¿a.4.20 . CONSTITUENTS . covered with a thin-cuticle. Rucya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. IDENTITY.2. reddish-brown. containing aleurone grains and oil globules.40 ml. of the drug in juice form.2.Fruit . of columnar cells. Tikta Laghu. thin-walled.2.Glucoside. 2. tangentially elongated.2. straight cuticle.Yellowish-green. DOSE . Gandhaka Va¶¢. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . covered with thin. 2.6.3.7. measuring 3-14 µ diameter.2. Svarya. spiral vessels. H¤dya. Kaphahara.2. Pittahara. Ud¡varta. Appendix 2. P¢nasa. Appendix per cent. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal.

white in colour. Visra. Mulaka. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. IDENTITY.50.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. Appendix per cent.4.3. rarely sweet. taste. (Fam. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. 2. slightly or strongly pungent. Mula Muli Moolangi. 2.2. Appendix per cent. Mulaka (Rt. usually 25-40 cm in length. Rakhyasmula Mula. variable in size.7. Brassicaceae). 119 . cylindrical. Appendix 2. fusiform. Appendix per cent.2. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Mullangi.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. Saleya. 2. 2.2.2. Moclangi gadde. Appendix per cent.2.2. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy.6.

0. áv¡sa. Gulma. Ar¿a. Dadru. P¢nasa. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. P¡cana.34.LC. K¡sa. Pittahara.Glucoside.09 & 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.C. H¤dya. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. T.15-30 ml.V.04. Jvara.04.49 & 0. Ud¡varta DOSE . Galaroga. 0.09 (both blue). Rucya. 0. of the drug in the juice form 120 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.T. Kaphahara.Agnim¡ndya. 0.09. 0.04 & 0.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .L. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta Laghu. Vrana. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. Svarya. Netraroga. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .69 (all yellow).

consisting of tangentially elongated. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.6 . tenuifolium Wall. rectangular cells. taste. aromatic. Daitya. colour.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. secondary phloem shows wide zone. S. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . tangentially elongated.Shows 10 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi.3 .) DC. Root . Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. 0. Mura (Rt. thin-walled cells. a perennial herb. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. cambium 2-4 layered. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . Syn. slightly bitter. secondary cortex composed of rounded. fibres and parenchyma.42000 m. 6-12 cm long and 0. (Fam.51. traversed by xylem rays. thin-walled cells.4 m tall. inner cells thin-walled. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces.2. dull brown. traversed by phloem rays.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths.1. Gandhakuti. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. odour. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. Apiaceae ).

starch grains simple. 2. present in secondary cortex. Appendix 17 per cent. Appendix 9 per cent.2. D¡ha. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. Bhrama. 122 . measuring 7-55 µ in dia. secondary phloem.4. xylem parenchyma. composed of radially arranged. 2.5 per cent. Appendix 3. Appendix 9 per cent. secondary phloem. of the drug in powder form.Arvind¡sava. CONSTITUENTS . secondary xylem and medullary rays.having spiral thickenings. round to oval. Appendix 2. fibres aseptate. secretory canals.Brown. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . somewhat oval cells. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. short with blunt ends.3. IDENTITY.2. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin).2. M£rchha.2. shows groups of cork cells. Ka¶u. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. secretory canals numerous. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Powder . Sucrose and Mannitol. 2. oil globules and simple starch grains.1-3 g.7.áv¡sa. 2.6. xylem and phloem rays. distributed throughout secondary cortex. parenchymatous cells.2.. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide.2. Jvara.

odour. similar to those present in secondary cortex. bark easily separable from wood. resin cells present irregularly in this region.52. rectangular cells. Jartor Koratige Hambu. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva.Shows a cork.) Asclepiadaceae). a large stout. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. Halukaratige. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. fracture. Kallu Shambu. (Fam. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. Madhusrava. slightly bitter. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. phloem rays 1 123 . some filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. & Am. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. indistinct. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Root .5-3 cm thick. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. phloem fibres absent. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. twining shrub. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Murva (Rt. Koratige. taste. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva.

Appendix 2. DOSE . secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. Mukha áosa.Light brown. measuring 5. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. shows a number of stone cells. of the drug for decoction. Raktapitta. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components.. IDENTITY. Appendix 5 per cent. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. 10-20 g. Medoroga. Appendix 0.3 cells wide. 124 .2. Prameha Mihira Taila. Pittahara.. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. fibres. 2. consisting of small tangential.6. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. Ka¸·£. 2. composed of vessels.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3.5-22 µ dia. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains.2-6 g.7. Appendix 7 per cent. T¤Àn¡.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . simple and compound starch grains. of the drug in powder form.5 per cent. fibretracheids. fragments of cork. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. Appendix 14 per cent. H¤droga.tracheids. vessels with pitted walls. Jvara.2. 5. Meha. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening.Ar¿a.2. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. starch grains simple. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue.2.2.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. THERAPEUTIC USES .22 µ in diameter. tracheids. Tikta Guru. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Powder . 2. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. K¤miroga.5 . fibres. present in parenchymatous tissues.

often buttressed at the base. Bengal. soft to touch.5 cm long. each stamen 0. Nagppu.53. fragrant. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. containing pollen grains. consisting of thin-walled. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. slender. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall.0 cm long. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. basifixed. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. exine and intine distinct. Pilunagkesar. Nauga. Powder . filament 0. Naugaliral.8 . Konkan. astringent. Hem¡.9 cm long. Nagakesar (Stmn. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara.9-1. Nagakesari -Nangaa. an Ke¿ara.Brown. Peri. filiform. N¡ga. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. Nagchampa. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther.) evergreen tree. taste.1. connective not visible with naked eye. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. Sachunagkeshara. more or less twisted. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. odour. distinct protuberances on walls. connective and filament. yellowish and thin-walled. Veluthapala. N¡gapuÀpa. b) Microscopic Androecium . anther about 0. Nagachampakam. 125 . quite brittle. Guttiferae). shows elongated cells of filament. Nahar Nageshvara. thick-walled. coppery or golden brown. Assam. linear. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara.Anther shows golden-brown. parenchymatous cells.

Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.3.2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. V¡tarakta. 2.IDENTITY.4. 2. Tikta.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.2.2. Vastiroga DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kum¡ry¡sava. 2.6.7.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2.Essential oil and Oleo-resin.Raktapitta. Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2. 126 . áopharoga. Var¸ya.2.1-3 g. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.

Nili (Lf. N¢l¢n¢.2 cm wide. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. pith composed of round to oval. no characteristic odour and taste. 1.2. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. 127 . a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . Fabaceae).1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.54.3-1. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. pale green to greenish-black.) shrub. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. (Fam.8 m high.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.5 cm long and 0. leaflet 1-2.

IDENTITY.7. Udararoga. Ke¿ya. K¤imiroga.2.Greenish-grey. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .2. Ud¡varta. 2.5 per cent. collateral and crescent shaped. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. CONSTITUENTS .Ëmav¡ta. pitted vessels.3.shows dorsiventral structure. 2. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara. Appendix 10 per cent. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . Pl¢haroga. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of decoction. epidermis. Gulma.. 2.. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered.shows epidermis.2.Midrib .2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. aseptate fibres. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. Lamina . vascular bundle single. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . Appendix 2. V¡tarakta.4. cuticle and hair. similar as in petiole and midrib.Glycoside (Indican).50-100 g. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. K¡sa. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 128 . Jvara. cuticle and hair. similar as in petiole.6. Appendix 25 per cent. shows groups of mesophyll cells.2..2.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. palisade 2-3 layers. Appendix 7.

8 m high. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide.5 cm thick.1 -1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Indian Indigo Gali. Nili (Rt. Olleneeli -Amari. secondary cortex a narrow zone. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. group of fibres. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. Nila Nili. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. Karunili. Neeli Nili. Nila -Neel Avuri. Nili Chettu. odour not distinct. thin-walled cells. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. Rangapatr¢. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. slightly bitter. 1. Neeligida. consisting of usual elements. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. 129 .) shrub. cylindrical.10 layers of tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. Nil. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. Nili. (Fam. thin-walled cells. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.55. Gari Nili Kadunili. hard. 0.. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. woody. with lenticels. taste. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. Fabaceae). rectangular.2-1.

2. K¡sa. DOSE .86. 0. 0. T.14 (blue). 0.4. 0.58. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.V. Udararoga. Appendix 2. ViÀavik¡ra.80. Appendix 0.2. 0. 0.7 per cent. 0. Appendix 3 per cent.27.40. 0. phloem..30 (bluish green). Appendix 6 per cent.63. 2. Pl¢h¡roga. Recan¢.50. 0. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.58 (blue).81 (blue). 0.75.10.33.0.91 (all yellow).oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. Ke¿ya. 0. 0. Powder . 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. xylem parenchyma and rays. V¡tahara. 0.2.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. and 0.91 (all grey).C.14. 0. Ud¡varta. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.63. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . measuring 3-11 µ in dia.L. 0. of drug for decoction. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.63 (bluish green).50. 0. Ëmav¡ta.10. 0. round to oval. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. 0.7.47 (blue). 130 . rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2.86 (green) and 0. IDENTITY.6.33. 0. 0.48 g.14.Arvind¡sava.L. Appendix 4 per cent.06.91 (blue). starch grains simple.C.75 (blue).Gulma. pitted vessels.27.81. 0. present in cortex. 0. 0..21.86 and 0. 0. 0. shows aseptate fibres. 0.06. 2.0. V¡tarakta.3. simple and compound starch grains.2. 0.40 (blue). 2. 0.Creamish-brown. K¤imiroga. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.58. 0.40.2.75. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.

Limado. Nimba Nimba. (Fam. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Veppan Vemu. Nim Vemmu.56. lanceolate. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Nimbam. Limbado. Limba. rachis 15-25 cm long. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. opposite. Juss Syn. crystals also present in phloem region. alternate. Veppa Balantanimba. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Nim. indistinct. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba.1 cm thick. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present.5 cm long and 1. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Bakayan. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Aryaveppu. Melia azadirachta Linn. Kohumba Nim. exstipulate. taste. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. acute. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. odour. Bevu. Bakan. Meliaceae). Kahibevu. leaflets with oblique base. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Veppu. Arulundi. Oilevevu. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . 0. Nimba (Lf. slightly yellowish-green. serrate.0-1.Compound. 131 . 7-8.7 cm wide. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Bevinama -Veppu.

tangentially elongated cells. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta.0-11.2.Triterpenoids and Sterols. 2. shows vessels.5. thin-walled cells.2. traversed by a number of veins. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.0-4. of the drug in powder form. Prameha.0-14. palisade single layered.Jvara. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. palisade ratio 3. 2. 2. Appendix per cent. Powder . covered externally with thick cuticle. Appendix per cent.5 on lower surface and 8.Lamina . CONSTITUENTS . V¡tal¡.6.2. 132 .Green. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. epidermis on either surface.2.2. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .5 on upper surface.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells.shows dorsiventral structure. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. stomatal index 13. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. composed of thin walled. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 2. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered.2.7.3. K¤miroga. ViÀarogas DOSE . KuÀ¶ha.4. Ëma¿otha. Netraroga. 2. Vrana.1-3 g. fibres. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Meliaceae). extemal surface rough. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. woody. fissured and rusty-grey. (Fam. Kadunimb. Limba Nimba Nim. characteristic. Juss. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Kahibevu. Nimba. odour. taste. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. fracture. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Syn. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. evergreen tree. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nimba. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Nimba (St. Aruveppu Balantanimba.57. considerably thick in older barks. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Nimb Bevu. Bakam Veppai. Oilevevu -Veppu. Vembu Vemu. fibrous. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. a moderate sized to fairly large. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular.

