THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.1 Testing Drugs 2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .2.1-Nessler Cylinder.2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.1.2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.1.2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.2-Sieves 1.1.1.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.1.2. 1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.3.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.1.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.5.4.2.1.2.2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.1.1.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.2.1.Types of Stomata 2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.2.) Desv 177 1.2.2-Thermometers 1.2.1.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1.

6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .1.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.3.3.2.3.3.2-Refractive Index 2.3.3 Limit Tests 2.Weights and Measures 5.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.1.3.3.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.5-Limit Test for lead 2.3.

II would be official. the Dangerous Drugs Act. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. II. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments.P. Vol. 1930 and the Poisons Act. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. Part-I. II. accordingly.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. Vol. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). Part-I. Vol. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.I. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I.). would be deemed to have been amended vii . In general.

GENERAL NOTICES Title . Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml).Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. When the term “drop” is used. distribution and method of collection. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. Italics . it is described as having odour. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. Purity and Strength .The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Ayurvedic Formulary of India. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. Odour and Taste . as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. If the odour persists to be discernible. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Hindi. Identity. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. if any. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. viii . The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs .The metric system of weights and measures is employed. English. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. Mesh Number . Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Introductory Para . substances or processes described in Appendix. indicated in monograph. Weights and Measures . Synonyms .

soluble extractive. acid-insoluble ash. colour.g.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated.C. if of equivalent accuracy. those of definition of the part and source plants. ether-soluble extractive. fungi. sliminess. arsenic and heavy metals. and other animal matter including animal excreta. the expression per cent (%). and Identity.In defining standards. However. pests. and show no abnormal odour.) . groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. Constant Weight . Purity and Strength. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement.For statutory purpose. in 100 grammes of product. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests.Under this head. according to circumstances. which he uses. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. even by applying known reference standards. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. moisture content. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. Standards . methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. Constituents . The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. water. is used. Vol. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . ix . water-soluble ash. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. V. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. mould or other evidence of deterioration. micro-organisms. with one of the four meanings given below. shall constitute standards. Percentage of Solutions . the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. under Description.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. The quantitative tests e. statements appearing in the API. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. alcohol-soluble extractive.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter.L.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. total ash. wherever given. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. pesticides. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. However. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. Part-I.

Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. fibres.000 parts More than 10. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Statements of solubilities. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. Temperature . Reagents and Solutions . such as fragment of filter papers. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. and dust particles.56 oC.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. Solutions .000 parts x . all solutions are prepared with purified water. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Percentage of alcohol . Solubility . are intended to apply at that temperature. thermometric scale. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. at a stated temperature.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.

Part –I and Part-II.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. 0.P. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. mm. ml. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0.I. µ. g. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. IN. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. l.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m.5 N. unless otherwise stated. PS. 1M. cm. mg.1 N. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Kg. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. TS. 0. Fam.

Punj. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. St. St. Wd. Ori. xii . Kan. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Bk. Mal. Eng. Kash. Rt. Mar. Guj. Wd. Wh. Ht. Bk. Tel. Rz. Beng. Assam. Fr. Sd. Pl. Rt. Tub. Tam. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Lf.Sansk.

Akarakara Akkaraka. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially.2 . parenchymatous cells. characteristically astringent and pungent.8 µ in width. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. Asteraceae). cambium 2-5 layered. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. taste. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. shrivelled. 1. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Akalakarabha. not easily separable. slightly aromatic. thin-walled. Akallakara. tapering slightly at both ends. 53. elongated.231 µ in 1 . tracheids and xylem parenchyma. an annual. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. vessels pitted. (Fam. xylem fibres thick-walled. Akarakarabha (Rt. bark upto 3 mm thick. 7-15 cm in length. cylindrical. brown. Akravu Akkalakara. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. external surface rough.1.37-28. odour. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. b) Microscopic Root .

D¢pana. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form. 2. Danta¿£la DOSE . calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. Powder . 2. running straight.5 -1 g.Ash coloured. K¡sa. uniseriate rays very rare. bi to tri and multiseriate.2.6. áukrala. Grdhras¢.Kum¡ry¡sava. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.2.3. Appendix 22 percent. Appendix 8 percent.2. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Udararoga. IDENTITY. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. Kaphahara. secondary phloem and medullary rays.4. NaÀ¶¡rtava. Appendix 2 percent. 2. áv¡sa. á£laroga. Appendix 2. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin).2. radially elongated.length having narrow lumen. secondary phloem.Prati¿y¡ya. Svedakara. medullary rays numerous. Aj¢rna. Appendix 10 percent.0. áotha. Buddhivardhaka. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. V¡jikara. secondary phloem and medullary rays.7. also gives positive tests for inulin. 2. 2 .2. ray cells thick-walled.2.

found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m.2. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. not distinct. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. creamish-brown. broken pieces.) large deciduous. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. coriaceous. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. (Fam. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. oily sweet. Powder .Shows 1-2 layered. Juglandaceae). odour. parenchymatous cells. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. 3 . thin-walled. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. parenchymatous cells. radially elongated. collapsed. under this. followed by more or less compressed. Akshoda (Cotldn. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Cotyledon . slightly curved. irregularly corrugated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. endosperm mostly single layered. taste. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. thin-walled. Sailabhava.Cream coloured.

2.0 percent. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.2.3.2.25 g.IDENTITY. 2. Appendix Not more than 0.5 percent. ViÀ¶ambhi. KÀaya. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not less than 10. áukral. CONSTITUENTS . Sara.2. Kaphakara. 2. V¡taroga. Balya.4.2.Walnut oil and Tannin.10 . B¤´ha¸a. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.0 percent.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2.KÀata. Appendix Not less than 7.6. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE .2.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. 4 . V¤Àya.2. Appendix 2.

Mampuiti. grey having lenticels. Ranambo Ambada. external surface smooth. a small aromatic. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. Stem Bark. upto 27 m high and 2. S.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. tangentially elongated. Amra Indian Hog Plum.5 m in girth. Ambado.. curved. laminated. Amra. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Jangli Aam Ambate. deciduous tree. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. internal surface reddish-yellow. Anbalamu. Amvara -Mampusli. and 5 . rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. Anacardiaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Ranamba. f. Jangali Ambo. Ambalam. Kurz. mangifera Willd. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Syn. parenchymatous cells. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. non Gamble (Fam. Ambazham. Wild Mango Ambeda. acuminata Roxb. parenchymatous.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. consisting of tangentially elongated. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai.Bk. fracture. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. radially arranged. Ambadam Amratakamu. Amrata (St. a few outer cells exfoliated. with reddish-brown contents.3. thin. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. S. thin-walled cells.

D¡ha DOSE . a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.75-14 µ in dia. CONSTITUENTS .2. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 0. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.C. of the drug in powder form for decoction..7.3.L. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. 0.96. V¡tahara. containing rosette crystals and starch grains.87 (blue) and 0. KÀaya.33. thick-walled. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. THERAPEUTIC USES . rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.6. Appendix Not more than 0. IDENTITY.33. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres.40 and 0.4. shows cork cells. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. 0. 2. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf.2. Rucik¤t. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.Light brown. simple. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. Ka¸¶hya.(greyish brown). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. lignified. 6 . Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.V. Not more than 1 per cent. 0. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.5 per cent.C. 2.87 (all greyish brown).also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.96 (blue).KÀata.2.5-10 g.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. 0. Powder .2. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.L. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. Pittakara. Appendix 2. Under U. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. stone cells. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. 2.2. T. Raktapitta. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.

opposite.0. 7 .5 cm in cut pieces. solid. not distinct. 0. May£raka. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. yellowish-brown. Kharamaµjar. hollow when dry. two celled. Apamarga (W.3-0.4.0. decussate. slightly ribbed. erect. Stem . bracteate with two bracteoles. the perianth lobes. exstipulate. anther. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . (Fam. odour. bisexual. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. branched. yellowish-brown. perianth segments 5.0 cm in thickness.free. actinomorphic. one spine lipped. contorted or quincuncial.) Amaranthaceae). gradually tapering. opposite. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. cylindrical. sessile. PratyakpuÀpa. hairy. a stiff. obovate. stamens 5.P. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra.3 . hypogynous.1-1. membranous.9 m high herb. subsessile. rough due to presence of some root scars. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. dorsifixed. Flower . 0. secondary and tertiary roots present. numerous. erect. wavy margin.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. Leaf .Cylindrical tap root. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m.Simple. greenish-white. filament short.

cortex 6-10 layered. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. brown. single. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. Seed . truncate at the apex. capitate. style. thin-walled cork cells. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. unilocular with single ovule. LeafPetiole . pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. thin-walled cork cells. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. thin layers of cambium.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. thin-walled. lignified. ovary superior. parenchymatous cells. Midrib . syncarpous. tangentially elongated.Sub-cylindric. 3-4 celled stalk. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. xylem composed of usual elements. stigma. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. vessels simple pitted. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. on both surfaces. fibres pitted. oval to rectangular.Shows a single layered epidermis. rectangular. demarcating the xylem rings. vessels annular. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. cortical and pith cells. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. perianth and bracteoles. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. followed 8 . spiral. Stem . b) Microscopic Root . round at the base.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. elongated. endospermic. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. epidermis single layered. Fruit . parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. fibres being absent. 2-5 celled. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. composed of parenchymatous cells. scalariform and pitted. two medullary bundles. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres.Shows crescent-shaped outline. present in pith. either separate throughout or found in some cases.gynoecium bicarpellary.

6.Shows single layered. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.2.7. Abhay¡ Lava¸a.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IDENTITY.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. vessels with annular. non-lignified cells. vein islet number 7-13 per sq.2.0 on lower surface. Medohara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. Appendix 2. Powder .0 on upper surface.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. mm.2.20-50 g. V¡maka. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Tikta Sara. palisade ratio 7.4. Gu·apippali.2.5-9. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent.3. slightly elongated in upper. rectangular. Kaphahara.2.Light yellow. thin-walled epidermal cells.á£la. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. Lamina . Medoroga DOSE . 9 . tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. of the drug for decoction. scalariform and pitted thickening.2. Chedana. shows fragments of elongated. spiral. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. 2. stomatal index 4. Udara Roga. 2. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. 2.0-20. Apac¢. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. Ka¸·u. P¡cana. 9.0-11. V¡tahara. Ar¿a. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. aseptate fibres.

found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. cylindrical. a few showing slit-like pits. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. a few solitary fibres also present. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. thin-walled. medullary 10 . phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. fracture. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. polygonal. vessels pitted with oblong. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. Aparajita (Rt. fibrous. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. lightbrown. (Fam. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. very long. colour. secondary xylem consists of usual elements.5. bitter. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. b) Microscopic Root . Fabaceae). 1-5 mm in thickness. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. taste. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells.

single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia.2. Pittahara. áotha. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .Tannin. phloem and xylem parenchyma. 2.79 (blue). Appendix 2. shows simple and compound starch grains. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IDENTITY. M£traroga.C.2.. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. oblong and pitted. Under U.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components.7. measuring 3-13 µ in dia..Yellowish-brown. Buddhiprada.L.L.2. V¡tahara. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.2. found in secondary cortex.3 g. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. CONSTITUENTS . Tikta.6.V.Mi¿raka Sneha.á£la. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. KuÀ¶ha. Appendix per cent. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. ViÀahara.3.54 and 0. Vra¸a DOSE .C. 0. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. 11 . 2. 2. Starch. 2.79 (both yellow). of the drug in powder form. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.4. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. Resin.79 (grey). Medhya.1 . Appendix per cent. Powder .2. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. T.rays 1-5 cells wide.2. 0.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. 1. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations.Shows a few layered.5 cm thick. pungent Rhizome . colourless. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . Adrak Injee. lakottai. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. each having a depressed scar at its apex. tangentially elongated. Ale -Adi. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. isodiametric. Inji Allamu. thin-walled. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. Ardraka (Rz. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. irregularly arranged. (Fam. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. taste.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. pieces 5-15 cm long. fracture. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. oblique branches on upper side. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. short with projecting fibres.) Zingiberaceae). Allam. reaching up to 90 cm in height.5-6. buds and roots are removed and washed well. radially arranged cells of inner cork. widely cultivated in India. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. odour. gingery.6.

2.2.92 (violet). larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.69. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin.6. walls of oil cells suberised.03. 2.83 & 0. septate fibres with oblique.2.47 (light violet). 0. 0. 0. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf.7 vessels.76 (violet) & 0. 0. 0. 0. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. vessels showing reticulate.2.35. oleo-resin cells abundent.16 (blue). measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.2.69 (grey).Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T.63 (grey) & 0. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.13.47. collateral. reticulate and spiral vessels.. 0.4. CONSTITUENTS .dia. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. 0. 0. 2.L. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.63 (light violet).7.76. 2. 13 .08. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. conjoint. larger bundles consists of 2. 0. 0. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. IDENTITY. 0.16. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.92 (all yellow). polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.35. Appendix 8 per cent. phloem.63 & 0. 0. filled with abundant starch grains. Under U.16. Powder -Light yellow.35 (light violet). elongated pits on their walls. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. composed of xylem. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. 0. 0. endodermis single layered.3. 2.9 T.2. 0.69 (all light yellow). vessels 2-5 in number. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. 0. Appendix 2. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene.2. Appendix 2 per cent.08 (violet).69 (light violet). Appendix 5 per cent. fibrovascular bundles of two types.63. Appendix 1 per cent. small cells of sieve tube.V. free from starch. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. numerous closed.C. Appendix 90 per cent.C. 2. 0. 0.5 per cent.l6 (brownish violet). of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.L. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.

Bhedana. THERAPEUTIC USES . RukÀa. Vibandha. 14 .á£la. Ka¸tharoga. Svarya.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. V ¤Àaya. DOSE . Kaphahara. Rocana. H¤dya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. Ën¡ha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. áopha.

characteristic of dry regions. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres thin-walled. rough.Bk. fibrous. square to rectangular cells. parenchyma.5-1 cm thick. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. stone cells and phloem cells. fibres and crystal fibres. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. thinwalled cortical cells. Velvelam. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. odour and taste. lignified. internally light brown to reddish-brown. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. Pilobaval. (Fam.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. with tapering 15 . Sadabala -Haramibaval.7. incurved. exfoliating in irregular scales. upto 3 m in height. not distinct. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. hard. Fabaceae). secondary phloem wide. Arimeda (St. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. all traversed by medullary rays. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. fracture. consisting of sieve elements. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays.

Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. Powder . K¡sa. 2.0. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Appendix 1 per cent.e.6. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 11 per cent. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. K¤mi.39 and a spot at Rf. shows groups of cork cells. Appendix 14 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.3-5 g in powder form. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Dantaroga.69 (grey) is seen in visible light.91 (yellow).78 and 0. β -Amyrin.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). Appendix 2.C. T. 2.4. radially elongated cells. Mukharoga. 0. Meda¿oÀaka.3.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . Ka¸·u.2. Atis¡ra.áopha. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.91 (both blue). KuÀ¶ha. P¡¸·u.L.LC.n-Hexacosanol.2.ends.40 g for decoction.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.Reddish-brown. 0. fibres. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. Visarpa.0 to 0.39 and a spot at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Meha. 0 to 0. 2.2. β-Sitosterol and Tannin.7. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. Udardapra áamana DOSE .2. crystal fibres elongated. IDENTITY. Appendix 13 per cent. 16 . ViÀajavra¸a.2. 2. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. sclereid. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka.2. composed of thin-walled.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. 0. companion cells. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. Bilimatti. channelled to half quilled. fracture. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. (Fam. Kellemasuthu. Vellamaruthi. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. Arjuna. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. recurved. consisting of sieve tubes. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface.& A. traversed by phloem rays. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. Arjuna (St. flat. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. Mattimora. P¡rtha. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. curved. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. Neermatti. taste. Torematti Arjuna.2-1. short in inner and laminated in outer part. Sajada Arjuna Matti. bitter and astringent. Mathichakke. a large deciduous tree. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish.) Combretaceae). Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W.Bk. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 .8. in the middle and outer phloem region.5 cm thick.

IDENTITY. mostly simple.Medoroga. uniseriate phloem rays. Arjuna Gh¤ta. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. round to oval. starch grains. Vya´ga. compound of 2-3 components. elliptic.. KÀatakÀaya. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Kaphahara. measuring 260-600 µ in dia.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a.2. 18 . fibres. of the drug in powder form. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. 4-12 cells high.2. Appendix 1 per cent. T¤À¡. starch grains simple and compound. alternating with fibres.2. Vra¸an¡¿ana. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. H¤dya. 2.3. Vra¸a.. sometimes upto 5 components.4. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa.2.3-6 g. 2. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. Appendix 20 per cent. H¤droga. alata). 2.. 2. Appendix 25 per cent. elliptical.2. Prameha.2. shows fragments of cork cells. round to oval. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. Appendix 2.6.Reddish-brown. DOSE .Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. µ Powder . Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.in dia.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . measuring 5-13 µ in dia. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. a few rhomboidal crystals. Appendix 20 per cent.

