THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2-Thermometers 1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.1.2.1.2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.2.2-Sieves 1.2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.2.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.2.2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.4.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.2.1.1.) Desv 177 1.1.3.2.2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.1 Testing Drugs 2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.2.1.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .1.1.1.Types of Stomata 2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.2. 1.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.5.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.2.2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.

1.5-Limit Test for lead 2.Weights and Measures 5.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.3.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.1.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.2.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.1-Powder Fineness 2.3 Limit Tests 2.3.3.2-Refractive Index 2.3.3.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.2.3.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.3.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.6-Sulphated Ash 2.

II. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.I.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. Vol. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). Vol. Part-I. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Vol. would be deemed to have been amended vii .P.). Part-I. accordingly. II would be official. the Dangerous Drugs Act. Part-I. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. In general. II. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act.

the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit.GENERAL NOTICES Title .Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Hindi. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Synonyms .The metric system of weights and measures is employed.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. Weights and Measures .The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . Purity and Strength . Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. Mesh Number . Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. Odour and Taste . The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. When the term “drop” is used. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Italics . Introductory Para .Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. if any. English. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Identity.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. viii . substances or processes described in Appendix. If the odour persists to be discernible.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. it is described as having odour. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. indicated in monograph. distribution and method of collection. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts.

Purity and Strength. Constant Weight . moisture content.C. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. and show no abnormal odour. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. and other animal matter including animal excreta. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. sliminess.L. those of definition of the part and source plants.For statutory purpose.Under this head. pesticides. in 100 grammes of product. wherever given. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. However. pests. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend.g. The quantitative tests e. Standards . Constituents . water-soluble ash. with one of the four meanings given below. fungi.) . ether-soluble extractive. Part-I. Percentage of Solutions .0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. colour. V. and Identity. according to circumstances. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. under Description. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. Vol. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. which he uses. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. water. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. alcohol-soluble extractive. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. ix .Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. micro-organisms. However. the expression per cent (%).The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. statements appearing in the API. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. shall constitute standards. mould or other evidence of deterioration. acid-insoluble ash. arsenic and heavy metals.In defining standards. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated.soluble extractive. if of equivalent accuracy. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. is used.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. even by applying known reference standards. total ash. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement.

When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.000 parts More than 10. Solubility .When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. all solutions are prepared with purified water. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Solutions . When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. such as fragment of filter papers. Percentage of alcohol . are intended to apply at that temperature. Reagents and Solutions . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. Temperature . thermometric scale.000 parts x .Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. and dust particles.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. at a stated temperature. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15.56 oC. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. fibres. Statements of solubilities.

cm.5 N. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. mg. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. g. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. 1M. l. 0. Kg. 0. µ.1 N. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. IN.I. PS.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. Fam. TS. unless otherwise stated. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. mm. Part –I and Part-II.P. ml.

Kash. Beng. Mal. Fr. Rt. Tel. Punj. Bk. Tub. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Rt. Assam. Kan. Eng. Wd. Tam. Sd. Pl. St.Sansk. Wh. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Rz. Pseudo-bulb Rt. xii . Lf. Wd. Mar. St. Ori. Ht. Guj. Bk.

with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. parenchymatous cells. Asteraceae). external surface rough. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. an annual. Akarakarabha (Rt. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. cylindrical. (Fam. Akravu Akkalakara. cambium 2-5 layered. characteristically astringent and pungent. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. shrivelled. elongated. xylem fibres thick-walled. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. Akallakara. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. taste. 1. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. 7-15 cm in length. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. vessels pitted. b) Microscopic Root . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. 53. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. brown. Akalakarabha.1. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. odour. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. not easily separable.37-28.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells.8 µ in width.231 µ in 1 . more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. slightly aromatic. Akarakara Akkaraka. bark upto 3 mm thick.2 . thin-walled. tapering slightly at both ends.

áv¡sa. áotha.Prati¿y¡ya.2.7. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. medullary rays numerous. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS .4. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. 2. Appendix 2. Aj¢rna. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. 2.5 -1 g. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. radially elongated. V¡jikara.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. Appendix 2 percent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent.Kum¡ry¡sava. á£laroga. IDENTITY.2. secondary phloem and medullary rays. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. Appendix 8 percent. Danta¿£la DOSE . Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. secondary phloem. of the drug in powder form. K¡sa. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. 2 .3.2.2. Svedakara. Udararoga. áukrala. uniseriate rays very rare. 2. 2. bi to tri and multiseriate. Grdhras¢. Powder . D¢pana. running straight.2.length having narrow lumen. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. Buddhivardhaka. Kaphahara.0. ray cells thick-walled. Appendix 10 percent. NaÀ¶¡rtava. Appendix 22 percent.2. secondary phloem and medullary rays.Ash coloured.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). also gives positive tests for inulin.

radially elongated. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. followed by more or less compressed. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. taste. creamish-brown.Cream coloured. parenchymatous cells. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. parenchymatous cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. broken pieces. thin-walled. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present.2. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. endosperm mostly single layered. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. Akshoda (Cotldn. collapsed. oily sweet.) large deciduous. coriaceous. Powder . 3 . irregularly corrugated. Juglandaceae). (Fam. not distinct. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. under this. odour. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. Sailabhava. slightly curved.Shows 1-2 layered. Cotyledon . found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m.

2.4.2. Appendix Not less than 10. 4 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.Walnut oil and Tannin. Appendix Not less than 7.2.KÀata. Sara.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.3. V¤Àya.2.7. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .0 percent. 2.6. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. 2. Balya. THERAPEUTIC USES . KÀaya. 2.IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS .10 . DOSE . ViÀ¶ambhi.5 percent. V¡taroga. áukral. Appendix Not more than 0.2. B¤´ha¸a. 2. Kaphakara.2.0 percent. Appendix 2.25 g.

Ambalam. Amra Indian Hog Plum. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. Kurz. curved.5 m in girth. Anbalamu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. thin-walled cells. mangifera Willd. Amvara -Mampusli. a small aromatic. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. non Gamble (Fam. consisting of tangentially elongated. Amrata (St. a few outer cells exfoliated.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. S.3. tangentially elongated. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous. deciduous tree. radially arranged. Syn. Wild Mango Ambeda. thin.Bk. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. internal surface reddish-yellow. S. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. fracture. Jangali Ambo. and 5 . Ranamba. laminated. external surface smooth. Ambado. upto 27 m high and 2. Anacardiaceae). Jangli Aam Ambate. grey having lenticels. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Stem Bark. with reddish-brown contents. Ambadam Amratakamu. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. f.. Mampuiti. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Ranambo Ambada. acuminata Roxb. Amra. Ambazham.

33. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands.7. simple. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. D¡ha DOSE . (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. lignified. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.33. 2. stone cells.2. V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form for decoction.2.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.40 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.6. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.L.87 (blue) and 0. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. 0. IDENTITY.2.. Pittakara. 0. 6 . THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not more than 0.Light brown. 2. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. Under U.87 (all greyish brown). 2. Powder .2.5-10 g.4. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.L.96 (blue). 0. KÀaya. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. 2. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapitta.2. T. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara.96.2. thick-walled. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent.V.5 per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. Ka¸¶hya. Rucik¤t. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. prominent lysogenous cavities are present.KÀata. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. 0. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.C.C. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. Not more than 1 per cent.75-14 µ in dia. Appendix 2.3. shows cork cells.(greyish brown).

cylindrical. bracteate with two bracteoles. filament short. contorted or quincuncial. erect.free. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra.3-0. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. one spine lipped. hairy. numerous. 0. the perianth lobes. 0. Kharamaµjar. subsessile. rough due to presence of some root scars. yellowish-brown. perianth segments 5. anther. Apamarga (W.0 cm in thickness. solid. hollow when dry. wavy margin. branched. gradually tapering. Leaf . actinomorphic.1-1. bisexual.Simple. decussate. odour. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. opposite. a stiff.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. exstipulate. erect. not distinct.Cylindrical tap root. hypogynous. two celled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5 cm in cut pieces. greenish-white. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. (Fam.P. PratyakpuÀpa. opposite. May£raka. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes.9 m high herb.0. secondary and tertiary roots present. membranous. stamens 5. dorsifixed. 7 .4.3 . yellowish-brown. Stem . slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs.) Amaranthaceae). sessile.0. slightly ribbed. obovate. Flower .

b) Microscopic Root . capitate. style. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. epidermis single layered. cortical and pith cells. lignified. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. thin-walled. 3-4 celled stalk. thin layers of cambium.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. vessels simple pitted. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. ovary superior. demarcating the xylem rings. fibres being absent. syncarpous. xylem composed of usual elements. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. Fruit . Midrib . oval to rectangular. cortex 6-10 layered. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. scalariform and pitted. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. single. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. on both surfaces. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. fibres pitted. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate.Sub-cylindric. elongated. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. thin-walled cork cells. two medullary bundles. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells. vessels annular. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. LeafPetiole .Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. present in pith. spiral. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. unilocular with single ovule. stigma.gynoecium bicarpellary. composed of parenchymatous cells. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. endospermic. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. Stem . followed 8 . most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. truncate at the apex. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. perianth and bracteoles. rectangular. either separate throughout or found in some cases. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. 2-5 celled. Seed . parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles.Shows crescent-shaped outline. tangentially elongated.Shows a single layered epidermis. round at the base. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. thin-walled cork cells. brown.

while smaller and rectangular in lower surface.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Chedana. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent.2. Tikta Sara. spiral.5-9. Ka¸·u.2. slightly elongated in upper. of the drug for decoction. Ar¿a. Apac¢. Powder . Appendix Not less than 2 per cent.0 on upper surface. shows fragments of elongated. non-lignified cells. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. thin-walled epidermal cells. scalariform and pitted thickening. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . aseptate fibres. 2.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.0-20. mm.2.Shows single layered.4. IDENTITY. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. palisade ratio 7. 2. Lamina . Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. stomatal index 4.2. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. vessels with annular.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. Medohara.7. P¡cana. 2. V¡maka.2. Gu·apippali. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. Appendix 2. 9 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. 2. V¡tahara. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.á£la.0 on lower surface. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not less than 12 per cent.6. rectangular. Kaphahara. Udara Roga. Medoroga DOSE . 9.Light yellow. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger.3.0-11.20-50 g. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. Abhay¡ Lava¸a.

colour. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. Fabaceae). fibrous. medullary 10 . a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. thin-walled. taste. a few solitary fibres also present.5. polygonal. lightbrown. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. vessels pitted with oblong. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. thin walled cells filled with starch grains.) perennial climber with slender downy stem.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. 1-5 mm in thickness. very long. cylindrical. b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem consists of usual elements. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. fracture. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. (Fam. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. bitter. a few showing slit-like pits. Aparajita (Rt. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡.

On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. 2.L. Under U. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. 0. phloem and xylem parenchyma. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Resin. Appendix per cent.3.C. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form.2.V. Appendix per cent.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. KuÀ¶ha.4. Pittahara. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components.1 .79 (grey). Buddhiprada.Mi¿raka Sneha.2. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. Appendix per cent.á£la.2. Vra¸a DOSE .79 (both yellow).2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. shows simple and compound starch grains. 0. áotha.Yellowish-brown.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L. CONSTITUENTS . Tikta. 2.54 and 0. M£traroga. oblong and pitted.6.3 g.. T. Medhya. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya.Tannin. 2. Starch. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres..rays 1-5 cells wide. ViÀahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. 11 .79 (blue). 0. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. found in secondary cortex.7. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. V¡tahara. Powder . 2.2.C.

Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. Allam. Adrak Injee. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. odour. Inji Allamu. lakottai. colourless. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . Ardraka (Rz. each having a depressed scar at its apex. fracture. short with projecting fibres.6. widely cultivated in India. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. pungent Rhizome . tangentially elongated. reaching up to 90 cm in height. thin-walled. taste.5 cm thick. isodiametric.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations.Shows a few layered. buds and roots are removed and washed well. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. (Fam. irregularly arranged. pieces 5-15 cm long. radially arranged cells of inner cork. Ale -Adi. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial.) Zingiberaceae). oblique branches on upper side. gingery. 1.5-6.

C. larger bundles consists of 2. Appendix 90 per cent. 0.L. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. Appendix 5 per cent. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. 13 . 0. phloem. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.69 (light violet). 0. 0. small cells of sieve tube. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. 0. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. Powder -Light yellow. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 2. 0.7. 0. Appendix 8 per cent. 0. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.63 (grey) & 0.63. Appendix 2 per cent. composed of xylem. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. reticulate and spiral vessels.9 T.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.7 vessels.l6 (brownish violet). polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.4.6. Appendix 2. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.dia.63 (light violet).2.35. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. free from starch. numerous closed.16.69 (all light yellow).35 (light violet). endodermis single layered.69 (grey). 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.92 (all yellow). IDENTITY.16.69.5 per cent.13. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.L.3. vessels 2-5 in number.08 (violet). 0. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum.47. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.2. 2. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. 0. collateral. walls of oil cells suberised.76. 0.92 (violet). filled with abundant starch grains.63 & 0. septate fibres with oblique.2.. Under U.V.83 & 0. 2. 0.16 (blue).35. 0. vessels showing reticulate. 0. 0.47 (light violet). oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.08.03. 2.2. 0. elongated pits on their walls. Appendix 1 per cent. conjoint. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. 0. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin.C.76 (violet) & 0.2. CONSTITUENTS . fibrovascular bundles of two types. 0.2. 0. 0.2. oleo-resin cells abundent.

2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. Vibandha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Rocana. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. DOSE .á£la. THERAPEUTIC USES . Svarya. Ka¸tharoga. áopha. RukÀa. 14 . Kaphahara. H¤dya. Ën¡ha. Bhedana. V ¤Àaya.

fibrous. phloem fibres thin-walled. Fabaceae). Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. rough. parenchyma. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. hard. not distinct. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. exfoliating in irregular scales. square to rectangular cells. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. consisting of sieve elements.5-1 cm thick. odour and taste. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. stone cells and phloem cells. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda.Bk. internally light brown to reddish-brown. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. secondary phloem wide. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. upto 3 m in height. Pilobaval. Sadabala -Haramibaval. characteristic of dry regions. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. fracture.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. with tapering 15 . lignified. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. Velvelam. Arimeda (St. incurved. all traversed by medullary rays. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. fibres and crystal fibres. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. thinwalled cortical cells. (Fam.7.

On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.2. Appendix 11 per cent.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. crystal fibres elongated. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. fibres. Atis¡ra. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. Udardapra áamana DOSE . Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. Meda¿oÀaka.91 (yellow). K¡sa.L.4. Appendix 2. K¤mi.6. Dantaroga. Mukharoga. Appendix 13 per cent. Meha. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. radially elongated cells. 0. Powder .e. 2.0 to 0. 0. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . T.C. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0.áopha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.ends. 2.2.n-Hexacosanol.Reddish-brown.3-5 g in powder form.91 (both blue).40 g for decoction. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.69 (grey) is seen in visible light.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . P¡¸·u. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.0. Appendix 1 per cent.78 and 0. Visarpa. IDENTITY.2.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). shows groups of cork cells. 2. 16 .39 and a spot at Rf. ViÀajavra¸a.2. β -Amyrin. 2.39 and a spot at Rf. Ka¸·u. 0 to 0. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3. composed of thin-walled.LC. KuÀ¶ha. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Appendix 14 per cent.7. sclereid.

5 cm thick. traversed by phloem rays. Kellemasuthu.) Combretaceae). recurved.& A. Bilimatti. Mathichakke. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. channelled to half quilled. (Fam. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. in the middle and outer phloem region. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter.8. consisting of sieve tubes. P¡rtha. Arjuna (St. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. flat. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. curved. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. Mattimora. 0. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. Neermatti. Sajada Arjuna Matti. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . companion cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. Arjuna. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. a large deciduous tree. short in inner and laminated in outer part.2-1. Vellamaruthi. taste. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. Torematti Arjuna. bitter and astringent. fracture.Bk. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W.

Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. compound of 2-3 components. Vya´ga. 18 .7. alata). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. mostly simple.2. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. elliptic. DOSE . alternating with fibres. Appendix 20 per cent. KÀatakÀaya. Vra¸an¡¿ana. Appendix 2.in dia. uniseriate phloem rays.4. starch grains. T¤À¡.2. shows fragments of cork cells. Vra¸a. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Reddish-brown.2. Arjuna Gh¤ta. fibres. round to oval. 2. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma.6. Pittahara. 2. Appendix 25 per cent. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .. H¤dya. of the drug in powder form. present in most of the phloem parenchyma.3.. round to oval. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate..Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. starch grains simple and compound. Appendix 1 per cent. sometimes upto 5 components. elliptical. IDENTITY. Kaphahara. a few rhomboidal crystals. THERAPEUTIC USES . Prameha. 4-12 cells high.Medoroga. H¤droga. 2.2. 2.2. Appendix 20 per cent.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. measuring 260-600 µ in dia.3-6 g. µ Powder .

composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. 30-40 layers thick. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. Nallajidiginga Baladur. Fruit .9. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. mesocarp a very broad zone. smooth. shining with residual receptacle. obliquely ovoid. Scramkotati Nallajidi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. Bhallataka (Fr. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. mesocarp and endocarp. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells.) Anacardiaceae). (Fam. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. 19 . Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. nut 2. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. drupaceous. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. dark brown.5-3 cm long. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp.

Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. IDENTITY. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.Ar¿a.4.. chloroform. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. very much elongated radial walls. P¡cana. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES .2.5 per cent.F. DOSE .For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A.2. Appendix 0. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.I. Tikta.6. ether. Powder . Appendix 4 per cent. Kaphahara. 2. Krimi. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. Chedi.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.3.Dark-brown. Part-I 20 . innermost prismatic. 2. Ka¶u. Appendix 5 per cent.2 g. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Note .7.2. Appendix 2. 2. KuÀ¶ha.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid.2. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.2.. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Gulma. Bhedi. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ën¡ha.1. Appendix 11 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. CONSTITUENTS . Snigdha.2. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). Graha¸¢. being highly thickened. V¡tahara.endocarp consists of two distinct layers.

Bhringiraja. herbaceous. cylindrical or flat. Karisalai Guntakalagara. greenish.. disc flowers 21 . Gurugada. Kesuriya. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. Stem . M¡rkava. ovate. 2. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. sub-acute or acute. greyish. Knnunni Bhangra.2 . upto about 7 mm in dia. ligule small. much branched. Asteraceae).2. erect or prostrate. strigosely hirsute. 1.P. white.Well developed. Flower . Karisalanganni. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. occasionally brownish. together on unequal axillary peduncles. Tekar¡ja. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja.Solitary or 2. cylindrical. involucral bracts about 8. rough due to oppressed white hairs. not toothed. Keshavardhana. Bhringaraja (W. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk.10. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. (Fam. lanceolate. occasionally rooting at nodes. usually oblong. sessile to subsessile.2 .Herbaceous. node distinct. 30 . Bh¤´ga.5 cm long. Bhangro Bhangara. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. obtuse or acute. ray flowers ligulate. Leaf . spreading.Opposite. scarcely as long as bracts.50 cm high. often rooting at nodes.) herbaceous annual. Kesari -Bhangaro. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. strigose with oppressed hairs.8. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .3 cm wide. sub-entire. branched. Soppu. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.

b) Microscopic Root . unilocular with one basal ovule. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. Fruit . xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. xylem composed of vessels. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. free. simple. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. non-glandular. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. hairy and non endospermic. Midrib . filaments epipetalous. cuneate. uniseriate. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. epidermis followed by cortex. pitted. corolla often 4 toothed. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. traversed by xylem rays. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. phloem rays broader towards periphery. fibres and xylem parenchyma.0. dark brown. fibre tracheids. covered with striated cuticle. found scattered throughout wood. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 .tubular. ray cells pitted. one seeded. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. with very pointed tips. xylem ray distinct. tangentially elongated cells.25 cm long. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. 0.0. in macerated preparation vessels small.1 cm wide.Achenial cypsella. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. Leaf- Petiole . Seed . rarely slightly oblique. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. vessels numerous. trichomes of two types. warty.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. fibre tracheids. consisting of rounded cells. run straight in tangential section. ovary inferior. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. externally covered with cuticle. drum-shaped. and with pointed apical cell. pappus absent. stamen 5. brown.2 . with a narrow wing. pistil bicarpellary. epidermis followed by wide cortex.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. covered with warty excrescences. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. 1-5 celled.

2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. vascular bundles in a ring. palisade ratio 3. pericyclic fibres distinct. Stem . in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. hairs stiff. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped.5 -26. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. pointed. warty. normally biseriate and uniseriate. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. arranged in tangential strands.0-22. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. some elongated with simple perforations. uniseriate. about 3 celled.8 -4. pitted with spiral thickening. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes.5 on upper and 23. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. 23 . Powder . pointed tips and pitted walls. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface.5. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. septa thick-walled. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. externally covered with cuticle. collateral. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. xylem fibres with wide lumen. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. epidermis single layered. secondary cortex composed of large.0 on lower surface. peg-like outgrowth. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents.collenehymatous cells on both sides.shows a dorsi ventral structure. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. xylem consists of large number of vessels. stomatal index 20. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. the cork where formed.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. externally covered with cuticle. wide at the base. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. more abundant on lower surfaces. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. while the section cut at apical region. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length.Dark green. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. trichomes entire or in pieces. Lamina . endarch. middle cells longest.

2. 2. Appendix per cent.2. P¡¸·u. CakÀusya. 2. Appendix per cent. 24 .Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. 2.7. Dantya. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila.6. 12 . Tikta RukÀa. H ¤droga.2. K¤miroga.2.3 . CONSTITUENTS .36 g.IDENTITY. Ras¡yana. K¡sa. V¡tahara. Ëmahara. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. Ke¿ya. 2. ViÀahara. Tekar¡ja marica. Kaphahara. áirah á£la. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4.Alkaloids.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent.2. Tvacya. áv¡sa.áotha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. Yak¤droga. Appendix 2.2.6 ml of the drug in juice form. Appendix per cent.

wiry.) H. Leaf . Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. 25 . green or purplish green. Flower . Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . slightly bitter. Stem .P. taste. Fruit . obovate-oblong.Capsules upto 5 mm long. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. Brahmi. branched creamish-yellow.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Ondelaga. soft. opposite. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. pedicels 6-30 mm long. axillary and solitary. found throughout India in wet and damp places. Brahmi (W. 1-2 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Valabrahmi.11.& K.Thin. small. Scrophulariaceae). prostrate or creeping annual herb..B. ovoid and glabrous. Syn.) Wettst. small. glabrous. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. (Fam. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. a glabrous. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. about 1-2 mm thick. sessile. slightly bitter. taste. decussate. succulent.Thin. green.Simple.Small. nodes and internodes prominent.

glandular hairs sessile. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. round to oval. vascular ring continuous.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Powder . present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.6. b) Microscopic 26 . cortex having large air cavities. Stem . 2.Yellowish-brown.4.2.3. respectively. ViÀahara. glandular hairs.2.2. Appendix per cent. 2. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Praj¡sth¡pana. Tikta. V¡tahara. ËyuÀya.2. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces.. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent.2. Appendix per cent. Matiprada. endodermis single layered. Svarya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. 2.Root . Ras¡yana. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. no distinct midrib present. Medhya.7. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. Appendix per cent. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. Appendix 2. IDENTITY.5-9. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. starch grains simple. and 8.0 x 2.Shows a single layer of epidermis. simple.0-14. round and oval starch grains. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. endodermis single layered. measuring 4-14 µ in dia.2. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.0 µ in dia. 2. Appendix per cent. pericycle not distinct. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath.

áopha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. P¡¸·u. 27 . Prameha. Ratnagiri Rasa.1-3 g in powder form. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . Jvara.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . S¡rasvata C£r¸a.KuÀ¶ha.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.

stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. long. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. Solanaceae). short and splintery. Badikateri Kirugullia. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. no distinct odour and taste. Putirichunda Dorli.. upto 1.15 layers of thin-walled. pale yellowish-brown. varying greatly in shape and size. much branched perennial under shrub.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . a very prickly. parenchyma and stone cells. b) Microscopic Root . woody. Heggulla. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. tangentially elongated. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. cylindrical. fracture. Chichuriti. secondary cortex composed of 5 . Ubhibharingani. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5.12.5 cm in dia. ribbed. traversed by phloem rays. Papparamulli. (Fam. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. 1-2. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content.9 layers of thin-walled. cork cambium single layered.8 m high. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. Brihati (Rt.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. phloem parenchyma much abundant. oval and tangentially elongated cells.

fibres and xylem parenchyma. Jvara. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.5 per cent.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. cells radially elongated and pitted.2. DOSE .2. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent.4. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. 2. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. 2.2. vessels with simple pits. phloem and medullary rays. rounded to oval starch grains. aseptate fibres. 2.6. measuring 5.2. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. Appendix 2. traversed by xylem rays. IDENTITY.2. of the drug for decoction. tracheids. P¡cana. thick-walled. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.11. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . 29 . CONSTITUENTS . vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. áv¡sa.6 µ in diameter. V¡tahara. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.5 .Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. xylem rays uni to biseriate. Appendix Not more than 6. H¤dya. Agnim¡dya. parenchymatous cells.7. Powder . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. all elements being lignified..5 -11.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.10-20 g.3. shows groups of thin-walled. H¤droga. measuring 5.á£la. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2.6 µ in diameter.Cream coloured.

cylindrical and somewhat twisted. thin-walled. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements.. Syn. greyish-brown. Chavya (St. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. chaba Hunter non Blume. cork cambium not distinct. odour. fracture. cultivated mainly in Southern India. taste. fleshy climber. b) Microscopic Stem .5-2. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. nodes and internodes distinct. P. officinarum DC. tracheid. peppery. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels.0 cm in width. fibres and xylem parenchyma. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 .13. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. consisting of round. oval to rectangular. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. Chavya -Kattumulaku. (Fam. endodermis single layered. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. plenty of simple starch granules present. P. secondary cortex a wide zone. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. Piperaceae). acrid. short. a glabrous.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. brownish cells.

V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. Appendix 2.4. RukÀa.2. P¡cana.6. Kaphahara. IDENTITY. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Gulma. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. D¢pana. Appendix 10 per cent. cells thin walled.2. filled with simple. 2. round to oval. Appendix 1.5 per cent.2. 2.1-2 g.7. Powder . starch grains. fibres and simple. 31 . Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Appendix 3 per cent.2. round to oval starch grains. 2. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter.Ar¿a. medullary rays multi seriate. CONSTITUENTS . shows fragments of vessels.Alkaloids. Udara Roga. of the drug in powder form. Krimi. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. Glycosides and Steroids. á£lal DOSE . Pl¢h¡ Roga. Recana. THERAPEUTIC USES .Greyish-brown.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. Ën¡ha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu.2.pitted and reticulate thickenings. Appendix 6 per cent.

2 cm wide.14. starch grains present in testa. parenchymatous cells. cotyledons coiled. thin walled. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. beneath this. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. sweetish-sour. triangular and rectangular. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown.5-0. consisting of oval to polygonal. round. 0. simple. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. Powder . oval. (Fam.1-0. Punicaceae).Reddish-brown. endosperm absent. angular.6 cm long.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. LohitapuÀpa. Madalam Danimma Anar. Maadalai. shows stone cells. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. containing a few oil globules. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. taste. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. wedge-shaped. 32 . oil globules. Dadima (Sd. round to oval. found growing wild in the warm valley. Seed .) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. 0.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

Light greenish-yellow. 3-9 cm long. globose. 1-2. Inflorescence . fracture.5 cm across. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . slightly bitter.25 cm long. characteristic. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. white. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. fibrous. an annual.Yellowish-green. 1-2. glabrous in lower part. lanceolate. corolla. scaberulous. ciliate. slightly curved. 1. Dronapushpi (W. about 2-3. size variable. taste. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. crenate. Leaf . erect. 10 dentate with a villous throat. (Fam.Cylindrical.Sessile.35 cm wide. upto 4 mm thick. acute. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. fine rootlets. Gumma. calyx.6-0. subacute. long with numerous wiry.) Lamiaceae). Stem .5 cm wide.5 cm long and 0. pungent.2-1.3-0. white. more or less pubescent. smooth. ovate or ovate. surface rough.P. about 0. taste. nodes and internodes distinct.16. zig-zag. tubular.7-2 cm 37 . hairy on upper part. hairy. serrate. taste. crowded in dense.9 m in high. 1.lanceolate. thin. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. stout herb.

thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes.vascular bundle arc-shaped. palisade single layered. secondary xylem consists of vessels. bilipped. followed by round to oval parenchyma. Fruit . medullary rays 1-2 seriate. oblong.0.shows a single layered epidermis. Stem . xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. thin-walled.3 cm long and 0. wooly. present in centre. some having simple pits. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. consisting of barrel shaped.Schizocarpic carcerule. 4 . a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres.1 cm wide. smooth. Seed . tangentially elongated. tracheids. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells.tangentially elongated. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. round to angular collenchyma. vessels long with spurs. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. brown.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. thin-walled cells. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface.7 layered. tracheids. cortex consisting of single layered.long. lateral lobes small. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. Leaf- Petiole . consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. consists of a single layered epidermis.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. trigonous. endoderm is single layered. thin-walled cells. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. Lamina . irregular. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. Midrib . fibres and xylem parenchyma. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. upto 8 cells high. dark brown. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. upper lip about 4 mm long. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. composed of oval to rectangular. b) Microscopic Root . thin-walled 38 .shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. xylem consists of vessels. nutlets 3 mm smooth. vascular bundles 4. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre.

2. Ka¶u Guru.cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittakara. present on both surfaces. pitted and spiral vessels. ViÀamajvara DOSE .2.áotha.6. Tamaka áv¡sa.3. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. palisade ratio 7-9.2. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. a few veins present in this region.4. 16. aseptate fibres. stomatal index 16.6-40. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.7 on upper surface.Alkaloid. Appendix 2. V¡takara.5 on lower surface. Agnim¡ndya. stomata diacytic. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. RukÀa. Powder . 2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Glycoside. THERAPEUTIC USES .Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. 2.6-30. 2.7. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. 39 .2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. 2.Dull yellow. K¡mal¡. Lava¸a.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. Bhedani. IDENTITY.2. K¡sa.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.

17. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. utilissimus Roxb. radially elongated to squarish. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. cultivated in many parts of the country. creamish-yellow. 0. surface smooth. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. straight. Vellarika Kakadi. taste. mesophyll cells thinwalled. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. rounded and tangentially elongated.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. B¤hatphala. 0. parenchymatous cells. sweetish oily. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic.7-10 cm long. Hastipani. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. cotyledons two. Karka¶¢. C. parenchymatous. Ervaru (Sd. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. -Kakur. (Fam. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. shows stone cells. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. more or less ellipsoid. Hastipani. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn.3-0. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily.4 cm wide. thin-walled. 40 . glossy. an annual creeping herb. Cucurbitaceae). covered with thick cuticle.

L. (366 mm). 0.97 (all grey).83. 0. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .Oil & Sugars. Pittahara. 0. Appendix 2.4. Rucya. Gulma. 0.2. of seeds. Appendix 10 per cent.2.D¡ha.C.58.26.35.64. 41 . RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.0. 2.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. 2.83. Appendix 5 per cent.0.35. A¿mar¢.C.6. 2.0. CONSTITUENTS .26. 0. 0. D¢pana.91 (blue) under U. 0.2. Tikta Guru. Jvara. Appendix 0.97 (all yellow) . 0. 0. 2.19.91 and 0.91 and 0.7. 0.51.IDENTITY.77. V¡takara. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.3. 0. 0.5 per cent. Kaphakara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.77.2.51. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.3-6 g.58. Raktapitta. THERAPEUTIC USES .64.V. RaktadoÀakara.2.L. T¤À¸¡. T. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .19.

0-3. Orissa.3-0.4 cm wide. brownish-grey.4-0. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . 42 . shiny. b) Microscopic Fruit . 0. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.18. (Fam. Araceae).Shows more or less loosely arranged. rough and scaly. 0. smooth. odour and taste not distinct.Kidney-shaped.5 cm thick. Gajapippali (Fr. cut surface has a central core. thin-walled.0 cm in diameter and 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. a large epiphytic climber.0-3. greyish-brown with a dent.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. odour and taste not disticnt. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands.6 cm long. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Seed .

CONSTITUENTS . áv¡sa.2. 0.6.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . thin-walled. in extract (Phant) form.Atis¡ra. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. oval to polygonal. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B.73 and 0. 2-4 layered. 2.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. 0. 0.2-3 g. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Agnivardhaka. T. oval to polygonal. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. Ka¸¶hya. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. V¡tahara.C.C. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent.Dark brown. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. oval to polygonal.93 (all yellow).73 (both light brown) and 0. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. pitted and with concentric striations. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. Malavi¿oÀana. IDENTITY. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C.93 (brown).3.L. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. Punarnav¡sava.2.5 per cent. 0.7.2. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.áiv¡gutik¡. 0. non-lignified.65. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.73 and 0. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. Stanya. 0.27.2. thick-walled. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. Powder .20.L.V.93 (all blue) are visible.27. shows lignified.65 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. 43 . On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. K¤miroga.2.4. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. Kaphahara. DOSE . 2.65. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Glucosides viz.Shows a single layered. 2. 2. Three spots appear at Rf. 2. Sugars & Fixed Oil. thick-walled. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.Seed . Appendix T.65. Ka¸ha Roga.

thin-walled cells. taste. papery. crinkled. Shivani. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. ovoid. black.5-1 cm long.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. radially 44 . parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered.6 cm wide. K¡¿marya.5-2. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. (Fam. two seeded. Seed . thin-walled.A drupe.4-0.Seed ovate. oily. tangentially elongated. surface smooth. cotyledons consisting of single layered. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. P¢takarohi¸¢. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. seed coat thin. multilayered.19. taste. fleshy mesocarp. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. sometimes one seeded. 0. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. Hannu -Kumbil. parenchymatous cells. Seed . light yellow. 0. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb.0 cm long. Sr¢par¸¢. Verbenaceae).Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. sweetish sour. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Fruit . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. 1.) unarmed tree. Gambhari (Fr.