75-5 µ in diameter.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.20. simple starch grains. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. starch grains.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. lignified rectangular to polygonal. 0. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. IDENTITY. Appendix 1.90 (green).75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands.C.72 (blue).outer surface. 0.L. 2.4. 2. having wide lumen and distinct striations. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. cork cells.5 per cent.6. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. CONSTITUENTS . Powder . 0. 2.86 (blue).2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.3. round with central hilum. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.90 (all blue). Appendix 2. and 0. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.L.63 and 0.measuring 2.V. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. T.2.Reddish-brown. Appendix 5 per cent. 0. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.2. secondary cortex absent in most cases. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. Pittahara. ViÀaghna. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.C. 2. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. Appendix 7 per cent.2. measuring 2. stone cells mostly in groups. simple. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . Kaphahara.45. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium.7.

K¤miroga. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .. Prameha. Decoction should be used externally. Rakta Pitta.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Ka¸·u. Jvara. KuÀ¶ha.2-4 g. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . 135 . Nimb¡di C £r¸a. of the drug in powder form. Vra¸a DOSE .D¡ha.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark.Bk) Fabaceae). exposing light brown surface. Chettu Dhak.58. Palash. tanniniferous cells.15 m high with irregular branches. having brown colour. Khakhapado Dhak. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. curved. moderately thick-walled. rectangular. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. dark-brown. taste. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. greyish to pale brown. Muttala -Plasu. 0. thin-walled. rhytidoma 0. Paras Moduga. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. except in very arid parts. Modugu.2 cm thick usually peels off. Tesu Muttug. Palasha (St. dark brown. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. internal surface rough.1 cm thick. 5-10 or more layered.) Kuntze (Fam. often in groups. Muttuga. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. rectangular 136 . fracture. Plas. cork cells. Tesu Purasu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. 12 . slightly astringent. Dhak. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. Khakharo. Camata. pale brown.5 .

3.2. dark brown coloured cells.12 cells wide. Appendix 1. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.L. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly..Reddish-brown.6. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.5 per cent. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. 0. thin-walled cork cells. 0. 0. 0.4.48.65 (all blue). straight. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma.18.48 and 0. 2. 2.2.10. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 2. Appendix 14 per cent.7. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.2. measuring 2. Appendix 10 per cent. Powder . phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.75 µ in dia.4 layers of sclereids.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. 0. phloem parenchyma.. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. phloem fibres.L.75 .10.C. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .3 components. T.48 and 0.10.2.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . starch grains simple and compound with 2 . 2. traversed by phloem rays.67 (all violet).50 cells in height. crystal fibres. sclereids mostly in groups. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.67 (all yellow). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. 7 . CONSTITUENTS . companion cells.13.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.2. 0.V. 0. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 137 .cells followed by a zone of 2 . Appendix 12 per cent. 0. 2.C.

K¤miroga.5-10 g. Tikta.Ar¿a. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Graha¸¢. Vra¸a. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Gulma.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Agnid¢paka. of the drug in powder form for decoction. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . S¡raka . 138 . KaÀ¡ya Sara.

exfoliating in narrow strips. parenchymatous cells. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. tangentially elongated to squarish. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. inner bark fibrous. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. smooth. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. yellowish to cream coloured. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .59. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. Paribhadra (St.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. quick growing tree. radially arranged and thin-walled. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.0 cm thick. stone 139 . Mulmurumgai Badisa.5-2. Pangara Hongar.Bk) Fabaceae). medium sized. secondary cortex consists of large.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

2-4 g. 148 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. Volatile Oil. Balak¤t. of drug in powder form.CONSTITUENTS .Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡taroga DOSE . Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.V¡tarakta. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . V¤Àya.Alkaloids...

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Saraparuppu Sara. pitted. latifolia Roxb. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present.) Anacardiaceae). Priyala (Sd. creamish-brown. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. Shalichokha Piyal.5 cm wide. Piyar. B. Syn. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. thick-walled. b) Microscopic Seed . slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. Satdhan -Charal.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. odour. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. taste.3-0. sweetish-oily. which are of various size. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. occurring mostly in groups. Korka.6 cm long. large. sclerenchymatous cells. funicle stout. followed by remnants of disorganised. linear.4-0. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer.63. 0. micropyle superior. Chowl. 0. mottled with darker brown lines. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. hilum present at the apex of round edge. (Farn. pleasant. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. Priyalam. collapsed cells of integument.

2.5 per cent. of the drug in powder form.94 (blue). 0. BrÆha¸a. 0.P£gakha¸·a.20 g.A creamish-brown paste. V¡tahara.72. THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS . Balya. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. T.94 and 0. V¤Àya. 0. 0. and sclerenchymatous cells. H¤dya.84. 0. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.4. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. KÀaya. Appendix 10 per cent.0 µ in dia.6. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2.D¡ha.L. 0. 0.C.measuring 2.10 . Appendix 2. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. KÀata. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 0. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.2. Appendix 7 per cent. 0.5-5. Oil and Starch. 0. Powder .2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. IDENTITY.08.7. Priy¡la Taila.0 µ in dia. Bhagnas¡dhaka.72. Raktapitta.27.91.54.91. 2. and oil globules.Albuminoids. shows numerous mesophyll cells.2.2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.27. Pittahara. Kaphakara. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.type. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. procambium bundles.C. DOSE .2.08. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5-5.V.98 (all yellow).72 and 0. 2. Sara. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .98 (all violet).L. 150 .3.54. 0.94 and 0. 2. áukrakara. 0. 0. 2.

2.5 cm across. Flower . 1.Shows more or less wavy outline. corolla.0. stamens 4. style. bell-shaped. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. hairy. brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. tubular. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. densely hairy. thin-walled. Priyangu (Infl. 4 lobbed spreading. and abundant in Bengal plains.2.3 mm in dia.64. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. brown. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . (Fam.) Verbenaceae). Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. 1. densely clothed with wooly hairs. anther ovate. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. ovary 2-4 celled. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. long. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. 2. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. peduncle cylindrical. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.5 cm long.Cymose.5 . b) Microscopic Peduncle . stigma minutely capitate. parenchymatous cells. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. an erect. basifixed. epipetalous.4 m high shrub. equal in size. filament very long. calyx.5-7.