Pericarp differentiated into epicarp.) Anacardiaceae). characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. dark brown. mesocarp a very broad zone. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. Scramkotati Nallajidi. (Fam. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. Nallajidiginga Baladur. mesocarp and endocarp. drupaceous. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. nut 2. Fruit . composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. shining with residual receptacle. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. obliquely ovoid. 19 .9. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. 30-40 layers thick. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. Bhallataka (Fr. smooth. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara.5-3 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened.

2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Appendix 0.Dark-brown.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. 2.Ar¿a. Kaphahara. V¡tahara. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢.1.7. 2. chloroform. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. ether. Snigdha.I.6. innermost prismatic.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.F.. Appendix 4 per cent. Gulma.4. Krimi..endocarp consists of two distinct layers. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.2. Tikta. Graha¸¢. Appendix 2.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Note . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.2.2. 2. Bhedi. Powder . Appendix 11 per cent. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).2 g. very much elongated radial walls. being highly thickened. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. P¡cana. IDENTITY. Ën¡ha. Part-I 20 . Ka¶u. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Chedi. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS . insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. KuÀ¶ha. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.3. Appendix 5 per cent.5 per cent.2. DOSE .

M¡rkava. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. 1. 30 . Karisalanganni. Kesari -Bhangaro. greyish. occasionally brownish. not toothed. strigose with oppressed hairs.Well developed.) herbaceous annual. together on unequal axillary peduncles. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. Bhangro Bhangara. Asteraceae). disc flowers 21 . usually oblong. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. cylindrical or flat. Flower . upto about 7 mm in dia. strigosely hirsute. Gurugada. Keshavardhana. Knnunni Bhangra. Bhringaraja (W. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces..2. Karisalai Guntakalagara. much branched. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.2 .10.5 cm long. obtuse or acute. herbaceous. lanceolate. Leaf . sessile to subsessile. node distinct. Bhringiraja. sub-entire. ovate. spreading. Tekar¡ja. ray flowers ligulate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. erect or prostrate. occasionally rooting at nodes. often rooting at nodes. Bh¤´ga. white. 2. ligule small.2 .8.P. greenish. (Fam. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. sub-acute or acute.Herbaceous. cylindrical. involucral bracts about 8. scarcely as long as bracts. Soppu.Solitary or 2. rough due to oppressed white hairs. Stem . branched.3 cm wide.50 cm high. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. Kesuriya.Opposite. Bhangaraiya Garujalu.

xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. with a narrow wing.25 cm long. pitted. vessels numerous.1 cm wide.2 . ray cells pitted. fibres and xylem parenchyma. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. found scattered throughout wood. epidermis followed by wide cortex. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. fibre tracheids. tangentially elongated cells. traversed by xylem rays. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. Seed . Fruit . warty. 0. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. dark brown. phloem rays broader towards periphery.0. consisting of rounded cells. unilocular with one basal ovule. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. stamen 5.Achenial cypsella. ovary inferior. covered with striated cuticle. Leaf- Petiole . uniseriate. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. rarely slightly oblique. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. Midrib . five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. with very pointed tips. free. 1-5 celled. xylem ray distinct. epidermis followed by cortex. externally covered with cuticle. pappus absent. simple.0. cuneate. one seeded. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. and with pointed apical cell. non-glandular. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. drum-shaped. corolla often 4 toothed. brown. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . b) Microscopic Root . trichomes of two types. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. covered with warty excrescences.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. in macerated preparation vessels small.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells.tubular. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. filaments epipetalous. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. fibre tracheids. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. run straight in tangential section. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. pistil bicarpellary. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. xylem composed of vessels. hairy and non endospermic.

in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. wide at the base.8 -4. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. about 3 celled. mesophyll traversed by number of veins.5 on upper and 23. Powder . septa thick-walled. externally covered with cuticle.5. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. pointed tips and pitted walls. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. Stem .5 -26. trichomes entire or in pieces. secondary cortex composed of large. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces.collenehymatous cells on both sides. externally covered with cuticle. while the section cut at apical region. middle cells longest. endarch. palisade ratio 3. normally biseriate and uniseriate. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma.Dark green. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. the cork where formed. xylem fibres with wide lumen.0-22. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. epidermis single layered. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. uniseriate. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. stomatal index 20. warty. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. xylem consists of large number of vessels. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. hairs stiff. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. 23 . in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. Lamina . xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. pericyclic fibres distinct. pointed. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. vascular bundles in a ring. collateral. more abundant on lower surfaces.shows a dorsi ventral structure.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. peg-like outgrowth. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. arranged in tangential strands. some elongated with simple perforations. pitted with spiral thickening. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes.0 on lower surface.

12 . Appendix 2.3.2.2. Ras¡yana. H ¤droga.6. áv¡sa. Tekar¡ja marica. Tvacya. áirah á£la. Appendix per cent. 2. of the drug in powder form for decoction.áotha.2.Alkaloids. Kaphahara.2.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. K¡sa. 2. Ëmahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Yak¤droga.IDENTITY. CakÀusya.7. Appendix per cent. K¤miroga. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ecliptine and Nicotine. CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila.2. DOSE . Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.4.2. ViÀahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. Ke¿ya.6 ml of the drug in juice form. Appendix per cent. Tikta RukÀa. 2. 24 . Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. Dantya. P¡¸·u. Appendix per cent.3 .36 g.

Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam.Small. a glabrous. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. soft. ovoid and glabrous.Capsules upto 5 mm long. slightly bitter. slightly bitter.P. small. Syn.) Wettst. branched creamish-yellow. 25 . Flower .Simple. small.Thin. (Fam.. Scrophulariaceae). 1-2 cm long. glabrous. taste. Valabrahmi. Brahmi (W. axillary and solitary. pedicels 6-30 mm long. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. succulent. nodes and internodes prominent. Herpestis monnieria (LiM.Thin. Brahmi. Stem . green.) H. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Fruit .11. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. obovate-oblong. opposite. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. decussate.B. Ondelaga. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi.& K. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. about 1-2 mm thick. prostrate or creeping annual herb. wiry.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Leaf . found throughout India in wet and damp places. sessile. green or purplish green.

Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. 2. 2. Stem . centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. starch grains simple. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings.2. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. Medhya. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.0 µ in dia.4. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. b) Microscopic 26 . Tikta.0-14. Matiprada. ËyuÀya.6. Powder .Root .7. cortex having large air cavities. vascular ring continuous. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. glandular hairs sessile. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. and 8. 2. Svarya.2.0 x 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2. round to oval. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.5-9. Appendix per cent. endodermis single layered. Appendix 2. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. 2. no distinct midrib present. glandular hairs. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. ViÀahara.. respectively. endodermis single layered. round and oval starch grains. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.2. Praj¡sth¡pana.2.3.Shows a single layer of epidermis. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. pericycle not distinct.Yellowish-brown. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana.2. simple.

Ratnagiri Rasa. Prameha. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . áopha.KuÀ¶ha. S¡rasvata C£r¸a.1-3 g in powder form. Jvara. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. 27 . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. P¡¸·u. THERAPEUTIC USES .

woody. cylindrical. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. pale yellowish-brown. a very prickly. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5.8 m high. no distinct odour and taste. Brihati (Rt. fracture.9 layers of thin-walled. cork cambium single layered. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. a number of secondary roots and their branches present.15 layers of thin-walled. Badikateri Kirugullia. upto 1. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. phloem parenchyma much abundant. oval and tangentially elongated cells. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars.12. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . Papparamulli. parenchyma and stone cells. secondary cortex composed of 5 . varying greatly in shape and size. Solanaceae). thin-walled. Putirichunda Dorli. much branched perennial under shrub. traversed by phloem rays.. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. (Fam. long.5 cm in dia. short and splintery. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. Ubhibharingani. tangentially elongated.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Chichuriti.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . Heggulla. ribbed. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. b) Microscopic Root . 1-2.

2.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. P¡cana. phloem and medullary rays. Jvara.6 µ in diameter. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .2.5 -11. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. aseptate fibres. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. cells radially elongated and pitted.6 µ in diameter. rounded to oval starch grains.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.á£la.11. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. CONSTITUENTS . tracheids. Agnim¡dya. thick-walled.4.2. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. 29 .6. measuring 5. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.5 . Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. Appendix 2. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. xylem rays uni to biseriate. V¡tahara. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. IDENTITY. shows groups of thin-walled. vessels with simple pits. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.2.2. Powder .7.. H¤dya.2. DOSE . H¤droga. Kaphahara. traversed by xylem rays. 2. of the drug for decoction. 2. 2. parenchymatous cells. measuring 5.10-20 g.Cream coloured. 2.3. áv¡sa. all elements being lignified. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not more than 6.5 per cent.

Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. fracture. secondary cortex a wide zone. acrid.0 cm in width. b) Microscopic Stem . parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. oval to rectangular. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. Chavya (St. Chavya -Kattumulaku. odour. nodes and internodes distinct. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. fibres and xylem parenchyma. short. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. thin-walled. taste. tracheid.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. greyish-brown. Piperaceae). cultivated mainly in Southern India. P. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. officinarum DC. fleshy climber. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. chaba Hunter non Blume. brownish cells. endodermis single layered. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles.13.5-2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. peppery. consisting of round. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. (Fam. a glabrous. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 .. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. cork cambium not distinct. P. plenty of simple starch granules present. Syn.

Appendix 10 per cent.Ar¿a. medullary rays multi seriate. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. Appendix 1. RukÀa. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. 2. of the drug in powder form.1-2 g. Glycosides and Steroids. fibres and simple. 31 . Recana. cells thin walled.4.2.pitted and reticulate thickenings.2. 2.2.2.7. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Alkaloids.5 per cent. Pl¢h¡ Roga. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Ën¡ha. Udara Roga. D¢pana. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. round to oval. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. á£lal DOSE .Greyish-brown. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. filled with simple. Appendix 6 per cent. starch grains.2. Appendix 2. 2. 2. IDENTITY. Gulma. Krimi. P¡cana. Appendix 3 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .3. shows fragments of vessels.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder .2. THERAPEUTIC USES . round to oval starch grains.

Reddish-brown. Punicaceae). 0.14.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country.6 cm long.1-0. consisting of oval to polygonal. shows stone cells. round. found growing wild in the warm valley.2 cm wide. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. starch grains present in testa. (Fam. simple.5-0. oval. endosperm absent. sweetish-sour. Maadalai. triangular and rectangular. parenchymatous cells. Powder . containing a few oil globules. beneath this. round to oval. LohitapuÀpa. thin walled. Dadima (Sd. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. oil globules. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. Seed . and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. 0. cotyledons coiled. Madalam Danimma Anar. wedge-shaped. taste.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. angular. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. 32 .Shows testa consisting of thin-walled.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

9 m in high. about 2-3. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. upto 4 mm thick. fine rootlets. Stem .2-1.3-0.5 cm across. hairy on upper part. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. an annual. fracture. erect. crowded in dense.Cylindrical. smooth. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. calyx.) Lamiaceae). quadrangular with four prominent furrows. long with numerous wiry. taste. characteristic.6-0. 1-2.16. (Fam.Light greenish-yellow. acute.P.Yellowish-green. thin. glabrous in lower part. 1. serrate. white. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . nodes and internodes distinct. tubular. 10 dentate with a villous throat. about 0. lanceolate.lanceolate. 3-9 cm long. scaberulous. ciliate.5 cm long and 0. 1-2. surface rough. Gumma. 1. zig-zag. taste. slightly curved. Inflorescence . globose. slightly bitter. crenate. hairy.5 cm wide. ovate or ovate. subacute. taste.7-2 cm 37 . more or less pubescent.Sessile. Leaf . corolla. fibrous. Dronapushpi (W.35 cm wide. white. pungent.25 cm long. size variable. stout herb.

tracheids. palisade single layered. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. irregular. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. upper lip about 4 mm long. smooth. cortex consisting of single layered. thin-walled. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Lamina . xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. fibres and xylem parenchyma. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. vascular bundles 4. Stem . thin-walled 38 . trigonous. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. parenchymatous cells. Seed . parenchymatous cells. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one.long. round to angular collenchyma.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. Midrib . Leaf- Petiole .vascular bundle arc-shaped. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. vessels long with spurs. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. some having simple pits. endoderm is single layered. present in centre.1 cm wide. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. tangentially elongated. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. Fruit .3 cm long and 0. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. secondary xylem consists of vessels. dark brown.7 layered. followed by round to oval parenchyma. oblong.tangentially elongated.shows a single layered epidermis.Schizocarpic carcerule. nutlets 3 mm smooth. bilipped.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. 4 . lateral lobes small. composed of oval to rectangular. upto 8 cells high. brown. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends.0. thin-walled cells. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. tracheids. consisting of barrel shaped. xylem consists of vessels.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. wooly. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cells. consists of a single layered epidermis. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled.

shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. present on both surfaces.2. K¡sa.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.2. aseptate fibres.2. Appendix 2. Tamaka áv¡sa. RukÀa. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.5 on lower surface. 2.cells. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.7 on upper surface. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. pitted and spiral vessels. stomatal index 16. 2. 16. IDENTITY.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form.2. V¡takara.4. Pittakara. 2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Lava¸a.áotha.7. ViÀamajvara DOSE .Alkaloid.3.Dull yellow. Bhedani. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡mal¡. Powder .6-40.2. CONSTITUENTS .6. a few veins present in this region. stomata diacytic.6-30. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Ka¶u Guru. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Agnim¡ndya. palisade ratio 7-9. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent.2.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. 39 . Glycoside.

utilissimus Roxb. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. Vellarika Kakadi.4 cm wide. Karka¶¢. creamish-yellow. sweetish oily. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. thin-walled. 0. 0. an annual creeping herb. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. Hastipani. cotyledons two. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. B¤hatphala. -Kakur. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains.3-0. more or less ellipsoid.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. mesophyll cells thinwalled.7-10 cm long. Cucurbitaceae). parenchymatous. C. cultivated in many parts of the country. rounded and tangentially elongated. Ervaru (Sd. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. straight. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. parenchymatous cells. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. glossy. radially elongated to squarish. 40 . followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. covered with thick cuticle. shows stone cells. Hastipani. taste. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. surface smooth. (Fam.17.

0. Appendix 10 per cent.4.6. D¢pana.26. 0.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.2. 0. 0.91 and 0.91 (blue) under U.26. 2.64.51.91 and 0. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. T¤À¸¡. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.77. 0. Pittahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Rucya.35.64.97 (all grey).3.77.0. Appendix 4 per cent.2. Appendix 5 per cent. 0. 0.19. 0.19. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. of seeds. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. T.L.C. 41 .97 (all yellow) . RaktadoÀakara.2.2.58.2. Appendix 0.IDENTITY.5 per cent.2. 0. A¿mar¢. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .35.83.0.C. Raktapitta.D¡ha. 2. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M£trak¤cchra DOSE . 0. 0. (366 mm). Kaphakara.L.7.V. 0. 2.Oil & Sugars.3-6 g. Jvara.0. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.83. Gulma. V¡takara.58. 0.51. Tikta Guru. 0.

a large epiphytic climber.Shows more or less loosely arranged. greyish-brown with a dent. rough and scaly.Kidney-shaped.5 cm thick.4-0.0-3. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. 0. 0.18. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. brownish-grey. odour and taste not distinct.6 cm long. shiny. smooth. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .0-3. Araceae). surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. Gajapippali (Fr. Orissa. odour and taste not disticnt. cut surface has a central core.4 cm wide. (Fam. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal.0 cm in diameter and 2.3-0. thin-walled. Seed . 42 . b) Microscopic Fruit .

0. 2. V¡tahara. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.L. pitted and with concentric striations. 43 .7. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.Glucosides viz.2. 2.27. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.73 (both light brown) and 0. Ka¸ha Roga. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. non-lignified.Atis¡ra. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. T. 0. 0.73 and 0. 0.Seed . K¤miroga.6.C.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. Appendix T. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. 2.73 and 0.2. 0.V. CONSTITUENTS .27. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. IDENTITY.áiv¡gutik¡. 0. DOSE .65 and 0. Agnivardhaka.65. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. oval to polygonal.2.93 (brown). 2. thin-walled. thick-walled. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent.Shows a single layered. 2.65. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. Ka¸¶hya.2. 0. Punarnav¡sava. thick-walled. oval to polygonal.2-3 g. Three spots appear at Rf. Kaphahara.Dark brown. áv¡sa.65. 2-4 layered. oval to polygonal. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf.L.93 (all blue) are visible. Powder .4. THERAPEUTIC USES . Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Malavi¿oÀana. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains.20. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.C. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.5 per cent. 0.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.93 (all yellow). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. shows lignified.3. in extract (Phant) form. Stanya. Sugars & Fixed Oil. 0.