D¡ha.2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Arvind¡sava.Butyric acid.03.93 and 0. Medhya.L. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rakta Pitta DOSE .2.2.22.C. Ras¡yana. Appendix 25 per cent. 2. CONSTITUENTS . 0.52. KÀaya. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. T. Appendix 2. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. IDENTITY.C. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. KÀata. 0. Ke¿ya..Blackish-brown. 0. 0. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. Sara.08.2.L. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Appendix 6 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.4.18.98 (all yellow). V¡tahara. Powder . H¤droga. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. 45 . Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. Alkaloid.2.98 (yellow) in visible light. Appendix 8 per cent.2.26.12. of the drug in powder form. 2.94 and 0. Under U. 2.6. 0.03. Amla. T¤À¸¡.42. 0.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.3.4 per cent. Pittahara. shows stone cells. oil globules and aleurone grains. 2. H¤dya. Appendix 0. 0. Resin and Saccharine. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .98 (orange). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.elongated epidermal cells. 0.1-3 g. M£trak¤cchra.98 (all blue). 0. Tartaric acid.

5-5 cm long. thick-walled. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. taste. moderately large in size. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. Gangeru (St.6-1. 1. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. fibrous.0 m high. radially arranged cells. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Tiliaceae).20. fibrous. parenchymatous cells.) Aschers & Schwf.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. rectangular. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . traversed by wide phloem rays. (Fam. oval. elliptical. Syn. external surface smooth. consisting of 12-20 layered. thin-walled. 46 .Shows a wide cork. secondary cortex wide. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. a shrub 0. Grewia populifolia Vahl. a few stone cells. light yellow. consisting of tangentially elongated. arranged in radial groups. channelled.Bk. fracture. mucilaginous. blunt tips and moderately long in size..

0.61.17. α-amyrin.2.L. of the drug in powder form. Two spots are seen at Rf.2. Appendix per cent. 0.13 (blue). stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. Pittavik¡ra.88 (all yellow). 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.08 (blue) 0.48 (violet).35 (both light yellow) in visible light.6.08. DOSE . 0.68 (light violet) & 0.29 (blue). (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.55. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Powder . Under U.88 (light violet). Appendix per cent. Ka¶u. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10).35 (violet).4.35 (dark blue).C. T. 0. IDENTITY. 2.17. Amla. 0. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .68 & 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2. 0. 2.08 (violet).Vra¸a.27. 0.Light yellow and fibrous. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.Sugar.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.J¢rak¡di Modaka.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .35. Tikta.27 (light violet). 0.L.V.). Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.7.3. 0. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2-3 g.17 (light violet). 0. 2. 0.41.C.48. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles.55 (blue) & 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. 0. 2.64 (blue). Appendix 2. 47 . 0. 0. 0.2. 0. β-amyrin etc.

Kundumani Guriginga. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. cylindrical. Chanothee. Gurivinda Ghongchi. pitted walls. flowering in August-September. taste. composed of 1-2 cells wide. bark thin. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. fruits ripen during winter. spreading throughout the plains. most often irregularly curved. soft. slightly corky. Chonotee Ratti. b) Microscopic Root . followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. present at short intervals. (Fam. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . a climber. feebly sweetish. tangentially elongated cells. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root.21. exfoliating in small flakes. smaller than stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. Fabaceae).) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. Ghungchi Guluganji. becoming mildly bitter. gulagunja -Kunni. odourless. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. simple or branched. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. light brown. cork cambium. Gunja (Rt. when distinct. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. Kakananti Rati Kunch. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. thinwalled. some with brownish content.

thin-walled and rectangular. wood composed of narrow concentric.75 µ in diameter. parenchyma thin-walled. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. 2.3. Powder . Tikta á¢ta. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.5-13. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. numerous xylem fibres. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya.diverging towards periphery.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin).2.5 -13.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.2. stone cells. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. vessels of varying sizes with thick. Appendix 4 per cent. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.Indralupta. DOSE .3 g.75 µ in diameter. xylem vessels with pitted walls.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood.4. 2.6. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. 2. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form.2. Appendix 10 per cent. shows fragments of cork. Appendix 9 per cent. Mukha¿oÀa.5 per cent. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.1 . Pittahara. áula. THERAPEUTIC USES . mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.7. 2. Appendix 2. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. IDENTITY. pitted walls. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.2. small groups of sclerenchyma. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region.Greyish-brown. 49 .

closed type of vascular bundles. b) Microscopic Stem . smooth. taste. more numerous and closer towards periphery. cylindrical. odour.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled.22. solid. Serdi Ikha. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. (Fam. characteristic. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. juicy and sweet. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. with. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node.) shrub. Poaceae). lignified. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. Ikshu (St. scattered throughout the ground tissue. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. conjoint. besides the xylem and phloem elements. distinct node and internode. 50 . Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high.

DOSE . 51 .3. V¤Àya.5 per cent.Raktapitta.400 ml in the juice form. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . vessels and sclerenchyma.2. ground tissue. IDENTITY. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent.2. 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.Bal¡ Taila. M£tra KÀaya. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.Sucrose. shows pieces of epidermis.4. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2.2. Kaphahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.7. V¡tahara. 2.6. Appendix Not more than 2. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.200 . 2.Powder .2. Sara. Pittahara. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Balya.2.Powder light brick red.

áatakratulat¡. fibres aseptate.23. consisting of vessels. xylem forms bulk of root. Garukhiya Kaudatumma.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. tangentially elongated cork cells. Indravaruni (Rt.5 µ in dia.) Cucurbitaceae). Varithummati. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. Indrayan. thin walled. parenchyma and medullary rays. an annual or perennial. fibres. b) Microscopic Root . 0. thick-walled. Indrayanalata. secondary phloem a narrow-zone.5 cm thick.5-7. dull yellow. mostly simple or rarely 52 . parenchyma and medullary rays. elongated with pointed ends. Indravaruni. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. taste. short. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. intensively bitter. slightly twisted. Indramanoa. Valiya Pekkumatti. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. composed of sieve elements.2-2. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. fracture. pitted. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. lying around vessels. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. Havumakke. a few filled with dark brown contents. longitudinal fissures present. Indravarana Gothakakucti. Gav¡kÀ¢. Bitter apple Indravaran. Paythumatti. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. occurring throughout the country. thick walled. Tumbi Paikamatti. Tuntikai. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. tangentially elongated. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. cylindrical. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

800 m.. brownish-black. taste. oval or roundish.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. 1 cm wide. coriaceous covering.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. cuminii Druce. a large evergreen tree. E. rounded starch grains. Jambu (Sd. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia.25. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam.) Skeels Syn. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. 1 cm long.. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. smooth. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. 57 .Brown coloured. Eugenia jambolana Lam. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. (Fam. Myrtaceae). found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. thin-walled. oval. astringent. Seed . b) Microscopic Powder . Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja.

2. 58 .3-6 g.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. Amla.30 and 0.6.IDENTITY. Pittahara.95 (all violet). Kaphahara.2. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix per cent. T. 0. 0.L.2.2.20.3. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 2. ViÀ¶ambhi.12.C.Glycoside (Jamboline).2. 2.C. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. 2. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. of the drug in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. KaÀ¡ya Guru.Madhumeha.95 (all yellow).2. CONSTITUENTS .L.7. Appendix per cent.V. Appendix per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Tannin. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.30 and 0. Appendix 2. Udakameha. DOSE .95 and 0.20. three spots appear at Rf. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U.2.30 (blue).

stratified and reddish-brown. Raja Jambu Merale. Jamu. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. stone cells. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Neralamara -Njaval. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. short and splintery. Jamneralae. Jambu. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. cuminii Druce.5 cm thick. Mahamaram. (Fam. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. rough. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells.Bk. Jambuda Jomuna. Myrtaceae). having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem.. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape.5-2.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. and phloem rays. E. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . oval to angular. elongated. Eugenia jambolana Lam. taste. 0. fracture. internal surface fibrous.) Skeels Syn. and reddish brown. Jambu (St. forming a rhytidoma. lower cork thin and colourless. Navval Sambu. upper few layers thick. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. astringent. younger bark mostly channelled. fibres aseptate. cork cambium not distinct. light grey to ash coloured.26.800 m. a large evergreen tree. Jam Jammu Naaval.

phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. of the drug for decoction. stone cells. aseptate fibres.U¿¢r¡sava.2.2.2. 2.2.4. single or in groups. elongated.2. V¡tala. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.6. round to oval starch grains. Pittahara. reddish-brown content.Light brown.10-20 g. 2. DOSE . K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . THERAPEUTIC USES .3. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. measuring 5-11µ in diameter.Atis¡ra. 60 . IDENTITY. 2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.region. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.2. Stambhaka. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . oval to angular.7. round to oval starch grains. Raktapitta.

Nervala -Nervalam. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. Jayapala (Sd. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. Neervalam. 61 . consisting of a large endosperm. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. 5-7 m high.27. (Fam. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. filled with brownish content. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. oblong. Japal beej. thin-walled cells.) small evergreen tree. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Euphorbiaceae). Japala. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. ovate. consisting of an epidermal layer. Tinti·¢phala.Shows a hard testa. no marked odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. kernel yellowish and oily. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. b) Microscopic Seed . dull cinnamon-brown. slightly bent at middle. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. found throughout tropical India. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. slightly quadrangular. Neervalam Jepal.

84 (all violet). 0.5 per cent. 2. Powder . a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. 0. Vibandha DOSE .29.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. Appendix 15 per cent. IDENTITY.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.63 and 0.84 (brown). 0. T.2. Appendix 7 per cent.Fixed oil. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .49. 0.V.White with black particles of testa. Appendix 0.54 (yellow).54 and 0.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. of the drug in powder form.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6-12 mg.6.34. Appendix 2. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. 0. 62 . Appendix 3 per cent. 0. 0.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.10. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Udararoga.34 (grey).Jvara. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.2.2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.L. CONSTITUENTS .90 (all yellow). 2.39. 0. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. 0.4. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara. 2. Resins & Phorbol esters. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.C.2. 2.7.

Jalugu.shows single layered epidermis. leaflets 6-16 pairs. Lamina . oblong. aegyptiaca Pers.5-15. 1. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. Karijimangai. having secretory cavities in phloem. (Fam. 0. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. mucronate to acuminate.Syn. palisade single layered. Fabaceae). -Semp. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. á£kÀma patra. very shortly stalked. Arishimajingai. Atti. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. polygonal. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. S. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . Jay¡.0-3. pith small. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings.5 cm long.8-6 m high. stomata anisocytic.8 cm wide. paripinnate. linear. parenchymatous cells. short lived shrub. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.7 layered round.. 7.28.) Merr. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. opposite. Jayanti Jaita. 1. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. entire. present on both surfaces. a quick growing. consisting of thin-walled. jayata Arinintajinamgi. 63 . glabrous. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath.3-0. Jayanti (Lf.3 cm long. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.V.05.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. T.97 (yellow).48.91 and 0. Powder .2. 0. 0.2. 0. 0. 2.25-4. Pittahara. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. Appendix per cent. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. 0.3-6 g. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. Appendix per cent.29.C. 0. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .11.4.05.05.56.2. Galaga¸·a. THERAPEUTIC USES .11. Ras¡yana. shows spongy parenchyma.Protein. 0.Dull green. 0. 0.97 (all yellow). DOSE .7. 0. 0.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.91 and 0. in powder form. V¡tahara.29. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.19.L. 64 .Ratnagiri Rasa.C. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.37. palisade cells.97 (all grey). 0. 0.3. 2. ViÀaroga. 0. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.M£trak¤cchra.11. Calcium and Phosphorus. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.56.2.37.6.48.2. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.56 (all pink) and 0. 0.69.19. palisade ratio 3. 2. Appendix per cent. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. 0. 0.L.19.29. 2. 0.

collapsed. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. Celastraceae). measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. (Fam. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. taste.5-3. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni.35 mm in breadth. brownish-orange. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. Gangunge beeja. Seed .29. a large climbing shrub. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. unpleasant. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. ripe seeds. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril.hard. colour. Gangunge humpu.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. light to dark brown. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. seed without aril also prescent. surface generally smooth and. bitter. Jyotishmati (Sd. odour.

CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. 0. V¡tahara. thin-walled. 0.7. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. 2.4. áirovirecanopaga. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Virecaka. D¢pana. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Meddhya 66 . 0. V¡maka.54 (both blue).15. 2. Appendix 1. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.89.6.2.82 & 0. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.35. (all blue) & 0. 2. 2.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.Oily. Tikta Sara.2.2. 0.89 (all yellow).Alkaloids. 0. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.94 (yellow) in visible light. Powder .89 (both greenish blue). ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).8 IDENTITY. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. 2.82. Appendix 45 per cent.04.2.35.L. 0.54.V. UÀ¸a.C. Kaphahara. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.82 (pink) & 0. Appendix 9 per cent.20.94 (yellow).3. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.63. dark brown.54.V. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 0.2. stone cells.5 per cent.C.82. Oil and Tannins.2. 0. Appendix 2. Under U. Appendix 20 per cent.composed of polygonal.2.

Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. DOSE . 67 . Oil : 5-15 drops. Sm¤tidaurbalya. ávitra.V¡tavy¡dh¢. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Seed: 1-2 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Priyka Roghu. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kadambu Needam. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. some cells contain chlorophyll. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. A.Bk. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. phloem composed of sieve tubes. rectangular cells. elongated cells of phloem rays. Kadam Kadam. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. large tree. Indulam. Kadamba Kadamba. (Fam. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Syn. traversed by uni to triseriate.30. Kadamba Nipo. Kadavala. bitter. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. 68 b) Microscopic . taste.. indicus A. Kadamba mara. Kadappai.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Rich. Vellaikhadambu. Kadamba (St. a few cells with brown contents. a deciduous. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. composed of thin-walled. Rubiaceae). Vellai Kadambam.

0.90 (grey). CONSTITUENTS . shows fragments of cork cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. 0. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.83 and 0.2.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.31.57. 2. DOSE . 2. 0.D¡ha. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. 2.79 (grey) and 0. Raktapitta. 69 . ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).3.7. Appendix 1.phloem fibres.5 .13. Appendix 2.4.21. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Vra¸aropa¸a. Powder .C.03. 0.0.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.64.70 (orange yellow). 0. L C. cells distinct and slightly elongated. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent. T. 2. Appendix 9 per cent. of the drug in powder form. Lava¸a.2. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. phloem cells. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Alkaloids.5 per cent.63 (yellowish grey). 0. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. YonidoÀa.2.5 g.2.Brown.1.6. Vra¸a. V¡tahara.79. THERAPEUTIC USES .Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.L. Steroids. 0.2. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.5:10) shows under U. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . fibres. 0. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.2.

Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. quite common in cultivated lands. externally smooth. Pikachia. slender. flattened. 3-8 flowered cymes. calyx 2-3 mm long. five lobed. extra-axillary. ganike. (Fam. peduncles 6-20 mm long. 2. obtuse. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. green. corolla 4-8 mm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . bark thin.P. 70 . pedicels 6-10 mm long. hairy in lower part. Kakamachi (W. ovary globose. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. Manaththakkali. yellowish. Flower . Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. petiolate.Erect. Ganikegida. Manitakkali. pale brown.5 cm long and 2. sub-umbellate. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. thin. ovate or oblong. hairy at base. toothed or lobed.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. glabrous.) Solanaceae). anther 1.25 mm long. 1. glabrous. Leaf . Stem . rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. found throughout the country in dry parts. oblong. 30-45 cm high. Manatakkali. glabrous or pubescent.5 mm long.5 cm wide. a herbaceous annual weed.Simple. filaments short. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. oblong. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. very slender.31. white or pale violet.2-2.5-8. narrowed at both ends. slightly woody and branched. obtuse notched at apex. road sides and gardens. sinuate. Ganikesopu. style cylindric.Small.

smooth. slightly elongated.Fruit . 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. yellow. parenchyma 4-6 layered. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. uniseriate. bicollateral.25 µ in dia. trichomes multicellular. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. covered with thick.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. in small or large patches. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. covered with striated cuticle.. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. composed of thin-walled. yellow or black.5-11 µ in dia. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. phloem rays uniseriate. but 4. vascular bundles-collateral. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. starch grains. cortex of large. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows.' oval parenchymatous cells. LeafPetiole . obtuse. xylem rays homogenous. central vascular bundle shallow. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem consists of thin-walled. compactly arranged. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces.. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. conjoint and open. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. Stem . tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. epidermis single layered. 6mm in dia. radially elongated cells. arc71 .A berry. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. 1. measuring 2. slightly striated cuticle. polygonal cells. usually accompanied by fibres. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. internal phloem. rays composed of thin-walled. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. pith large.. Midrib . covered with striated cuticle. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.Shows single layered. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. cambium 2-4 layered. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. embedded in perimedullary zones. oval to round starch grains. uniseriate. covering trichomes. endoderrnis single layered. measuring 2.. tangentially elongated. minutely pitted. uniseriate.10 layered in angular parts. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations.Discoid. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.5-8. single or with two or rarely 3 components. arcshaped. filled with starch grains. smooth shining Seed .5 mm in dia.