Pakv¡tis¡ra.Glycosides. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. El¡di C£r¸a. fibres aseptate. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs.1-3 g. Terpenes.Brown.2.6.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡.3. Sandh¡n¢ya.4. (Mukharoga). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. elliptical. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Appendix 2.2. of the drug in powder form. Powder . 152 . IDENTITY.2. Appendix per cent. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Vra¸aropa¸a.fibres. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya.2.2. Appendix per cent. 2. Rakta. groups of thin-walled. Rakta-Pitta. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Daurgandhyahara. aseptate fibres. V¡tahara. Phenolic compound. 2. M£travirajan¢ya. spiral vessels.7. Kanaka Taila. CONSTITUENTS . 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . xylem consists of usual elements. DOSE . Ku´kum¡di Taila. Resin and Saponin. N¢lik¡dya Taila.D¡ha. Appendix per cent. Jvara. Pras¡dana. Sved¡dhikya. Appendix per cent. 2.2.

Jhona Arishi. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. cortex differentiated into three zones. composed of thick-walled. Shali (Rt. Dhanarmul. Cala.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Powder . Odalu. both consisting of round to oval. Dh¡nya. smooth. an annual herb. Bhata. thin. Chawl. Nellu Tandulamul. Nellu. Dhana.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. cylindrical. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.05-0. Nivara -Chaval. (Fam. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Akki -Ari. b) Microscopic Root . Dhana Bhatto. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. sclerenchymatous cells. thick-walled. sclerenchymatous cells.65. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. exodermis 1-2 layered. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Corava. Biyyamu Chaval. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Sali. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Bhatta. Poaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. pitted vessels and 153 . Dhan Rice. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Vr¢hi.) cultivated throughout India.Greyish-cream. Damgara. soft. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Paddy Shalichokha. Nelver Dhanyamu. Coke Chaval.

M£trala. Appendix per cent.2.2. Kaphahara. Balya.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.StanyakÀaya. Appendix per cent. Var¸ak¤t. 2. Svarya. BrÆha¸a.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. Laghu. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .2.4. IDENTITY. of the drug for decoction. Rucya. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. CakÀuÀya. 2. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Pittahara.50 g.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix per cent. H¤dya. KaÀ¡ya Guru.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. 2.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. 154 .

Sankhapuspi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. light green. Stem .5-2 cm long and 0. hairy on both surfaces. Shankhapushpi. 155 . spreading. ovary superior and bicarpellary.5 cm broad.4 cm thick. Leaf . found throughout the country. corolla shortly discoid. epipetalous. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. sparsely hairy. 1-5 cm long. sepals narrowly.Usually branched. 0. Sankhahuli Kakattam. free. inserted deep in the corolla tube.1-0.Slender. 0. sub-erect.P. hairy. a prostrate. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. Sankha pushpin (W. about 0. yellowish-brown to light brown. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots.) Convolvulaceae). cylindrical. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. Kakkanangudi. linear-lanceolate. stamen 5.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. Karakhuratt. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. Flower .1-0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . acute.White or pinkish.Shortly petiolate. light green. Shankhavela. perennial herb with a woody root stock. alternate with the petals. cylindrical.66. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. linear-lanceolate.

2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. phloem a narrow zone.8 µ in dia.Appears nearly circular in outline. elongated. thin. epidermis single layered. xylem consisting of usual elements.Fruit . fibres and tracheids. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. mm.Light yellowish-green.. pale brown pericarp. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen.8-17. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct.walled cells. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits.Capsule. . covered with thick cuticle. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. xylem consists of vessels. fibres and parenchyma. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. covered with thick cuticle. Seed . measuring 3 . b) Microscopic Root . elliptical. phloem.Brown.. at places unicellular hairs present. Stem . and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. starch grains solitary or in groups. 13. unicellular hairs. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. simple and composed of 2-3 components. vascular bundle bicollateral. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. tanniniferous. hairs unicellular. simple and compound starch grains. LeafMidrib . 156 . xylem rays and parenchyma. Powder .appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. secretory cells present in this region. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. Lamina . minutely puberulous. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. present on both surfaces. palisade ratio 6-9.Shows single layered epidermis.0. endoderrnis single layered. phloem composed of sieve elements. cortex differentiated in two zones. both having round to oval. round to oval in shape. palisade two layered. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. present in cortex. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. thick-walled cells. oblong globose with coriaceous. mm.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.

are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. ËyuÀya. Medhya. Ras¡yana. 2.2. Kaphahara.3. Tikta. Br¡hma.4. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.2. Appendix per cent.2. 2. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Agastyahar¢tak¢. Pittahara. Clitoria ternatea Linn.IDENTITY.6.2. Ras¡yana. 2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.7.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. Appendix per cent.3-8 g. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Appendix per cent. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.2. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .M¡nasaroga. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Appendix 2. Ras¡yana.

Saptala Kangi Tillakada. a much branched. Leaf . CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. Joyachi. Saptala (W.2-0. gradually tapering. style.5 mm across at the mouth. ciliolate. annual herb. linear. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. filament pubescent. having a few secondary roots.8 cm wide. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 0. cylindrical. 1 mm long. odour and taste not distinct.7-7 cm long. 2. pale brown. Kalli -Chasma Lantha.1. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. 4-5 cm long. horned. trilocular.Capsule. odour and taste indistinct. solitary. shortly 2-fid at the apex.Involucre broadly campanulate. smooth. free to the base.Small. short. Siju. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. (Fam. lanceolate or linear oblong. sub-sessile. ribbed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. sessile.5-2 mm thick. gland semilunate. Bilikalli. 20-40 cm high. 158 . ovate. fracture. 0.67. 3-4 mm in dia. Fruit .) Euphorbiaceae).P. Chagulputputi Satala. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. 3. greenish-yellow. lobes short. subacute.celled with or without attached pedicel. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. Flower . Carmas¡hv¡.