4-0. radially 44 . parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani.0 cm long. Shivani. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. ovoid.Seed ovate. parenchymatous cells. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. black. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. Seed .5-1 cm long.5-2. Hannu -Kumbil. tangentially elongated. sweetish sour. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. parenchymatous cells. fleshy mesocarp.) unarmed tree. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. surface smooth. Sr¢par¸¢. seed coat thin. light yellow.19. Verbenaceae). K¡¿marya. 0.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. cotyledons consisting of single layered.6 cm wide. multilayered. Seed . crinkled. thin-walled cells. taste. two seeded. papery. 0. 1.A drupe. oily. P¢takarohi¸¢. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. (Fam. sometimes one seeded. b) Microscopic Fruit . thin-walled. taste. Gambhari (Fr. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha.

0. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 0. KÀata.08.98 (yellow) in visible light.2. 0.03.22. KaÀ¡ya Guru. 2. Tartaric acid.C. Sara.03. 45 .L.42. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. T. Appendix 8 per cent.2. Pittahara. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Ras¡yana. shows stone cells. Powder . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.3.4 per cent. 0. 0.1-3 g.94 and 0. H¤droga. 0. oil globules and aleurone grains. Ke¿ya. Under U.2.Arvind¡sava. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. Rakta Pitta DOSE .Butyric acid.elongated epidermal cells. Appendix 2.C.2. Appendix 25 per cent.2.98 (all blue). 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.98 (all yellow). 0. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. Amla. H¤dya. IDENTITY. 0.18. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. Alkaloid. 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. V¡tahara. Medhya. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains.93 and 0.D¡ha. M£trak¤cchra. Resin and Saccharine.V.12. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. T¤À¸¡.4. 2. 0.98 (orange). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0.26.7.L. 2.Blackish-brown.6.52. KÀaya..

parenchymatous cells.) Aschers & Schwf. moderately large in size. light yellow. a shrub 0.Shows a wide cork. thick-walled. arranged in radial groups.Bk. external surface smooth. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. consisting of tangentially elongated.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. Syn. 1.0 m high. Grewia populifolia Vahl. blunt tips and moderately long in size. Gangeru (St. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen.20. a few stone cells. radially arranged cells. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . consisting of 12-20 layered. mucilaginous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. (Fam. Tiliaceae). a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. oval. thin-walled. fibrous. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.5-5 cm long. traversed by wide phloem rays. elliptical. 46 . parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. fibrous.. secondary cortex wide. fracture. rectangular. taste. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate.6-1. channelled.

64 (blue). of the drug in powder form. 0. 0. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10).Vra¸a. Appendix per cent.68 (light violet) & 0. 0. IDENTITY.41.35.55. Under U.2-3 g. 2.35 (both light yellow) in visible light.L. 0.27.L. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. Two spots are seen at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0.08 (violet). 0. Ka¶u. Appendix 2.2.J¢rak¡di Modaka. Tikta. Appendix per cent.C. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . 0.35 (dark blue). 0. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.13 (blue).29 (blue).2. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. Pittavik¡ra. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 2. 0.08. 0. 0.2.2. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.Light yellow and fibrous.Powder .88 (light violet). β-amyrin etc.17.88 (all yellow). CONSTITUENTS .35 (violet).6.61.55 (blue) & 0. 2. T.V.08 (blue) 0. α-amyrin.Sugar. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.3. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 0.68 & 0.48 (violet). 0. 0.4.17.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .27 (light violet). Amla. 0.2. 0. 47 .7.48.). 0.C.17 (light violet). 2.

cylindrical.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. Chonotee Ratti. Kundumani Guriginga. slightly corky. thinwalled. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. Kakananti Rati Kunch. Ghungchi Guluganji. tangentially elongated cells. bark thin. Gunja (Rt.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . when distinct. (Fam. taste. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. spreading throughout the plains. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. soft. gulagunja -Kunni. light brown. most often irregularly curved. becoming mildly bitter. flowering in August-September. fruits ripen during winter. composed of 1-2 cells wide. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. Chanothee. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. odourless. a climber.21. present at short intervals. some with brownish content. pitted walls. cork cambium. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. Gurivinda Ghongchi. exfoliating in small flakes. simple or branched. b) Microscopic Root . smaller than stone cells. feebly sweetish. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. Fabaceae).

Powder . CONSTITUENTS . stone cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. pitted walls.diverging towards periphery. small groups of sclerenchyma.75 µ in diameter. DOSE .1 .5 -13.2.6. Appendix 9 per cent. áula.7. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. Appendix 2.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). vessels of varying sizes with thick. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. shows fragments of cork. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. IDENTITY. Tikta á¢ta.5 per cent. 2. xylem vessels with pitted walls.2.5-13. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. Appendix 4 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. groups of sclerenchymatous cells.3. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. numerous xylem fibres. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. Mukha¿oÀa.Indralupta. 49 . Pittahara. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. thin-walled and rectangular. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. 2. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma.Greyish-brown. Appendix 2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.75 µ in diameter. 2.3 g.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region.2.2. parenchyma thin-walled. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. of the drug in powder form.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. wood composed of narrow concentric. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.2.

rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. Ikshu (St.) shrub. with. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. juicy and sweet. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. odour. smooth. Poaceae). 50 . besides the xylem and phloem elements. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. (Fam. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. distinct node and internode. closed type of vascular bundles. Serdi Ikha. solid. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. more numerous and closer towards periphery.22. conjoint. characteristic. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. b) Microscopic Stem . cylindrical. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. lignified. scattered throughout the ground tissue. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. taste.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. Appendix 2. Kaphahara.400 ml in the juice form.6. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. shows pieces of epidermis. ground tissue. Sara. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.Powder .2. 2.Powder light brick red. M£tra KÀaya. 2. V¤Àya. IDENTITY.200 .3. 2. DOSE .2. Pittahara. 2.2.Bal¡ Taila. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Appendix Not more than 2. Balya.Sucrose.5 per cent. vessels and sclerenchyma. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 51 .Raktapitta. V¡tahara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES .4.2.

thick walled. Bitter apple Indravaran. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. a few filled with dark brown contents. elongated with pointed ends. Tuntikai. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long.5 cm thick. Indrayanalata. dull yellow. Indravarana Gothakakucti. lying around vessels. xylem forms bulk of root.23. occurring throughout the country. parenchyma and medullary rays. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. parenchyma and medullary rays.2-2. Indramanoa. slightly twisted. Gav¡kÀ¢. thick-walled. Indravaruni (Rt. Tumbi Paikamatti. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. áatakratulat¡. b) Microscopic Root . cylindrical. consisting of vessels.5 µ in dia. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. parenchymatous cells. (Fam. 0. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. pitted. an annual or perennial. mostly simple or rarely 52 . Garukhiya Kaudatumma. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. taste. tangentially elongated cork cells. fracture. thin walled. fibres. Indrayan. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Valiya Pekkumatti. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. longitudinal fissures present. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. tangentially elongated.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. intensively bitter. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. Paythumatti. Havumakke. Indravaruni.5-7. Varithummati. short. composed of sieve elements. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad.) Cucurbitaceae). fibres aseptate.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

Jambu (Sd. coriaceous covering. astringent. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. taste. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. cuminii Druce. Myrtaceae). parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. 1 cm wide. a large evergreen tree. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Eugenia jambolana Lam. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. 1 cm long. 57 . thin-walled. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. smooth. brownish-black..Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. oval or roundish.. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.800 m.Brown coloured. Seed . Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu.25. rounded starch grains. E. oval. (Fam. b) Microscopic Powder .) Skeels Syn.

2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 58 .95 and 0. 0.C. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.30 and 0.2. T.Glycoside (Jamboline). 0. Appendix per cent. 0.C. Appendix per cent.30 and 0. Udakameha.Madhumeha.12. Kaphahara.95 (all violet). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.IDENTITY.V. Amla. Appendix 2. 2. of the drug in powder form.6. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. 0. DOSE . RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Tannin. 2. 2. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L.2. ViÀ¶ambhi. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.L.95 (all yellow).4.3.2.30 (blue).3-6 g. KaÀ¡ya Guru. three spots appear at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.7.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. 0.20. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. 2.2. Pittahara.20.

rough. stone cells. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Jamu.. Jambu (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. internal surface fibrous. lower cork thin and colourless. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones.Bk.) Skeels Syn. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. E. fracture. Jambuda Jomuna. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. Neralamara -Njaval. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. cork cambium not distinct. fibres aseptate. taste. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. Mahamaram. astringent. (Fam. Jamneralae.5-2. upper few layers thick.5 cm thick. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. and reddish brown.26. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1.800 m. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. short and splintery. cuminii Druce. stratified and reddish-brown. light grey to ash coloured. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Jam Jammu Naaval. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Jambu. oval to angular. elongated. younger bark mostly channelled.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. 0. forming a rhytidoma. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. and phloem rays. Navval Sambu. Raja Jambu Merale. Myrtaceae).) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. a large evergreen tree.

Raktapitta. 60 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .3. Pittahara. 2. stone cells.region.2. aseptate fibres. round to oval starch grains. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix per cent. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . round to oval starch grains.2. reddish-brown content. 2. of the drug for decoction. oval to angular.7. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. V¡tala.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. IDENTITY.2. DOSE .10-20 g. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. Appendix 2.4. elongated. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.Light brown.U¿¢r¡sava. Stambhaka.2.Atis¡ra.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.6. single or in groups. measuring 5-11µ in diameter.

consisting of a large endosperm. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. slightly bent at middle. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. b) Microscopic Seed . Neervalam. (Fam. kernel yellowish and oily. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Neervalam Jepal. oblong. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. thin-walled cells. found throughout tropical India. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal.) small evergreen tree. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. ovate. Nervala -Nervalam.27. dull cinnamon-brown. 61 . Japala. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. 5-7 m high. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. no marked odour. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Euphorbiaceae). kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. Tinti·¢phala. filled with brownish content. consisting of an epidermal layer. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. Jayapala (Sd. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated.Shows a hard testa. slightly quadrangular. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. Japal beej.

0.34. Appendix 0. 0.34 (grey). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.54 and 0. 0. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. of the drug in powder form.5 per cent.L. Appendix 15 per cent.10. Powder . T.54 (yellow).2.49. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.84 (all violet). On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0.39.6-12 mg. Vibandha DOSE . 0. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. 2.3. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY. 2.29. 0. 62 . Appendix 3 per cent.V. 2. CONSTITUENTS .White with black particles of testa.7.2.63 and 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. 0.L.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. 2.6. 0. 0.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. Udararoga. (366 nm) three spots at Rf. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Pittahara.84 (brown).90 (all yellow).Fixed oil.Jvara.C. Resins & Phorbol esters.4.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. Appendix 7 per cent.2.

mucronate to acuminate. present on both surfaces. parenchymatous cells.8 cm wide.7 layered round. oblong. pith small. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis .0-3. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. short lived shrub. leaflets 6-16 pairs. 7. consisting of thin-walled.3-0. Arishimajingai. 63 . jayata Arinintajinamgi. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings.shows single layered epidermis. 0.3 cm long. stomata anisocytic. 1. Jay¡. Jayanti (Lf. -Semp. Jayanti Jaita.) Merr. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. palisade single layered. aegyptiaca Pers. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. entire. Karijimangai. S. opposite. very shortly stalked.5 cm long. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. polygonal. Atti. Lamina .shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. Jalugu. glabrous.5-15. 1. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. a quick growing.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn.28. having secretory cavities in phloem. á£kÀma patra. paripinnate. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4.. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells.8-6 m high. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. linear. (Fam.Syn.

4. 0.48. 0. Pittahara. 64 . 2. Calcium and Phosphorus. IDENTITY. 0. Appendix per cent.97 (all yellow). 0. Appendix per cent.69. THERAPEUTIC USES .29.48.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 2. Galaga¸·a.L.29.3-6 g.19. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. 0. 2.56. 0. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Ratnagiri Rasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.19.11.2. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.05.M£trak¤cchra.11. Appendix 2. in powder form. 0. 2.25-4. palisade ratio 3. 0.11. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.C.2.19.91 and 0. palisade cells.37. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.97 (yellow). 0. Powder . stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. CONSTITUENTS .05. 0. 0. 0. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. T.7. 0.2. 0. 0. Ras¡yana.C. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.56. ViÀaroga.56 (all pink) and 0.97 (all grey). 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. V¡tahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent.29.2.3.L.6.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.05. 0. 0. 0.Dull green.91 and 0. shows spongy parenchyma.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.Protein. DOSE . 0.37. 0. Appendix per cent.V.2.

one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. Celastraceae). devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd.35 mm in breadth. Gangunge beeja.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. a large climbing shrub. collapsed. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. bitter. unpleasant. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. ripe seeds. seed without aril also prescent. light to dark brown.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. brownish-orange. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. colour. odour. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. Jyotishmati (Sd.29. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. Seed . mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. taste. Gangunge humpu. (Fam.5-3. surface generally smooth and. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2.hard. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari.

D¢pana. 0. Appendix 20 per cent. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. 2.Oily. UÀ¸a. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.L.35. 0. 0.94 (yellow). Virecaka. V¡tahara. Meddhya 66 .2. Under U. áirovirecanopaga.94 (yellow) in visible light.composed of polygonal. 2. Appendix 2. stone cells.82.C. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. CONSTITUENTS .L. 0. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. dark brown. Appendix 9 per cent. (all blue) & 0.8 IDENTITY.82. 2.Alkaloids.89 (both greenish blue).C. Kaphahara. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.5 per cent.89 (all yellow).35. 0. Powder .2. thin-walled. 0. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0.4. 2. 0.2.15. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. 0. 0.54. V¡maka. Oil and Tannins.2.54 (both blue). 0.V. 2.2.V.54.3. Appendix 6 per cent.6.82 (pink) & 0.82 & 0. Appendix 1.63.20. 0. Appendix 45 per cent.89.7. Tikta Sara.04. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.

67 . Oil : 5-15 drops. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Seed: 1-2 g.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Sm¤tidaurbalya.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V¡tavy¡dh¢. ávitra. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .

Bk. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. bitter. large tree. Kadappai. Rich. Rubiaceae). Kadamba (St. a few cells with brown contents. rectangular cells. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. elongated cells of phloem rays.. Vellai Kadambam. indicus A. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. composed of thin-walled. Vellaikhadambu. a deciduous. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. phloem composed of sieve tubes. taste. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Kadamba Kadamba. A. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Kadambu Needam. some cells contain chlorophyll.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. Kadam Kadam. Syn. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Indulam. 68 b) Microscopic . Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. Priyka Roghu. traversed by uni to triseriate. Kadavala. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. Kadamba mara.30. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Kadamba Nipo. (Fam.

4. cells distinct and slightly elongated.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. V¡tahara.Brown. 0. phloem cells.2. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.83 and 0. Appendix 5 per cent.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. shows fragments of cork cells. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.C. 0. 0. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. fibres.6. 0. 0. Appendix 1.79 (grey) and 0.5 per cent. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. DOSE .phloem fibres. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. THERAPEUTIC USES .90 (grey).5 . cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. 2. 0. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.13. 0. Vra¸aropa¸a.2.31. Raktapitta. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. YonidoÀa.79. CONSTITUENTS .2. 2. Powder . L C. Lava¸a.3.D¡ha.L.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. Vra¸a.2.5:10) shows under U. Appendix 9 per cent. 2.57. 0. of the drug in powder form. 0. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .03. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. 0.7. Appendix 3 per cent. Steroids.5 g.2.64. 0.70 (orange yellow).Alkaloids. T.0.1. Appendix 2.63 (yellowish grey). phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.21. 2. 69 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13.

glabrous or pubescent. (Fam.31. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. green. slender. thin. style cylindric. Kakamachi (W. a herbaceous annual weed. ganike. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi.) Solanaceae). white or pale violet. glabrous.Small. five lobed. found throughout the country in dry parts. petiolate. sub-umbellate. slightly woody and branched. extra-axillary. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. quite common in cultivated lands. toothed or lobed. Pikachia. Ganikegida. obtuse notched at apex. oblong. Stem . flattened.Erect. externally smooth. bark thin. Flower . Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. 30-45 cm high.Simple. Manitakkali.5-8. hairy in lower part. calyx 2-3 mm long. 1.5 cm long and 2. obtuse. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Leaf . oblong. Manaththakkali. 70 . narrowed at both ends. pale brown. hairy at base. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. ovary globose. glabrous. Ganikesopu. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5 cm wide. filaments short. peduncles 6-20 mm long. ovate or oblong.2-2. 3-8 flowered cymes.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots.5 mm long.25 mm long. Manatakkali. 2. anther 1. yellowish. sinuate. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. road sides and gardens.P. very slender. corolla 4-8 mm long. pedicels 6-10 mm long.

xylem rays homogenous. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces.5-11 µ in dia. Midrib . a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. internal phloem. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. minutely pitted. covered with thick. tangentially elongated. cambium 2-4 layered.5-8. obtuse. pith large. but 4.. parenchyma 4-6 layered. covering trichomes. starch grains. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. conjoint and open. embedded in perimedullary zones.25 µ in dia. slightly striated cuticle. measuring 2. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. single or with two or rarely 3 components. yellow. 1.. uniseriate. usually accompanied by fibres. yellow or black. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. Stem . slightly elongated. uniseriate. phloem rays uniseriate. endoderrnis single layered. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. composed of thin-walled. 6mm in dia. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. phloem consists of thin-walled.' oval parenchymatous cells. covered with striated cuticle. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. LeafPetiole . bicollateral. filled with starch grains. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered.Shows single layered. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. vascular bundles-collateral. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. central vascular bundle shallow. radially elongated cells. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4.Discoid.A berry. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. measuring 2. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. oval to round starch grains. trichomes multicellular. epidermis single layered.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. compactly arranged. arc71 . uniseriate. arcshaped. rays composed of thin-walled. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls.5 mm in dia. covered with striated cuticle. in small or large patches.Fruit . polygonal cells.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls.10 layered in angular parts. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. smooth. cortex of large.. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. smooth shining Seed .