034 and 0. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. single.Creamish-green.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. present beneath palisade parenchyma. 0.5 . in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. epidermis with irregular outline. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. stomata anisocytic. T. IDENTITY. measuring 2.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.34 (both brown) in visible light. 0. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. Lamina . Fruit . 72 . palisade ratio 2-4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.2. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. a few broken pieces of pointed.L.06.Alkaloids and Saponins. 2.L. Appendix per cent.2.11 µ in diameter. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.C.2.C.06 & 0.7.3. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.4. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. 2. 2.Shows thin. Appendix per cent. Under U. palisade single layered.2. 2.06 & 0.dorsiventral. vein islet number 7-10. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.V. CONSTITUENTS . stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. Powder . papery epicarp. 0.2.97 (all yellow). shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces.6. unicellular hairs.34 (both pink). scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.

Kaphahara. of the drug in juice form. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Svarya. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. 73 .5 -10 ml. Prameha. KuÀ¶ha. Sara. V¡tahara. Tikta Laghu. H¤dya.áotha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ar¿a. Chardi. Netraroga. Hikk¡. Jvara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. H¤droga. Ras¡yana. Pittahara. DOSE . Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Ka¸·u.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Rasar¡ja Rasa.

androecium. Tavare. Kamal. gynoecium and thalamus.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. Aravindan. carpels many. 2-4 cm long. yellowish-brown. Sitopala. Aravinda. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Kamala (Fl. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. gynoceium apocarpous. Syn. 1. free. sepals leaf-like. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. elliptic. 74 . embedded in a creamy. corolla. Tavaregedd -Tamara. anther. Paduman. erect. Padma. extended into clavate appendages. obtuse. Pamposh Tamarai. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. dark brown. Kalh¡ra. Sarojam Kaluva. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Nymphaeaceae). linear 1. crimp led. comprising of calyx. starchy and large. membranous. a large. 1. Naidile. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Kanwal Kamal. (Fam.4-2 cm long. 3-5 cm long.32. finely veined. black. Kamalam. petals numerous. seed hard. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Chenthamara.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Venthamara. aquatic herb with creeping stem.3-2 cm wide. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2.5-3 cm wide. crimpled. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Thamaraipoo. broken pieces also occur.

Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. angular. Appendix per cent. followed by ground tissue of oval.12 -24 g. .filament appears circular in outline.Alkaloid (Nelumbine).shows four chambered anther. Tikta. IDENTITY. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Pittahara. parenchymatous cells. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. 2. Powder . 2. Visarpa. Appendix per cent. spore sac contains yellow. of the drug for decoction. 2. Sant¡pahara. spherical.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . Appendix per cent.Raktapitta. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. M£tra Virajan¢ya. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS .7. two on either sides.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. Stamen Filament .2.2. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle.6. vascular bundle single. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. columnar. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES .Aravind¡sava.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. Anther .4. Appendix 2. measuring 50-61 µ in dia.2. rectangular. Appendix per cent. having smooth exine and intine.2. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls.Dusty brown. composed of thin-walled. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. 2. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. parenchymatous cell. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. DOSE . ViÀavik¡ra. yellow pollen grains.3.2. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle.

aromatic. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content.Reddish-brown. elephantum Correa (Faro. straight. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Kavataleal. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. Pulp. thin-walled. sour. Powder . glabrous tree with strong. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. parenchymatous cells. semicircular. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. stone cells. Belalu. F. a deciduous. sharp. 76 . xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. odour. slightly triangular and oval. Siwalik range and forests.) Swingle. axillary thorns. found throughout the plains of India. reddish brown. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. hard. Haminamara -Vilar maram.shows irregular. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. Bilvara. stone cells. Belada hannu. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael.33. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Rutaceae). b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp .) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. Kapittha (Fr. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. found in groups. rough. often cultivated in many parts of India. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Syn. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Balada. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. taste. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp.

KaÀ¡ya.14 (sky blue).2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. Hikk¡.2.2. Appendix per cent. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. Under U.3. V¡mi.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 77 .12.12 (brown). Appendix per cent. Vra¸an¡¿aka. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. 0. 0.06. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. 2. Lekhana. 0. Unripe Pulp: Amla. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.37.95 (violet) . 0. T. 0. Pittav¡tahara.C. CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Gr¡h¢. Sangr¡h¢. 6.6. Ripe-T¤À¡. DOSE .37 (brown).L. Amla.91 (violet) and 0. 2. 0. 2. Appendix per cent.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. 2. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.4.2. Appendix per cent.V.91 and 0. 0.C. 0.IDENTITY.91 (grey) in visible light. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. 0. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .95 (all yellow).Citric acid and Mucilage.95 (blue).2.91 (blue) and 0.7. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.L. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. Agnim¡ndya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.50. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. 0.50 (violet).áv¡sa.

secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. fracture. sometimes cultivated. and compound having 2-3 components. flat or slightly curved pieces. light in weight. Karamarda (St. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. internal surface grey and smooth. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin.Greyish-brown.34. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. external surface brownish-grey. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. tubular. simple and compound starch grains. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. starch grains simple. b) Microscopic Powder . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. (Fam . met throughout India in wild state. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree.) Apocynaceae). 78 . a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. short. rough due to longitudinal striations.Bk. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. shows single and groups of stone cells. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3.

52 (light sky blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 2.48 g.7.2. 79 . 2.3.58 (both light grey).V.35. 0.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.2. Appendix per cent.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . T.2.97 (violet).4. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. CONSTITUENTS .2.KuÀthahara. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. DOSE . 2. of the drug for decoction.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.6. 0.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. 0.90 (pink) and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.L.L. Pittakara. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. 2. Appendix per cent.C. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.

Karanja (Rt. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. a glabrous tree. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja.. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. cells.) Merr. thin-walled. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. (Fam. single cells of varying shape and size. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. internally. Fabaceae). Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. 3-11 µ in dia.35. most of phloem 80 . Nakt¡hv¡.) glabra Vent. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Syn. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. traversed by phloem rays. due to peeling off. tangentially elongated. fracture. Naktam¡la. fibrous. P. very bitter. taste. secondary phloem very wide. tangentially elongated cells.. Bk. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. external surface rough. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite.

Ka¸·£ghna. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.13 (Sky blue).42 (sky blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Appendix 2 per cent.2. 0.47 (greenish yellow). Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . Ka¸·u.25 (sky blue). 0. 0. of the drug for decoction.98 (all yellow). Powder -Creamish-yellow.L. most of ray cells contain starch grain. cork cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.2.7. Appendix 3.09. 2.2.C. 0. 0.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. 0.5 per cent. 0. T.Flavones Kanugin. 0.37. Appendix 17 per cent. 81 . 0.08 (greenish blue).2. Pittahara. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. 2. V¡tahara. 1-2 seriate.6. Appendix 11 per cent.80 and 0. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.37 (greenish yellow). Yoniroga. mostly straight. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.V. 0.3.2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.31 (sky blue). 0. Prameha. ViÀaghma.L. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. shows thin-walled. 0. IDENTITY. 0. 2. Ëntravidradhi. 0.2. phloem fibres.51 (light blue). KuÀtha.18 (blue) 0. Tikta. 2.C. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex.1-3 g.47. consisting of thin-walled. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .51. DOSE . DuÀ¶avra¸a.04 (blue).80 (light blue). similar to those present in secondary cortex.31.K¤miroga. 0. parenchymatous cells.47. phloem rays many. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter.18.4.

Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. bark. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga.. Syn. 3-11 µ in dia. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. 1-2 seriate. Karaµjaka. light in weight. internally light yellow. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. consisting of 82 . reddish-brown or dull brown. a glabrous tree. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.36. P. (Fam. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. rough due to the presence of numerous. bark does not easily separate from xylem. bitter. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. Fabaceae). taste. tangentially elongated cells. rounded to oval in shape. tangentially elongated.) Vent. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. secondary phloem a very wide zone. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Nakt¡hv¡. Karanja (Rt. thin-walled. irregularly distributed. cells.) Merr. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. fracture.

2.7. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. 2. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. starch grains.radially elongated. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. rounded to oval in shape. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent.1-2 g. K¤miroga. Demethoxy-kanugin. CONSTITUENTS . thin-waned cells towards inner region.Methylfisetin. tangentially elongated towards outer region. V¡tahara.. fibres and parenchyma. tracheids. shows fibres in singles or groups. Ka¸·£. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound.2.4. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. IDENTITY. Pittahara. KuÀ¶ha. Appendix per cent. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.Karanjin. Tikta.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Appendix 2. 2.2.2. 83 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent.2. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. 2. ViÀaghna. Vidradh¢. of the drug in powder form. Vra¸a¿odhana. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings.DuÀ¶avra¸a.2. consisting of 2-3 components. Appendix per cent. Powder -Light yellow. DOSE . Yoniroga. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Prameha. more. Kanugin. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. Ëntravidradh¢. 2.3.6. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. THERAPEUTIC USES .

(Fam.) Merr. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. alternating with stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. arranged in a tangential manner. P. filled with reddish-brown content.. unpleasant. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. recurved. Fabaceae). sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. odour. tangentially elongated. Syn. phloem fibre and stone cells.Bk. Karaµjaka. short and fibrous. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. Karanja. b) Microscopic Bark . thin-walled. phloem parenchyma. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. composed of rectangular.37. fibre small. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. a glabrous tree. usually 0. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. 84 . lenticellate pieces. at some places lenticels also appear. Nakt¡hv¡.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. parenchymatous cells.) glabra Vent. thick-walled cells.2-1 cm thick. taste. Karanja (St. traversed by medullary rays. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. slightly quilled. bitter. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. more or less smooth. fracture.

3" 7 : 8). Appendix 18 per cent. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". 3". rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. medullary rays wavy.2. 2. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape.2.6. ViÀaghma. thin-walled and aseptate. rounded to oval. Prameha. and rarely.DuÀ¶avra¸a.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. Gamatin. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Appendix 3 per cent.2.7. Appendix 2. Kanugin. Ka¶u. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ëntravidradh¢. of the drug in powder form.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal.3. KuÀ¶ha. Pongapin. usually 2-4 cells wide. Appendix 1. simple and compound starch grains. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. CONSTITUENTS . a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. oil globules. Powder -Yellowish-cream. 85 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin.2. 2. aseptate fibre and stone cells. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Tikta.. Demethoxy- kanugin.5 per cent. Pittahara. K¤miroga. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . elongated. starch grains simple. 5Methoxyfurano (2". rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. V¡tahara.2. Pinnatin. Ka¸·u.4. 2. IDENTITY. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.polygonal.2. Vidradh¢.1-2 g. present in secondary cortex. Yoniroga DOSE . Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. Kaphahara. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. Appendix 13 per cent. phloem parenchyma and rays cells.

3 cm wide.8 cm. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Pongana Ganuga. petiolule short. a glabrous tree. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. epidermis single layered. cortex consisting of angular.) Merr. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. Dithouri Honge. P. 86 .38. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. traversed by xylem rays. 6. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces..2 . pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Kanajo Karuaini. consistig of tabular cells.5-0. leaflets 2-3 pairs. (Fam. Karanja (Lf. Karanja.) Vent. dark green. vascular bundle single. Nakt¡hv¡. covered with cuticle. Unu.11. Syn. arcshaped. Ungu. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. 0.circular in outline. Karaµjaka.5 cm long and 3. isodiametric. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Hulagilu -Pungu. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate.9-8. xylem vessels arranged radially. consisting of xylem and phloem. Fabaceae). Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai.

vascular bundle. 2. present in lower surface.2. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.shows single layered epidermis.2. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring.2.3.6.5 per cent. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.2. 5" . . 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.5) . palisade two layered. Appendix 3. Powder -Green. Tikta. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. cortex consists of round to oval. Appendix 10 per cent. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". covered with thick cuticle.2. K¤imihara. 2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. 5". shows spiral xylem vessels. Appendix 11 per cent. Appendix 2. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. collateral. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.A new Furanoflavone -3' .6. 2. 7) -flavone. palisade ratio 3. mesophyll cells. stomata anisocytic.Mid rib . Appendix 16 per cent.5". stomatal index 12.(4". Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.7.6. consisting of tabular cells. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Pittavardhaka.2. Kaphahara. V¡tahara.6. Ka¸·ughna.4. Ka¶u.5-20. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.5-50. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". CONSTITUENTS . KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. phloem and pith. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 .

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .For external use only.K¤miroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ka¸·au. DOSE . KuÀ¶ha.J¡ty¡di Taila. Vra¸a. 88 .

Appendix 0. 3 valved at the apex when mature.Fr.4. fusiform.3. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. K¡ravall¢. Appendix 6 per cent.5 . upto an altitude of 1500 m. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.2.25 cm long. extremely bitter. pendulous. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles.6. Varivall¢.7.2. Kakiral. Karavallaka (Fresh. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . usually pointed or beaked. oblong. IDENTITY. 2.2. Nil Appendix 8. Kathilla.2.6 per cent. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa.) Cucurbitaceae).39. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. surface rough.5 per cent. (Fam.2. Appendix 2. 2.2. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. 2. Appendix 28 per cent. taste. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.

D¢pana.60.L.23 (red).34.15 ml.98 (all blue). Aruci. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides.96 (sky blue). 0.75.C.98 (red & sky blue). 0. 0. 0. 0. T.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.67 and 0.T. 0. V¡tahara.61 (light sky blue). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. Raktavik¡ra. H¤dya. K¤miroga. 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .50. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. Jvara. P¡¸·u.10 .V. KuÀ¶ha.98 (all yellow). 0. K¡sa. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.81 and 0. K¡mal¡.áv¡sa. 0. Prameha. CONSTITUENTS .16. Kaphahara. DOSE . 0.46. 0.03. 0. 0.17. 90 .43. juice of fresh drug.

. Katuka (Rz. subcylindrical. kaur Katuka rohini. odour. b) Microscopic Rhizome . Katki. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. Kauka. Rhizome is cut into small pieces.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Scrophulariaceae). a perennial. Katuka rohini Kutki. externally greyish-brown. Root .1 cm in diameter. Kav¢. primary cortex persists 91 . Sutiktaka. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. fracture. short. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome .05-0. Rohi¸¢. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. inner surface black with whitish xylem. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. mostly attached with rhizomes. pleasant. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Katuku rohini. cylindrical. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. bitter. straight or slightly curved. short. 0. Kaurohi¸¢. taste.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. dusty grey. taste. 5-10 cm long.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. suberised cells. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. Tiktarohi¸¢. cork cambium 1-2 layered.40. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles.2. fracture. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. (Fam. cortex single layered or absent. pleasant. odour.Thin. bitter.

.30. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. 0. some cylindrical with taillike. shows groups of fragments of cork cells.72 and 0.41.30. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. 0. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. cambium 2-4 layered. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.2. 0.4.62. Appendix per cent.C. 0. 0. 0. 2.2. secondary xylem consists of vessels. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. thick-walled. vessels have varying shape and size. 0. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.7. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. 2. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. IDENTITY. starch grains. abundantly found in all cells. 92 .37. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. 0.21.2. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. 0.05. measuring 25 . Appendix per cent. cortex 8-14 layered.2. parenchymatous cells.10. parenchyma.10. simple round to oval. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells.in some cases. lignified.41 and 0. fibres aseptate. 0. 1-2 layers of cork cambium.3. tapering ends. 0. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. thick-walled cells of endodermis.104 µ in diameter. starch grains.30 (blue) and 0.V.L. thick-walled.21. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape.Dusty grey. parenchyma and fibres.84 (all brownish grey). consisting of oval to polygonal. Appendix 2. tracheids.05 (blue).2. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. Appendix per cent. Powder . secondary phloem poorly developed. 0. Appendix per cent.2. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. simple round to oval.17. 2.6.35 (green). tracheids long. 0. 2. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. thick-walled.17.L. 0.84 (all yellow). T. thick-walled. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. hypodermis single layered. 0. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. 0. tracheids. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends.