stone cells oval to elongated. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. circular to oval. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. rounded at the base. covered externally with thick.shows slightly convex outline. tangentially elongated cells. thickwalled and lignified. secondary cortex consists of 4. elliptical. rounded to oval. elliptical. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. 2. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline.Young root shows exfoliated. vessels having simple pits. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled.Seed . leprous tuberculate testa. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells.3 mm long. fibres. centre occupied by a pith.25 µ in diameter. b) Microscopic Root .75 µ in dia. mature root shows thin walled cork. Stem . secondary phloem narrow. palisade single layered present on both sides. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. striated cuticle. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma.6 layers of oval. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. Leaf- Midrib . parenchymatous cells. some rounded. rarely a few oil globules also present. 159 . groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. fibres elongated and aseptate. single layered epidermis. with wide lumen present in this region. secondary xylem consists of vessels. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.5-19. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. all elements thick-walled and lignified. lignified cells with wide lumen. composed of sieve elements. found scattered in phloem region. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. flattended. filled with yellowish-brown content. endodermis not distinct. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. parenchymatous cells. fibres and tracheids. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. rectangular. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. secondary xylem composed of vessels. tangentially elongated elliptical. thick-walled lignified. fibres and vessels having simple pits. epidermis single layered. grooved at one side. consisting of thick-walled. tracheids and medullary rays. parenchymatous cells. rounded to oval. measuring 5. simple. starch grains simple. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. all elements. solitary or in groups. traversed by numerous xylem rays.

elliptical.V. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. oval to elongated. RaktadoÀahara. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .87 (violet). Appendix per cent.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6.2. 2. DOSE .L.2. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. T. and 0. of the drug for decoction.2. Vibandha. IDENTITY.2. 2. 0. lignified with wide lumen. simple.57 (all yellow).2. rounded to oval starch grains.46 (brown) and 0.C. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.Powder .0.67. Gulma. CONSTITUENTS . Mi¿raka Sneha.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.50 g.7. Udararoga. Appendix 2. RukÀa.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Appendix per cent. Visarpa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 160 .Light yellow.04 and 0.L. Appendix per cent.3. 0. 2. aseptate fibres.Ën¡ha. shows vessels with simple pits. Ud¡vartta. V¡tal¡. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a.C.46. 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. stone cells thick-walled.04.4.

2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. vittae. A. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. glabrous. var.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. mericarps usually separate and free. often stalk attached. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. b) Microscopic Fruit .. Shulupa. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. odour.68. graveolens Linn. Shepa. slightly sharp taste. mesocarp. yellowish membranous wings. ex Flem. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. Sulpha. graveolens Benth. slightly raised. dorsal 161 .. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. akin to caraway. Apiaceae). faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. Syn. Satahva (Fr. filiform and incospicuous. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. dark brown. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. graveolens DC.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. 4 mm long. sowa Roxb. a tall. A. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. and a warm. glabrous. parenchymatous. P.. brown.

Appendix 4 per cent.costae three. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .3. Kaphahara. V¡tahara. 2. 0.2. Netra Roga DOSE . each costae with vascular strands. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. IDENTITY.á£la.68 (all yellow).59 (blue) and 0. Appendix 14 per cent.L. 2. 2.2. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. Appendix 3 per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.C.4.5 per cent. Appendix 1.L. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. CONSTITUENTS .2. Atis¡ra. Powder . carpophore split. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. of the drug in powder form. 162 .3-6 g. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.59 and 0. Vra¸a. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Essential Oil. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.68 (violet).C. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. Jvara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. 0.10 T.2.37 (pink) 0. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.2.2. shows spiral vessels.Brown.6.7. 2. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. 2. Appendix 15 per cent. cellulosic. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 2.

thin walled. Sajna. palisade single layered. pith and phloem parenchyma. central region 163 b) Microscopic . parenchymatous cells. oval to elliptical. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. Mocaka -Sajina. Sekato. leaflet 1. Syn. Bahala. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. Shewgachi pane Sajana. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Tishnagandha. elliptic. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Moringaceae). Munga. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Leaflet . Segata. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Muringa Elai Sevaga. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. parenchymatous cells. entire. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. Muringa. a small or medium sized tree. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. odour and taste not distinct. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. pericycle forming a broken ring. ovate or obovate. Rachis . slender. (Fam. AkÀ¢va. vascular bundle collateral. Segata pana. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. commonly cultivated throughout the country.69. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis.) Gaertn. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. and articulated at the base.5-1 cm wide. Nugge ele -Murinna.2-2 cm long and 0. Shigru (Lf. thickened. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Mungna Neegge.

palisade ratio 6-11.Carbohydrate. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. 0.26 (all green).94 (violet). stomata anornocytic. 0.4.2.2.05. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.05. palisade cells.69 (yellow). 0. 2.26. 2. Protein. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. Appendix per cent. 0. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. 0. Carotene and Ascorbic acid.18. 0.occupied by a crescent-shaped. RukÀa.2.3. 0. áukra N¡¿aka.46 (green). 0.53 (yellow). Powder -Greyish-green. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf.46 (both blue).0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6.36 (green). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. 2. B ¤Æhana.C. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Sirovirecaka 164 . (all green). 2.94 (yellow) in visible light. Pittahara.69 (blue) and 0. 0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. 0.94 (blue).7. 0. vein islets number 50-65. 0. Appendix 2.2.59 (blue). spiral vessels. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. Medohara.52 (green). Appendix per cent. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.30 (pink). 0.26.L.46 (all red) & 0.38. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.82 (yellow) and 0. 0. IDENTITY. 0.L.36.2.36 (yellowish green). K¤mihara. 0. Under U. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.05.20.87 (blue).46 (dark green) & 0. 0. 0. 0. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. T. Appendix per cent.18. 0.2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.C.V.

