THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.1.1.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.2.2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2. 1.2-Sieves 1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.) Desv 177 1.2.1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.2.1.2.1.Types of Stomata 2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .1.1 Testing Drugs 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.1.2.2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.1.2.3.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.2-Thermometers 1.2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.2.1.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.5.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1.2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.1.2.4.

Weights and Measures 5.3.3 Limit Tests 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.1.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.2-Refractive Index 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.2.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.3.3.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.3.2.3.1.

accordingly. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). 1930 and the Poisons Act. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. the Dangerous Drugs Act. Vol. II.I. II. Part-I. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Part-I. Part-I. In general. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. would be deemed to have been amended vii . If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments.P. II would be official.). Vol.

scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. it is described as having odour. indicated in monograph. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. Hindi. Italics . Purity and Strength . viii . Odour and Taste . which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml).Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. if any. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. Weights and Measures . When the term “drop” is used. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . distribution and method of collection. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. Identity. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Mesh Number . These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. English. If the odour persists to be discernible. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. Synonyms . Introductory Para .GENERAL NOTICES Title . The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. substances or processes described in Appendix.

total ash. water. Constituents .In defining standards. Percentage of Solutions . volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. in 100 grammes of product.) . and show no abnormal odour. and other animal matter including animal excreta.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1.L. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. statements appearing in the API. wherever given.soluble extractive.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. according to circumstances. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. which he uses. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . Purity and Strength. mould or other evidence of deterioration. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. Constant Weight . pesticides. fungi. with one of the four meanings given below.Under this head. arsenic and heavy metals. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. However. those of definition of the part and source plants. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. pests. V. moisture content.g. Vol.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. under Description. water-soluble ash. However. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. The quantitative tests e. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. sliminess. ix . Standards . groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. ether-soluble extractive.For statutory purpose. is used. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. micro-organisms. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. even by applying known reference standards. if of equivalent accuracy. alcohol-soluble extractive.C. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. colour. Part-I. the expression per cent (%). shall constitute standards. and Identity. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. acid-insoluble ash. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests.

When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). at a stated temperature. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product.000 parts More than 10. are intended to apply at that temperature. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. all solutions are prepared with purified water.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Solutions . Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. fibres.56 oC. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. Solubility . unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15.000 parts x . Percentage of alcohol . such as fragment of filter papers. thermometric scale. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Reagents and Solutions . it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Temperature . Statements of solubilities. and dust particles.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known.

Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. IN. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. Part –I and Part-II.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent.1 N. Fam. µ. cm. mm. l. PS. unless otherwise stated.I. Kg. 1M. 0. TS. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India.P. mg. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. 0. ml. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts.5 N.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . g.

Rt. xii . Ht. Ori. Rz. Kash. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Beng. Bk. Eng. Fr. Tub. Mal. St. Guj. St. Tel. Wh. Sd. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Mar. Assam.Sansk. Wd. Bk. Pl. Kan. Rt. Lf. Tam. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Wd. Punj.

bark upto 3 mm thick. Akallakara. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. 7-15 cm in length. parenchymatous cells. characteristically astringent and pungent. shrivelled. 1.1.37-28. 53. brown. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Akravu Akkalakara. vessels pitted. slightly aromatic. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. Akarakara Akkaraka. cambium 2-5 layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro.8 µ in width. elongated.231 µ in 1 . Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. b) Microscopic Root . thin-walled. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. tapering slightly at both ends. cylindrical. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. (Fam. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. Akalakarabha. Asteraceae). external surface rough. an annual. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. xylem fibres thick-walled. not easily separable. Akarakarabha (Rt. odour. taste.2 . many of which developed as sclerenchyma.

2. Udararoga.5 -1 g. 2. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . uniseriate rays very rare.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. ray cells thick-walled. Svedakara. Aj¢rna. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. 2 . radially elongated. bi to tri and multiseriate. áukrala. IDENTITY. Kaphahara.3.length having narrow lumen. Buddhivardhaka.2. K¡sa. Appendix 2. Appendix 10 percent. Pittahara.2. secondary phloem and medullary rays. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. Danta¿£la DOSE . á£laroga. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. secondary phloem.Prati¿y¡ya. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent.Kum¡ry¡sava. áv¡sa. running straight.2. medullary rays numerous. 2.2. Appendix 8 percent. NaÀ¶¡rtava. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. D¢pana. also gives positive tests for inulin.0.2. Grdhras¢. Appendix 22 percent.7. V¡jikara. áotha. 2. CONSTITUENTS . secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. of the drug in powder form. 2.Ash coloured.6. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. Powder . Appendix 2 percent. secondary phloem and medullary rays. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex.

creamish-brown. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. irregularly corrugated. broken pieces. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m.) large deciduous. Sailabhava. oily sweet.Shows 1-2 layered.Cream coloured. Akshoda (Cotldn. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. radially elongated. odour. Cotyledon . small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. endosperm mostly single layered. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. 3 . (Fam. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. collapsed. followed by more or less compressed. Juglandaceae). Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. slightly curved. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. Powder .2. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. not distinct. thin-walled. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. under this. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. taste. coriaceous. parenchymatous cells.

Balya.0 percent.IDENTITY. 2. V¡taroga. ViÀ¶ambhi.KÀata. CONSTITUENTS . 2.2.5 percent. áukral.0 percent.2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.Walnut oil and Tannin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.2.6. Sara.2.3. DOSE . Appendix Not more than 2 percent. Appendix Not more than 0. Kaphakara.2. 2. Appendix 2. Appendix Not less than 7.2. B¤´ha¸a. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.4. KÀaya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7.25 g. Appendix Not less than 10. V¤Àya.10 . H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. 4 .

with reddish-brown contents. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. acuminata Roxb. tangentially elongated. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. thin. Ambazham. Stem Bark.. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas.5 m in girth. Amra Indian Hog Plum.3. non Gamble (Fam. Kurz. S. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. Ambalam. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. Amvara -Mampusli. and 5 . Anbalamu. Jangali Ambo.Bk. Ranambo Ambada. Syn.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. upto 27 m high and 2. laminated. f. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Jangli Aam Ambate. internal surface reddish-yellow. mangifera Willd. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Amrata (St. thin-walled cells. Ambadam Amratakamu. grey having lenticels. fracture. Ranamba. parenchymatous cells. Anacardiaceae). curved. a small aromatic. radially arranged. deciduous tree. parenchymatous. Mampuiti. Ambado. Amra. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. Wild Mango Ambeda. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. a few outer cells exfoliated. external surface smooth. consisting of tangentially elongated. S.

KÀaya. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. 2. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. Not more than 1 per cent.Light brown. prominent lysogenous cavities are present.5-10 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.2.. Appendix Not more than 0. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width.33. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf.2.L.(greyish brown). Under U. shows cork cells.2.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.V. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. V¡tahara. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.7.5 per cent. containing rosette crystals and starch grains.75-14 µ in dia.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.3.C. Rucik¤t. 0.96 (blue). 2. thick-walled. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. stone cells. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. Ka¸¶hya.2. 0.87 (all greyish brown). 2. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. simple. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.6. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.87 (blue) and 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.4. Powder . 0. 6 . Appendix 2.C.96. Raktapitta.L. Pittakara.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.2. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. IDENTITY. lignified. of the drug in powder form for decoction. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.40 and 0. D¡ha DOSE .KÀata. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. 0.33. 0. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. CONSTITUENTS .