Bhedin¢. K¡mal¡. ViÀamajvara. D¡ha. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. KuÀ¶ha. Pittahara.áv¡sa.3 g. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. of the drug in powder form.CONSTITUENTS . 93 . DOSE . Tiktaka Gh¤ta.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. THERAPEUTIC USES .1 .Glucoside (Picrorhizin). D¢pan¢. Jvara. Arocaka.

lanceolate. Vayalculli Talikhana. Nirguvireru. Kokilaksha (W.Anders (Fam. bracts about 2. Stem . no characteristic odour and taste. common in water logged places throughout the country. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. Kalsunda --Golmidi.6 cm long.5 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. Kettu. Kolarind.5-1 cm wide. swollen at nodes. upper sepal 1. abruptly swollen at top. which are 1. stamens 4. a spiny.41. with long white hairs. Flower . Syn. annual herb.P. whitish to brown. acute.3 cm long. externally greyish-brown.Acanthaceae). Culli. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali.Greenish-brown.Yellowish-brown.6-2 cm long. corolla 3. subsessile. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. fasciculate. 1-7 cm long.Usually unbranched. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. stout. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. tube 1.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees.2 cm long. all linear-lanceolate. entire and hairy. didynamous. 0. IkÀuraka. second pair 94 . Nirchulli. calyx 4-partite.Mostly adventitious. no characteristic odour and taste. Kolavankal ---. Leaf . sub-quadrangular. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Hygrophila spinosa T. widely 2 lipped. broader than the other three.

with a number of large air cavities. moderately thick-walled. ray cells thin walled. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. peripheral ones larger. scattered throughout the phloem region. xylem present in a ring. inner cells smaller. composed of transversely elongate. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. light brown.larger. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small.1 . glabrous. endodermis single layered.Two celled. fibre walls uniformly thickened. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. involute with a fissure on upper side. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. broader towards centre. capsule about 0. oblong. pubescent. Stem . some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. truncate at the base. stigma simple. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. b) Microscopic Root .0. hairy but appearing smooth. thin-walled. polygonal cells.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. pith large. consisting of round to polygonal cells. thin-walled cells. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. pointed. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. style filiform. a few thick-walled.2-0. arranged radially. having small intercellular spaces. 4seeded.Ovate. radially elongated in xylem region. filament quite glabrous. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. cortical cells thin-walled. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex.8 cm long. phloem narrow. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. Seed .15 cm wide. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. radially arranged. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. single or in groups of 2-3. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region.25 cm long and 0. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. fibres thick-walled. vessels angular. brownish cells. radially elongated in secondary xylem. linear-oblong. round. 95 . thin-walled parenchymatous cells. compressed. composed of polygonal. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. vessels with spiral thickenings. Fruit . subequal. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. flat or compressed. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. anthers two celled. ray cells thin-walled. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. 0. phloem fibres thick-walled. rectangular to cubical. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. variable in size. arranged in radial rows.

2.7. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle.2.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.2. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.6. parenchymatous. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. V¡jikara. thick-walled. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.2.78.LeafMidrib . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Lamina . Appendix 2. V¤Àya. stomata diacytic.4. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. collenchyma 2-5 layered. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . composed of thin-walled. sclerenchymatous cells.2.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. palisade 1-2 layered.2. elongated fibres. thin-walled. unicellular hairs and globules. lignified. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. 2. vein islet number 17-42. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. covered with thick cuticle.Light brown. 2. . acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Seed . palisade. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. Tikta Picchila. Powder . Fruit . oval to hexagonal.75.Shows concavo-convex outline. stomatal index 17. Rucya. M£trala.24-30.25-15.2. tangentially elongated cells. Appendix per cent.3.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Amla. Appendix per cent.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. IDENTITY. palisade ratio 6. shows aseptate. Appendix per cent.

P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). of the drug in powder form. Ëmav¡ta áotha. V¡tarakta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .T¤À¸¡. 97 .3 -6 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE .

below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. branches on nodes. annual herb. stout. thin-walled.42. thinwalled cells. 98 . consisting of small. Anders (Fam.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. polygonal cells. the size of these cells. whitish to brownish. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. no characteristic odour and taste. secondary phloem narrow. Kokil¡kÀ¢. a spiny. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. common in water logged places throughout the country. IkÀuraka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Root-Appears circular in outline. slightly transversely elongated. Nerugobbi. Kolavulike. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Syn.Acanthaceae). Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. Hygrophila spinosa T. Kokilaksha (Rt. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. Culli --. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size.

IDENTITY. ray cells thin-walled. Appendix per cent. Pittatis¡ra DOSE .phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells.2.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Amla.2.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Light brown to ash coloured. THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder . of the drug for decoction.3 -6 g. 2. 2. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tarakta.6. vessels with spiral thickening. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. fibre walls uniformly thickened.7. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. having spiral thickening.3.2. broader towards centre.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara.4. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. secondary xylem forms continuous ring.2. scattered throughout the phloem region. A¿ma¤¢. radially elongated in the xylem region. 99 . Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. shows fragments of pitted. each group composed of 2-6 cells. Tikta Picchila. 2. lignified fibres. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. angular. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. 2. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent.Ëmav¡ta áotha.2. M£trala. Appendix per cent. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex.

(Fam. flat or compressed. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. stout. IkÀuraka. hairy but appearing smooth. the 100 . parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Powder . Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. Maradarishana. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. white. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer.43. taste. common in water logged places throughout the country. Maradarishina -Maramannal.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. thinwalled. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. Swelling Index . shows hairs and oil globules. truncate at the base. Anders. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Daruhuladur Darhald. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. Syn. Hygrophila spinosa T. Acanthaceae). a spiny. b) Microscopic Seed . Kokilaksha (Sd. oil globules present in this region. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi.8 -10.Greyish-brown. light yellowish-brown. annual herb.

3.6. 0. Appendix per cent.93 (sky blue). Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.41 (light blue). Appendix 2. 0.2. 0.03 (light brown).4.52 and 0. 2. 0. T.72 (dark brown). including any sticky mucilage.31 (dark brown).31.An yellow semi-drying oil. 0. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. 0.C.2.C.17 (light brown).10 (light brown). related to 1 g of seeds. V¤Àya. Appendix per cent. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. Lipase. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. enzymes like Diastase. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.24 (red). DOSE . Santarpa¸a.V. 0.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.2. 0.38.3 -6 g. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.38 (light brown).03. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. Pitt¡¿mar¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.2. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.24 (dark brown).L. 2. 0. 0. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.24. 0.17. IDENTITY.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.55 (light blue). 0.. 0.52 (dark brown) and 0.72 (all yellow).L.áotha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. 0. of the drug in powder form. 101 . Add 25 ml of water. V¡tarakta. 2.2. Protease and an Alkaloid.76 (sky blue) and 0. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Kaphahara. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. 0.

secondary roots. at terminal heads. Fruit . Badi Lona Dudagorai. Paruppukkeerai. Stem . Leaf .4 cm long. Kozhuppu Pappukura. Kozhuppa. cuneiform. swollen at the nodes. 0. Loni. sepal 0. Common Indian Purslane Luni.2 cm in diameter.3 to 2.Simple.5 cm long. Lonika. branched. Peddapavila Kura. dehiscing above the base. (Fam.3 cm long. fracture.5 cm long and 0. Flower . style 5-6 fid. Khurfa. found throughout the country. an annual succulent. oblong. Pulikkirai. Kulfa. smooth and greenish-brown.An ovoid capsule. spathulate. 0. 0. prostrate herb. rounded and truncate at the apex.P) Portulacaceae). Kwfa Pasalai. small. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. Doddagoni Soppu. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn.44. bright yellow.1 to 0.Cylindrical. Badanuni.4 cm long. oblique. petals obovate. Loni -Koricchira. brownish-grey.A few. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .1 to 0. short. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. odour.6 cm wide. Loni. Ghola -Lonak. characteristic. Payilikura. 50 cm long. subtended by an involucre. sub-sessile. surface smooth. root hairs abundant in upper region.25-0. 102 . 3-4 leaves. Baranunia Garden Purslane.35-0. Gho¶ik¡. ribbed. Kuzuppa (W. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. short. fracture. -Baraloniya. very delicate and soon falling off. 0. Kozuppa. Moti Luni Khursa. 0. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas.Almost cylindrical. Chhotalunia. less in number. stamens 8-12.

pitted and spiral vessels. Appendix per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. arranged in radial rows. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. having simple pits and spiral thickening. simple as well as compound. shows groups of oval to polygonal. parenchyma abundant. ray cells and pith. tracheids. palisade single layered. Powder . tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. .2. black. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres.3.. tracheids and parenchyma. parenchymatous cells.2.07 cm across. parenchymatous cells.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. LeafMidrib .Shows 5-15 layers of cork. Stem . vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. 0. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. stomata paracytic type. tracheids and parenchyma. dark brown. oval. Appendix per cent.Greyish-brown. covered externally with a thick cuticle. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged.6. oval cells.2. present in mesophyll cells. measuring 6-14 µ in dia.2. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia.7. b) Microscopic Root . pericycle fibre present in patches. as well as compound. 2. having 2-3 components. Appendix 2. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. 2. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. vessels. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.06-0. phloem and xylem parenchyma. solitary or in groups of 2-5.Seed -Numerous. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. phloem. IDENTITY. measuring 6-14 µ . with reddish-brown content in a few cells.2. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. minute.2. thick-walled with wide lumen. fragments of cork cells.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. thin-walled. secondary xylem composed of vessels. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent.Wavy in outline. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. reniform.4. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. having intercellular spaces. 2. Lamina . secondary xylem consists of vessels.

Under U.52 (both faint green). 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 104 .10.Agnim¡ndya.10.6 g. áotha. THERAPEUTIC USES .C. V¡tahara. T.41.68 and 0. 0. Carbohydrates. 0. 0. 0.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . 0.50. of the drug in powder form.Marma Gu¶ik¡. Ar¿a.. 0.68.41.76 (green) in visible light. 0. 0. Pittakara.3 . RukÀa.Protein.10. 0.76 and 0.T.L. Prameha. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. CakÀuÀya. 0.08. Gulma. 0.V. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 0.68 (yellow) and 0. (both green).76 (all pinkish red). 0.L.08. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.61. Vra¸a DOSE .C. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. 0.52.

(Fam. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. 0. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. fracture hard. tapering. 25-50 cm high. obliquely rounded at base. Lajavanti.4 cm broad. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. yellowish-green. Lajjalu (W. 0. Fabaceae). sparsely prickly. 105 . leaflets 10-20 pairs.Cylindrical. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. Stem . stipulate. external surface light brown.week bristles longitudinally grooved. linear lanceolate. easily separable from wood.Cylindrical.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. taste. distinct. with secondary and tertiary branches. Lajamani Chhuimui. woody. acute.2 cm long. Lajauni Muttidasenui. sessile. covered with long. bark fibrous. nearly glabrous.P) diffused undershrub. alternate. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata.6-1. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country.45. Leaf . Adamalati Lajaka. Machikegida. odour. rependant . sensitive to touch. hairy pinnae. varying in length.3-0. bark fibrous. petiolate. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. upto 2 cm thick.5 cm in dia. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Var¡kr¡nt¡. greyish brown to brown. slightly astringent. upto 2. internal cut surface grey.

arranged in tangential bands. calyx very small. thick-walled.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. Stem .Lomentum. corolla pink. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. tangentially elongated to oval. spreading bristle at sutures.Compressed.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated cells. ovules numerous. filled with reddish-brown contents.6 cm long. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. stamens 4. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 0. much exserted.3 cm long. 0. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. fibres. oval-elliptic. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components.Flower . containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. respectively. fibres single or in groups. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. phloem fibres single or in groups. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. phloem rays thick-walled. moderately thick-walled.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. b) Microscopic Root . consisting of large. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. brown to grey. simple. rarely multiseriate. ovary sessile. 0. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.4-0. 2. scattered throughout secondary xylem. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. crystal fibres thick-walled. 2-3 seriate more common. pith consisting of polygonal. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. dry. straw coloured. 106 . glabrous. xylem rays radially elongated. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Seed . scattered throughout. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. crystal fibres elongated. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. fibres of two types. ovate oblong. thick-walled. peduncles prickly. 3-25 chambered. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. lobes 4. Fruit . a number of lignified.3 long. secondary cortex wide. thick-walled. in globose head. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. radially elongated. starch grains.Pink. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. parenchyma. 1-1.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face.

2.35. shows. reticulate. 2. covered with thin-cuticle.Leaf- Petiole . parenchymatous cells Seed . vascular bundle single. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.7.L. endocarp of thick-walled. palisade single layered. single and compound starch grains. Fruit . cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent.3 components IDENTITY. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally.3. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. one in each wing. 0. Appendix per cent. shaggy hairs. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. pericycle arranged in a ring.6.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.C. Powder . pericycle same as in petiole. shaggy hairs. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. pitted vessels. 0. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled.2.2. palisade cells non glandular.L.2. branched. with 2 .81 (bluish-pink). thin-walled.4. Lamina . branched. crystal fibres.shows epidermis on both surfaces. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . 2.69 (all blue) and 0.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. Appendix per cent.62.shows single layered epidermis. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells.2. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. fibres.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma.2. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Reddish-brown. parenchymatous cells. 0. spongy parenchyma single layered. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. lignified cells followed by single layered.V. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. Midrib . T. 2. Appendix per cent.C. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U.

Atis¡ra. 0. KuÀ¶ha. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Raktapita DOSE . áv¡sa. Kaphahara. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.35 (orange). Vra¸a. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .10-20 g of the drug for decoction.35 and 0. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a.spots appear at Rf. 0. Yoniroga.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. D¡ha. 108 .áopha. Ku¶aj¡valeha.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES .

short. corolla fleshy. Bassia latifolia Roxb.46. followed by thin-walled. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). Madhuka (Fl. a few 109 . ovate lanceolate. Hippe.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Halippe. Androecium . basifixed. Mahawash tree Mahudo. Syn. epipetalous and arranged in two series. latifolia (Roxb. lanceolate. reddish-brown. taste. erect 0. Hippenara. (Fam. anther sub-sessile. Ippa. Sapotaceae) .F. Madhuka. epipetalous. b) Microscopic Corolla . Iluppa. and also cultivated. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26).) Macbride. Eppimara -Irippa. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. tabular. Ilippa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua.5-2 cm long. M.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Kattu Iluppai.Gmel. sweet.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. Mahua Katiluppai. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India.

IDENTITY.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. of the drug. áramahara. endothecium composed of radially elongated. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2.4.áv¡sa.2.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . unicellular hairs. Pittakara. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.7. lignified cells. Appendix 10 per cent.2. 2. Powder .2. 2.10 . Balya. El¡di Modaka.5 per cent.6. KÀata. Appendix 70 per cent. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. 2.unicellular hairs present on one side.2. pollen grains single or in groups. D¡ha. T¤À¸¡. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.15 g. árama DOSE . Appendix 25 per cent. Ah¤dya. spherical.Madh£k¡sava. tapetum not distinct. 2. oval shaped. KÀaya.3. V¡tahara.Dark brown. Appendix 2. 110 . Appendix 5 per cent. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. round. 2. Appendix 0.2. shows fragments of epidermal cells. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS .2.

Flower . short.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. obtuse or subacute.Herbaceous.3-7. Matsy¡duni. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. short.. internodes 0. 0. no characteristic odour and taste. denticulata R. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡.5 cm long.. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. Br. bracteoles 111 . nodes and internodes distinct. (Fam. 2.47. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. A.5 cm wide. Gandal¢.5-5 cm long. Br. Amaranthaceae). a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. triandra Lam. linear-oblong. with spreading branches from the base. no characteristic odour and taste.Cylindrical. often rooting at lower nodes. yellowish-brown to light-brown. white often tinged with pink. A.) R.1. Bahli. Matshyakshi (W. A.. Br. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets.6 cm diameter. 0.. Leaf . Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .1-0. sessile. A.. no characteristic odour and taste. Stem . weak. cream to grey. non Link.3-2 cm wide. or elliptic. fracture. repens Gmel. fracture. nodiflora R.P. Syn.

thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. vascualr bundles radially arranged. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. Leaf- Midrib . thin-walled round or oval. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. palisade 2-3 layers. single layered. bicollateral. each consisting of xylem and phloem.1. compressed with thickened margins. parenchymatous cells. 112 . parenchymatous cells. isodiametic cells. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. covered wtith striated cuticle.dorsiventral.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered.Utricle. consisting of thin-walled cells. b) Microscopic Root . thin. capitellate.5 mm long. parenchymatous cells. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. with anomalous secondary growth. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. pith distinct. thin-walled. Stem . irregular. pith consisting of thin-walled.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. radially arranged cork cells. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. vascular bundles three. perianth 2. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10.2 cm long. orbicular. sepals ovate. secondary cortex narrow. consistig of thin-walled. scarious. compressed. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. xylem tissues lignified. round to oval. ovate. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. numerous. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. stomata paracytic. shows wavy or undulate. no characteristic odour and taste. composed of thin-walled. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. style very short. isodiametric. no characteristic odour and taste. palisade ratio 3-5. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. acute. round or oval. parenchymatous cells. Fruit . open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. Lamina . xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. collenchymatous cells. ovary obcordate. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.5-3 mm long. open and exarch. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. with are conjoint. present in the centre. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 1.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval.

Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. 0. 0. T. 113 . wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. Kaphahara. V¡tahara.54 and 0.4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.59. IDENTITY. 0. Appendix 19 per cent.16.44. Appendix 2.V. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. Appendix 4. Pittavik¡ra.C. 0.25.2.96 (all yellow).L. 2. 2. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. 2. 0.Sugar.Powder .L.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES .. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.33 and 0. of the drug in powder form. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent.Olive green. Under U.33.35. Raktavik¡ra DOSE .2. 0. 2. 0.44 (all green). shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. Appendix 10 per cent.18. Tikta.2 -3 g.2.KuÀ¶ha.2.2.3.81.68 (all red).16. 0.7. 0. 0.44.6. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. paracytic stomata.94 and 0. Appendix 3 per cent.C. 0.

walled. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. varying in size. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings.48. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. pleasant. columnar palisade. 30-60 cm tall. taste. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. cultivated throughout the country. very hard. 0. Methi (Sd. cells flat at base.Seed shows a layer of thick. b) Microscopic Seed . thin-walled.2-0. parenchymatous cells. several layers of thin walled. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. annual herb. bitter. 114 . followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. (Fam.15-0. covered externally with thick cuticle. mucilaginous cells.) aromatic. 0. smooth. dull yellow.35 cm broad.5 cm long. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. Fabaceae). rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side.

Appendix 0. Sapogenins and Mucilage. CONSTITUENTS .4. Appendix 2. oil globules.3. 2. Appendix 4 per cent.2.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. aleurone grains.Alkaloid. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent.2. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix 5 per cent. Prameha.3-6 g.Graha¸¢.2.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. 2. Aruci DOSE . Powder . Jvara.2. 115 . Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .6.Yellow. of the drug in powder form. Rucya. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. IDENTITY.2. 2.5 per cent. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.

(Fam. 0.Lower leaves hairy. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. Muli. Leaf .5-10 cm long..3 cm long.) Brassicaceae).0 cm in dia. not distinct. upper most leaves simple. bisexual.1-1. coarsely toothed. compressed.P. petiole 5-5. having a few longitudinal striations. bright green. blade obovate. seplas 6.Root cylindrical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. pedicel with scattered hairs. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. regular. cylindrical. sub-marginate at the apex. Mulaka (W. hollow.Flower in long terminal raceme.49. odour. Stem . white or lilac with yellow or 116 . petals 1.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. lyrate.2 cm long. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn.7-2. sometimes brown red. an annual or biennial bristly herb. taste. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. slightly pungent. yellowish-green.Slender. Flower . variable size and thickness. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . oblong. complete 1-2 cm long.

Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. Leaf- Petiole . one central and two lateral. Midrib . palisade 2-3 layers.Siliqua. greenish-yellow.purple vein. taste. oily. cylindrical. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. medullary rays four to many cells wide. hairs unicellular. traversed by xylem rays. continuous or more or less constricted. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. 2-4 mm long.4 cm thick. 1-2 chambered. pith a wide zone of polygonal. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. single layered. elliptical. longitudinally sulcatus. present in cortex. 117 .dorsiventral. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. phloem. style about 4 mm long. vascular bundle three in number. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. erect. Seed .appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings.1. parenchymatous cells. irregularly globose. 3-9 cm long and 0. Fruit . epidermis followed by 6. parenchymatous cells. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. ovary superior. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers.appears biconvex in outline. Lamina . thin-walled. round to oval. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. round to oval. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. present only on upper side. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. endodermis at some places.Reddish-brown. cork cells.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. 10-12 ovuled. two outer smaller and four inner longer. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. traversed by phloem rays. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root . solitary or ingroups. Stem . starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal.8. 2 mm wide. green or brown-purple. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. stamen 6 in two whorls.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. sometimes flattened. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. covered with thick cuticle. radially arranged. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. epidermis single layered. present in cortex and phloem. starch grains simple. occasionally pale purple.

covered with thin. Svarya. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. shows aseptate fibres.2. P¢nasa. Kaphahara.7. Ar¿a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Gulma. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . spiral vessels.2. Appendix 2. Ud¡varta.2. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. Seed . IDENTITY.Fruit . tangentially elongated. Pittahara. thin-walled.2.Agnim¡ndya. Appendix per cent. reddish-brown.20 . P¡cana. of the drug in juice form. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. 2.40 ml. 118 .2. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. thinwalled. Appendix per cent. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. H¤dya. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal.6. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. oil globules and round to oval starch grains.2. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Tikta Laghu.Glucoside. CONSTITUENTS . Rucya.M£lakakÀ¡ra.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. 2. Appendix per cent. 2.4. parenchymatous cells. 2. Gandhaka Va¶¢. DOSE . Appendix per cent. Powder . covered with a thin-cuticle.3. of columnar cells.Yellowish-green.Shows a single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells present. straight cuticle.

sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. cylindrical.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.3. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. Saleya. taste.2. 2. (Fam. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Moclangi gadde.4. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Appendix per cent. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. Appendix per cent.2. 2. Appendix 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. Mullangi. Mulaka. slightly or strongly pungent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Mulaka (Rt. IDENTITY. fusiform.6.7. white in colour. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. Mula Muli Moolangi. rarely sweet.2.2. 119 . Visra. variable in size. Brassicaceae). usually 25-40 cm in length. 2. 2.2. Rakhyasmula Mula. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.50.

Galaroga. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.04. Dadru.V. Pittahara.Glucoside. Vrana.LC.09. P¡cana.T. Netraroga. 0. Ud¡varta DOSE .34. Jvara. Tikta Laghu. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . Ar¿a. 0.C. Kaphahara. 0.49 & 0.09 & 0. 0. P¢nasa. Rucya.Agnim¡ndya.69 (all yellow). of the drug in the juice form 120 . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¡sa. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.L.04 & 0.09 (both blue). H¤dya. áv¡sa.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.04. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Gulma. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. Svarya. 0.15-30 ml. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T.

Mura (Rt.Shows 10 . 6-12 cm long and 0. secondary phloem shows wide zone. (Fam.2. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. tenuifolium Wall. traversed by phloem rays.51. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi.4 m tall. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . thin-walled cells. traversed by xylem rays. secondary cortex composed of rounded. a perennial herb. Gandhakuti. Apiaceae ). consisting of tangentially elongated. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. cambium 2-4 layered. tangentially elongated. aromatic. colour. fibres and parenchyma. odour.42000 m. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. rectangular cells.) DC. S. Root .6 . taste. slightly bitter.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. inner cells thin-walled. 0. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.3 . Syn. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. dull brown. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. Daitya. thin-walled cells.1.

round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. 2. Appendix 9 per cent. xylem parenchyma. Appendix 3. Bhrama. 2.1-3 g. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. present in secondary cortex. CONSTITUENTS .having spiral thickenings. Jvara.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . secretory canals.2. somewhat oval cells. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .3. 2. D¡ha.. secondary phloem. xylem and phloem rays. composed of radially arranged. 2.4. Appendix 9 per cent. starch grains simple. secondary xylem and medullary rays. Appendix 17 per cent. Appendix 2. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . round to oval. Powder . shows groups of cork cells.2. Ka¶u. Sucrose and Mannitol. secondary phloem. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents.2.Brown.Arvind¡sava.2. of the drug in powder form. distributed throughout secondary cortex. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. secretory canals numerous. Tikta. M£rchha.2. short with blunt ends. fibres aseptate.5 per cent.áv¡sa.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). IDENTITY. oil globules and simple starch grains. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. 122 .7. parenchymatous cells.6.

phloem rays 1 123 .52. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. phloem fibres absent. odour.) Asclepiadaceae). fracture. Murva (Rt. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. a large stout. Halukaratige. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. similar to those present in secondary cortex. slightly bitter. Kallu Shambu. bark easily separable from wood. resin cells present irregularly in this region. some filled with reddish-brown contents. Jartor Koratige Hambu. Madhusrava. tangentially elongated. & Am. rectangular cells. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. indistinct. taste. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. b) Microscopic Root .5-3 cm thick. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight.Shows a cork. (Fam. Koratige. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. twining shrub. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood.

6. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue..Light brown. 2. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. present in parenchymatous tissues. Appendix 14 per cent. fibres. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. measuring 5. Appendix 7 per cent.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. composed of vessels.2. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. K¤miroga. fragments of cork. Jvara. IDENTITY.7.4. 124 .. 2.2. of the drug for decoction.22 µ in diameter. tracheids. DOSE .tracheids. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. 10-20 g. simple and compound starch grains. Tikta Guru.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2-6 g. Ka¸·£. Appendix 0. Appendix 2. Raktapitta. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma.2.Ar¿a. Prameha Mihira Taila. Meha. Medoroga. 2. H¤droga. fibretracheids. Powder . vary in shape and size with borderd pits. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. Appendix 5 per cent. T¤Àn¡.3 cells wide. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Mukha áosa. consisting of small tangential.5 per cent. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Pittahara. 2. of the drug in powder form. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. shows a number of stone cells. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3. fibres. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. starch grains simple.5 . 5.2.5-22 µ dia. vessels with pitted walls. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Konkan. astringent. Naugaliral. anther about 0. Nagakesar (Stmn. each stamen 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. connective not visible with naked eye. Powder . soft to touch.) evergreen tree. Nagppu. Peri. connective and filament. odour. filiform. containing pollen grains. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. Guttiferae). Nagakesari -Nangaa. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. N¡ga.9 cm long.9-1. thick-walled. fragrant. Nahar Nageshvara. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. quite brittle. b) Microscopic Androecium . Hem¡. more or less twisted. shows elongated cells of filament. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Veluthapala. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. taste. distinct protuberances on walls.Brown.0 cm long. an Ke¿ara. linear. yellowish and thin-walled. Bengal.8 . often buttressed at the base.Anther shows golden-brown.53. Assam. slender. (Fam. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. exine and intine distinct. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh.5 cm long. Pilunagkesar. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. Nauga. Nagachampakam. filament 0. N¡gapuÀpa.1. consisting of thin-walled. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. parenchymatous cells. 125 . Nagchampa. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. basifixed. Sachunagkeshara. coppery or golden brown.

2.Raktapitta. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.2. áopharoga. Appendix 2. Vastiroga DOSE . Kum¡ry¡sava.2. Tikta.2.7. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. Var¸ya.IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. 2. 2. of the drug in powder form.2.1-3 g. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. 2. Appendix per cent.3.2. V¡tarakta. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 126 .6.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. 127 . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. 1. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.1.54. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring.5 cm long and 0.8 m high.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. Nili (Lf.2.) shrub. N¢l¢n¢.2 cm wide. no characteristic odour and taste. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. pale green to greenish-black. pith composed of round to oval. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . (Fam. Fabaceae). large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. leaflet 1-2. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.3-1. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.

CONSTITUENTS . Ke¿ya. K¤imiroga. palisade 2-3 layers.2. 2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. of decoction.5 per cent. Appendix 2.3. Jvara. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Gulma.shows dorsiventral structure. Pl¢haroga.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. Ud¡varta. collateral and crescent shaped.. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .2. V¡tarakta. similar as in petiole. shows groups of mesophyll cells. K¡sa. Appendix 25 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent.7. Udararoga.6. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. 2. 2.Midrib .Ëmav¡ta. Appendix 7. cuticle and hair. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cuticle and hair. aseptate fibres. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma.Greenish-grey. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .2. pitted vessels. 128 . Lamina .2.50-100 g. epidermis. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered.2. Appendix 2 per cent.. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IDENTITY. vascular bundle single.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. similar as in petiole and midrib.. V¡tahara.shows epidermis.Glycoside (Indican).4. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .

5 cm thick. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. Karunili.2-1. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. Olleneeli -Amari. Nili (Rt. cylindrical. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. slightly bitter. Nili. 129 . Neeli Nili. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4..) shrub. Neeligida. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. Rangapatr¢. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Fabaceae). Indian Indigo Gali. Nil.1 -1. thin-walled cells.10 layers of tangentially elongated. Nila -Neel Avuri. with lenticels. rectangular. thin-walled cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. taste. Nila Nili.8 m high. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. woody. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. hard. consisting of usual elements. 0. Nili Chettu. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. Gari Nili Kadunili. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. 1.55. secondary cortex a narrow zone. (Fam. odour not distinct. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. group of fibres. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.

K¤imiroga. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.33.86 and 0. 0.40 (blue).58 (blue).91 (all yellow).2.80. K¡sa. 0. 0. 0. 2. Appendix 2. 0.2.2.33. 0.75. xylem parenchyma and rays. Appendix 6 per cent. 0.86.L.Arvind¡sava.2.4. 0. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. DOSE .75. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. 2. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Udararoga.91 (all grey). 130 .14. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.21.30 (bluish green).40.Gulma.81 (blue).47 (blue). 0.06.27. 0.V. 0. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. Pl¢h¡roga.63 (bluish green). On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.63.50.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.2.C. of drug for decoction. V¡tahara. 0. 0. 0.6.C.10. Recan¢.7. 2. round to oval. CONSTITUENTS .27.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.0. present in cortex. Appendix 4 per cent. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Appendix 0. 0.50.0..06. T. 0.48 g. simple and compound starch grains. V¡tarakta. and 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.L. 2. 0.14.40. 0. Appendix 3 per cent.3. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.91 (blue). 0. phloem.86 (green) and 0. Ëmav¡ta. Powder . ViÀavik¡ra.63. starch grains simple. pitted vessels. 0.81.7 per cent. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. IDENTITY. 0.2.14 (blue). 0.58. shows aseptate fibres.75 (blue). 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.58. Ke¿ya. Ud¡varta.. 0.Creamish-brown.10.

Veppu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. exstipulate. Oilevevu. Kohumba Nim. Nimbam. 7-8. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. (Fam. crystals also present in phloem region. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree.7 cm wide. Bevu. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. slightly yellowish-green. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Nim. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Kahibevu. alternate. indistinct. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Limado. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Melia azadirachta Linn. Juss Syn. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. rachis 15-25 cm long. Bakayan. Nimba Nimba. acute. Bevinama -Veppu. Meliaceae).0-1. leaflets with oblique base.Compound. taste. Bakan. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba.56. serrate. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Nim Vemmu. lanceolate. Aryaveppu.1 cm thick. opposite. Nimba (Lf. 0. Veppa Balantanimba. 131 . Limba.5 cm long and 1. Veppan Vemu. Limbado. Arulundi. odour. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Picumarda Mahanim Nim.

KuÀ¶ha. Vrana.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.0-11.Triterpenoids and Sterols.shows dorsiventral structure. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. composed of thin walled.3. Prameha. tangentially elongated cells. covered externally with thick cuticle. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.5.2. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha.5 on upper surface. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. traversed by a number of veins. stomatal index 13.2. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. 2. Appendix per cent. palisade ratio 3. Powder .1-3 g. fibres.4. Appendix per cent. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. Appendix per cent. V¡tal¡.6. Ëma¿otha. Appendix per cent.2. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. epidermis on either surface.0-4. CONSTITUENTS .0-14.Green.Jvara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.Lamina . of the drug in powder form.2. 2. K¤miroga. 2. palisade single layered. thin-walled cells. Netraroga. shows vessels.2. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. IDENTITY. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. ViÀarogas DOSE . Appendix 2. 132 .5 on lower surface and 8. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .7. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.

in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. evergreen tree. Oilevevu -Veppu. taste. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. Vembu Vemu. characteristic. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. a moderate sized to fairly large. Syn. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. fibrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Bakam Veppai. Nimba. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. extemal surface rough. Kahibevu. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Meliaceae). laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. considerably thick in older barks. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Limba Nimba Nim. (Fam. woody. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Nimba. Kadunimb. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Nimba (St. fissured and rusty-grey.57. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Juss. fracture. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Nimb Bevu. Aruveppu Balantanimba.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Melia azadirachta Linn. odour.

CONSTITUENTS . a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5 per cent.90 (green). 0. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.L. 2.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. having wide lumen and distinct striations. IDENTITY.6.2. Appendix 5 per cent.3. Pittahara. 2.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. 2.outer surface. secondary cortex absent in most cases.2. and 0.75-5 µ in diameter.20.measuring 2.72 (blue). phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. 0.2.L.Reddish-brown. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.4. 2. simple starch grains. Appendix 2.86 (blue). lignified rectangular to polygonal. Appendix 7 per cent. 0.7.V. cork cells. measuring 2. 0.90 (all blue).2. Appendix 6 per cent.2. Kaphahara. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.63 and 0. 0.45. starch grains. Powder . below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. ViÀaghna. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. simple. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.2.C. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. round with central hilum. stone cells mostly in groups. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. T. Appendix 1.

Prameha. Decoction should be used externally. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pa´canimba C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form. Nimb¡di C £r¸a.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Ka¸·u. Vra¸a DOSE . 135 . Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Rakta Pitta. KuÀ¶ha.D¡ha. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. K¤miroga..2-4 g.