10 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀatinduka Taila.Ratnagiri Rasa. 165 .20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Galaga¸·a.áopha. Gulma. Pl¢haroga. Medoroga. DOSE . Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Vidradhi. K¤miroga.

and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. odour. aromatic. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. Sthulaela (Sd. thin walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. sclerenchymatous. membraneous aril. perispenn encloses the 166 . perisperm consists of polygonal. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present.) Zingiberaceae). cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. 0. (Fam. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells.4 cm long. spicy pungent. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. brown to dark brown. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. Beraelam. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam.3 cm wide.. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. parenchymatous cells.70. thin-walled. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. taste.

oil globules. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. 2.endosperm and embryo. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. polygonal. Powder . Appendix 2. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. parenchymatous cells. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Appendix 14 per cent. shows fragments of testa. T¤À¸¡. Mukharoga. V¡tahara.3. Note .2.Light brown. 167 . both composed of polygonal.2.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole).2.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter.2. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. thin-walled. RukÀa. rich in protein.10 CONSTITUENTS .2. Kaphahara. 2.5 per cent. Rocaka. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. DOSE . Chardi. of the drug in powder form.(Seed). THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta Laghu. Appendix 1. rounded to oval.5 -1 g.0. H¤ll¡sa. thin-walled. perisperm cells.4. simple.7. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. Ka¸·u. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.2. (Seed).S¡rivady¡sava.6. K¡sa. Mukha¿odhaka. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.2. Appendix 5 per cent. IDENTITY.áv¡sa. 2.

found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. Jimmi. Tejovati (St. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements.2 cm thick. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. aromatic pungent. Rutaceae). Thumbooni. light yellow to pale brown. taste.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. thin-walled.Bk. (Fam. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels.0. brownish. rather deeply furrowed. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. Syn.) Roxb. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. internal surface smooth. sharp prickles. fracture. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. phloem fibres thickwalled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. armed with long. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Tumburudra. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. short. stone cells found in 168 . alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Tumbura. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam.1-0. aromatic. parenchymatous cells. external surface pale brown. thick-walled cells. lignified.71. stem and branches. odour. Z. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays.

a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. 2.2. CONSTITUENTS .3. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.5 per cent.2. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. shows fragments of cork cells. of the drug for decoction. K¡sa. Hikk¡.Yellowish-brown. áv¡sa.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.Aruci. Medhya. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex.7. stone cells. aseptate fibres. Appendix 12 per cent. Appendix 8. 169 .75 . Appendix 13 per cent. DOSE . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 1. Mukharoga.6. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ëmav¡ta.75 .Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.2. starch grains round and oval. oil globules and starch grains.13. measuring 2.75 µ in diameter. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa).75 µ in diameter. Rucya.10-20 g. Kaphahara. Powder . IDENTITY. round and oval measuring 2. Appendix 2.2. 2.13. 2. a Volatile Oil and Resin. 2.2.5 per cent.2.4. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. P¡cana.

calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. pubescent on both sides. Tulasi (W.60 cm high. herbaceous. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. about 1. aromatic. branched. petiole thin. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. entire or serrate.5-5 cm long 1. Leaf .5-3 cm long hairy. obtuse or acute.3. hairy. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. Flower . coloured. Shree Tulasi.P. much branched. internally cream. externally purplish-brown to black. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. characteristic. soft. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. hairy.2. annual herb.Purplish or crimson coloured. Lamiaceae). blackish-brown externally and pale. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. branched. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . odour. (Fam. found throughout the country. odour faintly aromatic. sub quadrangular. shortly apiculate. Thulasi. fracture.Thin. taste.2 cm wide. elliptic oblong.) an erect. woody.72. 30 .Erect. lower lip 170 . Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. small in close whorls. slender. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡.6 . Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. wiry. pubescent. violet internally. pedicels longer than calyx. Stem . K¤À¸atulas¢.

slightly compressed. Fruit . in groups and rarely in singles. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. elongated. fibres and parenchyma.A group of 4 nutlets. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. aromatic.epidermis. middle one larger than other two. parenchymatous cells. each with one seed. pungent. rectangular. tracheids. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. nearly smooth. fibres with pointed ends. lateral two short and central two largest. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. mucilaginous when soaked in water. phloem consisting of sieve elements. 0.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. odour. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. pitted with pointed ends. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. found scattered in phloem. veined calyx. brown. xylem consists of vessels. occasionally a few cells collapsed. thin-walled. pubescent. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. corolla about 4 mm long. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. Seed . 171 . vessels pitted. thin-walled. pungent. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. Leaf- Petiole . long.1 cm long. taste. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. b) Microscopic Root . trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. no odour. measuring 22-27 in dia. odour. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. taste. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. membranous. filled with brown content. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. Stem . aromatic. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. Midrib . fibre tracheides. three vascular bundles situated centrally. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. phloem consists of sieve elements. slightly notched at the base. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres.shows somewhat cordate outline.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. enclosed in an enlarged. round to oval polygonal. vessels pitted. xylem surrounded by phloem. slightly mucilaginous. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. glandular trichomes short. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. pungent.Rounded to oval. taste.

2.2. On cooling spray. Appendix 2. Rucya. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.L. V¡tahara.Essential Oil. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Lamina . After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.Greenish: shows thin-walled. H¤dya. thin walled fibres.6. Appendix 1. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. vein islet number 31 . Powder .35. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. Appendix 10 per cent. Durgandhihara 172 .minutes Under observation. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. T. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. Appendix 4 per cent. rounded to oval. 2. IDENTITY. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.16 on lower surface.L. in thoroughly vanillin . Pittavardhin¢.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .1.C.2.15 .2.7.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. oil globules. 2. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. Tikta. 2. parenchymatous cells.2.3. Record Rf. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. a few containing reddish brown contents. value 0. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . Appendix 8 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .C.5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. values of eugenol and caryophyllence.8. Rf. RukÀa. palisade ratio 3.7. slightly raised above the level of epidermis.