0.3 . slightly ribbed. contorted or quincuncial. Kharamaµjar. actinomorphic. wavy margin. Stem . stamens 5. Apamarga (W. yellowish-brown.0 cm in thickness. (Fam. membranous.1-1. perianth segments 5.free. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. anther.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. numerous. erect. one spine lipped. 7 . bracteate with two bracteoles. filament short. obovate.5 cm in cut pieces. opposite. exstipulate.0. PratyakpuÀpa. odour.) Amaranthaceae). áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. subsessile. greenish-white.3-0. 0. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. gradually tapering. bisexual. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs.Cylindrical tap root. hairy.Simple. opposite. hypogynous. the perianth lobes. Leaf .P.4. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. secondary and tertiary roots present. two celled. a stiff. sessile. solid.9 m high herb. decussate. branched. rough due to presence of some root scars. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. cylindrical. dorsifixed. May£raka. not distinct. Flower . hollow when dry. yellowish-brown. erect.

pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges.Sub-cylindric. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. unilocular with single ovule. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. present in pith. epidermis single layered. style. 2-5 celled. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. scalariform and pitted. stigma. demarcating the xylem rings. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cork cells. truncate at the apex. Midrib . round at the base. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. elongated.Shows crescent-shaped outline. tangentially elongated. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. brown. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. capitate. Seed . thin-walled cork cells. single. LeafPetiole . syncarpous. fibres being absent. followed 8 . on both surfaces. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. 3-4 celled stalk. xylem composed of usual elements. lignified. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. rectangular. oval to rectangular. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. composed of parenchymatous cells. fibres pitted. vessels simple pitted. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. two medullary bundles.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent.gynoecium bicarpellary. endospermic. cortex 6-10 layered. vessels annular. perianth and bracteoles. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. spiral. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. ovary superior. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. thin layers of cambium. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal.Shows a single layered epidermis. Stem . covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. either separate throughout or found in some cases. parenchymatous cells. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. b) Microscopic Root . cortical and pith cells. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. Fruit .

20-50 g. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. rectangular. Tikta Sara. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. V¡maka.0-11. palisade ratio 7. Kaphahara.6. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3. Ka¸·u. uniseriate hair with bulbous base.2. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. slightly elongated in upper.0 on upper surface. mm. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2. Chedana. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.5-9.Shows single layered. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Light yellow. of the drug for decoction. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. Gu·apippali. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .0 on lower surface. V¡tahara. Udara Roga. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells.2. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.2. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. Apac¢. vessels with annular. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. 9 . Ar¿a. scalariform and pitted thickening. Medohara. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent.4. 2. Appendix 2.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled.0-20. 9.7. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. shows fragments of elongated. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. P¡cana.á£la. 2. Medoroga DOSE .Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra.2. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. Lamina . aseptate fibres. non-lignified cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. spiral. 2. Powder . tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. thin-walled epidermal cells. IDENTITY. stomatal index 4.2.

) perennial climber with slender downy stem. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. cylindrical. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. (Fam. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. bitter. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. thin-walled. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region.5. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. Aparajita (Rt. fibrous. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. 1-5 mm in thickness. lightbrown. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. Fabaceae). vessels pitted with oblong. taste. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. colour.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. a few solitary fibres also present. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. a few showing slit-like pits. b) Microscopic Root . a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. polygonal. very long. fracture. medullary 10 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡.

Powder . (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. T. M£traroga.2. Kaphahara. 0. Appendix 2. ViÀahara. Appendix per cent. 2.Mi¿raka Sneha. Taraxerol & Taraxerone.54 and 0. 2. 0.1 . vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. Vra¸a DOSE . CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Buddhiprada.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.79 (blue).3. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.Yellowish-brown.2. 2. Appendix per cent. KuÀ¶ha.Tannin. V¡tahara. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .2.3 g. 0. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. Resin. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent.6. CONSTITUENTS . measuring 3-13 µ in dia.2. Tikta. of the drug in powder form.rays 1-5 cells wide. áotha. 11 .79 (dull yellow) in visible light. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.V.á£la.79 (grey).C.2. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. Starch. Under U. IDENTITY. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf... Appendix per cent.4. Medhya.L.79 (both yellow).7. Pittahara. shows simple and compound starch grains. 2.C. found in secondary cortex. 0. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. phloem and xylem parenchyma. oblong and pitted.

a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. colourless.5-6.Shows a few layered. thin-walled. Inji Allamu. widely cultivated in India. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. pungent Rhizome . oblique branches on upper side. radially arranged cells of inner cork. tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. taste. fracture. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic .6. Allam. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. pieces 5-15 cm long. gingery. buds and roots are removed and washed well. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells.5 cm thick. odour. each having a depressed scar at its apex. (Fam. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. short with projecting fibres. reaching up to 90 cm in height. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. Adrak Injee. isodiametric. Ardraka (Rz. lakottai.) Zingiberaceae). 1. Ale -Adi. irregularly arranged. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces.

measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. free from starch. CONSTITUENTS . phloem.03. 0. 0. walls of oil cells suberised. reticulate and spiral vessels. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. 2. Appendix 1 per cent. septate fibres with oblique. 0. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. 2. numerous closed. conjoint. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.63 & 0.08 (violet).35 (light violet).2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. IDENTITY.7 vessels. 0. Appendix 2. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. elongated pits on their walls. 2.2. 13 .63.16 (blue).6. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. collateral. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.92 (all yellow). stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.08.C.dia. greater number occurring in inner cortical region.2. larger bundles consists of 2.5 per cent. Under U.63 (light violet). larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.l6 (brownish violet). 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. Appendix 90 per cent. 0. Powder -Light yellow.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.13. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.35. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. Appendix 8 per cent.35. filled with abundant starch grains.16.47. 0. small cells of sieve tube.92 (violet).9 T. vessels showing reticulate..V.L. 0. 0.4. composed of xylem.3. fibrovascular bundles of two types. 0. 0. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 2.7.69 (light violet). single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. oleo-resin cells abundent. 0.63 (grey) & 0.2. 2. 0. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin.76 (violet) & 0. Appendix 2 per cent.2.2. 0. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.L. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.69. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.69 (grey).16.47 (light violet). 0. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.83 & 0. Appendix 5 per cent. endodermis single layered. 0.69 (all light yellow).2. 0. 0. 0. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.C.76. vessels 2-5 in number.

ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. H¤dya. DOSE .Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. THERAPEUTIC USES .á£la. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Ën¡ha. Svarya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. V ¤Àaya. Kaphahara. 14 . Rocana. RukÀa. Vibandha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. áopha. Bhedana. Ka¸tharoga.

Velvelam. incurved. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. fibres and crystal fibres. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. secondary phloem wide. exfoliating in irregular scales. phloem fibres thin-walled. Pilobaval. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous.5-1 cm thick.Bk. internally light brown to reddish-brown. hard. all traversed by medullary rays. thinwalled cortical cells. (Fam. not distinct. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. with tapering 15 .7. Fabaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. square to rectangular cells. Sadabala -Haramibaval. fibrous. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. Arimeda (St. rough. odour and taste. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. upto 3 m in height. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. fracture. stone cells and phloem cells. consisting of sieve elements. parenchyma. characteristic of dry regions. lignified. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled.

Powder . Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. sclereid. 2. Atis¡ra. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.0.áopha. Visarpa.78 and 0. β -Amyrin. Meha. 2. IDENTITY. KuÀ¶ha. Meda¿oÀaka. 0.39 and a spot at Rf.ends. K¤mi. crystal fibres elongated. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. T.4. Appendix 1 per cent. Dantaroga. ViÀajavra¸a.Reddish-brown. composed of thin-walled. Ka¸·u.2.n-Hexacosanol. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. fibres.2.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS .0 to 0. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. 2.6.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.2. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0 to 0. radially elongated cells. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Appendix 13 per cent. 16 . K¡sa. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 14 per cent.39 and a spot at Rf.91 (both blue).7.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga).40 g for decoction.3-5 g in powder form.2.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Udardapra áamana DOSE . shows groups of cork cells.L. Appendix 11 per cent.LC.C. 2.2. Mukharoga.e. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 2.69 (grey) is seen in visible light.91 (yellow). P¡¸·u.

sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma.Bk. short in inner and laminated in outer part. Arjuna. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. traversed by phloem rays. (Fam. in the middle and outer phloem region. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. curved. Mathichakke.& A. fracture. Arjuna (St. Kellemasuthu.2-1.) Combretaceae). Vellamaruthi. Bilimatti. companion cells. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. flat. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. P¡rtha. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W.5 cm thick. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. Mattimora. Torematti Arjuna. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Neermatti. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. recurved. taste. consisting of sieve tubes. bitter and astringent. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . channelled to half quilled. a large deciduous tree. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces.8. 0.

Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .3-6 g.6. IDENTITY. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma.in dia.2. Vya´ga. starch grains simple and compound. Kaphahara. compound of 2-3 components. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. fibres.7. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 4-12 cells high.Reddish-brown. DOSE . mostly simple.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. shows fragments of cork cells.Medoroga. Appendix 25 per cent.. H¤droga. present in most of the phloem parenchyma.3. 2. elliptical.2. 2. starch grains. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . alata). distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. H¤dya. sometimes upto 5 components. Arjuna Gh¤ta. elliptic. KÀatakÀaya. Pittahara. Vra¸an¡¿ana. Appendix 1 per cent.2. T¤À¡.. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. a few rhomboidal crystals. 2.2. 2.2. µ Powder .2.4. alternating with fibres. Appendix 2. Prameha.. Vra¸a. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 20 per cent.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. 18 . round to oval. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. uniseriate phloem rays. Appendix 20 per cent. round to oval.

19 .5-3 cm long. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles.) Anacardiaceae). Fruit . smooth. dark brown. 30-40 layers thick. drupaceous. (Fam.9. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. Bhallataka (Fr.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. nut 2. Nallajidiginga Baladur. mesocarp a very broad zone. Scramkotati Nallajidi. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. shining with residual receptacle. obliquely ovoid. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. mesocarp and endocarp. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country.

2.Dark-brown. P¡cana.I.F. DOSE . outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. chloroform.7.2. ether.4.2. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Part-I 20 . Gulma.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Kaphahara.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.Ar¿a. Appendix 4 per cent. Snigdha. Krimi. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Appendix 0. 2. Ka¶u.2.3.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . innermost prismatic.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Ën¡ha. Appendix 5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. being highly thickened. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.5 per cent. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Graha¸¢.2 g. KuÀ¶ha. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Note ... Appendix 2.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. very much elongated radial walls. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.1. Chedi. Powder . insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.6.2. 2. Bhedi. Appendix 11 per cent. Tikta.2.

(Fam. Keshavardhana. white. Bhringiraja. M¡rkava. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.10. Bhringaraja (W. erect or prostrate. involucral bracts about 8. Bhangaraiya Garujalu.Well developed.5 cm long. disc flowers 21 . together on unequal axillary peduncles. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. cylindrical or flat. node distinct. Leaf .50 cm high. occasionally rooting at nodes. sub-acute or acute. sub-entire. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .2 . a number of secondary branches arise from main root.8. 1. obtuse or acute. branched. Knnunni Bhangra. 2. Kesari -Bhangaro. Kesuriya. often rooting at nodes.2 . sessile to subsessile. cylindrical. Flower . occasionally brownish.P. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. ligule small. Asteraceae). spreading. Soppu. usually oblong. Karisalanganni. Tekar¡ja. scarcely as long as bracts.) herbaceous annual. not toothed. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. greyish. much branched. greenish. Gurugada.2. Karisalai Guntakalagara. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. Bh¤´ga. lanceolate. ovate. Stem . rough due to oppressed white hairs. 30 . ray flowers ligulate. herbaceous.Opposite. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. Bhangro Bhangara. strigose with oppressed hairs. upto about 7 mm in dia.3 cm wide. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk..Solitary or 2.Herbaceous. strigosely hirsute.

stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. corolla often 4 toothed. with very pointed tips. simple. Midrib . pitted. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. uniseriate. in macerated preparation vessels small. brown. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. covered with warty excrescences. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. and with pointed apical cell. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. drum-shaped. tangentially elongated cells. warty.0. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . hairy and non endospermic. with a narrow wing. trichomes of two types. xylem ray distinct.2 . thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled.tubular.Mature root shows poorly developed cork.0.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. Seed . filaments epipetalous. ray cells pitted. rarely slightly oblique. free. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. fibre tracheids. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. pistil bicarpellary. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle.25 cm long. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. vessels numerous. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. traversed by xylem rays.1 cm wide. 0. cuneate. non-glandular. ovary inferior. epidermis followed by wide cortex.Achenial cypsella. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. found scattered throughout wood. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. fibres and xylem parenchyma. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. xylem composed of vessels. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. externally covered with cuticle. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. Fruit . fibre tracheids. covered with striated cuticle. unilocular with one basal ovule. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. consisting of rounded cells. stamen 5. epidermis followed by cortex. Leaf- Petiole . phloem rays broader towards periphery. one seeded. 1-5 celled. run straight in tangential section. b) Microscopic Root . pappus absent. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. dark brown. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found.

trichomes entire or in pieces. pointed tips and pitted walls. externally covered with cuticle. about 3 celled. Powder . normally biseriate and uniseriate.0-22. more abundant on lower surfaces. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. endarch. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.Dark green. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. wide at the base. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. arranged in tangential strands. pointed. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. Lamina . peg-like outgrowth. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. septa thick-walled.5. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays.collenehymatous cells on both sides. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. uniseriate. stomatal index 20. epidermis single layered. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. 23 . spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. xylem fibres with wide lumen. mesophyll traversed by number of veins.5 on upper and 23. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. some elongated with simple perforations. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. the cork where formed.shows a dorsi ventral structure. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. Stem . a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. xylem consists of large number of vessels.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. while the section cut at apical region. vascular bundles in a ring. externally covered with cuticle. warty. palisade ratio 3. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width.0 on lower surface. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls.8 -4. middle cells longest. secondary cortex composed of large. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. hairs stiff. pericyclic fibres distinct. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. pitted with spiral thickening.5 -26. collateral.

4. Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form for decoction. V¡tahara. Yak¤droga. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ke¿ya. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Ëmahara.2. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. Tekar¡ja marica.áotha. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent.6. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. Appendix per cent.2.3 . 24 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀahara. CakÀusya. Tvacya.Alkaloids. 2. Appendix 2. K¡sa.2.3.2. 2. DOSE .7. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. áirah á£la. Ecliptine and Nicotine.2.2.IDENTITY. K¤miroga. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. P¡¸·u. 2.6 ml of the drug in juice form. 12 . 2. Appendix per cent. áv¡sa. Dantya. Tikta RukÀa. H ¤droga.36 g. Ras¡yana.

green or purplish green. Ondelaga. Scrophulariaceae).11. slightly bitter. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . nodes and internodes prominent.Simple. green. soft. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. Fruit . axillary and solitary. Syn. wiry. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. small. 1-2 cm long. slightly bitter.. a glabrous. opposite.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Flower . small. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. succulent. branched creamish-yellow. obovate-oblong. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢.Thin. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. Stem . found throughout India in wet and damp places. decussate.Small. 25 .& K. prostrate or creeping annual herb. Herpestis monnieria (LiM.B. about 1-2 mm thick. sessile.Thin.) Wettst.Capsules upto 5 mm long. Brahmi (W. ovoid and glabrous. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. taste. Brahmi. (Fam.P. Valabrahmi. Leaf . pedicels 6-30 mm long. glabrous. taste.) H.

Appendix per cent.2. starch grains simple.0-14. endodermis single layered. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. simple. round to oval. ViÀahara. Appendix per cent.0 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .5-9. Medhya. glandular hairs sessile. Matiprada.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.. endodermis single layered. Tikta. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent.0 x 2. ËyuÀya. round and oval starch grains. Praj¡sth¡pana. and 8.Shows a single layer of epidermis. pericycle not distinct.Yellowish-brown. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.2. Powder . Ras¡yana. cortex having large air cavities. b) Microscopic 26 . measuring 4-14 µ in diameter.4. Stem .7. Appendix per cent. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. Svarya.2. no distinct midrib present. 2. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. 2.3.2. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. glandular hairs. 2.2. IDENTITY.Root .2. vascular ring continuous. respectively. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle.6. 2. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. Appendix 2.

M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE .KuÀ¶ha.1-3 g in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES .S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . P¡¸·u. Ratnagiri Rasa. áopha. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Jvara. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. 27 . Prameha.

Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata.12.9 layers of thin-walled. secondary cortex composed of 5 . secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. 1-2. Papparamulli. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. b) Microscopic Root . long. Ubhibharingani. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. Heggulla. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. fracture. Putirichunda Dorli. Solanaceae). Brihati (Rt. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. oval and tangentially elongated cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. Badikateri Kirugullia. parenchyma and stone cells.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. upto 1. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. traversed by phloem rays. phloem parenchyma much abundant. cylindrical. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . varying greatly in shape and size. woody.5 cm in dia. ribbed. Chichuriti. much branched perennial under shrub. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. (Fam. short and splintery. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. a very prickly..Shows thin cork composed of 5 . tangentially elongated. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars.8 m high. no distinct odour and taste.15 layers of thin-walled. pale yellowish-brown. thin-walled. cork cambium single layered.