4. palisade single layered.2. Powder . spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces.6. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.V.11 µ in diameter.3.2. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. epidermis with irregular outline. Fruit . Lamina . CONSTITUENTS .2. measuring 2. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. 2.06 & 0. IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. 0. vein islet number 7-10. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 2.2.Creamish-green. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.06 & 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. single.C. 2. unicellular hairs. 034 and 0.34 (both brown) in visible light.7.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. Appendix per cent. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. a few broken pieces of pointed.C. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 72 .dorsiventral. 0.2. Appendix 2.97 (all yellow).5 .Shows thin. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. Under U. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. papery epicarp. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. T. present beneath palisade parenchyma. 2.Alkaloids and Saponins. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present.34 (both pink).L.2.L. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. Appendix per cent.06. palisade ratio 2-4. stomata anisocytic.

Ar¿a. Chardi. V¡tahara. Prameha.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Pittahara. Tikta Laghu. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. Jvara. KuÀ¶ha. DOSE .áotha. Svarya.5 -10 ml. H¤droga. Hikk¡. of the drug in juice form. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Sara. Ras¡yana. H¤dya. Netraroga.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 73 . V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ka¸·u. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.

1. Venthamara. yellowish-brown. a large. Kamala (Fl. extended into clavate appendages. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. 74 .) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Thamaraipoo. broken pieces also occur. Tavare.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. linear 1. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Kamalam. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. comprising of calyx. black. petals numerous. anther. Kalh¡ra. Nelumbium speciosum Willd.32. dark brown. aquatic herb with creeping stem.. membranous. Syn. Kanwal Kamal. finely veined. 1. Nymphaeaceae). Sarojam Kaluva. Padma. free. elliptic. Aravinda.3-2 cm wide. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Paduman. gynoceium apocarpous. carpels many. Aravindan. embedded in a creamy. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. crimp led. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. erect. androecium. Naidile. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. crimpled. corolla. starchy and large. 2-4 cm long. Sitopala. seed hard.5-3 cm wide. sepals leaf-like. Chenthamara. obtuse. Pamposh Tamarai. gynoecium and thalamus. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Kamal. Tavaregedd -Tamara. 3-5 cm long. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. (Fam.4-2 cm long.

Aravind¡sava. parenchymatous cells. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. ViÀavik¡ra. Pittahara. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .7. Anther .3. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. having smooth exine and intine. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. IDENTITY.2. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter.Alkaloid (Nelumbine).Raktapitta. rectangular. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. angular. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.shows four chambered anther. Appendix 2. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. Appendix per cent. Visarpa.Dusty brown.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . parenchymatous cell. spherical. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. DOSE . Appendix per cent. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. 2. 2. composed of thin-walled.2.2. . Tikta. Stamen Filament . spore sac contains yellow.2. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.2. two on either sides. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. Appendix per cent.6. M£tra Virajan¢ya. vascular bundle single. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . columnar.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. of the drug for decoction. 2.2. Sant¡pahara.filament appears circular in outline.12 -24 g.4. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. followed by ground tissue of oval. 2. yellow pollen grains.

76 . measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. semicircular. Haminamara -Vilar maram.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. stone cells.shows irregular. Kapittha (Fr. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. aromatic. a deciduous. often cultivated in many parts of India. Rutaceae). with concentric striations and narrow lumen. reddish brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. found throughout the plains of India. Belada hannu.Reddish-brown. Powder . Belalu.) Swingle. Pulp. thin-walled. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. sharp. axillary thorns. parenchymatous cells. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. taste. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. Bilvara. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. rough. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . sour.33. stone cells. odour. found in groups. Siwalik range and forests. glabrous tree with strong. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Balada. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. elephantum Correa (Faro. straight. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Kavataleal. F. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. hard. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. slightly triangular and oval. Syn.

06. DOSE . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Pittav¡tahara.V. T.7. 0. 0.91 and 0. 6.C.12 (brown). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. 0.2. 2. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. CONSTITUENTS . Unripe Pulp: Amla. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.áv¡sa. 2. Gr¡h¢.2. Agnim¡ndya. Hikk¡.12. Sangr¡h¢.2.2. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form. 0. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. Amla.95 (blue).50 (violet).3. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.IDENTITY. V¡mi. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.L.4.91 (violet) and 0. Under U. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.L. 0. 0. KaÀ¡ya. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. 0.91 (blue) and 0.37. THERAPEUTIC USES .14 (sky blue).6. Vra¸an¡¿aka.91 (grey) in visible light. Lekhana.Citric acid and Mucilage. 0.50.95 (violet) . Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.95 (all yellow). V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.1-3 g. Ripe-T¤À¡.2. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.C. Appendix per cent. 0.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.37 (brown).2. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. 77 . Appendix per cent.

secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. b) Microscopic Powder . simple and compound starch grains.Bk. and compound having 2-3 components. starch grains simple. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. flat or slightly curved pieces. internal surface grey and smooth. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. met throughout India in wild state. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. rough due to longitudinal striations.Greyish-brown. tubular.34. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam . sometimes cultivated. light in weight. measuring 3-7 µ in dia.) Apocynaceae). measuring 3-7 µ in dia. short. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. 78 . external surface brownish-grey. Karamarda (St. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. fracture. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. shows single and groups of stone cells.

0. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.58 (both light grey).C. of the drug for decoction. THERAPEUTIC USES . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.IDENTITY.C.2. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. T. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. 2. 0.48 g.L.2. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.4.7.2. 0.97 (violet).2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.3.35.KuÀthahara. 79 .Marma Gu¶¢k¡.2. Appendix per cent. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. 2.V.6.52 (light sky blue). Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. 2. DOSE . Pittakara.L. 0.90 (pink) and 0.

b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. Syn. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. Nakt¡hv¡. internally. Karanja (Rt.35. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.) Merr.. secondary phloem very wide. most of phloem 80 . tangentially elongated. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. cells. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. tangentially elongated cells. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam. Naktam¡la.. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. a glabrous tree. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. fracture. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. fibrous. very bitter. due to peeling off. external surface rough. Bk. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. traversed by phloem rays. single cells of varying shape and size. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. Fabaceae). 3-11 µ in dia. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels.) glabra Vent. taste. P.

6.08 (greenish blue).Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.2. consisting of thin-walled. 0. T. shows thin-walled. most of ray cells contain starch grain. Yoniroga.80 (light blue). 1-2 seriate. 0. 0. phloem rays many. V¡tahara.K¤miroga. 81 .1-3 g.L.2.5 per cent. of the drug for decoction.2.18. 2. Appendix 11 per cent.80 and 0. 0. Appendix 2 per cent. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.47.51 (light blue). KuÀtha. 0. 2. Ëntravidradhi.L.V.2. cork cells. DOSE . 0. 0. parenchymatous cells.31 (sky blue). Appendix 17 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Powder -Creamish-yellow.2. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0.47 (greenish yellow). Ka¸·u. DuÀ¶avra¸a.47.3.98 (all yellow). Ka¸·£ghna. 0. 0. Appendix 2. 0.13 (Sky blue).31.04 (blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0.2.37 (greenish yellow).4. THERAPEUTIC USES .C. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. ViÀaghma.37. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf.Flavones Kanugin. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. Pittahara. 0. Appendix 3.7.25 (sky blue). Tikta. 0.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.18 (blue) 0.C. 0. 2.09.51. CONSTITUENTS . Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Prameha. phloem fibres. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. mostly straight. 0. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.42 (sky blue). IDENTITY. 2.

Nakt¡hv¡. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.) Vent. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. bitter. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. 3-11 µ in dia. thin-walled. fracture. rough due to the presence of numerous. bark. tangentially elongated. irregularly distributed. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Fabaceae). reddish-brown or dull brown. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. 1-2 seriate. (Fam.. rounded to oval in shape. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. consisting of 82 . Karanja (Rt.. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. bark does not easily separate from xylem. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. internally light yellow.) Merr. Syn. light in weight. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. a glabrous tree. tangentially elongated cells. cells. secondary phloem a very wide zone. taste. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.36. P. Karaµjaka. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.

Appendix per cent.Methylfisetin. fibres and parenchyma. shows fibres in singles or groups. V¡tahara. Powder -Light yellow. K¤miroga. 2. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays.2. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Pittahara. thin-waned cells towards inner region.DuÀ¶avra¸a. tracheids. Yoniroga. Vra¸a¿odhana. Appendix 2.6. Kanugin.2.Karanjin. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Prameha. rounded to oval in shape. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. Appendix per cent. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. Ka¸·£. Appendix per cent. Ëntravidradh¢. more. 2. 83 . xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. KuÀ¶ha. ViÀaghna. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. tangentially elongated towards outer region. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. Demethoxy-kanugin. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings.1-2 g.. 2. starch grains.2.3. of the drug in powder form. DOSE .7.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.4. 2. IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS . secondary xylem consisting of vessels. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Tikta.2. consisting of 2-3 components. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.2. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .radially elongated. Vidradh¢.

thick-walled cells. Nakt¡hv¡. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. unpleasant.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. slightly quilled. fibre small. b) Microscopic Bark .2-1 cm thick. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. (Fam. a glabrous tree. taste. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. P. filled with reddish-brown content. phloem parenchyma. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu.) Merr. recurved. more or less smooth. Karanja. Syn. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. phloem fibre and stone cells. short and fibrous. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Karanja (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. usually 0.37. arranged in a tangential manner. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. forming a continuous or discontinuous band.. at some places lenticels also appear. lenticellate pieces. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. bitter. fracture.) glabra Vent. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. tangentially elongated. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. thin-walled. odour. Fabaceae). 84 . composed of rectangular. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.Bk. traversed by medullary rays. Karaµjaka. parenchymatous cells. alternating with stone cells.

2. Demethoxy- kanugin. rounded to oval. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. 2. 3" 7 : 8). Powder -Yellowish-cream. 85 . Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. IDENTITY. Ëntravidradh¢. aseptate fibre and stone cells.2. 2.6.1-2 g. Appendix 13 per cent. Pittahara. starch grains simple.2. present in secondary cortex. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. Appendix 18 per cent. of the drug in powder form. Vidradh¢. thin-walled and aseptate. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. elongated. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. Ka¸·u.2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. V¡tahara. oil globules. Pongapin. Tikta.4. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.5 per cent. K¤miroga. Pinnatin. Yoniroga DOSE . medullary rays wavy.7. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. CONSTITUENTS . oil globules found in secondary phloem only.2.DuÀ¶avra¸a.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. Prameha. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. simple and compound starch grains. usually 2-4 cells wide.3. Appendix 3 per cent. Kanugin. and rarely. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". Gamatin. Appendix 1. 2. ViÀaghma. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal.2.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Kaphahara. Ka¶u. 3".. 5Methoxyfurano (2".polygonal.

6. dark green.2 .9-8. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Syn. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. (Fam. Karaµjaka. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. epidermis single layered. Ungu. consistig of tabular cells. 86 . xylem vessels arranged radially. a glabrous tree. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Pongana Ganuga. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . leaflets 2-3 pairs.circular in outline. consisting of xylem and phloem. cortex consisting of angular.) Merr. arcshaped. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. Karanja (Lf.) Vent. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. isodiametric.3 cm wide. traversed by xylem rays.11.5 cm long and 3. Kanajo Karuaini. Nakt¡hv¡.8 cm. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate..38. Fabaceae). 0. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Hulagilu -Pungu. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. covered with cuticle. Karanja. petiolule short.5-0. vascular bundle single. P. Dithouri Honge. Unu.

prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.5) . vascular bundle.2. CONSTITUENTS .7. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.shows single layered epidermis. present in lower surface.2. V¡tahara. palisade two layered. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. stomatal index 12.3. . mesophyll cells. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. covered with thick cuticle. Ka¸·ughna. 2.6. 5".2. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.2. cortex consists of round to oval. Ka¶u.5".2. palisade ratio 3. 2.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". Appendix 2. Powder -Green.5-20. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". Appendix 10 per cent.6.2. Pittavardhaka. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. 2. Appendix 11 per cent. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. Appendix 3.6.(4".6.A new Furanoflavone -3' . shows spiral xylem vessels. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. 2. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. collateral. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring.Mid rib . Kaphahara. 7) -flavone. K¤imihara. Tikta. consisting of tabular cells. stomata anisocytic.4. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.5-50. Appendix 16 per cent. phloem and pith. 5" .methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.

THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . 88 . Ka¸·au. Vra¸a.J¡ty¡di Taila.For external use only.K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha.

(Fam.5 per cent. Appendix 2. 3 valved at the apex when mature.7.2. surface rough. Appendix 28 per cent. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation.Fr.3. Appendix 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. K¡ravall¢.2.2. Kakiral. IDENTITY.2.6 per cent. fusiform.6. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. Varivall¢. extremely bitter. Nil Appendix 8.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . 2.) Cucurbitaceae).4. taste. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.2. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. Karavallaka (Fresh. upto an altitude of 1500 m. 2. oblong.5 . 2. Kathilla. usually pointed or beaked. pendulous. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.39. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds.25 cm long. Appendix 6 per cent. 2.

Prameha. juice of fresh drug. K¤miroga. 0.46.C.áv¡sa. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U.03.T. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. K¡mal¡. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .15 ml. 0. 0.10 . Aruci.81 and 0. 0. 0. KuÀ¶ha. 0.V. DOSE . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.L. Kaphahara.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. CONSTITUENTS . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. 0. 0.50.67 and 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .61 (light sky blue). T. H¤dya. Jvara.75. 0. Raktavik¡ra. P¡¸·u.L. D¢pana.96 (sky blue).C.98 (red & sky blue). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.43.34. 90 . 0. 0.16.98 (all yellow).98 (all blue).17. 0. K¡sa. V¡tahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.23 (red).60.

(Fam. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. short.1 cm in diameter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. short. Katki. odour. cork cambium 1-2 layered. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Katuka (Rz. suberised cells. externally greyish-brown. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. Root . Rohi¸¢. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini.Thin. cylindrical. 5-10 cm long.40. fracture. taste. Kav¢. cortex single layered or absent.2. odour. a perennial. bitter. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. kaur Katuka rohini. bitter.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Rhizome .5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. fracture. inner surface black with whitish xylem. Katuka rohini Kutki. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Tiktarohi¸¢. subcylindrical. Kaurohi¸¢. . mostly attached with rhizomes. straight or slightly curved. Scrophulariaceae).05-0. Katuku rohini. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . pleasant. pleasant. Kauka.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. dusty grey. Sutiktaka. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. 0. taste. primary cortex persists 91 . at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex.

0. cortex 8-14 layered. vessels have varying shape and size.05 (blue). parenchyma and fibres. 0. 0. 0.30. tracheids.10. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. thick-walled. 0.72 and 0. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape.41. 0.2.17. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres.2. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. thick-walled. Appendix per cent.62. 0. 0. starch grains. parenchymatous cells. simple round to oval.30.3. tracheids. fibres aseptate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. some cylindrical with taillike.2. 0. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. Appendix per cent.C. tapering ends. simple round to oval.2. Powder .2.L. consisting of oval to polygonal. 0. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation.10.37.17.21. hypodermis single layered. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. cambium 2-4 layered.84 (all yellow).7. lignified. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls.35 (green). measuring 25-104 µ in dia. measuring 25 .2. parenchyma. Appendix per cent.84 (all brownish grey). secondary phloem poorly developed. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. 92 . thick-walled. Appendix per cent. abundantly found in all cells.C. Appendix 2. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. 0.05. thick-walled. 0. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. secondary xylem consists of vessels. 0. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. 2. tracheids long. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered.L. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. 0.6. starch grains. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. thick-walled cells of endodermis. 2. 0. IDENTITY.41 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. T.in some cases. 2.Dusty grey.V.30 (blue) and 0..21. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf.4. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. 0.104 µ in diameter.

93 . Pittahara. K¡mal¡. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. Jvara. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. ViÀamajvara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. KuÀ¶ha.Glucoside (Picrorhizin).1 .CONSTITUENTS . D¢pan¢. Arocaka.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . D¡ha.3 g. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. DOSE .áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. Bhedin¢.