P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. Hikk¡. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. 173 . Chardi.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áv¡sa. K¤miroga. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Netraroga. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed).A¿mar¢. K¡sa. KuÀ¶ha.

elliptic-oblong. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi.5-3 cm long. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. characteristic. measuring 22-27 µ dia.shows cordate outline. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. (Fam. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. thin. an erect. balloon-shaped head. consisting of xylem and phloem. much branched annual herb. taste. middle one larger than the other two. 174 b) Microscopic . Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil.2 cm wide. Lamiaceae). LeafPetiole . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. uniseriate 1-8 celled long.73.) 30-60 cm high. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. Holy Basil Tulasi.. entire or serrate. obtuse or acute. Tulasi (Lf. three vascular bundles situated centrally.6-3. petiole 1.5-5 cm long. odour. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. hairy. covering trichomes multicellular. 1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. glandular trichomes short. petiolate. and 2-8 celled. upper epidermis. found throughout the country. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. aromatic. K¤À¸atulas¢. pubescent on both surfaces.

0. 0.83 (blue). Appendix per cent.88 and 0. anomocytic and diacytic stomata. Nerol and Camphene etc. Appendix per cent.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.12 (light green). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.12 (light violet).08. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.45. 0.Light-green. 0.21 (brown).08 (both green).33 (violet).85 (blue). 0. T. 0.. 2. Lamina .45 (yellowish green). Powder . except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. Appendix 2.33.93 (pink) & 0. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.45 (violet). palisade and spongy parenchyma.epidermis.2. 0. Appendix per cent. 0.33 (both green) 0. 0.93 (violet) and 0.04. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.98 (blue). (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.54.4. 0.L. 0.83 (all pink) 0. 0. 0.54 (blue).04.08 (violet).V. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.21.83. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.2. Appendix per cent.33. 0. 175 .2. shows fragments of polygonal. 0.7. 0.C.03 (dark green).L. Caryophyllene. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.75. 2. Under U.98 (blue). 0. IDENTITY. 0.75 (violet).8.04.45.12. 0.2. 0.6. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.2.).C. 2.21.3. 0.30.85 & 0.93 (all0 yellow). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.Midrib . 0. 2. 0. vein islet number 31-33.93 (both light green). palisade ratio 3.2.

Aruci. Kaphahara. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. RukÀa. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 176 .M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga. Hikk¡. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Pittahara. Tikta. áv¡sa. KuÀ¶ha. V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. H¤dya. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. Prati¿y¡ya. K¡sa.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2-3 g. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. triangular.5-1. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. (Fam. aromatic. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. thin-walled cells of various sizes. fracture. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. enclosing large air spaces. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. cells towards periphery. large. Vacha (Rz. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj.5 cm thick. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. short.) semiaquatic herb. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. Ghodavaca Vasambu.Shows single layered epidermis. Ugr¡. pungent and bitter. and 0. Gora-bach Baje. buff coloured intemally. somewhat collenchymatous. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. taste. smaller. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡.74. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . Araceae). Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. broadly. Ghodvach Bach. upper side marked with alternately arranged. Rhizome . odour. Vekhandas -Varch. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened.

annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains.L. stele composed of round. Powder . starch grains simple.14 (violet) and 0. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. 2. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. Appendix 2.region. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Extracts in i.4. reticulate.Yellowish-cream b. 2. Petroleum ether-No change ii. 0.Buff coloured. present in cortex and ground tissue.L.C.. 178 .3.2. Starch and Tannin. Powder as such: . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Appendix per cent. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. Chloroform-Light green iii.2. spherical. Appendix per cent. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Eugenol and Asarone).2.2.10 T.C. endodermis distinct.7. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.2. 2.2. Appendix per cent. 2.2. shows fibres. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. CONSTITUENTS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. 2.6.

1. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Vibandha. K¤mihara. C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta Laghu. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Apasm¡ra. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting.á£la. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Ka¸¶hya. K¡sa. Ëdhm¡na. V¡tahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila.Vac¡di Taila.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. áv¡sa. DOSE . Kaphahara. S¡rasvata.2 g. Medhya. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Unm¡da. Kar¸a Sr¡va. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Khadir¡di Va¶¢.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. 179 .

hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. poisonous. roots are generally collected late in September.5 cm. ovoid. perennial herb. Nabhi. without or with a few intercellular spaces. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Sth¡varaviÀa. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. thin-walled. conical. cartilaginous. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Naabhi Bachnak. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. taste. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. suberised.75. Beesh. rarely 5 cm long. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. small portions of stem sometimes attached.1. Basanaag Bisa. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Vatsanabhi.8 cm thick. Vatsanabhi. occasionally separated due to breakage. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. Bachhnaag. odour indistinct. Mithalelia. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. dark brown to blackish-brown. parenchymatous cells. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. 0. Ranunculaceae).) (Fam. Vatsanabha (Rt. 2-4. fracture. Vatsanabha. Meethabisha. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. papillose on outside. rough due to root scars. plant is an erect. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Teliya Bish Basanalli. Mahura.4 . tapering downwards to a point.

7. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre.C. containing a few groups of phloem strands. xylem exarch.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. metaxylem vessels met in centre.56.2. Laghu.4. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2.96 (both orange). enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. 0. a few aseptate fibres. Appendix 2.2.6.Light grey. Trid°Àahara. ÙikÀ¸a. some scattered.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. 2. S £tasekhara Rasa. 0.5 per cent.20. occupying more than half the radius.39 and 0. 0. RukÀa. Appendix 5. often forming 'V' shaped ring. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.3. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . 2.39. consisting of round to oval cells.2. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. cambium having 6 10 angles. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. 2. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . UÀ¸a. 0. T.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. inner bark parenchymatous. IDENTITY. Appendix 2 per cent. Appendix 24 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf.10. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre.endodermis. 0.2. Sv®dala. Viyav¡yi.C. Anandabhairava Rasa. 0. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia.74 and 0. 2.L.2. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. present in cortical cells. shows vessels.L. Appendix 8 per cent.