á£la.2.11. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. Appendix 2. IDENTITY.5 . xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays.7. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. aseptate fibres.. 2. Appendix Not more than 6. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .2. xylem rays uni to biseriate. 2. traversed by xylem rays. parenchymatous cells.6. shows groups of thin-walled.6 µ in diameter. Kaphahara. tracheids. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.2.5 -11. 2.Cream coloured. Agnim¡dya. cells radially elongated and pitted. H¤dya.2. fibres and xylem parenchyma.2. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. Jvara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.4. P¡cana. of the drug for decoction. DOSE . 29 . measuring 5. Powder . H¤droga. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. áv¡sa. CONSTITUENTS .2.5 per cent. V¡tahara. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . measuring 5. 2. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.10-20 g. phloem and medullary rays. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.6 µ in diameter. vessels with simple pits. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. thick-walled. all elements being lignified.3. rounded to oval starch grains.

Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. Piperaceae). a glabrous. fleshy climber. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. brownish cells.5-2. chaba Hunter non Blume. officinarum DC. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. peppery. thin-walled. endodermis single layered. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. (Fam. Chavya -Kattumulaku. fibres and xylem parenchyma. consisting of round. Chavya (St. oval to rectangular. greyish-brown. cork cambium not distinct. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. P. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. taste. tracheid. secondary cortex a wide zone.. acrid.0 cm in width. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. fracture. P. cultivated mainly in Southern India. plenty of simple starch granules present. odour. Syn. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups.13. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. nodes and internodes distinct. short. b) Microscopic Stem . xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0.

P¡cana.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. 2.2. of the drug in powder form. Kaphahara. D¢pana.pitted and reticulate thickenings. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 10 per cent. Recana.6.4. Appendix 6 per cent. Gulma.7.Ar¿a. round to oval. IDENTITY. Krimi. Appendix 1. Appendix 2. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. Ën¡ha. Appendix 3 per cent. 2.2. cells thin walled. 2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Greyish-brown.Alkaloids. fibres and simple.3.2. RukÀa. round to oval starch grains. THERAPEUTIC USES . starch grains. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Udara Roga. 31 . filled with simple. á£lal DOSE .2.5 per cent.1-2 g. Pl¢h¡ Roga. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. shows fragments of vessels. medullary rays multi seriate. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. 2. fibres needle and spindle-shaped.2.2. Glycosides and Steroids.

triangular and rectangular. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. cotyledons coiled. Punicaceae). starch grains present in testa. (Fam. oil globules. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. round to oval. Powder . wedge-shaped. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. LohitapuÀpa. simple. round. thin walled. oval. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai.2 cm wide. sweetish-sour. parenchymatous cells. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. Dadima (Sd. Madalam Danimma Anar. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. Maadalai. 0.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. Seed .Reddish-brown. 0.1-0. containing a few oil globules. endosperm absent.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. consisting of oval to polygonal.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. angular. shows stone cells. found growing wild in the warm valley. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. 32 .14.5-0. beneath this. taste.6 cm long.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

6-0. crowded in dense. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. Inflorescence . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . taste.Sessile. 3-9 cm long.25 cm long. pungent. long with numerous wiry. smooth.2-1. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts.Light greenish-yellow.7-2 cm 37 . more or less pubescent. nodes and internodes distinct. surface rough.Yellowish-green. fracture.16. hairy on upper part. scaberulous. taste. hairy. Leaf . about 2-3.Cylindrical. Stem .35 cm wide. ciliate. calyx.9 m in high.P. zig-zag.5 cm long and 0. slightly curved.5 cm across. corolla. size variable. subacute. 1-2. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng.5 cm wide. 1. fibrous. ovate or ovate. tubular.lanceolate. erect. 1-2. acute. white. glabrous in lower part. upto 4 mm thick. Gumma. 10 dentate with a villous throat. an annual. serrate.3-0. about 0. stout herb. lanceolate. 1. thin. fine rootlets.) Lamiaceae). (Fam. white. slightly bitter. crenate. characteristic. taste. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. Dronapushpi (W. globose.

endoderm is single layered. round to angular collenchyma. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. composed of oval to rectangular. Fruit .3 cm long and 0. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. nutlets 3 mm smooth.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. tracheids. vascular bundles 4. followed by round to oval parenchyma. palisade single layered. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. secondary xylem consists of vessels.1 cm wide. thin-walled cells. oblong. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. dark brown. xylem consists of vessels. lateral lobes small. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. smooth. parenchymatous cells. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. Stem . parenchymatous cells.vascular bundle arc-shaped. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. vessels long with spurs. 4 .Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. tangentially elongated. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. consisting of barrel shaped.long. some having simple pits. upto 8 cells high. cortex consisting of single layered. Leaf- Petiole . consists of a single layered epidermis.0. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. irregular. fibres and xylem parenchyma. bilipped. thin-walled cells. b) Microscopic Root . fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. brown. Lamina . thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. upper lip about 4 mm long. thin-walled. pith wide consisting of circular to oval.shows a single layered epidermis. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres.tangentially elongated. tracheids. Midrib . thin-walled 38 . Seed . trigonous. present in centre. wooly.Schizocarpic carcerule.7 layered.

5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. stomatal index 16. pitted and spiral vessels. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. K¡mal¡. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. 39 . RukÀa.2. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. 2.cells. present on both surfaces. palisade ratio 7-9.5 on lower surface.6-40. Bhedani.2. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.Dull yellow. a few veins present in this region. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY.7. 16.6. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. aseptate fibres.3. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Appendix 2. Powder . Tamaka áv¡sa.4. Glycoside.2. Ka¶u Guru. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. ViÀamajvara DOSE .áotha.1-3 g of the drug in powder form.7 on upper surface. V¡takara. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa. 2.2. Pittakara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Agnim¡ndya. Lava¸a.Alkaloid.2. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. 2.2. stomata diacytic. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.6-30.

Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. Karka¶¢. utilissimus Roxb. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. Hastipani.4 cm wide.3-0. cotyledons two. glossy. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. 0. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. surface smooth. Cucurbitaceae). parenchymatous. cultivated in many parts of the country. Ervaru (Sd. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. (Fam. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. more or less ellipsoid. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. radially elongated to squarish. covered with thick cuticle. B¤hatphala. Vellarika Kakadi. an annual creeping herb. creamish-yellow. C. mesophyll cells thinwalled. parenchymatous cells. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains.17. taste. -Kakur. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. straight.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains.7-10 cm long. rounded and tangentially elongated. 0. shows stone cells. Hastipani. 40 . thin-walled. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. sweetish oily.

D¡dhika Gh¤ta. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. Appendix 0.L.0.0.83. RaktadoÀakara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0. Raktapitta. T¤À¸¡. 0. Tikta Guru.7. 2.91 and 0. 0. 0.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.Oil & Sugars.6.51. 0. 0.35. 0. 0.C. 0.IDENTITY. Rucya.77.91 and 0.19. Appendix 10 per cent.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.64. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. 41 . THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡takara. 0.19. D¢pana. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.91 (blue) under U. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .D¡ha.58.2. Kaphakara.83.35. of seeds. Appendix 4 per cent.51.2. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.5 per cent. 0. Gulma.58.26.2. 0.77. 2. 0. A¿mar¢.3.97 (all yellow) . Pittahara.64. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Jvara.3-6 g.2.97 (all grey).C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2.0.V.2.4. Appendix 5 per cent. T.26. (366 mm).

Seed . brownish-grey. Orissa.18. smooth.4-0. a large epiphytic climber. thin-walled. odour and taste not disticnt.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. shiny. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands.4 cm wide. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. greyish-brown with a dent. (Fam.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried.Kidney-shaped.0-3. rough and scaly.5 cm thick. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.0 cm in diameter and 2. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal.Shows more or less loosely arranged. b) Microscopic Fruit .3-0. 0. 42 . Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . cut surface has a central core. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Gajapippali (Fr. Araceae). odour and taste not distinct.0-3.6 cm long.

65. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. 0. 0. oval to polygonal.65. 0. K¤miroga. áv¡sa. 0. non-lignified. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.6. Punarnav¡sava.4.65. pitted and with concentric striations. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.93 (all yellow).2.73 and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. T. 0. Ka¸ha Roga.7. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.C. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. 2.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. thin-walled. 2.Shows a single layered. 2-4 layered. oval to polygonal. shows lignified.Atis¡ra.L. Kaphahara.5 per cent. 0. oval to polygonal.2. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.93 (brown). thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. thick-walled. V¡tahara. Sugars & Fixed Oil. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C.93 (all blue) are visible. thick-walled.áiv¡gutik¡. 0. Malavi¿oÀana.2-3 g. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf.C. in extract (Phant) form.Dark brown.2. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ka¸¶hya. Stanya. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. 2. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.Glucosides viz.Seed . 43 . Three spots appear at Rf. 2. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. CONSTITUENTS . sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.V.65 and 0.2.27. DOSE . 0. Powder . 0. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.27.2. IDENTITY. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. 0.L.2. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. Appendix T. Agnivardhaka. 2.20. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.3.73 and 0.73 (both light brown) and 0.

mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. thin-walled. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. b) Microscopic Fruit . 0. Sr¢par¸¢.6 cm wide. cotyledons consisting of single layered. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp.Seed ovate. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. Seed . taste. Seed . Hannu -Kumbil. sweetish sour. radially 44 . seed coat thin. papery.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. P¢takarohi¸¢. two seeded.5-2. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha.) unarmed tree. Gambhari (Fr. black. K¡¿marya. parenchymatous cells. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. Shivani. taste. crinkled. surface smooth.4-0. 0. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. oily. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered.19. multilayered. tangentially elongated. Verbenaceae). ovoid. sometimes one seeded.0 cm long. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. fleshy mesocarp. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells.5-1 cm long.A drupe. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. 1. light yellow. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled cells.

oil globules and aleurone grains. Sara.D¡ha. Appendix 25 per cent.6.2.03. M£trak¤cchra. 0.7. Ke¿ya.Arvind¡sava. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.94 and 0.98 (orange). Pittahara.C. V¡tahara. Ras¡yana. 2.18. 45 .C. 0. Amla. Appendix 8 per cent. 0.1-3 g. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KaÀ¡ya Guru.2. 0.98 (all yellow).4.L.12. 0. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . T¤À¸¡.2. Tartaric acid. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 2.98 (all blue).2. H¤dya. 0.V. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. T. of the drug in powder form. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Rakta Pitta DOSE .4 per cent. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains.. 0.93 and 0. Alkaloid. Appendix 2.elongated epidermal cells.2. Resin and Saccharine. Powder . 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.Blackish-brown. H¤droga.03. 0.52. KÀaya. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. 0. IDENTITY. KÀata. shows stone cells. Under U.3. CONSTITUENTS .L. 0.22. Appendix 0.2.08.42. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. 0. Medhya. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.26.98 (yellow) in visible light.Butyric acid. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.

Grewia populifolia Vahl. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. (Fam. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex wide. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. a shrub 0. fracture. rectangular. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. arranged in radial groups. 1. radially arranged cells.6-1. blunt tips and moderately long in size. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Tiliaceae).Shows a wide cork. external surface smooth. Syn. moderately large in size. a few stone cells. channelled. thin-walled. Gangeru (St.5-5 cm long. consisting of 12-20 layered. fibrous.) Aschers & Schwf..20. thick-walled. consisting of tangentially elongated. light yellow. taste. fibrous. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. mucilaginous. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .0 m high. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. traversed by wide phloem rays. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. elliptical. oval. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. 46 .) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk.Bk.

0.41. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.08 (violet). 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.55. T. 0.Vra¸a.L. Appendix per cent.J¢rak¡di Modaka.17 (light violet). IDENTITY.17. of the drug in powder form. Amla. Under U. 0. β-amyrin etc.55 (blue) & 0. 0.64 (blue). 0. 0.Powder . Appendix per cent. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.68 (light violet) & 0.2-3 g.2.Light yellow and fibrous.V. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.08. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.29 (blue). 0. 0. DOSE .C.L. 0.35 (dark blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10).2.27.4.08 (blue) 0.6. 2. 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.). Appendix per cent. 0. 0. α-amyrin.3.13 (blue).88 (all yellow). 2.2. 0. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles.68 & 0. 2. 0. 0. 0.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. Pittavik¡ra.2.Sugar.88 (light violet).61. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.17.7. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Appendix 2.48. 0. 0. 0. 47 .35 (violet). CONSTITUENTS .C. Tikta. Two spots are seen at Rf.35. Ka¶u. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.27 (light violet). Appendix per cent.48 (violet).

Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. soft. Gurivinda Ghongchi. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. cylindrical. Kundumani Guriginga. some with brownish content. odourless. tangentially elongated cells. light brown. Kakananti Rati Kunch. composed of 1-2 cells wide. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. Chonotee Ratti. Chanothee. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. taste. a climber. fruits ripen during winter. most often irregularly curved. pitted walls. feebly sweetish. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m.21. Gunja (Rt. slightly corky. cork cambium. becoming mildly bitter. thinwalled. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . when distinct. present at short intervals. gulagunja -Kunni. Fabaceae). comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. smaller than stone cells. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. Ghungchi Guluganji. spreading throughout the plains. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. b) Microscopic Root . bark thin. simple or branched. flowering in August-September.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. (Fam. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. exfoliating in small flakes.

small groups of sclerenchyma. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. thin-walled and rectangular. 2. of the drug in powder form. 49 . Tikta á¢ta.3 g. parenchyma thin-walled. Powder . CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 4 per cent. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.2.1 .3. DOSE . Appendix 10 per cent. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma.4. Mukha¿oÀa. 2. Appendix 9 per cent. Pittahara. IDENTITY. shows fragments of cork. stone cells.Greyish-brown. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5.5 per cent. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. wood composed of narrow concentric. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. 2.6. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.2.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .diverging towards periphery. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. numerous xylem fibres.2. xylem vessels with pitted walls. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. Appendix 2.Indralupta. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.75 µ in diameter.2. 2.5 -13.5-13. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes.7. pitted walls.75 µ in diameter. áula.2. vessels of varying sizes with thick.

besides the xylem and phloem elements. distinct node and internode. Ikshu (St. b) Microscopic Stem . grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. Poaceae). conjoint. more numerous and closer towards periphery. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. 50 . solid. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. smooth. taste. juicy and sweet. characteristic.) shrub. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. with. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. scattered throughout the ground tissue. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. closed type of vascular bundles. odour. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high.22. (Fam. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. lignified. cylindrical. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. Serdi Ikha. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn.

2.Sucrose. 2. vessels and sclerenchyma.2. Appendix 2. DOSE . Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.7. Sara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .4.3.Raktapitta.2. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.2. 2.Bal¡ Taila.5 per cent.2.200 . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.2. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. 2. IDENTITY.400 ml in the juice form. Kaphahara. Appendix Not more than 2. M£tra KÀaya. V¡tahara. Balya. Pittahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent.Powder light brick red. V¤Àya. ground tissue. shows pieces of epidermis.Powder .6. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 51 .

5 µ in dia. mostly simple or rarely 52 . vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. thick walled. slightly twisted. Indravaruni (Rt. parenchymatous cells. Havumakke. short. parenchyma and medullary rays. (Fam.5-7. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. longitudinal fissures present. an annual or perennial.5 cm thick. Tumbi Paikamatti. Indrayanalata. thick-walled. intensively bitter. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. parenchyma and medullary rays. áatakratulat¡. Paythumatti. starch grains oval to round in shape 2.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Tuntikai. Bitter apple Indravaran. b) Microscopic Root . wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. tangentially elongated. lying around vessels. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. cylindrical. consisting of vessels. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. thin walled. fracture. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. dull yellow. composed of sieve elements.2-2. Indravaruni. Varithummati. fibres. tangentially elongated cork cells. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. occurring throughout the country. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. taste. Valiya Pekkumatti.) Cucurbitaceae). medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. Indramanoa. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. 0. Indrayan. fibres aseptate. xylem forms bulk of root. Indravarana Gothakakucti. elongated with pointed ends.23. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. pitted. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. a few filled with dark brown contents. Gav¡kÀ¢. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. smooth. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. 1 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds.25.Brown coloured. Seed . the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Fam.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis.) Skeels Syn. rounded starch grains. cuminii Druce. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia.. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. oval or roundish. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. coriaceous covering. taste. a large evergreen tree. Jambu (Sd. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam.800 m. E. 57 .. thin-walled.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. brownish-black. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. Myrtaceae). 1 cm wide. oval. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. b) Microscopic Powder . astringent. mesophyll composed of isodiametric.

Pittahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.30 (blue).2.L. 0.7. 2. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.12. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.IDENTITY.95 and 0. 2. ViÀ¶ambhi. three spots appear at Rf.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 0.L.C.95 (all yellow). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. Udakameha. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 0.V.2.20.Glycoside (Jamboline).95 (all violet). Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.30 and 0.2.3.3-6 g. 58 . 2. Kaphahara.30 and 0. Tannin.Madhumeha. Appendix per cent. T.2. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS . Amla. 0. 0.4. DOSE .20.2. 2.6.

. (Fam. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. lower cork thin and colourless. Jambu. stratified and reddish-brown.5 cm thick. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. Myrtaceae).800 m. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. elongated. and phloem rays. younger bark mostly channelled. 0. Neralamara -Njaval. short and splintery. Mahamaram.) Skeels Syn.Bk. Jamneralae. Jamu. Navval Sambu. upper few layers thick. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. light grey to ash coloured. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3.5-2. Jambuda Jomuna. rough. forming a rhytidoma. E. cuminii Druce. Jam Jammu Naaval.26. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. a large evergreen tree. internal surface fibrous. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. Jambu (St. Raja Jambu Merale. Eugenia jambolana Lam. stone cells. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. and reddish brown. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . cork cambium not distinct. fibres aseptate. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. fracture.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. taste. oval to angular. astringent.

of the drug for decoction. Appendix 2. round to oval starch grains.7. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . round to oval starch grains. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 2. 2. DOSE .Light brown.2.10-20 g. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. single or in groups.2. Raktapitta. elongated. 2. Appendix per cent. Stambhaka. IDENTITY.6. reddish-brown content. 2. Appendix per cent. stone cells.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.3. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.Atis¡ra. THERAPEUTIC USES . oval to angular.2. Appendix per cent. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. 60 . aseptate fibres. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.4. Pittahara. V¡tala.2.region. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .U¿¢r¡sava. Kaphahara. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.2.

consisting of a large endosperm. thin-walled cells. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. slightly bent at middle. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Nervala -Nervalam. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. Tinti·¢phala. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. no marked odour. Japal beej. Jayapala (Sd. dull cinnamon-brown. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. found throughout tropical India. 61 .27. ovate. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. Neervalam Jepal. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. b) Microscopic Seed . oblong. Neervalam. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal.) small evergreen tree. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. kernel yellowish and oily. slightly quadrangular. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. Japala. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous.Shows a hard testa. consisting of an epidermal layer. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. filled with brownish content. Euphorbiaceae). 5-7 m high. (Fam.

2. 0. Appendix 2.Fixed oil. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. CONSTITUENTS .34. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0. 62 .2. 0. 0.84 (brown).7. 0.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa.L. 2. Pittahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . T.V.54 and 0. Appendix 0. Appendix 15 per cent. 2. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.63 and 0. 0. of the drug in powder form.6.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.3.6-12 mg.5 per cent. 0. 0.39.2. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.90 (all yellow).29. Appendix 3 per cent.L. Vibandha DOSE . central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Powder . 0.4. Udararoga.White with black particles of testa.C.2.49. 2.84 (all violet). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.10.34 (grey). a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. Resins & Phorbol esters.C.2. IDENTITY. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. Appendix 7 per cent.54 (yellow). Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Jvara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. 2.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.

pith small. á£kÀma patra. short lived shrub. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. 1. Jalugu. a quick growing. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. polygonal. 0. glabrous. having secretory cavities in phloem.3-0. very shortly stalked. consisting of thin-walled. oblong. Arishimajingai.7 layered round.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn.8 cm wide.3 cm long. linear. paripinnate.28. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. Jay¡.5-15.. Lamina . b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . Atti.0-3. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. (Fam. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. stomata anisocytic. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. entire. palisade single layered. Fabaceae). parenchymatous cells. 1.5 cm long.) Merr. Karijimangai. jayata Arinintajinamgi. -Semp. Jayanti (Lf. 63 . S.Syn.shows single layered epidermis. mucronate to acuminate. present on both surfaces. opposite. leaflets 6-16 pairs. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. Jayanti Jaita. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. aegyptiaca Pers. 7.8-6 m high.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.

Pittahara.56 (all pink) and 0.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 0.37.11.19.2. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. 0.29. palisade cells. T. 64 . 0.05. 0.C.7.19. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Ras¡yana. Calcium and Phosphorus. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.2. 0.25-4. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .97 (all yellow). 0.2. in powder form.48. Galaga¸·a.19.4. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.2. shows spongy parenchyma. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 0.91 and 0.11.Protein. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.37.3-6 g. 2. 0. ViÀaroga.L. 0. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .Dull green. Appendix per cent.56.V.29. 0. 0. 0. 0. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. 0. 0. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3. IDENTITY. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. 0.97 (all grey). 2. Appendix per cent.05. 0. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.C.69.91 and 0. 0. 2.11.L. Powder .48. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Ratnagiri Rasa. 0. 0.05.2.2. V¡tahara. 0.6. palisade ratio 3.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.97 (yellow). 0.M£trak¤cchra.29.56.

Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin.29. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . collapsed. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni.5-3. ripe seeds. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. (Fam. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. seed without aril also prescent. Gangunge beeja. unpleasant. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari.35 mm in breadth. a large climbing shrub.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. surface generally smooth and. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. Celastraceae). light to dark brown.hard. odour. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. Seed . tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. bitter. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. taste. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. brownish-orange. Gangunge humpu. colour. Jyotishmati (Sd. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.

Appendix 45 per cent. D¢pana.35. Kaphahara.8 IDENTITY.82 (pink) & 0. 0.L.Oily. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.89 (all yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.89 (both greenish blue). 0. 0. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. (all blue) & 0.2.82. 0. 0. stone cells.54. 0. Appendix 9 per cent.Alkaloids. 0.20.82 & 0. Appendix 1. 0.C. áirovirecanopaga.63. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.C.7.3.2. Appendix 2. Meddhya 66 . Appendix 6 per cent. thin-walled. dark brown.V. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.5 per cent. 0. 2.54. 2.V. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.2. Oil and Tannins. 2. 0. 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.2.L.6. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.composed of polygonal. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.35.2.54 (both blue). Appendix 20 per cent. Virecaka. UÀ¸a. Tikta Sara.2. Powder . Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.89. 2.2. 0. V¡tahara. 0.94 (yellow). embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. 2. CONSTITUENTS .82. 0. Under U.94 (yellow) in visible light. V¡maka.04.15.

Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.V¡tavy¡dh¢. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Seed: 1-2 g. 67 . Oil : 5-15 drops. Sm¤tidaurbalya. ávitra.

(Fam. Kadamba Kadamba. Priyka Roghu. Kadamba (St. Vellaikhadambu. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kadamba mara. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. phloem composed of sieve tubes.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Kadamba Nipo. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Kadappai. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. a few cells with brown contents. traversed by uni to triseriate. Indulam.. bitter. Kadavala. Rich. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Syn. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. 68 b) Microscopic . internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadam Kadam. a deciduous. Vellai Kadambam. taste. composed of thin-walled. rectangular cells. indicus A. Rubiaceae).30. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Kadambu Needam. A.Bk. some cells contain chlorophyll. large tree. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. elongated cells of phloem rays. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya.