Hygrophila spinosa T. widely 2 lipped. corolla 3. Syn. all linear-lanceolate.Yellowish-brown. stout.6 cm long.2 cm long. lanceolate. externally greyish-brown.Acanthaceae).3 cm long. sub-quadrangular. Culli. no characteristic odour and taste. subsessile. Stem . broader than the other three.Mostly adventitious. Kettu. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. upper sepal 1. no characteristic odour and taste. IkÀuraka. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. Kolarind. acute. abruptly swollen at top. entire and hairy. a spiny. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. Leaf . Kalsunda --Golmidi. swollen at nodes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura.5 cm long. didynamous. calyx 4-partite.P. common in water logged places throughout the country. Kokilaksha (W.6-2 cm long. fasciculate. Nirguvireru. 0.Anders (Fam.Usually unbranched. Nirchulli. which are 1.41.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. stamens 4. annual herb. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara.5-1 cm wide. whitish to brown. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. Flower . 1-7 cm long. with long white hairs. tube 1. second pair 94 . usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. Vayalculli Talikhana.Greenish-brown. Kolavankal ---. bracts about 2.

15 cm wide. flat or compressed. thin-walled. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. light brown. style filiform. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. where these cells are mostly radially elongated.25 cm long and 0. round. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. moderately thick-walled. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips.1 . radially arranged. single or in groups of 2-3.2-0. scattered throughout the phloem region.Ovate. 4seeded. fibres thick-walled. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. radially elongated in xylem region. subequal. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. stigma simple. vessels angular. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. consisting of round to polygonal cells. with a number of large air cavities. variable in size. cortical cells thin-walled. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. brownish cells. having small intercellular spaces. composed of polygonal. hairy but appearing smooth. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. Stem . medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. compressed. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. peripheral ones larger. pubescent. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. anthers two celled. polygonal cells. inner cells smaller. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. ray cells thin-walled. xylem present in a ring. glabrous. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. Seed . arranged radially. radially elongated in secondary xylem. involute with a fissure on upper side.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline.0. pointed. fibre walls uniformly thickened. composed of transversely elongate. rectangular to cubical. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres.Two celled. thin-walled cells. capsule about 0. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. filament quite glabrous. b) Microscopic Root . phloem narrow. endodermis single layered. 0. oblong.larger. truncate at the base. phloem fibres thick-walled. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. vessels with spiral thickenings. pith large. ray cells thin walled. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. Fruit . linear-oblong. broader towards centre. 95 . a few thick-walled.8 cm long. arranged in radial rows.

lignified. palisade ratio 6.LeafMidrib . Amla. thin-walled.24-30. Appendix per cent. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. 2.4. Lamina . elongated fibres. palisade. 2. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . composed of thin-walled.2. V¤Àya. parenchymatous.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Appendix per cent. Powder .Light brown. tangentially elongated cells. stomatal index 17. collenchyma 2-5 layered. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. thick-walled. Appendix per cent. palisade 1-2 layered. Tikta Picchila. IDENTITY. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. parenchymatous cells. covered with thick cuticle.78. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.3. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. oval to hexagonal. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.75.2. unicellular hairs and globules.6. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. Fruit .Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces.2. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. Rucya. shows aseptate. sclerenchymatous cells. V¡jikara. M£trala. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.25-15. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix 2. . spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered.2. Seed . vein islet number 17-42. 2.2.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered.2. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.Shows concavo-convex outline. Appendix per cent.7.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. stomata diacytic.

97 . DOSE .3 -6 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tarakta.T¤À¸¡.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). Ëmav¡ta áotha.

a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli.42. slightly transversely elongated. Kolavulike. thin-walled. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. whitish to brownish. polygonal cells. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. 98 . annual herb. Culli --. the size of these cells. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. consisting of small. Kokilaksha (Rt. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. a spiny. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex.Acanthaceae). secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. no characteristic odour and taste. Root-Appears circular in outline. common in water logged places throughout the country. stout. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. branches on nodes. thinwalled cells. secondary phloem narrow. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. Hygrophila spinosa T. Syn. Kokil¡kÀ¢. Nerugobbi. Anders (Fam. IkÀuraka.

fibre walls uniformly thickened.2. Amla. 2. 99 . rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. Pittatis¡ra DOSE .3 -6 g. ray cells thin-walled.7.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. V¡tarakta. Powder . secondary xylem forms continuous ring.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. having spiral thickening. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Tikta Picchila.2. Appendix 2. angular. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. 2. each group composed of 2-6 cells. scattered throughout the phloem region. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. Appendix per cent. broader towards centre.Ëmav¡ta áotha. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. V¡tahara.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. 2. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex.4. of the drug for decoction. shows fragments of pitted. A¿ma¤¢.Light brown to ash coloured. radially elongated in the xylem region.2.2.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Appendix per cent.6. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. vessels with spiral thickening.2. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. M£trala. Appendix per cent. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows.2. lignified fibres.

43.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. thinwalled. hairy but appearing smooth. b) Microscopic Seed . Daruhaldi Daruhaladi.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. white. flat or compressed. a spiny. Hygrophila spinosa T. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura.8 -10. oil globules present in this region. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Swelling Index . Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. annual herb. Maradarishina -Maramannal. taste. Acanthaceae). stout. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. Anders. Syn. Maradarishana. the 100 . parenchymatous cells. common in water logged places throughout the country. light yellowish-brown. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. shows hairs and oil globules.Greyish-brown. truncate at the base. IkÀuraka. Powder . Kokilaksha (Sd. Daruhuladur Darhald. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. (Fam.

10 (light brown). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.17 (light brown).4. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Protease and an Alkaloid. DOSE . 2. 0. 0.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 101 . 0. Pitt¡¿mar¢.55 (light blue).24.C. CONSTITUENTS .2. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. 0. Santarpa¸a.38.93 (sky blue).24 (dark brown). 0. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. Add 25 ml of water. 0.C. 2. 0.24 (red). and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. related to 1 g of seeds. V¡tarakta.72 (all yellow). IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. 2.áotha. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. 0. including any sticky mucilage. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. 0.38 (light brown).2.6. V¤Àya.52 and 0. 0.31 (dark brown). T.41 (light blue).31. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.. enzymes like Diastase. 0. 0.An yellow semi-drying oil.2. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .3. 0.L. 0. of the drug in powder form. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. Lipase.03.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.2.V.72 (dark brown).52 (dark brown) and 0.17.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. 0.3 -6 g.L.03 (light brown). 0.76 (sky blue) and 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.

Simple. characteristic. Doddagoni Soppu. Pulikkirai. oblong. bright yellow.1 to 0. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Chhotalunia.5 cm long and 0.6 cm wide. short.P) Portulacaceae). fracture. oblique. Khurfa. 0. an annual succulent. sepal 0. secondary roots. Stem . 50 cm long. found throughout the country. short. Payilikura. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn.44. Kozhuppa. prostrate herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. Kwfa Pasalai. Loni. cuneiform. root hairs abundant in upper region. very delicate and soon falling off. stamens 8-12. Badanuni. Leaf . 3-4 leaves. Flower . Lonika. Loni -Koricchira. subtended by an involucre. Loni.5 cm long.A few. ribbed. 102 .35-0. Common Indian Purslane Luni. at terminal heads. smooth and greenish-brown.3 cm long. less in number. -Baraloniya. spathulate.Cylindrical.2 cm in diameter. sub-sessile. Kozuppa. odour. Fruit . Kozuppaccira Kurfah. Moti Luni Khursa. Peddapavila Kura. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas.4 cm long.4 cm long. Gho¶ik¡. 0.1 to 0. Kozhuppu Pappukura. rounded and truncate at the apex. 0. surface smooth.25-0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . petals obovate. small. Paruppukkeerai. dehiscing above the base. 0.An ovoid capsule. Baranunia Garden Purslane.Almost cylindrical. branched. Badi Lona Dudagorai. style 5-6 fid.3 to 2. fracture. swollen at the nodes. Kuzuppa (W. (Fam. Ghola -Lonak. 0. Kulfa. brownish-grey.

simple as well as compound. Appendix per cent. having intercellular spaces. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. as well as compound. oval. dark brown. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex.06-0. 2.07 cm across. Lamina .4.Greyish-brown. Appendix per cent. ray cells and pith. minute. 2. Appendix 2.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. secondary xylem composed of vessels.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. IDENTITY. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening.3. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. thick-walled with wide lumen. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. tracheids and parenchyma. arranged in radial rows.7. reniform. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. solitary or in groups of 2-5. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells. pitted and spiral vessels. 0. palisade single layered. having 2-3 components. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. Appendix per cent. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. tracheids and parenchyma. pericycle fibre present in patches.2.6.. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. black. LeafMidrib . measuring 6-14 µ . present in mesophyll cells. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. secondary xylem consists of vessels. . xylem parenchyma and ray cells. phloem. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. vessels. Stem . phloem and xylem parenchyma. tracheids. Powder . parenchyma abundant. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. 2. parenchymatous cells. stomata paracytic type. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. having simple pits and spiral thickening. shows groups of oval to polygonal. Appendix per cent.2.2. fragments of cork cells.Wavy in outline. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled.2. oval cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. thin-walled.Seed -Numerous. 2.2.2. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. covered externally with a thick cuticle. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled.

On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. of the drug in powder form.41.L. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L.76 (green) in visible light.10. RukÀa.Agnim¡ndya. (both green). CakÀuÀya. 104 . Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.T. 0.61. 0. Pittakara. 0.76 (all pinkish red). Vra¸a DOSE . Carbohydrates. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.52. 0. T.. 0.50. 0.C. Prameha.V.10.3 .68 (yellow) and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . 0. V¡tahara. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.6 g.10.76 and 0. áotha. 0.08. 0. Gulma.41.52 (both faint green). 0.08. THERAPEUTIC USES .68 and 0. Under U. Ar¿a.68. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.C.Marma Gu¶ik¡.Protein.

petiolate. woody. 0.6-1.P) diffused undershrub. taste. hairy pinnae. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sessile. Machikegida. odour.Cylindrical. Leaf . Var¡kr¡nt¡. alternate.week bristles longitudinally grooved. fracture hard. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. (Fam.3-0. Lajauni Muttidasenui. obliquely rounded at base. distinct. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. bark fibrous. Fabaceae). stipulate. internal cut surface grey. slightly astringent. with secondary and tertiary branches. external surface light brown.Cylindrical. greyish brown to brown.45. yellowish-green. 25-50 cm high. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. sparsely prickly. rependant . Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. Stem . leaflets 10-20 pairs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. 105 . bark fibrous. Adamalati Lajaka.2 cm long. upto 2. 0.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. covered with long. varying in length. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. sensitive to touch. linear lanceolate. tapering. Lajavanti. Lajamani Chhuimui.5 cm in dia. acute. nearly glabrous. upto 2 cm thick. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled.4 cm broad. Lajjalu (W. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. easily separable from wood.

tangentially elongated to oval. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. fibres. Stem . straw coloured. respectively. arranged in tangential bands. filled with reddish-brown contents. crystal fibres elongated. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. brown to grey. xylem rays radially elongated. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. glabrous.Flower .3 cm long. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. 0. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. 3-25 chambered. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. rarely multiseriate. fibres of two types. 0. phloem fibres single or in groups. scattered throughout. 2-3 seriate more common. ovules numerous. secondary cortex wide. oval-elliptic. 1-1. crystal fibres thick-walled. ovate oblong. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. Seed . 0. lobes 4. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate.6 cm long. ovary sessile. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. tangentially elongated cells.3 long. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. thick-walled.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. radially elongated. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. thick-walled. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. parenchyma. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. starch grains. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. much exserted.Lomentum. calyx very small.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. moderately thick-walled. fibres single or in groups. 2.Pink. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. Fruit .Compressed. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. phloem rays thick-walled.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. scattered throughout secondary xylem.4-0. in globose head. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. dry. spreading bristle at sutures. thick-walled. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. b) Microscopic Root . consisting of large. peduncles prickly. stamens 4. 106 . corolla pink. simple. a number of lignified. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. pith consisting of polygonal.

Appendix per cent. spongy parenchyma single layered. shows. 2. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells.Reddish-brown. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . pericycle same as in petiole.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular.81 (bluish-pink).62.2. branched. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix per cent. lignified cells followed by single layered. endocarp of thick-walled. pericycle arranged in a ring. measuring 6-25 µ in dia.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.V.C. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. thin-walled. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf.Leaf- Petiole . followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. embryo straight with short and thick radicle.3 components IDENTITY. parenchymatous cells.L. covered with thin-cuticle.69 (all blue) and 0.2. T. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. Appendix per cent. spongy parenchyma. parenchymatous cells Seed . shaggy hairs. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. pitted vessels. vascular bundle single. 0. single and compound starch grains.6. fibres. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. shaggy hairs. with 2 . 0. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells.2. Appendix per cent.35. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. Powder . Midrib . reticulate.L. branched. crystal fibres. Appendix 2. parenchymatous cells. Lamina .Shows single layered radially elongated cells.shows single layered epidermis.2.2. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. palisade single layered. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. palisade cells non glandular. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. 2.3. 0.4. one in each wing.7.2. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. Fruit .shows epidermis on both surfaces.C.

THERAPEUTIC USES . Atis¡ra. áv¡sa. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .35 (orange).áopha.35 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 108 .94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. Ku¶aj¡valeha. Vra¸a. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. KuÀ¶ha. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. D¡ha.spots appear at Rf. Raktapita DOSE .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. Kaphahara. 0.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Yoniroga. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.

corolla fleshy. anther sub-sessile. Syn.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J.Gmel. and also cultivated. sweet. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells.5-2 cm long. epipetalous.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Hippenara. Ippa. a few 109 . lanceolate. Madhuka (Fl.F. (Fam. taste. Androecium . Hippe. Eppimara -Irippa. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. tabular. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). reddish-brown. basifixed. followed by thin-walled. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Iluppa. Madhuka. Mahawash tree Mahudo. epipetalous and arranged in two series. Sapotaceae) . vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. ovate lanceolate.) Macbride. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Kattu Iluppai. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. b) Microscopic Corolla . Halippe. latifolia (Roxb. Mahua Katiluppai. short.46. M. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). erect 0. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Ilippa.

with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. 2. 110 . Ah¤dya.2. spherical. 2.15 g. unicellular hairs.7. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.2. lignified cells.Madh£k¡sava. THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. Appendix 0. of the drug. Pittakara. árama DOSE .Dark brown.2. V¡tahara.4. áramahara. Appendix 2.5 per cent. Appendix 25 per cent.áv¡sa. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. oval shaped.2. Appendix 70 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS .6. Balya. 2.unicellular hairs present on one side. shows fragments of epidermal cells. 2. T¤À¸¡.2.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. KÀaya. D¡ha. El¡di Modaka.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. endothecium composed of radially elongated.2.10 . pollen grains single or in groups.2. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent. KÀata. round. tapetum not distinct.

mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. or elliptic. sessile.. no characteristic odour and taste. Matsy¡duni. bracteoles 111 . numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets.1-0. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . (Fam.1. A. Br. Syn. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. internodes 0.5-5 cm long.47. Bahli. no characteristic odour and taste. A.. Gandal¢.5 cm long. obtuse or subacute. A. white often tinged with pink. with spreading branches from the base.3-2 cm wide. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.5 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. non Link.) R.P. short.. nodes and internodes distinct. A. fracture. Br. no characteristic odour and taste. cream to grey. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. 2. Flower . weak. linear-oblong. 0. yellowish-brown to light-brown. nodiflora R. repens Gmel.Herbaceous. Br. Leaf .. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds.3-7. fracture.6 cm diameter. short. Matshyakshi (W. 0. Amaranthaceae). Stem . often rooting at lower nodes..Flower in small axillary sessile heads. triandra Lam.Cylindrical. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. denticulata R.

Fruit . ovate. with anomalous secondary growth. palisade ratio 3-5. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. capitellate. composed of thin-walled. thin-walled round or oval. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. covered wtith striated cuticle. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. isodiametric. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. stomata paracytic.5 mm long. pith consisting of thin-walled. shows wavy or undulate. vascular bundles three.Utricle. sepals ovate. no characteristic odour and taste.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. 1. numerous. acute. secondary cortex narrow. parenchymatous cells.2 cm long. 112 . compressed. Stem . thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. open and exarch. isodiametic cells. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. each consisting of xylem and phloem. bicollateral. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. parenchymatous cells.5-3 mm long. parenchymatous cells. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. thin-walled. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. palisade 2-3 layers.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. no characteristic odour and taste. round or oval. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral.1. style very short. parenchymatous cells. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. collenchymatous cells. ovary obcordate. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. consisting of thin-walled cells. xylem tissues lignified. b) Microscopic Root . 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. orbicular. Leaf- Midrib . vascualr bundles radially arranged. irregular. radially arranged cork cells. with are conjoint. single layered. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. perianth 2. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. thin. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. consistig of thin-walled. Lamina . compressed with thickened margins. present in the centre. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. scarious. round to oval. pith distinct. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem.dorsiventral. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces.