15 m high with irregular branches. Chama Tha Palas -Palash.Bk) Fabaceae). a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. fracture. Tesu Muttug. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Paras Moduga. Palash. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. Dhak. rhytidoma 0. dark-brown. taste. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze (Fam. slightly astringent.2 cm thick usually peels off. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork.5 . RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. curved. Plas. tanniniferous cells. 0. cork cells. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. Tesu Purasu. greyish to pale brown. internal surface rough. pale brown. moderately thick-walled. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. Camata. rectangular. Muttuga.58. often in groups. Khakhapado Dhak. Modugu. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. rectangular 136 . Muttala -Plasu. Chettu Dhak. dark brown. having brown colour. 12 .1 cm thick. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. Khakharo. 5-10 or more layered. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. except in very arid parts. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. exposing light brown surface. Palasha (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark.

most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. traversed by phloem rays.5 per cent. 0. Appendix 14 per cent.75 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.V. dark brown coloured cells.10.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.4. T. Appendix 12 per cent.2. phloem parenchyma.C.67 (all violet).10. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. starch grains simple and compound with 2 .48 and 0. straight.2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.65 (all blue). numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 2..6.4 layers of sclereids. Appendix 1. 2.48 and 0.2. 0.3. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. CONSTITUENTS .48. 2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.L. thin-walled cork cells. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . Appendix 2. crystal fibres.3 components.7.18. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. companion cells.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.cells followed by a zone of 2 .10.67 (all yellow).2. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.75 µ in dia. 0. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.50 cells in height. 7 . measuring 2. Appendix 10 per cent.12 cells wide. 0. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. 0.2. sclereids mostly in groups. 0. 137 . shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . phloem fibres.Reddish-brown.C. 2.13. Powder .

Graha¸¢. DOSE . of the drug in powder form for decoction. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Agnid¢paka. Tikta. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. Vra¸a. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. KaÀ¡ya Sara.Ar¿a. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka.5-10 g. K¤miroga. 138 . Gulma.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . S¡raka .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.

stone 139 . Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. Pangara Hongar. inner bark fibrous. (Fam. Paribhadra (St. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .Bk) Fabaceae). Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. yellowish to cream coloured. radially arranged and thin-walled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed.5-2. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. quick growing tree.59. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. secondary cortex consists of large. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. medium sized. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. exfoliating in narrow strips. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.0 cm thick. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. Mulmurumgai Badisa. tangentially elongated to squarish. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. parenchymatous cells. smooth. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

V¡taroga DOSE .V¡tarakta.CONSTITUENTS .Alkaloids. V¤Àya.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru.2-4 g.. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Balak¤t. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .. of drug in powder form. 148 . Volatile Oil.

funicle stout. followed by remnants of disorganised. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. 0. latifolia Roxb. taste. Priyalam. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. sweetish-oily. linear. Syn. occurring mostly in groups. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. hilum present at the apex of round edge. Saraparuppu Sara.63. pleasant. pitted.6 cm long. thick-walled. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. (Farn. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells.4-0. odour. Shalichokha Piyal.) Anacardiaceae). Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. 0. Piyar. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. creamish-brown. large. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. B. Korka. micropyle superior. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. mottled with darker brown lines. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. Priyala (Sd.3-0. sclerenchymatous cells. collapsed cells of integument. Satdhan -Charal. Chowl. which are of various size. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng.5 cm wide.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. b) Microscopic Seed . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed.

of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara.98 (all yellow). in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. BrÆha¸a. and oil globules.P£gakha¸·a. Kaphakara.L.27. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.A creamish-brown paste. 2.type. 0. 0. 2.measuring 2.08.C. DOSE . 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.91. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.94 and 0. Bhagnas¡dhaka.5-5. IDENTITY. 0.D¡ha.2.10 . 150 .C. 0. and sclerenchymatous cells. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.4.27.54. Appendix 0. Balya. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara.20 g. KÀaya.L.2. H¤dya. THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.2. 0.2. Pittahara.08.6.72 and 0. 0. 2.0 µ in dia.V. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. V¤Àya. KÀata. T.2. Priy¡la Taila. Appendix 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS .94 (blue). Appendix 10 per cent.2.84.72. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent.72. Sara. 0.54.91.98 (all violet). procambium bundles.0 µ in dia.Albuminoids.94 and 0. shows numerous mesophyll cells. Appendix 7 per cent. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. 0.3. 0.7. áukrakara. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Oil and Starch. 0.5-5. Raktapitta.

Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. peduncle cylindrical. densely hairy. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. 1. ovary 2-4 celled. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu.2. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.0. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. hairy. thin-walled.) Verbenaceae). brown. filament very long. bell-shaped.4 m high shrub. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. and abundant in Bengal plains.5-7. brown. basifixed. equal in size. style. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs.5 cm across. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .64.5 . 4 lobbed spreading. Flower . (Fam.3 mm in dia. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. parenchymatous cells. an erect. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . epipetalous. stigma minutely capitate. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. anther ovate. Priyangu (Infl. corolla.Cymose. 1. densely clothed with wooly hairs. b) Microscopic Peduncle . calyx. stamens 4.2. tubular.Shows more or less wavy outline. 2. long.5 cm long. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal.

fibres. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kanaka Taila.3. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. groups of thin-walled. Sved¡dhikya. Appendix per cent.2. elliptical.Brown.1-3 g. fibres aseptate. aseptate fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Pras¡dana.2. DOSE . 2. Pakv¡tis¡ra. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡.4.Glycosides. Resin and Saponin. El¡di C£r¸a.2. Appendix per cent.2. Jvara. 2. 152 . vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. CONSTITUENTS .D¡ha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. 2. 2. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Terpenes. Vra¸aropa¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sandh¡n¢ya. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. M£travirajan¢ya. Rakta. Daurgandhyahara. Appendix 2.7.2.2.6. N¢lik¡dya Taila. Rakta-Pitta. of the drug in powder form. (Mukharoga). spiral vessels. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. Powder . oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. xylem consists of usual elements. Ku´kum¡di Taila. Phenolic compound.

Nelver Dhanyamu. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. thick-walled. sclerenchymatous cells. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Dhana Bhatto. Nivara -Chaval. cortex differentiated into three zones. endodermis and pericycle both single layered.Greyish-cream. Sali. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Odalu. Jhona Arishi.) cultivated throughout India. (Fam. Powder . Chawl. composed of thick-walled. cylindrical. b) Microscopic Root . exodermis 1-2 layered. Poaceae). Cala.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Bhatta.05-0. Nellu. an annual herb. Nellu Tandulamul. soft. Paddy Shalichokha. Dhana. Corava. Shali (Rt. sclerenchymatous cells.65. Dh¡nya. smooth. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. both consisting of round to oval. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Damgara. thin. Dhan Rice. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. pitted vessels and 153 . Biyyamu Chaval. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Akki -Ari. Dhanarmul. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Bhata. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Coke Chaval. Vr¢hi. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells.

Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. M£trala. IDENTITY.2.2. of the drug for decoction. CakÀuÀya.3. Appendix 2. 2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .Br¡hma Ras¡yana.7. Pittahara. 2.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Rucya. BrÆha¸a. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. V¡tahara. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Kaphahara.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix per cent.50 g. Laghu. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Appendix per cent.2.4. Balya. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. H¤dya. Var¸ak¤t.2. 154 . Svarya.StanyakÀaya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.

cylindrical. sepals narrowly. perennial herb with a woody root stock. found throughout the country. light green. hairy. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. Karakhuratt. Leaf . Sankha pushpin (W.1-0. stamen 5. sparsely hairy. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. cylindrical.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. light green. sub-erect. Shankhapushpi. Stem .Shortly petiolate.) Convolvulaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .White or pinkish. ovary superior and bicarpellary. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. Flower .5-2 cm long and 0. yellowish-brown to light brown.4 cm thick. epipetalous. linear-lanceolate. Shankhavela.Slender. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. 155 . acute. linear-lanceolate. alternate with the petals. about 0.5 cm broad. hairy on both surfaces. a prostrate. 1-5 cm long. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. free. 0. spreading.1-0.Usually branched. Sankhapuspi. 0.66. inserted deep in the corolla tube. corolla shortly discoid.P. Kakkanangudi.

.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. cortex differentiated in two zones. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. 156 . 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers.Appears nearly circular in outline. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. mm. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. xylem consists of vessels. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. present on both surfaces. oblong globose with coriaceous. covered with thick cuticle.walled cells. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. phloem composed of sieve elements. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248.0. 13. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. elliptical. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. minutely puberulous. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. fibres and tracheids. thin. hairs unicellular. . Powder . Lamina . both having round to oval. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. Seed . covered with thick cuticle. LeafMidrib . epidermis single layered.Capsule. present in cortex.Light yellowish-green.. xylem rays and parenchyma. endoderrnis single layered. palisade ratio 6-9. fibres and parenchyma. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. round to oval in shape. pale brown pericarp. starch grains solitary or in groups. unicellular hairs. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. mm. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. phloem. secretory cells present in this region. b) Microscopic Root . Stem . pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. thick-walled cells.8 µ in dia. tanniniferous.Brown. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. phloem a narrow zone.Fruit . measuring 3 . fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. xylem consisting of usual elements. vascular bundle bicollateral.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle.8-17. at places unicellular hairs present. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. simple and composed of 2-3 components. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated.Shows single layered epidermis. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. elongated. simple and compound starch grains. palisade two layered. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin.

2. Pittahara.3-8 g. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2. 2. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Appendix per cent.2. 2. Agastyahar¢tak¢.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6.2. Br¡hma. Ras¡yana. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . Ras¡yana. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . ËyuÀya. Ras¡yana. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Kaphahara. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn.4. 2.IDENTITY.7.M¡nasaroga. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Apasm¡ra DOSE . Tikta.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Medhya.3.2.

style. Siju. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. lobes short. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .7-7 cm long. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. smooth. gradually tapering. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. Saptala (W. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. 1 mm long. sub-sessile. horned. lanceolate or linear oblong. trilocular. a much branched. Carmas¡hv¡. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. odour and taste indistinct. gland semilunate. short. annual herb. cylindrical.P. Fruit . fracture. (Fam.Capsule. 0. greenish-yellow.8 cm wide. linear. 20-40 cm high. ovate. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. Joyachi. Chagulputputi Satala. pale brown. Leaf . ribbed. 0.1. 158 . odour and taste not distinct. Bilikalli.5-2 mm thick. subacute. Flower .67.Small. ciliolate.5 mm across at the mouth. solitary. 4-5 cm long. sessile.Involucre broadly campanulate. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. having a few secondary roots. 3.2-0.) Euphorbiaceae). 3-4 mm in dia. shortly 2-fid at the apex. filament pubescent. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. free to the base. 2.celled with or without attached pedicel.

filled with yellowish-brown content. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. epidermis single layered. some rounded. centre occupied by a pith. solitary or in groups.shows slightly convex outline. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. elliptical. simple. measuring 5. fibres. endodermis not distinct.25 µ in diameter. 2. 159 . hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. secondary phloem narrow. leprous tuberculate testa. fibres elongated and aseptate. tangentially elongated elliptical. Stem .6 layers of oval.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. tracheids and medullary rays. consisting of thick-walled. Leaf- Midrib . epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle.75 µ in dia. covered externally with thick.5-19. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. mature root shows thin walled cork. tangentially elongated cells. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular.Seed . grooved at one side. vessels having simple pits. fibres and vessels having simple pits. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. rounded to oval. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. secondary xylem consists of vessels. all elements thick-walled and lignified. circular to oval. secondary cortex consists of 4. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. striated cuticle.Young root shows exfoliated.3 mm long. rounded to oval. parenchymatous cells. thick-walled lignified. fibres and tracheids. secondary xylem composed of vessels. rarely a few oil globules also present. found scattered in phloem region. traversed by numerous xylem rays. b) Microscopic Root . all elements. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. rectangular. palisade single layered present on both sides. parenchymatous cells. single layered epidermis. flattended. composed of sieve elements. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. thickwalled and lignified. starch grains simple. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. elliptical. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. with wide lumen present in this region. rounded at the base. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. lignified cells with wide lumen. stone cells oval to elongated.

Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.L. aseptate fibres. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. Vibandha. Appendix per cent. and 0. Appendix 2. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. lignified with wide lumen.Powder . Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . simple. Pittahara.V. V¡tal¡. 2. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. oval to elongated. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.7. IDENTITY. 0.04. Appendix per cent. Udararoga. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Ud¡vartta. 0.6. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.46 (brown) and 0.2.0.57 (all yellow). Visarpa. shows vessels with simple pits.2. T.50 g.Light yellow. RukÀa.2. DOSE .46.2.67.2. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. rounded to oval starch grains. Gulma.04 and 0. RaktadoÀahara. elliptical.Ën¡ha. stone cells thick-walled. Mi¿raka Sneha.4. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0. 2. 160 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.2. CONSTITUENTS .Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). Appendix per cent.C.87 (violet).3. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.L.C. THERAPEUTIC USES .

2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. graveolens DC. ex Flem. dorsal 161 . Syn. A. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. (Fam. Apiaceae). and a warm. glabrous. parenchymatous. dark brown.. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. akin to caraway.. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. P. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. often stalk attached. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. A.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. graveolens Benth. vittae. var. a tall. Satahva (Fr. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. Sulpha. yellowish membranous wings. sowa Roxb. glabrous. odour. Shulupa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. filiform and incospicuous. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. Shepa. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. slightly raised. mesocarp. slightly sharp taste. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. b) Microscopic Fruit .. mericarps usually separate and free.68. 4 mm long. brown. graveolens Linn.

C. Appendix 14 per cent. Atis¡ra. Kaphahara. Vra¸a.2. 0.7.37 (pink) 0.68 (violet).costae three.á£la.2.10 T. 2.2. each costae with vascular strands.2. 2.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.2. Netra Roga DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.L. shows spiral vessels. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.59 and 0. carpophore split. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.5 per cent. V¡tahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 15 per cent.59 (blue) and 0.68 (all yellow). Appendix 1. Appendix 2. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.C.Brown.3. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.2.2. 162 . Powder . 2.L. cellulosic.6. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. 2. of the drug in powder form.4.3-6 g. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.Essential Oil. 0. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. Appendix 4 per cent. Jvara.

pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. pericycle forming a broken ring.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. palisade single layered. Rachis . rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Leaflet . central region 163 b) Microscopic .5-1 cm wide. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. thin walled. Munika Sohanjana Murungai.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. thickened.2-2 cm long and 0.) Gaertn. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. elliptic. Shigru (Lf. Segata pana. Bahala. a small or medium sized tree. Syn. slender. and articulated at the base. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. pith and phloem parenchyma. entire. (Fam. Shewgachi pane Sajana. Moringaceae). smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. vascular bundle collateral. odour and taste not distinct. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. Munga. parenchymatous cells. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Mungna Neegge. commonly cultivated throughout the country. leaflet 1. oval to elliptical. Sekato. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. ovate or obovate. Sajna. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. consisting of pericyclic fibres. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Muringa. Muringa Elai Sevaga. Mocaka -Sajina. AkÀ¢va. Nugge ele -Murinna.69. parenchymatous cells. Segata. Tishnagandha.

0.05.2. Under U. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.L.36 (green). 0. 0.46 (green). stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. B ¤Æhana. vein islets number 50-65.82 (yellow) and 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf.52 (green). CONSTITUENTS .59 (blue).20.2.46 (both blue). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0. 0. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. K¤mihara. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. Appendix per cent.46 (dark green) & 0. IDENTITY.18. 0.0.18.L.26. 0. Sirovirecaka 164 . 0. 2. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. V¡tahara.2.87 (blue). present on both surface but more on lower sur face. Medohara. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. stomata anornocytic.V.69 (yellow). palisade ratio 6-11. RukÀa.36.7.38. palisade cells. Appendix per cent.69 (blue) and 0.05. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. 0. spiral vessels. Appendix 2. 2. Powder -Greyish-green.94 (yellow) in visible light. 0.26 (all green).94 (violet).2.Carbohydrate. 0.05.53 (yellow). 2. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. Protein.2.2. 0. T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0. 0. (all green).26. Pittahara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. 2.occupied by a crescent-shaped. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. 0. Appendix per cent.36 (yellowish green).94 (blue).4. 0. 0.C. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.6.C.3.46 (all red) & 0. 0. Appendix per cent. áukra N¡¿aka. 0.30 (pink).

165 . Medoroga. Pl¢haroga. Gulma. ViÀatinduka Taila. Galaga¸·a. Vidradhi. DOSE .Ratnagiri Rasa. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .10 . K¤miroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.áopha.

4 cm long. spicy pungent. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. sclerenchymatous.) Zingiberaceae). Sthulaela (Sd. Beraelam. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled.. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. perispenn encloses the 166 . parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. membraneous aril. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. perisperm consists of polygonal. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. odour. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. brown to dark brown. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam.3 cm wide. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed.70. thin walled. (Fam. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. aromatic. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. 0. taste. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.