Jvar¡tis¡ra. V¡takaphajvara. DOSE . Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. 182 . Kanharoga.15 .THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡taroga. Sannip¡ta.30 mgs of the drug in powder form.

outer surface reddish-brown. Bhumikusmanda. Eagio. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. sweetish. usually does not break. Gumadi belli. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular.76. starchy and somewhat porous. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Vid¡rik¡.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. Nelagumbala. Bhoikolu. Nelagumbula. thin-walled cells. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. but pliable. Bhonykoru. stone cells moderately thick-walled. taste. Fabaceae).Rt. smooth except for protuberances at some places. Vidari (Tub. cut surface creamish-brown.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. thinwalled. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Bhuikumra Vidari. (Fam. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m.

sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. M£trala..7.5 per cent. Var¸ya. Raktapitta.5 . and also rarely in stone cells.D¡ha. 2.2. distributed throughout this region.6. Appendix 17 per cent. Appendix 2.3. Daurbalya. 2.4. DOSE . Appendix 24 per cent. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. present in all parenchymatous cells.3-6 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Powder . 2. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. of the drug in powder form.2. phloem fibres much elongated. V¡tahara. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.2. IDENTITY. Stanyada.2. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. Appendix 4. Pittahara. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS . áoÀa. having central hilum and striations. somewhat round.5 . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. fragments of cork. J¢van¢ya. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.Marma Gu¶ik¡.Gluconic and Malic acids.2. highly thickened. radially elongated cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . a few latex duct also present. 2. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.2. Ras¡yana. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). Manmath¡bhra Rasa. measuring 5.75 µ in dia. Appendix 4 per cent.75 µ in dia.and pits. angular to oval. Balya. lignified with narrow lumen. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. Svarya. Angmarda.13. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content.Buff coloured. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.13. 184 .

Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. cultivated chiefly in North India. sclerenchymatous fibres. smooth. seed coat appears as a colourless line. about 1 cm long and 0. followed by more or less. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja.) Poaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis.3 cm wide. Syn. polygortal inner epidermal cells. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. not distinct. round to oval wavy walled cells. thick-walled. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. odour. Jav Barley Cheno. pale-greenish-yellow. oblong. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. erect herb. (Fam. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. taste. elliptic. an annual. square or quadrilateral. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. sativum Pers. spongy parenchymatous cells. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. followed by 2-3 layers. Yava (Fr. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . H. 50-100 cm high.77. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka.2-0. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. sweetish-acrid.

KaÀ¡ya M¤du.5 per cent. V¡tak¤t. 0. Fats.72 (all pink.) CONSTITUENTS .56.65 & 0.92 (all grey). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.68. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. 0.10. Appendix 2.C.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. IDENTITY. Lekhana. and the rest starch layers.83 and 0. Vitexin etc.2.2. Var¸ya 186 . 0. Powder .10. 0.68. Pur¢Àak ¤t. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.narrow lumens. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. Svarya.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.45.53. 0. V¤Àya. 0. M£trahara.6.31.83 (all violet) and 0.5 2.2. 0.31. Orientoside. starch grains simple.16. endosperm divided into two zones.31.14. 0. sclerenchymatous fibres. 2. Appendix 5. 0.L. Globulin.L.22. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.5 per cent. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. 0. round to oval.V.4.24.36. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. Proteins (Albumin. 2. Pittahara.06. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.92 (yellow). Sugars. 0. 0. simple starch grains. Kaphahara. Appendix 2. Medahara. 0. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.C.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. Appendix 1. 2. 2.3.22. 0. 0. Sthairyakara.7 T. 0.Creamish-white.Starch. 0. Orientin. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.44. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 0. 0.2. Appendix 4 per cent.

Dh¡nvantara Taila. Prameha.100 . Sarsap¡di Pralepa. of the drug. K¡sa.áv¡sa. Gandharvahasta Taila. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. El¡dya Modaka. T¤À¸¡. Urustambha. P¢nasa. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. 187 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . Medoroga. Tvagroga DOSE . Kanharoga. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana.200 g.

mucronate obtuse. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida.5-0. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. stipules green. glabrous. secondary and tertiary root absent. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . sharp axillary spines upto 3. Duralabha -Venkatithura.Cylindrical. secondary cortex almost 188 . terete. Stem . Desv. Neladangara.) Fabaceae). 0. Leaf . slightly rough at basal region with slender. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. Punjab.8 cm long. short. radially arranged cork cells. 20-30 cm long and 0. alternate.5-1 cm long. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. a small thorny shrub. Y¡sa. (Fam.7 cm broad. fracture. opposite.1-1 cm thick. ballidurabi.Well developed. dark brown. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. extipulate.Simple.78. no taste and odour. filled with reddish-brown contents. oblong. 0.P. elliptical. branched. glabrous. nearly 0. drooping. Yavasaka (W. cork cambium single layered.2-1 cm thick. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. hard. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. striate. gradually tapering. Javasa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat.

rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. 5. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. hypodermis 2-3 layered.75 µ in dia. elongated. phloem composed of sieve elements.appears circular in outline. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. filled with tannin. tangentially elongated cells. parenchyma and fibres. tracheids. fibres. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. Powder . rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. a few with thick wall and simple pits.Greenish-brown. tracheids and fibres.absent. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. thin-walled. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. covered with cuticle.75 µ in diameter. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. phloem composed of sieve elements. 3-45 cells long. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. vascular bundle collateral. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. Midrib . consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. xylem fibres. xylem consists of vessels. epidermis single layered. some cells filled with tannin. filled with tannin. Lamina . starch grains simple. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. Leaf- Petiole . parenchymatous cells. 189 . Stem . parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. xylem consists of vessels. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. tracheids. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. present throughout the region. angular. tanniniferous cells. thin-walled. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. simple. hypodermis 1-2 layered.5. pith composed of a few thin-walled. covered externally with thick cuticle. xylem situated above phlome. parenchymatous cells. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region.5-14. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. rounded to oval.14.appears biconvex in outline. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. pitted vessels.

2.2.Chardi. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Kaphahara. 2.3. CONSTITUENTS . D¢pana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.5 per cent. Invert Sugars). Visarpa DOSE .2. 190 .20 .2.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.IDENTITY.Sugars (Melizitose. Arimed¡di Taila. Appendix 10 per cent. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Jvara.4. Appendix 2. Sucrose.2. K¡sa. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Raktapitta.5 per cent.6.50 g. Appendix 2 per cent. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. V¡tarakta.2. 2. Appendix 13. T¤À¸¡. Tikta.7.

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