0. phloem cells. Appendix 1.21. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13.1.C. Raktapitta.13.5 g.2.4. 0. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.7. L C. 69 . 0.3.64. YonidoÀa.79 (grey) and 0.Alkaloids. Vra¸aropa¸a. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. T. 0. 0.79. 0. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. Powder . Appendix 3 per cent. Steroids.6. Lava¸a. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. fibres. 0. 0.2. Appendix 2. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .83 and 0.2.90 (grey). ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). Graha¸¢mihira Taila.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. shows fragments of cork cells. 0.5 per cent.D¡ha. Vra¸a.Brown.57.2. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.5 .03. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5:10) shows under U.2. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.phloem fibres. 2. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. 0. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.2.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 2. Appendix 9 per cent.L. Appendix 5 per cent. DOSE . 0.70 (orange yellow).31. of the drug in powder form. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tahara. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. CONSTITUENTS . 0. cells distinct and slightly elongated.63 (yellowish grey). Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.

oblong. filaments short. glabrous. Ganikesopu. externally smooth. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. bark thin. Flower . 1. flattened. sub-umbellate. 3-8 flowered cymes. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia.5 cm long and 2. thin. slightly woody and branched. quite common in cultivated lands. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5 mm long. slender. Pikachia. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. style cylindric. glabrous or pubescent. obtuse notched at apex.2-2.) Solanaceae). yellowish. Leaf . very slender.5-8. 2. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. five lobed.31. hairy at base. pale brown. ovary globose. obtuse. anther 1.25 mm long. a herbaceous annual weed.P. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Ganikegida. Manatakkali. Kakamachi (W. ovate or oblong. extra-axillary. 30-45 cm high. toothed or lobed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. oblong. glabrous. Manaththakkali. corolla 4-8 mm long. (Fam. petiolate. green. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. narrowed at both ends. peduncles 6-20 mm long.Small. Manitakkali. pedicels 6-10 mm long. found throughout the country in dry parts. sinuate. calyx 2-3 mm long. ganike. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. 70 . white or pale violet. road sides and gardens.Simple. hairy in lower part. Stem .Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots.5 cm wide.Erect.

compactly arranged. 6mm in dia. pith large. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. starch grains. conjoint and open. composed of thin-walled. arcshaped. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. xylem rays homogenous. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells.10 layered in angular parts.. Midrib . parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces.5-11 µ in dia. tangentially elongated. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. slightly striated cuticle. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. 1. bicollateral. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. obtuse. covering trichomes. cortex of large. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. yellow or black. LeafPetiole . uniseriate. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. smooth shining Seed .. trichomes multicellular. embedded in perimedullary zones.A berry.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. usually accompanied by fibres.Fruit . parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. internal phloem.5 mm in dia. measuring 2. cambium 2-4 layered. yellow. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. covered with thick. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. Stem . slightly elongated. uniseriate. parenchyma 4-6 layered. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.25 µ in dia. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. central vascular bundle shallow. oval to round starch grains. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. uniseriate. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces.' oval parenchymatous cells. smooth. arc71 . radially elongated cells. endoderrnis single layered. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. covered with striated cuticle. measuring 2. covered with striated cuticle. filled with starch grains. single or with two or rarely 3 components.Discoid.Shows single layered. rays composed of thin-walled. epidermis single layered. minutely pitted.5-8. polygonal cells. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. in small or large patches. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. vascular bundles-collateral. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. but 4. phloem rays uniseriate. phloem consists of thin-walled... xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma.

97 (all yellow). 0. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. a few broken pieces of pointed. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. 72 . scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. single. Fruit . Appendix per cent.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.dorsiventral.2. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .6. stomata anisocytic.5 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. a few vessels with spiral thickenings. Appendix per cent.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. present beneath palisade parenchyma.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.2.Shows thin. IDENTITY. papery epicarp.34 (both pink). 2.Creamish-green.L. T.7. 034 and 0. vein islet number 7-10. unicellular hairs. Appendix per cent.L.06 & 0. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.06 & 0.4. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. measuring 2. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.3.34 (both brown) in visible light. palisade ratio 2-4.2.11 µ in diameter. epidermis with irregular outline.2. Lamina . Appendix 2. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.2. 2. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. palisade single layered. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. Powder . seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. 2.V.Alkaloids and Saponins.06. Appendix per cent. Under U. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 2.

Tikta Laghu. V¡tahara. KuÀ¶ha. Ar¿a. of the drug in juice form. Hikk¡. Chardi. Prameha. DOSE .áotha. Pittahara. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Svarya. H¤dya. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Kaphahara. Netraroga. Ka¸·u. Sara. Rasar¡ja Rasa.5 -10 ml.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Jvara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 73 . THERAPEUTIC USES . H¤droga. Ras¡yana.

anther. fruit an etaerio of achenes. corolla.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. broken pieces also occur. finely veined. Kamala (Fl. Tavare. Kamal. petals numerous. Thamaraipoo.. starchy and large. 74 . aquatic herb with creeping stem. Aravindan. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. sepals leaf-like. a large.32. Pamposh Tamarai. Paduman.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. obtuse. embedded in a creamy. Sarojam Kaluva. Kanwal Kamal. dark brown. gynoecium and thalamus. androecium. elliptic. erect. crimpled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. 3-5 cm long. free. crimp led. Venthamara. 2-4 cm long. Naidile. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. 1. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. yellowish-brown. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Aravinda. (Fam. Nymphaeaceae). Kalh¡ra.4-2 cm long. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. seed hard. Padma. linear 1. membranous. 1. Kamalam. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. Chenthamara.5-3 cm wide. Sitopala. comprising of calyx. black. Syn. carpels many. gynoceium apocarpous. extended into clavate appendages. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia.3-2 cm wide. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal.

2. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent.Dusty brown. followed by ground tissue of oval.2. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. Appendix per cent.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . Visarpa. of the drug for decoction. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. having smooth exine and intine. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. Stamen Filament .2. Sant¡pahara. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. Powder . parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. composed of thin-walled. Tikta. IDENTITY. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. spore sac contains yellow. 2. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. M£tra Virajan¢ya. yellow pollen grains.2.shows four chambered anther. Pittahara.Raktapitta. 2. 2. . Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. spherical. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.3. 2. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells.2. vascular bundle single. two on either sides. Appendix per cent. ViÀavik¡ra. columnar. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.6.7. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle.Aravind¡sava.2.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). Anther . measuring 50-61 µ in dia.12 -24 g. angular.filament appears circular in outline. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. parenchymatous cell. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. Appendix 2. rectangular.

Rutaceae). found in groups. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. Balada.shows irregular. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. taste.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. stone cells. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. axillary thorns. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. Kavataleal. glabrous tree with strong. stone cells. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. odour. sour. elephantum Correa (Faro. Pulp. Kapittha (Fr. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. Siwalik range and forests. Powder . a deciduous.) Swingle. often cultivated in many parts of India. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. semicircular. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. thin-walled. Belalu. reddish brown. F. slightly triangular and oval. Belada hannu. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Syn. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. 76 . b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . found throughout the plains of India.Reddish-brown. aromatic. straight. rough. sharp. parenchymatous cells. Bilvara.33. Haminamara -Vilar maram. hard. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings.

Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.91 and 0.14 (sky blue). 77 .06.95 (violet) . Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.91 (blue) and 0.50. V¡mi.C.95 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Gr¡h¢.12. Appendix per cent. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. 0.2. Vra¸an¡¿aka. 2. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.2. Lekhana. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. 0. 6. 0. of the drug in powder form.C. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Agnim¡ndya.áv¡sa. CONSTITUENTS .2. Hikk¡.IDENTITY.50 (violet). Amla.L.4. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. 0. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. 2. 0.91 (grey) in visible light. Under U.1-3 g.7.2. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta.2. 0.91 (violet) and 0.12 (brown).L.95 (all yellow). (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.2.V. Unripe Pulp: Amla.6. Appendix per cent. T. DOSE . 2. Sangr¡h¢. Pittav¡tahara. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. Ripe-T¤À¡.37 (brown). KaÀ¡ya. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.37.Citric acid and Mucilage. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0.

flat or slightly curved pieces. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. met throughout India in wild state. fracture. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled.34.Bk.Greyish-brown. (Fam . short. light in weight. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. starch grains simple. shows single and groups of stone cells. simple and compound starch grains. internal surface grey and smooth. 78 . a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. and compound having 2-3 components. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. sometimes cultivated. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. external surface brownish-grey. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres.) Apocynaceae). prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. rough due to longitudinal striations. tubular. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. b) Microscopic Powder . Karamarda (St. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3.

Appendix per cent.C.2. Appendix per cent. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0. 0.52 (light sky blue).90 (pink) and 0.97 (violet).Marma Gu¶¢k¡. 2.C. DOSE . 2.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.2. Pittakara.V.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.48 g. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. T.58 (both light grey).IDENTITY. Appendix 2. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0. of the drug for decoction.7.2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.3.2.L.35.L. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 0.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.4.KuÀthahara. 79 . Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.