M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.3. Kaphahara. simple. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. thin-walled.2.10 CONSTITUENTS .2. Tikta Laghu. Appendix 5 per cent. 2. 2. T¤À¸¡. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.2.áv¡sa. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.2. rounded to oval. Mukharoga.6. Powder . (Seed). Mukha¿odhaka. RukÀa.(Seed).2. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter.S¡rivady¡sava.0. Appendix 14 per cent. polygonal.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. DOSE . thin-walled. V¡tahara. Rocaka.2. of the drug in powder form.Light brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. rich in protein. perisperm cells. Appendix 1. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.5 per cent.2. Appendix 2. K¡sa. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Ka¸·u. Appendix 4 per cent.4. 2. H¤ll¡sa.endosperm and embryo. IDENTITY. parenchymatous cells. shows fragments of testa.7. both composed of polygonal. Chardi. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. oil globules. Karp£r¡dy¡rka.5 -1 g. Note . 167 .Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.

thick-walled cells. Tejovati (St. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. stem and branches. aromatic pungent. internal surface smooth. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati.Bk. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. stone cells found in 168 .2 cm thick. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. light yellow to pale brown. (Fam. aromatic. rather deeply furrowed. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. Rutaceae).0. brownish. taste. Jimmi. Tumbura. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays.1-0. lignified. Thumbooni. short. Z.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Syn. sharp prickles.71. armed with long. parenchymatous cells.) Roxb. external surface pale brown. Tumburudra. phloem fibres thickwalled. fracture. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. thin-walled. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .

tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. Appendix 2.Yellowish-brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. 169 .5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .Aruci. IDENTITY. Appendix 1. Powder .2.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.10-20 g. 2.5 per cent.13. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. K¡sa. a Volatile Oil and Resin. Appendix 13 per cent. measuring 2. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.3. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Medhya. oil globules and starch grains. Ëmav¡ta. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex.2. aseptate fibres. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. P¡cana. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). shows fragments of cork cells. Appendix 12 per cent. stone cells. Appendix 8.75 . phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high.2.2.13.6. 2.2. Mukharoga. Rucya. áv¡sa. of the drug for decoction.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.75 .75 µ in diameter.7.75 µ in diameter. Kaphahara.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. Hikk¡. round and oval measuring 2.4. starch grains round and oval. 2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

2 cm wide. hairy. Lamiaceae). Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. elliptic oblong. coloured. soft.Purplish or crimson coloured. branched. 30 . odour. herbaceous. taste. lower lip 170 . Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. annual herb.Thin.) an erect.6 . blackish-brown externally and pale. characteristic. internally cream.5-3 cm long hairy.5-5 cm long 1. small in close whorls. slender. Stem . K¤À¸atulas¢. fracture. hairy. odour faintly aromatic. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. petiole thin.P. branched. woody.3.60 cm high. pedicels longer than calyx. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped.2. about 1. shortly apiculate. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. pubescent on both sides. obtuse or acute. Thulasi. much branched. Leaf . entire or serrate. aromatic. Tulasi (W. wiry. sub quadrangular. Flower .Erect. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn.72. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. pubescent. found throughout the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . externally purplish-brown to black. (Fam. violet internally. Shree Tulasi.

covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. Midrib . middle one larger than other two. vessels pitted. phloem consisting of sieve elements. Stem . xylem surrounded by phloem. thin-walled. pungent.1 cm long. thin-walled. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. fibre tracheides. fibres and parenchyma. odour. corolla about 4 mm long. mucilaginous when soaked in water. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. no odour.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. taste. occasionally a few cells collapsed. glandular trichomes short.shows somewhat cordate outline.Rounded to oval. odour. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval.A group of 4 nutlets. pungent. slightly mucilaginous. lateral two short and central two largest. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. Leaf- Petiole . enclosed in an enlarged. measuring 22-27 in dia. xylem consists of vessels. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. membranous. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. fibres with pointed ends.epidermis. rectangular. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. round to oval polygonal. vessels pitted. long. brown. aromatic. thin-walled. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. pubescent. nearly smooth. pitted with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. parenchymatous cells. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. taste. parenchymatous cells. three vascular bundles situated centrally. slightly notched at the base. slightly compressed. Fruit . xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. veined calyx. pungent. in groups and rarely in singles. aromatic. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres.rarely slightly reflexed at tip.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. tracheids. thin-walled. elongated. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. each with one seed. taste. 0. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. b) Microscopic Root . Seed . filled with brown content. phloem consists of sieve elements. found scattered in phloem. 171 .Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate.

minutes Under observation. thin walled fibres.3.8.4. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. Pittavardhin¢. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara.2.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. Rf. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .C. H¤dya. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. a few containing reddish brown contents.7.2. value 0. palisade ratio 3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). parenchymatous cells. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. Appendix 2.L. Appendix 4 per cent. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.2.L. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.16 on lower surface.15 . Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. vein islet number 31 .Lamina .Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .2.2. Tikta. Record Rf. On cooling spray.1. oil globules. IDENTITY. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Kaphahara. 2. RukÀa. 2. Rucya.C.Essential Oil. Durgandhihara 172 . Appendix 10 per cent. T.2. rounded to oval. 2. Appendix 8 per cent.5 per cent. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings.Greenish: shows thin-walled.35. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 1. Powder .7. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. CONSTITUENTS . 2. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. in thoroughly vanillin .

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .A¿mar¢. Hikk¡.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. áv¡sa. Chardi.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. 173 . M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . KuÀ¶ha. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). Netraroga. K¤miroga. K¡sa.

much branched annual herb. enclosed in a cuticular bladder.5-3 cm long. K¤À¸atulas¢. hairy. petiolate. balloon-shaped head. Holy Basil Tulasi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. characteristic. measuring 22-27 µ dia. 174 b) Microscopic . Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. glandular trichomes short. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. and 2-8 celled. covering trichomes multicellular.2 cm wide.6-3. elliptic-oblong. middle one larger than the other two. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk.. taste. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. LeafPetiole . rarely slightly reflexed at tip. thin. an erect. pubescent on both surfaces. obtuse or acute. found throughout the country.73. Tulasi (Lf. odour. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. petiole 1.shows cordate outline. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells.5-5 cm long. Lamiaceae). 1. three vascular bundles situated centrally. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. upper epidermis.) 30-60 cm high. aromatic. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Fam. entire or serrate. consisting of xylem and phloem. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled.

Appendix per cent. 0.93 (both light green).85 (blue). 0. 0. 0.08 (violet).12 (light green).3. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.21.2. Nerol and Camphene etc. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.epidermis.L.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.Light-green.21 (brown).12. 0.83 (all pink) 0.33. vein islet number 31-33.54. 0.98 (blue).4.2. 2. IDENTITY.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. 0. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces. 175 . 2. 2.85 & 0. Appendix per cent. Powder .45. palisade and spongy parenchyma. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.C.98 (blue). 0. 0.33 (both green) 0. Caryophyllene.93 (pink) & 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.2. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. shows fragments of polygonal. Appendix per cent.93 (all0 yellow).04. 0. 0.45 (yellowish green). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0.54 (blue).2.04.33 (violet). 0.08 (both green). 0.75 (violet).8. 0.Midrib .7. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0. 0.04. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. 0. Lamina .30. CONSTITUENTS . except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.12 (light violet).83. 0.83 (blue). T.93 (violet) and 0. 0.2.. 0. Appendix 2.). 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. 0.2. 0. 0.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.C. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.88 and 0.21. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 2. 0. 0.45 (violet). 0.45. 0.33.6.03 (dark green).75. 0.V. Under U. 0.08. palisade ratio 3.

V¡tahara. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. Tikta. K¤miroga. áv¡sa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 176 . K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Hikk¡. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . H¤dya. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. of the drug in powder form.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.2-3 g.Aruci. THERAPEUTIC USES . Prati¿y¡ya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¡sa. Kaphahara. KuÀ¶ha. RukÀa. Pittahara.

5 cm thick. short. somewhat collenchymatous. large. aromatic. Vacha (Rz. Gora-bach Baje. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. buff coloured intemally. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. cells towards periphery. and 0. Ghodavaca Vasambu. triangular. Vekhandas -Varch. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. taste. thin-walled cells of various sizes. (Fam. smaller. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. Rhizome . Ghodvach Bach. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. pungent and bitter.5-1. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. upper side marked with alternately arranged. enclosing large air spaces. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. fracture. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. broadly. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca.74.Shows single layered epidermis. Araceae). present in this 177 b) Microscopic . transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells.) semiaquatic herb. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. Ugr¡. odour.

2.2.2. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.L.. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Appendix per cent. 2.2.L. Appendix per cent. present in cortex and ground tissue.4.6.2.2. Powder . 178 . Chloroform-Light green iii. 0. Powder as such: . 2.10 T. 2. endodermis distinct. Eugenol and Asarone).2. Appendix per cent.3. Petroleum ether-No change ii.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. CONSTITUENTS . measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. starch grains simple.Yellowish-cream b. Starch and Tannin. Extracts in i. shows fibres. spherical. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent.2. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.C.C. stele composed of round. reticulate. Appendix 2.region. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.7.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. Appendix per cent.14 (violet) and 0. 2. Appendix per cent. Methanol-Yellowish green iv.Buff coloured.

á£la. V¡tahara. Vibandha. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ka¸¶hya. Apasm¡ra. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. K¡sa. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. K¤mihara. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. DOSE .Vac¡di Taila. S¡rasvata. 1. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Tikta Laghu. Unm¡da. Kaphahara. 179 . áv¡sa. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Medhya. Kar¸a Sr¡va. C£r¸a. Sm¤ti daurbalya.2 g. Ëdhm¡na. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a.

a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. 0. Sth¡varaviÀa. occasionally separated due to breakage. Nabhi. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. parenchymatous cells.1. plant is an erect. conical. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. rough due to root scars. Mithalelia. rarely 5 cm long. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. poisonous.75. Bachhnaag. ovoid. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Beesh. thin-walled. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . tapering downwards to a point. roots are generally collected late in September. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara.8 cm thick.) (Fam. Vatsanabhi. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Meethabisha. perennial herb. papillose on outside. Vatsanabha. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. Teliya Bish Basanalli. Basanaag Bisa. taste. dark brown to blackish-brown. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Vatsanabha (Rt. Naabhi Bachnak. without or with a few intercellular spaces. Vatsanabhi.5 cm. 2-4.4 . cartilaginous. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. Ranunculaceae). fracture. small portions of stem sometimes attached. suberised. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. odour indistinct. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. Mahura.

T. 2. 2.2. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. 0.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Anandabhairava Rasa.2. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre.20. Appendix 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2. S £tasekhara Rasa.7. Appendix 5.3. xylem exarch.Light grey.endodermis.L. occupying more than half the radius. 2. Viyav¡yi. Trid°Àahara.6. 0. 0. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa.2. 0. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf.10. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. Appendix 24 per cent. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. inner bark parenchymatous. Sv®dala. metaxylem vessels met in centre. UÀ¸a. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. RukÀa. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.39. cambium having 6 10 angles. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . 0.5 per cent. consisting of round to oval cells. some scattered.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.C.39 and 0. containing a few groups of phloem strands. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.74 and 0. Powder . a few aseptate fibres. Laghu. ÙikÀ¸a.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour.2.2. IDENTITY.C. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows vessels.96 (both orange).L. often forming 'V' shaped ring. 2. Appendix 8 per cent. Appendix 2. present in cortical cells.56.

Jvar¡tis¡ra. Sannip¡ta. V¡takaphajvara. Kanharoga.30 mgs of the drug in powder form.THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡taroga. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.15 . DOSE . 182 .

(Fam. Nelagumbala. Bhonykoru. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . thin-walled cells. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. taste. Bhuikumra Vidari. Vid¡rik¡. Bhumikusmanda. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. Vidari (Tub. Gumadi belli. outer surface reddish-brown. but pliable. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . starchy and somewhat porous. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. Fabaceae). Eagio. Nelagumbula. cut surface creamish-brown. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. thinwalled.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular.Rt.76. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. sweetish.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. usually does not break. stone cells moderately thick-walled. smooth except for protuberances at some places. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Bhoikolu. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton.

CONSTITUENTS . consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.5 . of the drug in powder form.2.75 µ in dia. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. IDENTITY. Pittahara. Balya. Angmarda. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Var¸ya. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.Marma Gu¶ik¡. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. measuring 5. phloem fibres much elongated. Ras¡yana. Appendix 2.7. present in all parenchymatous cells. Appendix 4.13. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tahara. DOSE . Appendix 17 per cent.2.3-6 g. J¢van¢ya.5 . shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. somewhat round. and also rarely in stone cells. lignified with narrow lumen.2.2. having central hilum and striations. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . plenty of starch grains mostly simple. Appendix 24 per cent.and pits. Raktapitta.2.3. 2. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. Svarya.75 µ in dia. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. áoÀa. a few latex duct also present. 184 .Gluconic and Malic acids.D¡ha. highly thickened. radially elongated cells. distributed throughout this region.Buff coloured.5 per cent. Daurbalya. fragments of cork. THERAPEUTIC USES .13.4. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content.. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). 2. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. Powder .2. Stanyada.6. M£trala. Appendix 4 per cent. angular to oval.

below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells.77. H. 50-100 cm high. followed by 2-3 layers. an annual. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . thick-walled. Syn. cultivated chiefly in North India. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. smooth. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. (Fam. about 1 cm long and 0. oblong. seed coat appears as a colourless line. Yava (Fr. elliptic. odour. round to oval wavy walled cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. sativum Pers. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. sclerenchymatous fibres.) Poaceae). Jav Barley Cheno. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis.2-0. pale-greenish-yellow. spongy parenchymatous cells. not distinct. polygortal inner epidermal cells. followed by more or less. erect herb. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn.3 cm wide. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. sweetish-acrid. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. taste. square or quadrilateral. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka.

Starch. starch grains simple. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. round to oval. 0.5 per cent.68.92 (yellow). Appendix 2.72 (all pink.16. 0. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. 2. Sthairyakara.3. Lekhana.L. Globulin. Powder .31.2.L.68. Appendix 1.24.22. Svarya. endosperm divided into two zones.2. simple starch grains.45. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. IDENTITY. 0.6. 0.Creamish-white. 2.56.C.2. 0. 0.C.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. 0.narrow lumens.65 & 0.92 (all grey). 0. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.83 and 0. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.V. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. 0. 0. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.31. Appendix 5. Pittahara. V¤Àya.53. Orientin. Sugars. 0.22.2.83 (all violet) and 0. Proteins (Albumin.5 per cent. Var¸ya 186 . Orientoside. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. M£trahara. Kaphahara.) CONSTITUENTS .2.44. 0.5 2.10. V¡tak¤t. Pur¢Àak ¤t. 0. Medahara. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. 0.06. sclerenchymatous fibres. 2. Appendix 2.2. Vitexin etc.14.5 per cent. and the rest starch layers.31. Fats. 0. 0. 0. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.10. 0.4.36. 0.7 T. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.

of the drug. Tvagroga DOSE . 187 . Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Medoroga.100 . P¢nasa.áv¡sa. El¡dya Modaka. Sarsap¡di Pralepa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Urustambha. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Dh¡nvantara Taila.200 g.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Prameha. K¡sa. Gandharvahasta Taila. T¤À¸¡. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kanharoga. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.

radially arranged cork cells. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Leaf . fracture. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa.) Fabaceae).Simple.5-1 cm long. striate. 0. Yavasaka (W. cork cambium single layered.P. Stem . hard. secondary and tertiary root absent. opposite. mucronate obtuse. Javasa. dark brown. 20-30 cm long and 0. 0. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. sharp axillary spines upto 3. secondary cortex almost 188 . Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. branched. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Neladangara. drooping. glabrous. glabrous. gradually tapering. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. elliptical.78. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. (Fam. a small thorny shrub. filled with reddish-brown contents. extipulate. oblong.7 cm broad.5-0. Desv. short. terete.8 cm long. Y¡sa. alternate.Well developed.Cylindrical. nearly 0. stipules green. Punjab. slightly rough at basal region with slender. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. ballidurabi. no taste and odour.1-1 cm thick.2-1 cm thick.

75 µ in dia. hypodermis 1-2 layered. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. starch grains simple. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. Leaf- Petiole . parenchymatous cells. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. hypodermis 2-3 layered. covered with cuticle. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. phloem composed of sieve elements. thin-walled. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. xylem situated above phlome. 5. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. rounded to oval. Midrib .14. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. pitted vessels. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. thin-walled. xylem consists of vessels. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays.appears circular in outline. tracheids and fibres. some cells filled with tannin. xylem consists of vessels. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. fibres. a few with thick wall and simple pits. present throughout the region. 3-45 cells long. phloem composed of sieve elements. Lamina .Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle.75 µ in diameter.absent. tangentially elongated cells. tracheids. elongated. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. parenchyma and fibres. parenchymatous cells. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. epidermis single layered. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. tanniniferous cells. simple. pith composed of a few thin-walled. Stem . Powder . covered externally with thick cuticle.5-14. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits.appears biconvex in outline.Greenish-brown. vascular bundle collateral.5. filled with tannin. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. 189 . filled with tannin. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. tracheids. angular. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. xylem fibres. pericycle present in form of fibre groups.

20 . 2.4. 2. 2.Chardi. Appendix 2. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. V¡tarakta. T¤À¸¡.2. Arimed¡di Taila. Tikta. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Invert Sugars).7.2. Sucrose. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2 per cent. Jvara. 190 . D¢pana. THERAPEUTIC USES .Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS .2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.6.5 per cent.2.5 per cent. Appendix 13. Appendix 2.2. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.2.50 g. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Kaphahara. Appendix 10 per cent.3. Visarpa DOSE .IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapitta. K¡sa. 2.Sugars (Melizitose.

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