2.7. Raktavik¡ra DOSE ..2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 0.16.2.96 (all yellow).33. paracytic stomata.2.KuÀ¶ha. 113 .54 and 0. 0.4. 0. of the drug in powder form.44 (all green).35.44.5 per cent. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.V. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.94 and 0. 2.2 -3 g. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 2. 0. 0. 0.2. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. Tikta. CONSTITUENTS . Under U.Sugar.25. 0. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 19 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent.2.Olive green.3. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Powder .16. T. 0.18.2. Kaphahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. V¡tahara.L.68 (all red).81. Appendix 4.33 and 0. Pittavik¡ra. 2.C. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view.C.44. IDENTITY. 0.L.59.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.

mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex.5 cm long. varying in size. Methi (Sd. very hard. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. 30-60 cm tall. dull yellow.15-0. covered externally with thick cuticle. taste. (Fam.walled. 0. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. smooth. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. columnar palisade. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue.48. several layers of thin walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe.Seed shows a layer of thick. parenchymatous cells. Fabaceae). 0. cultivated throughout the country. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. annual herb. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. cells flat at base.2-0. b) Microscopic Seed . endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains.) aromatic. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.35 cm broad. pleasant. bitter. thin-walled. odour. mucilaginous cells. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. 114 .

Rucya.2. Appendix 5 per cent.Yellow. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Alkaloid.5 per cent. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. of the drug in powder form. Prameha. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. IDENTITY.2.6. Appendix 2. aleurone grains. 115 .4.Graha¸¢.3-6 g. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.2. 2. CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. Appendix 0. 2. oil globules.2. Aruci DOSE . cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. Jvara. Sapogenins and Mucilage.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. Powder . Appendix 4 per cent.

) Brassicaceae). upper most leaves simple.1-1. lyrate. pedicel with scattered hairs.Lower leaves hairy. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . (Fam. odour.49. blade obovate. Leaf . hollow. having a few longitudinal striations. regular. complete 1-2 cm long. petiole 5-5.7-2.Root cylindrical.0 cm in dia.. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. not distinct.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.Flower in long terminal raceme. Rakhyasmula Mulaka.2 cm long. oblong. cylindrical. 0. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. variable size and thickness. petals 1. Muli. an annual or biennial bristly herb. slightly pungent. sub-marginate at the apex. Flower . compressed. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . Stem . seplas 6.Slender. sometimes brown red. coarsely toothed. sub-linear but narrowed at the base.3 cm long.P. bright green. taste. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. Mulaka (W. bisexual. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. yellowish-green.5-10 cm long.

Fruit . anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. present in cortex and phloem. longitudinally sulcatus. parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. 117 . present in cortex. taste.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. parenchymatous cells. hairs unicellular. radially arranged. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. ovary superior. endodermis at some places.appears biconvex in outline. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring.1. elliptical. 1-2 chambered. traversed by xylem rays. 3-9 cm long and 0.Reddish-brown. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. single layered. Stem . epidermis followed by 6. round to oval. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. stamen 6 in two whorls. pith a wide zone of polygonal. present only on upper side. occasionally pale purple. solitary or ingroups.4 cm thick. sometimes flattened.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. Leaf- Petiole . vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. vascular bundle three in number. starch grains simple. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. continuous or more or less constricted.dorsiventral. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. greenish-yellow. epidermis single layered. palisade 2-3 layers. style about 4 mm long. oily. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. 2 mm wide. phloem. 2-4 mm long. traversed by phloem rays.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. Midrib . covered with thick cuticle. green or brown-purple. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. b) Microscopic Root . round to oval. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. 10-12 ovuled. Seed .8. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. irregularly globose. medullary rays four to many cells wide. thin-walled. erect.purple vein. cork cells.Siliqua. one central and two lateral. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. cylindrical. Lamina . two outer smaller and four inner longer.

IDENTITY. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. Appendix per cent.Yellowish-green. H¤dya. 2. Appendix per cent.4. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. Kaphahara.Shows a single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded.M£lakakÀ¡ra. CONSTITUENTS . epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . Ar¿a. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. 118 .Agnim¡ndya.6. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. 2.Glucoside. thinwalled. covered with thin. parenchymatous cells.2. Appendix 2. Ud¡varta. of the drug in juice form. Appendix per cent. P¡cana. Rucya. thin-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Seed . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. straight cuticle. 2. shows aseptate fibres. tangentially elongated. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. reddish-brown. Gulma.2.2.Fruit . Svarya. Gandhaka Va¶¢. P¢nasa.2.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. 2. Appendix per cent.3. spiral vessels.7. Tikta Laghu. Pittahara. Powder .40 ml. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. parenchymatous cells present.2.20 .2. DOSE . of columnar cells. covered with a thin-cuticle.

119 . sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Appendix per cent.2. Mula Muli Moolangi.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Appendix 2. 2. slightly or strongly pungent. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY.2. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.50. fusiform. variable in size.3. Mulaka (Rt.6. 2.2. Visra. white in colour. Appendix per cent. usually 25-40 cm in length.2. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. Mulaka. Brassicaceae).7. rarely sweet. having a few lateral fibrous roots.2. Moclangi gadde. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Appendix per cent.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. 2.4. 2. Saleya. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. cylindrical. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. taste. (Fam.2. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. Mullangi. Rakhyasmula Mula.

Gulma. 0. Ud¡varta DOSE . of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. Vrana.04.L. P¢nasa. 0. Jvara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Dadru.LC.69 (all yellow).Glucoside. 0. Rucya. of the drug in the juice form 120 . H¤dya.Agnim¡ndya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara.09 (both blue). K¡sa.V. Ar¿a.15-30 ml.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .49 & 0.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Svarya. Galaroga. áv¡sa.04. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Pittahara.09 & 0. Netraroga. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .C. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. 0.34. Tikta Laghu.04 & 0. P¡cana. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil.09. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. T.T. 0.

ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. odour.) DC.2. Gandhakuti. traversed by xylem rays. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . inner cells thin-walled. Apiaceae ). consisting of tangentially elongated. 0. taste. thin-walled cells. slightly bitter.4 m tall.3 . outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. Daitya. dull brown.1. secondary phloem shows wide zone. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. S. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. tenuifolium Wall.6 . thin-walled cells.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . rectangular cells. Syn. Mura (Rt. aromatic. 6-12 cm long and 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. Root . traversed by phloem rays. tangentially elongated.42000 m. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. colour. a perennial herb. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. cambium 2-4 layered. (Fam.Shows 10 . fibres and parenchyma. secondary cortex composed of rounded.51. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige.

Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . secondary phloem.7. round to oval.6. fibres aseptate. Appendix 3. 2. secretory canals. xylem and phloem rays. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. present in secondary cortex. Ka¶u.2. starch grains simple.2.having spiral thickenings.5 per cent. M£rchha. Powder .Brown. Appendix 17 per cent. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. distributed throughout secondary cortex. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. Appendix 9 per cent. composed of radially arranged. 2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2.2.áv¡sa. secretory canals numerous. D¡ha.2. Tikta.3. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. xylem parenchyma.2.2. 122 . shows groups of cork cells. secondary xylem and medullary rays. Bhrama. of the drug in powder form. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . 2. Sucrose and Mannitol.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin).Arvind¡sava. somewhat oval cells. IDENTITY. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Jvara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. CONSTITUENTS .1-3 g. Appendix 9 per cent. short with blunt ends. oil globules and simple starch grains. secondary phloem.. parenchymatous cells.4.

a large stout. rectangular cells. bark easily separable from wood. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood.Shows a cork. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. similar to those present in secondary cortex.52. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. (Fam. Madhusrava. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. phloem rays 1 123 . some filled with reddish-brown contents. & Am. tangentially elongated.) Asclepiadaceae). stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. resin cells present irregularly in this region. odour. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. phloem fibres absent. fracture. b) Microscopic Root . Halukaratige. Jartor Koratige Hambu. twining shrub. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. slightly bitter. Murva (Rt. indistinct. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. Kallu Shambu. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness.5-3 cm thick. Koratige. taste.

2. simple and compound starch grains. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. elliptical to spherical with central hilum.Ar¿a. 10-20 g. H¤droga.3 cells wide.2. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. V¡tahara. Meha. Mukha áosa.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 14 per cent. shows a number of stone cells. consisting of small tangential.22 µ in diameter. K¤miroga. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Ka¸·£. Appendix 5 per cent.2. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. fragments of cork. Tikta Guru. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 0. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations.5 . 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. fibretracheids. starch grains simple. DOSE . fibres. tracheids. Powder .Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug for decoction.6. measuring 5.Light brown. Prameha Mihira Taila. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.3. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. 2.. 2. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. Appendix 7 per cent. Raktapitta. composed of vessels.tracheids.. Appendix 2. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma.2-6 g.2. vessels with pitted walls.2. fibres. present in parenchymatous tissues. Jvara. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. of the drug in powder form. 124 . T¤Àn¡.4. 5.5-22 µ dia. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. Pittahara. IDENTITY.7. Medoroga.5 per cent.

5 cm long. Nagakesar (Stmn. linear. connective and filament. Guttiferae). each stamen 0. Nagchampa. Assam.8 . Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. basifixed. Veluthapala. filament 0. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Nauga. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. an Ke¿ara. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara.) evergreen tree. N¡ga. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. Powder . connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. b) Microscopic Androecium . distinct protuberances on walls. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. Hem¡. yellowish and thin-walled. odour.53. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. N¡gapuÀpa. filiform. Bengal.Brown. consisting of thin-walled. coppery or golden brown. quite brittle. slender. anther about 0. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. more or less twisted. Pilunagkesar. shows elongated cells of filament. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. exine and intine distinct. 125 . taste. Sachunagkeshara. fragrant. thick-walled. Nagppu. connective not visible with naked eye. often buttressed at the base. parenchymatous cells.9-1. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. (Fam. Peri.Anther shows golden-brown. Naugaliral. astringent.1. soft to touch. Nahar Nageshvara.9 cm long.0 cm long. Nagachampakam. Konkan. Nagakesari -Nangaa. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. containing pollen grains.

N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. Kaphahara.2. Appendix per cent.6.2. Kum¡ry¡sava.3. CONSTITUENTS . 2.2. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 126 .7.2. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. Appendix per cent.4. áopharoga. Var¸ya. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1-3 g. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. V¡tarakta. Appendix 2.IDENTITY.2. of the drug in powder form.2.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. 2. Tikta. 2. Appendix per cent.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.Raktapitta. Vastiroga DOSE .

1.5 cm long and 0. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. (Fam. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. 127 . large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings.1. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. pale green to greenish-black. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. pith composed of round to oval. Fabaceae). b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole .8 m high. Nili (Lf. N¢l¢n¢. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. leaflet 1-2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings.) shrub.54. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.2 cm wide. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.3-1. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. no characteristic odour and taste.2.

a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 10 per cent. pitted vessels.4. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . V¡tahara.2. Udararoga.Midrib . similar as in petiole. Appendix 7. 2. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. of decoction. 2.Ëmav¡ta.Glycoside (Indican). vascular bundle single. aseptate fibres. 2..2. IDENTITY.2. Appendix 25 per cent..2. palisade 2-3 layers. V¡tarakta. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.50-100 g. similar as in petiole and midrib. Ke¿ya. Appendix 2 per cent.6. Appendix 2. Lamina . Jvara.shows dorsiventral structure. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. cuticle and hair. 128 . Pl¢haroga. shows groups of mesophyll cells. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered..7. collateral and crescent shaped.Greenish-grey. K¡sa. CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. Gulma. epidermis. K¤imiroga. Ud¡varta.shows epidermis.2. cuticle and hair. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.

slightly bitter. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. 1. Indian Indigo Gali. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. thin-walled cells. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. thin-walled cells. secondary cortex a narrow zone. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. Neeli Nili. Karunili. 0.55. Nil. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. Nili (Rt. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. cylindrical. (Fam. with lenticels. Fabaceae). fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. odour not distinct. Nila Nili. Neeligida. Nili Chettu. taste. 129 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Nila -Neel Avuri. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. hard. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex.8 m high. Olleneeli -Amari. consisting of usual elements. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. woody.2-1.1 -1. group of fibres.10 layers of tangentially elongated. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. Rangapatr¢. rectangular.) shrub. Nili. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. Gari Nili Kadunili. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. wood occupies bulk parts of the root..5 cm thick. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays.

0.33.63.58 (blue). 0. Ke¿ya.C. of drug for decoction. 0. 0. IDENTITY.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. Appendix 2. simple and compound starch grains. 0.63..21. Udararoga. Appendix 4 per cent. Ud¡varta. K¡sa. 0. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. shows aseptate fibres.75.86 (green) and 0.14 (blue).86.58. 0.06. CONSTITUENTS .10.63 (bluish green).91 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. DOSE .3. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.75 (blue). 0. 0. 0. V¡tahara.50.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. V¡tarakta. Appendix 0. 0. 0.Creamish-brown.. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. pitted vessels.86 and 0. round to oval. 0. Pl¢h¡roga. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf.0. phloem. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.10.91 (all grey). and 0.33. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.2.L. 0.81 (blue).27.81. 0. 2. T. 0. xylem parenchyma and rays. 0.0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. ViÀavik¡ra. 130 . 0.V. 0. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.Arvind¡sava.C.4. 2. present in cortex.7. Appendix 6 per cent. starch grains simple. K¤imiroga. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.7 per cent. Recan¢.80. 0.75. 0. 2. 0.6.2.06.40.91 (all yellow). 0. Appendix 3 per cent.47 (blue). measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0.48 g. 2.50.30 (bluish green).27.2.40.2. 0. 0.40 (blue).14. Ëmav¡ta. Powder .2.14.Gulma.2.58.

Melia azadirachta Linn. Nim. serrate. (Fam. Kohumba Nim. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. rachis 15-25 cm long.Compound.1 cm thick. Oilevevu. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Aryaveppu. odour. exstipulate. taste. 7-8. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. crystals also present in phloem region. Meliaceae). Juss Syn. Limado. 0.56. Bevu. lanceolate. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Nimba Nimba. opposite. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand.5 cm long and 1. slightly yellowish-green. alternate. Arulundi. leaflets with oblique base. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Veppan Vemu. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present.0-1. Nimba (Lf. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. indistinct. Veppu. Bakayan. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Nimbam. Bakan. Veppa Balantanimba. Limbado. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. Kahibevu.7 cm wide. Bevinama -Veppu. Nim Vemmu. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. acute. Limba.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. 131 .

rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells.7. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. 2. Appendix per cent.2.Lamina . IDENTITY. stomatal index 13. palisade single layered. Netraroga. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.0-14. 2. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.2. covered externally with thick cuticle. composed of thin walled. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. epidermis on either surface. fibres. K¤miroga. traversed by a number of veins. Appendix per cent.3. Ëma¿otha. V¡tal¡. shows vessels.Jvara.2. thin-walled cells. 2.2.2.shows dorsiventral structure. tangentially elongated cells.Green. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. palisade ratio 3.1-3 g.2. 2. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.0-4.0-11. KuÀ¶ha.Triterpenoids and Sterols. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. Prameha.5 on upper surface. ViÀarogas DOSE . Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.6. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .5. Powder . Appendix per cent.4. of the drug in powder form. 132 . Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha.5 on lower surface and 8. Vrana. CONSTITUENTS .

Nimb Bevu. Meliaceae). laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Nimba.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. taste. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Picumarda Mahanim Nim. considerably thick in older barks. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Nimba (St. Kahibevu. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue.57. Kadunimb. characteristic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. a moderate sized to fairly large. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Oilevevu -Veppu. evergreen tree. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. fissured and rusty-grey. odour. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. fracture. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nimba. Limba Nimba Nim. Bakam Veppai. Vembu Vemu. Aruveppu Balantanimba. fibrous. Syn. woody. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. extemal surface rough. (Fam.

outer surface. IDENTITY.2. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.Reddish-brown. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. 2. 0. stone cells mostly in groups. 0. simple starch grains. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. measuring 2.2.2.75-5 µ in diameter. T. Appendix 6 per cent. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.4.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands.6. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends.2.72 (blue). 0. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.5 per cent. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.3.C.2.C. and 0. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Pittahara. secondary cortex absent in most cases. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. cork cells.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. lignified rectangular to polygonal. Appendix 7 per cent.45. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .63 and 0. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.90 (green). starch grains. 0. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . round with central hilum.7. having wide lumen and distinct striations.L. simple. Appendix 2. ViÀaghna. Kaphahara.L.V.90 (all blue). Powder . Appendix 1. 2.20. Appendix 5 per cent.86 (blue). 2.measuring 2. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.

Decoction should be used externally. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Jvara. KuÀ¶ha. of the drug in powder form. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Rakta Pitta. 135 .2-4 g. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¤miroga. Vra¸a DOSE .. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.D¡ha. Prameha. Ka¸·u.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.

taste.15 m high with irregular branches. except in very arid parts. Khakharo. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. Chettu Dhak. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. often in groups. having brown colour. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. slightly astringent. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Plas. internal surface rough. Tesu Muttug. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark.1 cm thick. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. Tesu Purasu. thin-walled. moderately thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. rhytidoma 0.Bk) Fabaceae). dark brown.2 cm thick usually peels off. dark-brown. Dhak. 12 . Muttuga. Palash. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. rectangular 136 . cork cells. tanniniferous cells. curved. fracture. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. Khakhapado Dhak. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m.) Kuntze (Fam. rectangular. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. greyish to pale brown.5 . 5-10 or more layered. exposing light brown surface. Paras Moduga. Muttala -Plasu. 0. Palasha (St.58. Camata. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. pale brown. Modugu. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk.

67 (all yellow). 0. crystal fibres. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 0. 0..2.75 µ in dia.67 (all violet). phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.C.5 per cent.10. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.12 cells wide.3 components.2.18. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. Appendix 14 per cent.Reddish-brown. thin-walled cork cells. 2.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. T. 2. CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.3.L.65 (all blue). measuring 2. 0.2. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.2. 0. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. sclereids mostly in groups. Appendix 12 per cent.2. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. phloem fibres. Appendix 2. Powder . traversed by phloem rays.48. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.C. Appendix 1.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. dark brown coloured cells.7. phloem parenchyma. Appendix 10 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.4. companion cells.4 layers of sclereids.L. 2. 7 . phloem rays multiseriate 4 . 0.13.75 .cells followed by a zone of 2 . 2.2.. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.10. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. straight.6.10.V.48 and 0. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .50 cells in height. starch grains simple and compound with 2 .48 and 0. 0. 0. 137 .

138 . Agnid¢paka.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. of the drug in powder form for decoction. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . Gulma. KaÀ¡ya Sara. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka.Ar¿a. S¡raka . Tikta. K¤miroga. Graha¸¢. DOSE .5-10 g.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. Vra¸a. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.

stone 139 . secondary cortex consists of large. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. Mulmurumgai Badisa. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey.Bk) Fabaceae). exfoliating in narrow strips.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. quick growing tree. tangentially elongated to squarish. Paribhadra (St. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. medium sized. inner bark fibrous. yellowish to cream coloured.0 cm thick.5-2. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam. Pangara Hongar. smooth. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India.59. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. radially arranged and thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

2-4 g. 148 .Alkaloids.. V¡taroga DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. Balak¤t.CONSTITUENTS . Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Volatile Oil.. of drug in powder form.V¡tarakta. V¤Àya. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.

Syn. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. Chowl. thick-walled. Korka. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. hilum present at the apex of round edge. creamish-brown. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. linear. sclerenchymatous cells. latifolia Roxb. which are of various size. b) Microscopic Seed .4-0. Saraparuppu Sara. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng.3-0. 0. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. 0. occurring mostly in groups. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. B. Satdhan -Charal. funicle stout.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered.6 cm long. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . Shalichokha Piyal. sweetish-oily. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. micropyle superior. large. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high.5 cm wide. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. pitted. taste. Priyala (Sd. followed by remnants of disorganised. (Farn.63. odour. Piyar.) Anacardiaceae). Priyalam. mottled with darker brown lines. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. pleasant. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. collapsed cells of integument.

0. Appendix 10 per cent.P£gakha¸·a.A creamish-brown paste. 0. KÀata. 0.5-5. Bhagnas¡dhaka. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.type. 2. IDENTITY. Sara. DOSE .91. V¤Àya.08. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. THERAPEUTIC USES . H¤dya. Raktapitta. 2. 0. 0. procambium bundles. Powder .72 and 0. shows numerous mesophyll cells.27.V.54. and sclerenchymatous cells. Appendix 2.27. Appendix 7 per cent.5 per cent. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.10 . 0.20 g.0 µ in dia.94 (blue). 0.7.2.0 µ in dia. T.L.54. Oil and Starch. 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. Appendix 4 per cent.3.2.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.98 (all yellow).94 and 0. V¡tahara.2.4.84. CONSTITUENTS . 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.C. and oil globules.72.2.08.2.D¡ha. 2.Albuminoids. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.C. KÀaya. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. Priy¡la Taila. of the drug in powder form.72. Kaphakara. 0. áukrakara.6. 2.91. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .94 and 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. BrÆha¸a. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.measuring 2. Pittahara.5-5. Appendix 0.L. 150 . Balya.98 (all violet). 0. 0. 0.

brown. thin-walled.5 cm long.0. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. an erect. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. ovary 2-4 celled.Shows more or less wavy outline. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . calyx. 1.2.Cymose. style. long. filament very long. hairy. 2.5 cm across. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal.) Verbenaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . b) Microscopic Peduncle . Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. stigma minutely capitate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. anther ovate. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. Priyangu (Infl. tubular.5-7. and abundant in Bengal plains. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. brown. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. densely hairy. peduncle cylindrical. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. 4 lobbed spreading. 1. epipetalous. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.5 .64. corolla. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. densely clothed with wooly hairs. (Fam.3 mm in dia.4 m high shrub. parenchymatous cells. bell-shaped. Flower . equal in size.2. stamens 4. basifixed.

Pras¡dana.fibres. Terpenes.2. Sandh¡n¢ya.D¡ha. 2. fibres aseptate.6. 2. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. El¡di C£r¸a.Brown. Pakv¡tis¡ra. Vra¸aropa¸a. (Mukharoga). Kanaka Taila. Daurgandhyahara.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡.3. Ku´kum¡di Taila. Jvara. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Appendix per cent.4. of the drug in powder form. Sved¡dhikya.7. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. groups of thin-walled. Appendix per cent.1-3 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . N¢lik¡dya Taila.2. IDENTITY. elliptical. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. spiral vessels.2. M£travirajan¢ya. aseptate fibres. Phenolic compound. Appendix per cent. Rakta. xylem consists of usual elements. 2. DOSE . vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. Resin and Saponin. Rakta-Pitta. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Appendix per cent. 152 . Powder .2.2.Glycosides.

rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Dhanarmul. composed of thick-walled.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Nellu Tandulamul. both consisting of round to oval. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. sclerenchymatous cells. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. an annual herb. Sali. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. pitted vessels and 153 . Shali (Rt. Biyyamu Chaval. Powder . smooth. Dh¡nya. cylindrical. Bhata. Jhona Arishi.65. Corava. Dhana Bhatto. Nelver Dhanyamu.Greyish-cream. Nellu. Nivara -Chaval. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. sclerenchymatous cells.) cultivated throughout India. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Chawl. Vr¢hi. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. thin. Paddy Shalichokha. soft.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root . (Fam. exodermis 1-2 layered. Cala.05-0. Poaceae). shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Dhan Rice. thick-walled. Odalu. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Coke Chaval. Damgara. Akki -Ari. Dhana. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Bhatta. cortex differentiated into three zones. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces.

Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. BrÆha¸a. 2. of the drug for decoction. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. 2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.7.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Br¡hma Ras¡yana.3.2. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. H¤dya.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. IDENTITY. Laghu.StanyakÀaya.2. Balya. Svarya.2. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Pittahara. V¡tahara. M£trala.4. Kaphahara. Rucya.2. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. 154 . Var¸ak¤t.50 g. Appendix per cent. CakÀuÀya.

ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. 155 . Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. found throughout the country. alternate with the petals. inserted deep in the corolla tube. ovary superior and bicarpellary. free.4 cm thick. 0. linear-lanceolate. light green. stamen 5. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. hairy.White or pinkish. acute. Flower . Shankhavela.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes.1-0.Shortly petiolate. cylindrical. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. sparsely hairy.Slender.) Convolvulaceae).5-2 cm long and 0. spreading. 1-5 cm long.Usually branched. yellowish-brown to light brown. Sankhahuli Kakattam. a prostrate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sub-erect. linear-lanceolate. Kakkanangudi. Shankhapushpi. light green. Stem . hairy on both surfaces. Sankha pushpin (W. epipetalous. Karakhuratt. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. Sankhapuspi.66. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.5 cm broad. sepals narrowly. about 0. cylindrical.1-0. perennial herb with a woody root stock.P. Leaf . corolla shortly discoid.

13. phloem a narrow zone. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem.8 µ in dia. thick-walled cells. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. .0. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. minutely puberulous. fibres and parenchyma. vascular bundle bicollateral. phloem. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. elongated. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. mm. present in cortex. secretory cells present in this region.8-17. Powder . simple and composed of 2-3 components.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. mm. elliptical.Shows single layered epidermis. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits.. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening.Light yellowish-green. cortex differentiated in two zones. simple and compound starch grains. Stem . vein islet number 21-25 per sq. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen.Brown. unicellular hairs. at places unicellular hairs present. xylem rays and parenchyma. xylem consisting of usual elements. starch grains solitary or in groups. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells.Fruit . pale brown pericarp. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. endoderrnis single layered. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. covered with thick cuticle. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. both having round to oval.Appears nearly circular in outline. Seed . tanniniferous. palisade two layered..walled cells. present on both surfaces. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. oblong globose with coriaceous. LeafMidrib . xylem consists of vessels. phloem composed of sieve elements. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. thin. 156 . hairs unicellular. b) Microscopic Root . fibres and tracheids. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated.Capsule. measuring 3 . parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. Lamina .appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. palisade ratio 6-9. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. epidermis single layered. round to oval in shape. covered with thick cuticle. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated.

2. Appendix 2. 2. 2. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Clitoria ternatea Linn.6. Appendix per cent.2. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.2.7.4.2.2.3-8 g.3. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Apasm¡ra DOSE .2. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.M¡nasaroga. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Agastyahar¢tak¢. Br¡hma. Medhya. Appendix per cent. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . Ras¡yana. Pittahara. Ras¡yana. ËyuÀya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.IDENTITY.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Tikta. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.2.

Saptala Kangi Tillakada. ovate. horned. Flower . 3-4 mm in dia. 20-40 cm high. odour and taste indistinct. gland semilunate. Fruit . Siju. 1 mm long. ciliolate. Bilikalli. cylindrical.Involucre broadly campanulate.1. 3.celled with or without attached pedicel. linear.Small. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. sessile. 0. ribbed. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . annual herb. 0.5 mm across at the mouth. sub-sessile. smooth. lanceolate or linear oblong. Leaf . solitary. Carmas¡hv¡. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni.P. shortly 2-fid at the apex. pale brown. Chagulputputi Satala. having a few secondary roots. 2. Joyachi. (Fam.8 cm wide. gradually tapering.2-0.67.) Euphorbiaceae). fracture. lobes short. short. free to the base. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. trilocular. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. a much branched. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. filament pubescent. 4-5 cm long.5-2 mm thick. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. 158 . odour and taste not distinct. subacute. Saptala (W. greenish-yellow. style.7-7 cm long.Capsule.

small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. single layered epidermis. 2. fibres and tracheids. secondary cortex consists of 4. epidermis single layered. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. tracheids and medullary rays. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. consisting of thick-walled. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells.3 mm long. flattended. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. rarely a few oil globules also present.Seed . cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. lignified cells with wide lumen. covered externally with thick. leprous tuberculate testa. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled.shows slightly convex outline. all elements thick-walled and lignified. parenchymatous cells. rounded to oval. parenchymatous cells. centre occupied by a pith. fibres elongated and aseptate. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. Leaf- Midrib . starch grains simple. 159 .6 layers of oval.5-19. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. secondary xylem consists of vessels. tangentially elongated cells. stone cells oval to elongated. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. striated cuticle.Young root shows exfoliated. circular to oval. rounded at the base. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. solitary or in groups. grooved at one side. tangentially elongated elliptical. rounded to oval. palisade single layered present on both sides. rectangular. fibres. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. elliptical. fibres and vessels having simple pits. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. secondary xylem composed of vessels. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. elliptical. b) Microscopic Root . epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. composed of sieve elements. Stem . all elements. with wide lumen present in this region. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. filled with yellowish-brown content. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. traversed by numerous xylem rays. secondary phloem narrow. measuring 5. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. found scattered in phloem region. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. mature root shows thin walled cork.25 µ in diameter. some rounded. endodermis not distinct. vessels having simple pits. thickwalled and lignified. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region.75 µ in dia. thick-walled lignified. parenchymatous cells. simple.

DOSE .6.87 (violet). 2. 2. simple.7. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. and 0. Udararoga. 0.04.46 (brown) and 0.0. 160 .L.C. Vibandha.C. CONSTITUENTS . stone cells thick-walled.L. V¡tal¡. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.46. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. of the drug for decoction. Mi¿raka Sneha.2. Gulma. 2. RukÀa. 2.67. elliptical.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). Visarpa. rounded to oval starch grains. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.2.50 g. shows vessels with simple pits.V. T.2. Ud¡vartta. Appendix per cent.Light yellow.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.3. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.4. RaktadoÀahara.04 and 0. Pittahara. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. oval to elongated. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf.Ën¡ha.57 (all yellow).Powder . Appendix per cent. 0. lignified with wide lumen.2. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. aseptate fibres.2. IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.

parenchymatous. Satahva (Fr. a tall. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. glabrous. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. slightly raised. glabrous. A. slightly sharp taste. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. ex Flem. graveolens Linn. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. odour.. akin to caraway. Apiaceae).. and a warm. graveolens Benth. Shulupa. sowa Roxb. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. Sulpha.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. P. filiform and incospicuous.68. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. (Fam. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. b) Microscopic Fruit . extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. dark brown. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. Shepa. brown. A. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. graveolens DC.. vittae. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. 2 lateral prolonged into thin.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. mesocarp. mericarps usually separate and free. often stalk attached. Syn. yellowish membranous wings. 4 mm long. var. dorsal 161 .

each costae with vascular strands. Appendix 14 per cent.Brown. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels.2. cellulosic. carpophore split. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.L.59 and 0. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.6. V¡tahara. Powder .3-6 g. Netra Roga DOSE .2.C. 2. Vra¸a. Appendix 1. Kaphahara. shows spiral vessels.5 per cent.Essential Oil. 0.2.68 (violet). one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.59 (blue) and 0. Appendix 2.L.C.37 (pink) 0. 2.7. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.á£la. Appendix 15 per cent. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara.2. 2. IDENTITY.3.2.2. of the drug in powder form.68 (all yellow). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.costae three. 2. Appendix 4 per cent.10 T. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix 3 per cent. 2. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 162 . á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Atis¡ra. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.4.

thickened.2-2 cm long and 0. and articulated at the base. oval to elliptical. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. AkÀ¢va. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Sekato. Muringa. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Segata. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. pith and phloem parenchyma. Munga. elliptic. Tishnagandha. ovate or obovate. thin walled. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Mungna Neegge. consisting of pericyclic fibres. pericycle forming a broken ring. slender.69. (Fam. commonly cultivated throughout the country.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Shigru (Lf. Segata pana. Bahala. odour and taste not distinct. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. parenchymatous cells. Mocaka -Sajina. palisade single layered. Nugge ele -Murinna.5-1 cm wide. central region 163 b) Microscopic .Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Moringaceae). Shewgachi pane Sajana. Syn. Muringa Elai Sevaga. vascular bundle collateral. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. a small or medium sized tree.) Gaertn. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. entire. Leaflet . Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Rachis . epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. Sajna. leaflet 1. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. parenchymatous cells.

palisade ratio 6-11. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. K¤mihara.C.26 (all green).38. (all green).0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. 0.36.87 (blue).36 (green). stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.L.30 (pink). Medohara.3. 2.2. palisade cells. 0.18. 0. IDENTITY. stomata anornocytic. RukÀa. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.94 (yellow) in visible light.46 (green). 0. 2. 0. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. 0.53 (yellow). ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. 0. 0. áukra N¡¿aka. spiral vessels. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0. 0.36 (yellowish green).7.L.C. Protein.46 (dark green) & 0. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.20.2. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.94 (violet).V. 2. 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. 0.26. T. Appendix per cent. Under U. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.05. 0. Appendix per cent.occupied by a crescent-shaped. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. 0.18. CONSTITUENTS . 0. vein islets number 50-65. 0.2. Powder -Greyish-green.2.69 (blue) and 0.46 (both blue).6.94 (blue).46 (all red) & 0.26. V¡tahara. 0.69 (yellow). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. present on both surface but more on lower sur face.82 (yellow) and 0. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.4. Sirovirecaka 164 . 2. Pittahara.05. 0. 0. B ¤Æhana.Carbohydrate. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.05. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.59 (blue).52 (green).2. 0.

Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Medoroga. DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .10 . Pl¢haroga. ViÀatinduka Taila. K¤miroga.áopha. Galaga¸·a. 165 . Vidradhi.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Gulma.Ratnagiri Rasa.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. 0. thin walled. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho.) Zingiberaceae). brown to dark brown. membraneous aril. parenchymatous cells. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. spicy pungent. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki.3 cm wide. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. aromatic. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. perispenn encloses the 166 . which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. Beraelam.4 cm long. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.. taste. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. perisperm consists of polygonal. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. sclerenchymatous. (Fam. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. thin-walled. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb.70. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. Sthulaela (Sd. odour.

10 CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY.4. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. 2. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Kaphahara.2. both composed of polygonal.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.Light brown.2. DOSE .2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . RukÀa. Powder . 167 .5 -1 g. simple. Chardi. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. rich in protein. rounded to oval. shows fragments of testa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 1. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Tikta Laghu. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. of the drug in powder form. 2. 2.2. thin-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mukha¿odhaka. oil globules. Appendix 14 per cent. Note . (Seed). Mukharoga. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.5 per cent.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Rocaka. V¡tahara. 2.0.2.2. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. T¤À¸¡. polygonal.(Seed).S¡rivady¡sava. perisperm cells. parenchymatous cells.3. K¡sa.áv¡sa.endosperm and embryo. 2. Ka¸·u. H¤ll¡sa.2. Appendix 4 per cent.6. thin-walled.7. Appendix 2.

parenchymatous cells. Tejovati (St. thick-walled cells.Bk. Tejovanti -Thumboonal.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. Syn.0. fracture. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala.1-0. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. brownish. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Thumbooni. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . thin-walled. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. aromatic pungent. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. taste.) Roxb. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. lignified. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. Rutaceae). stem and branches. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. sharp prickles. light yellow to pale brown. short.2 cm thick. Tumbura.71. Z. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. stone cells found in 168 . armed with long. external surface pale brown. aromatic. Jimmi. odour. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. Tumburudra. internal surface smooth. (Fam. rather deeply furrowed. phloem fibres thickwalled. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays.

CONSTITUENTS .10-20 g.6. 2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.5 per cent.2. Appendix 12 per cent. P¡cana.75 µ in diameter.75 .3.75 . Hikk¡. IDENTITY. Ëmav¡ta. Appendix 8. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent. K¡sa. oil globules and starch grains. 2. Kaphahara.2. a Volatile Oil and Resin. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. Appendix 2.2. aseptate fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. Appendix 1.Yellowish-brown.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 13 per cent. Powder .75 µ in diameter. 2. 2. starch grains round and oval. round and oval measuring 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .13. Mukharoga. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Rucya.Aruci.2.13. Medhya. áv¡sa.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.2.4. stone cells. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.7. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. of the drug for decoction. 169 . K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa).2. measuring 2. shows fragments of cork cells.

odour. entire or serrate.3. Stem .60 cm high. branched. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. externally purplish-brown to black. (Fam. petiole thin. elliptic oblong.6 . shortly apiculate. sub quadrangular. coloured. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. Lamiaceae). found throughout the country. violet internally. fracture. hairy. pubescent on both sides.Erect.5-3 cm long hairy. wiry. lower lip 170 . Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. 30 . blackish-brown externally and pale. about 1. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. pubescent.Purplish or crimson coloured. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. pedicels longer than calyx. characteristic. soft. herbaceous. odour faintly aromatic. annual herb. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. branched. Thulasi. small in close whorls. obtuse or acute. Tulasi (W.72. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi.2 cm wide.) an erect. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. woody.5-5 cm long 1. K¤À¸atulas¢. taste. slender. Shree Tulasi. much branched.P. internally cream. aromatic.Thin. Leaf . upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular.2. hairy. Flower .

fibre tracheides. pungent. phloem consists of sieve elements. tracheids. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. no odour.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. each with one seed. odour. odour. pitted with pointed ends.A group of 4 nutlets. three vascular bundles situated centrally. brown. Fruit . nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. nearly smooth.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. measuring 22-27 in dia. glandular trichomes short. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. Stem . elongated. 0. slightly compressed.1 cm long. 171 . vessels pitted. middle one larger than other two. corolla about 4 mm long. Midrib . found scattered in phloem. fibres with pointed ends. veined calyx. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. lateral two short and central two largest. pungent. in groups and rarely in singles. pubescent. vessels pitted. parenchymatous cells. enclosed in an enlarged. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. thin-walled. taste. taste. long. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. xylem surrounded by phloem. xylem consists of vessels. thin-walled. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. rectangular. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled.epidermis. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. phloem consisting of sieve elements. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. filled with brown content. thin-walled. aromatic. Seed . taste. membranous. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. round to oval polygonal. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. parenchymatous cells. pungent. Leaf- Petiole . slightly notched at the base. occasionally a few cells collapsed. slightly mucilaginous. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. b) Microscopic Root .shows somewhat cordate outline. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. mucilaginous when soaked in water. fibres and parenchyma. aromatic. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres.Rounded to oval.

2. parenchymatous cells.2.Lamina . a few containing reddish brown contents. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. Appendix 2. On cooling spray. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components.Greenish: shows thin-walled. Appendix 1. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. IDENTITY. Appendix 10 per cent. Rf.minutes Under observation.L. 2. palisade ratio 3. Durgandhihara 172 .8.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. CONSTITUENTS . Record Rf.5 per cent. V¡tahara. 2. H¤dya.1.16 on lower surface. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. Pittavardhin¢. oil globules. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. in thoroughly vanillin .Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .C. Rucya. Appendix 4 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. RukÀa. Powder .Essential Oil. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. T. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. Appendix 8 per cent.7. Tikta. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. values of eugenol and caryophyllence.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. value 0.C.3. vein islet number 31 . thin walled fibres. rounded to oval.2.35.6.2.L. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. 2.4.15 . Kaphahara.2.7.

Hikk¡.A¿mar¢.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. KuÀ¶ha. K¤miroga. K¡sa. Netraroga. Chardi. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . 173 . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. áv¡sa.

three vascular bundles situated centrally. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. glandular trichomes short. Lamiaceae). oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. covering trichomes multicellular. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. K¤À¸atulas¢. (Fam. measuring 22-27 µ dia.) 30-60 cm high. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi.5-3 cm long. middle one larger than the other two. consisting of xylem and phloem. obtuse or acute. thin. Holy Basil Tulasi. Tulasi (Lf.6-3. 1. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. elliptic-oblong.73. balloon-shaped head. characteristic. odour. upper epidermis. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. found throughout the country. petiole 1.shows cordate outline. aromatic. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn.2 cm wide. hairy. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. 174 b) Microscopic . and 2-8 celled. an erect. much branched annual herb. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. entire or serrate. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. pubescent on both surfaces. taste. LeafPetiole . sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk.. petiolate.5-5 cm long.

2.33 (violet). 0. 0. 2.12.08 (violet).88 and 0.21 (brown).45 (violet).45.33 (both green) 0. Appendix per cent. 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.04. palisade and spongy parenchyma. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.. 0.21.93 (both light green). covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.83 (blue). trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.3. vein islet number 31-33. IDENTITY. 0. Appendix per cent.83. Nerol and Camphene etc. 0.85 (blue).75 (violet). Powder .33. 0. Caryophyllene. 0. 175 . Appendix per cent. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .2. 0.12 (light green).Light-green. 0.2.54. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.7. 0.03 (dark green). 0. T. 0. 2. 2.C.4. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.98 (blue). 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.33. 0.08.12 (light violet). On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 0.45 (yellowish green).75.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.Midrib .2.2.).epidermis.93 (pink) & 0. 0. 0.83 (all pink) 0.30. 0.04.L. Appendix 2.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.93 (violet) and 0. 2.45.93 (all0 yellow).21.85 & 0. Lamina . shows fragments of polygonal. palisade ratio 3. 0. 0.V. 0.04. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.8.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.98 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0. 0. Under U. 0. 0.6. 0. 0.54 (blue).2.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0.08 (both green). Appendix per cent.

H¤dya. of the drug in powder form.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa.Aruci. áv¡sa.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Hikk¡. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . KuÀ¶ha. K¤miroga. Prati¿y¡ya. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. Tikta.2-3 g. 176 . K¡sa. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Pittahara. RukÀa.

Ghodavaca Vasambu. somewhat collenchymatous. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. Araceae).Shows single layered epidermis. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. smaller. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. Ugr¡. upper side marked with alternately arranged. thin-walled cells of various sizes. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. Vekhandas -Varch. enclosing large air spaces. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. Rhizome . more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. odour.74. buff coloured intemally.) semiaquatic herb. Ghodvach Bach.5-1. Vacha (Rz. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. fracture. and 0. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. short. Gora-bach Baje. large. (Fam. aromatic. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. cells towards periphery.5 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. pungent and bitter. broadly. triangular. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . taste. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. 0. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent.4.2..7.2. Appendix 2.C.region. Starch and Tannin. Petroleum ether-No change ii. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. reticulate. Chloroform-Light green iii. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. Appendix per cent. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. shows fibres. Appendix per cent. endodermis distinct. 2. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. Powder as such: . Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. 178 .73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Appendix per cent. present in cortex and ground tissue. Appendix per cent. 2. Extracts in i. Methanol-Yellowish green iv.3.14 (violet) and 0. stele composed of round.L.2.2.2. 2.Yellowish-cream b. 2.L.6.Buff coloured. spherical. Benzene-No change IDENTITY.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol.C. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. Eugenol and Asarone). 2. starch grains simple.2.2. CONSTITUENTS .10 T. Appendix per cent.

Vibandha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢.2 g. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Apasm¡ra.á£la. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a.Vac¡di Taila. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Tikta Laghu. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Kaphahara. S¡rasvata. K¤mihara. Ëdhm¡na. Kar¸a Sr¡va. C£r¸a. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Medhya. Unm¡da. Ka¸¶hya. Sm¤ti daurbalya. DOSE . áv¡sa. K¡sa. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. 179 . 1.

tapering downwards to a point. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas.4 . Nabhi. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish.) (Fam. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. rarely 5 cm long. Ranunculaceae). suberised. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. plant is an erect.5 cm. 2-4. Naabhi Bachnak. Mahura. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. Vatsanabha (Rt. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 .75. thin-walled. small portions of stem sometimes attached. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. cartilaginous. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. roots are generally collected late in September. conical. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. Mithalelia. Beesh. ovoid. Vatsanabhi. parenchymatous cells. perennial herb. odour indistinct. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. papillose on outside. Bachhnaag. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. fracture. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. occasionally separated due to breakage. poisonous.8 cm thick.1. Vatsanabhi. Sth¡varaviÀa. Teliya Bish Basanalli. taste. Basanaag Bisa. without or with a few intercellular spaces. dark brown to blackish-brown. Meethabisha. 0. rough due to root scars. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Vatsanabha.

2. 0. S £tasekhara Rasa.56.Light grey.10. 0. Appendix 24 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. IDENTITY. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . Appendix 2. shows vessels. UÀ¸a.2.C. 0. Anandabhairava Rasa.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. some scattered. Powder . xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. a few aseptate fibres. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. Sv®dala. 0.96 (both orange).C. RukÀa. occupying more than half the radius. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Appendix 8 per cent. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.3. xylem exarch.39 and 0.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. 0.2. often forming 'V' shaped ring. Trid°Àahara.endodermis. Appendix 2 per cent. inner bark parenchymatous. 2. cambium having 6 10 angles. containing a few groups of phloem strands.20. ÙikÀ¸a.L.2. Appendix 5.39. consisting of round to oval cells. present in cortical cells. metaxylem vessels met in centre.6. Viyav¡yi. 2. T. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf.7. Laghu.L.2.5 per cent. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.74 and 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.2.4.

THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡taroga. Jvar¡tis¡ra.30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Sannip¡ta. DOSE . 182 . Kanharoga.15 . Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. V¡takaphajvara.

tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. Bhoikolu. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. taste. Bhumikusmanda. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. Nelagumbala. Gumadi belli. Nelagumbula. Vidari (Tub. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. starchy and somewhat porous.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . smooth except for protuberances at some places. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. outer surface reddish-brown. thin-walled cells. usually does not break.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. Bhonykoru.Rt. Fabaceae). but pliable. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size.76. Eagio. Bhuikumra Vidari. (Fam. thinwalled. stone cells moderately thick-walled. sweetish. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. cut surface creamish-brown. Vid¡rik¡.

Ras¡yana. V¡tahara. present in all parenchymatous cells. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. Balya. Appendix 2.75 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form.Gluconic and Malic acids. radially elongated cells. 184 . somewhat round. Raktapitta. 2. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. and also rarely in stone cells. M£trala. Pittahara. having central hilum and striations. Angmarda. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.2.2.4. 2.5 . Appendix 17 per cent.Marma Gu¶ik¡. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta.75 µ in dia. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements.2. lignified with narrow lumen.3-6 g.6.5 .13. J¢van¢ya. fragments of cork. áoÀa. measuring 5. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Stanyada. 2.2. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled.Buff coloured. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 4.D¡ha. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix 4 per cent. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. highly thickened. DOSE .13. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. Svarya. angular to oval. distributed throughout this region. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Daurbalya. Appendix 24 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.3. IDENTITY. phloem fibres much elongated. 2.5 per cent..7. Var¸ya. a few latex duct also present. Powder . B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.and pits.

Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. H. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. seed coat appears as a colourless line. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. followed by 2-3 layers. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. sativum Pers.2-0. sweetish-acrid. sclerenchymatous fibres. 50-100 cm high. not distinct. Syn. round to oval wavy walled cells. square or quadrilateral. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. cultivated chiefly in North India. (Fam. about 1 cm long and 0. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka.) Poaceae). pale-greenish-yellow. smooth. oblong.3 cm wide. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. followed by more or less. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . taste. polygortal inner epidermal cells. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. odour. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. thick-walled. erect herb. spongy parenchymatous cells. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. Yava (Fr. elliptic. an annual. Jav Barley Cheno. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow.77.

0. and the rest starch layers. Vitexin etc. Pur¢Àak ¤t.3. 0.22. 0. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.92 (yellow). 0.56. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. endosperm divided into two zones. Appendix 2. Appendix 4 per cent. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.2.65 & 0.36. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Creamish-white. Sthairyakara. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.4.31. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Appendix 1.) CONSTITUENTS . 0. Globulin. Powder . 2. 0.53.V.2. 2.5 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.31.24. Var¸ya 186 .2.C.68.5 per cent.83 and 0. Lekhana.5 per cent.22.2.14.06. Kaphahara. Fats.7 T. sclerenchymatous fibres. Appendix 2. Orientoside. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. Svarya. Proteins (Albumin.6. Orientin. 0.L. Medahara.16.92 (all grey). 2. 0. round to oval.5 2. IDENTITY. V¤Àya. 0. simple starch grains. 0. Pittahara. 0. 0. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. V¡tak¤t.2. 0.2.44. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.45. 0. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. Sugars.83 (all violet) and 0. 0.31. Appendix 5. 0. starch grains simple. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.10. 0.2. 0. 0. M£trahara.10.Starch.narrow lumens. 0. 2. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.72 (all pink. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.C.L. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.68.

El¡dya Modaka. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila.100 . Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Prameha. Sarsap¡di Pralepa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T¤À¸¡. Gandharvahasta Taila. Urustambha. of the drug. K¡sa. Dh¡nvantara Taila. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Tvagroga DOSE . Medoroga. P¢nasa.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.200 g. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . 187 .áv¡sa. Kanharoga.

P. opposite. glabrous. secondary and tertiary root absent. hard. filled with reddish-brown contents. Neladangara. 0. 0. branched. slightly rough at basal region with slender. 20-30 cm long and 0.7 cm broad. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi.78. drooping. glabrous. Leaf . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. alternate.1-1 cm thick. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Stem . Desv. oblong. stipules green. ballidurabi.Cylindrical. short. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . striate. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat.) Fabaceae). gradually tapering. elliptical.5-0.2-1 cm thick. fracture. nearly 0. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown.Simple. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida.8 cm long. terete. Punjab. dark brown. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. extipulate. Javasa.5-1 cm long. (Fam. secondary cortex almost 188 .Well developed. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. Yavasaka (W. no taste and odour. sharp axillary spines upto 3. mucronate obtuse. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Y¡sa. cork cambium single layered. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. radially arranged cork cells. a small thorny shrub.

vascular bundle collateral.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. thin-walled. xylem situated above phlome.Greenish-brown. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.appears biconvex in outline. Stem . tracheids. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. some cells filled with tannin. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. Leaf- Petiole . pericycle present in form of fibre groups. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. phloem composed of sieve elements. angular. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. starch grains simple. 5. parenchyma and fibres.14. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin.75 µ in diameter. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. covered externally with thick cuticle. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. 189 . fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. rounded to oval. xylem consists of vessels. phloem composed of sieve elements.appears circular in outline. Powder . tracheids. epidermis single layered. parenchymatous cells. xylem fibres. elongated. a few with thick wall and simple pits. tanniniferous cells. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. 3-45 cells long. tangentially elongated cells. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous.75 µ in dia. covered with cuticle. fibres. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. simple. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits.5. xylem consists of vessels.5-14. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. Midrib .absent. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. hypodermis 2-3 layered. present throughout the region. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. filled with tannin. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. Lamina . pitted vessels. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. tracheids and fibres. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. pith composed of a few thin-walled. hypodermis 1-2 layered. filled with tannin.

Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 2.7. Appendix 10 per cent. of the drug in powder form for decoction. THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Jvara.2. D¢pana. Appendix 2. Sucrose. Invert Sugars). 2. Kaphahara.Sugars (Melizitose. V¡tarakta. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.6.5 per cent. Appendix 2 per cent. Raktapitta.50 g.Chardi.4. Visarpa DOSE . 2. T¤À¸¡.5 per cent. Arimed¡di Taila. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. K¡sa. 190 . Appendix 2.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3.2.2. 2.20 .IDENTITY. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. Appendix 13. CONSTITUENTS . Tikta.2.

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