Naktam¡la. fibrous. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. Karanja (Rt. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. due to peeling off. very bitter. a glabrous tree.) glabra Vent. 3-11 µ in dia. (Fam. secondary phloem very wide. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.. tangentially elongated cells. tangentially elongated. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Nakt¡hv¡. internally.) Merr. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. single cells of varying shape and size. Bk. most of phloem 80 . traversed by phloem rays. Syn. thin-walled. P.35. cells. Fabaceae). Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. external surface rough. fracture. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja.. taste. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.

ViÀaghma. Ëntravidradhi.13 (Sky blue). cork cells. Ka¸·u. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. consisting of thin-walled. DOSE . phloem rays many.47 (greenish yellow). KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.25 (sky blue). 0.80 (light blue). 0.18 (blue) 0. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Ka¸·£ghna. Tikta. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf.51. THERAPEUTIC USES . phloem fibres. CONSTITUENTS . shows thin-walled.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.5 per cent.C. 0. V¡tahara. Appendix 2 per cent. Appendix 3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. KuÀtha. 0.4.7.31 (sky blue). of the drug for decoction. 0. 0. 2. 0.47.09. Appendix 11 per cent.2.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .18. 81 .04 (blue).51 (light blue). most of ray cells contain starch grain.Flavones Kanugin.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.37 (greenish yellow).1-3 g.L. 0. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0.3. DuÀ¶avra¸a. Powder -Creamish-yellow. 2. parenchymatous cells. T. 0.31.L. Pittahara. 0. 1-2 seriate.K¤miroga. Prameha. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. Appendix 2. 0.V.98 (all yellow).08 (greenish blue). 0.47. IDENTITY. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter.6.2.C.37.2.80 and 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex.42 (sky blue). mostly straight. 0.2. 0.2. 0. Appendix 17 per cent. 0. 0. Yoniroga. similar to those present in secondary cortex.

Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. secondary phloem a very wide zone. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components.36. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres.. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. consisting of 82 . Karanja (Rt.. irregularly distributed. fracture. rough due to the presence of numerous. reddish-brown or dull brown.) Vent. thin-walled. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. light in weight. bark. Nakt¡hv¡. tangentially elongated cells. Syn. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Karaµjaka. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. internally light yellow. bark does not easily separate from xylem. tangentially elongated. 3-11 µ in dia. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. P.) Merr. Fabaceae). a glabrous tree. taste. cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. (Fam. bitter. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. 1-2 seriate. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. rounded to oval in shape.

DuÀ¶avra¸a.radially elongated. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. Vra¸a¿odhana. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Prameha.2.2. 83 . K¤miroga. 2. V¡tahara. Yoniroga. ViÀaghna. shows fibres in singles or groups.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. fibres and parenchyma.7. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE .2. 2.2.Methylfisetin. rounded to oval in shape. tracheids. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. Powder -Light yellow. Pongachromene & Tetra-O.6. 2. Demethoxy-kanugin. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. IDENTITY. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.3. CONSTITUENTS . xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Ka¸·£. Pittahara. 2. tangentially elongated towards outer region. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells.4. consisting of 2-3 components.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. more.2.Karanjin. Appendix per cent. starch grains. Vidradh¢. Appendix per cent. Tikta.1-2 g. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form. Kanugin. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. Ëntravidradh¢. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. KuÀ¶ha. Kaphahara.. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. thin-waned cells towards inner region. Appendix per cent.

37. Karanja (St. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. at some places lenticels also appear. arranged in a tangential manner. filled with reddish-brown content. tangentially elongated. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. Nakt¡hv¡. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. b) Microscopic Bark . fracture. more or less smooth. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. bitter. odour. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. usually 0.) glabra Vent.. parenchymatous cells. alternating with stone cells. traversed by medullary rays. slightly quilled. 84 . phloem fibre and stone cells. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Fabaceae). taste. fibre small. thin-walled. thick-walled cells.) Merr. Karaµjaka. phloem parenchyma. unpleasant. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. lenticellate pieces. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja.2-1 cm thick. composed of rectangular. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. Syn.Bk. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. P. recurved. (Fam. Karanja. a glabrous tree. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. short and fibrous. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured.

Pinnatin. Ëntravidradh¢. Yoniroga DOSE . KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. 3" 7 : 8). 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. 85 . Pittahara. measuring 3-14 µ in dia.DuÀ¶avra¸a. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.2. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. 3". rounded to oval. CONSTITUENTS .2.5 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 13 per cent. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. 5Methoxyfurano (2". Powder -Yellowish-cream. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape.6. Prameha. oil globules. aseptate fibre and stone cells. K¤miroga. 2. Kanugin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. present in secondary cortex. Ka¶u. ViÀaghma. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". IDENTITY. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem.3. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. starch grains simple. Appendix 2. Appendix 18 per cent. Demethoxy- kanugin. usually 2-4 cells wide. medullary rays wavy. KuÀ¶ha.. Kaphahara. elongated. Ka¸·u. and rarely.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. Tikta. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal.7. Appendix 1. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Gamatin. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vidradh¢.4. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 3 per cent. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. thin-walled and aseptate.2. simple and compound starch grains. 2. Pongapin.polygonal. 2. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara.2.2.2.1-2 g. 2.

) Merr. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. Karanja. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . consisting of xylem and phloem. Syn. (Fam.11. cortex consisting of angular. Karaµjaka. a glabrous tree. Karanja (Lf.5-0. Pongana Ganuga. xylem vessels arranged radially. traversed by xylem rays. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. 86 . leaflets 2-3 pairs.8 cm.5 cm long and 3. epidermis single layered. P. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. isodiametric. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consistig of tabular cells. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. vascular bundle single. 6. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.38. dark green. petiolule short. Kanajo Karuaini.9-8. Unu. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. arcshaped. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. Dithouri Honge..2 . 0. covered with cuticle. Nakt¡hv¡.) Vent. Hulagilu -Pungu. Ungu.circular in outline.3 cm wide.

V¡tahara.(4". KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Appendix 16 per cent. palisade two layered. Powder -Green. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. Kaphahara. shows spiral xylem vessels. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring.Mid rib . 5". Ka¶u. phloem and pith. stomata anisocytic. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. . epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". covered with thick cuticle. 2. CONSTITUENTS .4. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. 5" .6. K¤imihara.2.6.3. Pittavardhaka.5". palisade ratio 3.2. cortex consists of round to oval.6.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. 7) -flavone.5-20. 2. Ka¸·ughna. collateral. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. consisting of tabular cells. stomatal index 12. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. 2.5-50. vascular bundle. Appendix 2.6.shows single layered epidermis. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.5) .2. present in lower surface. mesophyll cells. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . Appendix 11 per cent. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.7. Tikta. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.2.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Appendix 10 per cent.2. 2. Appendix 3.2.A new Furanoflavone -3' .5 per cent.

Ka¸·au. KuÀ¶ha.For external use only.J¡ty¡di Taila.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vra¸a. DOSE .K¤miroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . 88 .

Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.7.2.Fr. Varivall¢. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa.6.2. Appendix 28 per cent.2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.2. oblong. (Fam. 2. usually pointed or beaked. upto an altitude of 1500 m. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. taste.39. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . Karavallaka (Fresh.3.25 cm long. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. 2. 2. K¡ravall¢. Nil Appendix 8.6 per cent. surface rough. Appendix 0. pendulous.5 per cent. fusiform.2. IDENTITY. extremely bitter.) Cucurbitaceae). Appendix 6 per cent. 3 valved at the apex when mature. 2.4.2. Kakiral. Kathilla. Appendix 2.5 .

90 . 0. 0. K¡sa. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.98 (all yellow). 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. Prameha.16.áv¡sa. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.98 (red & sky blue).81 and 0.75. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. K¤miroga.96 (sky blue). DOSE .61 (light sky blue). 0. juice of fresh drug. Aruci.67 and 0. K¡mal¡. H¤dya. Raktavik¡ra.15 ml.L. 0. Kaphahara. V¡tahara. 0. 0.C. CONSTITUENTS .Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 0.98 (all blue).L. THERAPEUTIC USES . T. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0. 0.23 (red). 0. 0. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.03. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.V.34.17. KuÀ¶ha.T.C. D¢pana.43. P¡¸·u.10 . 0. Jvara.60.46.50.

externally greyish-brown. b) Microscopic Rhizome . fracture. (Fam.1 cm in diameter. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. odour. taste. short. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. primary cortex persists 91 . circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. odour. Kauka. Scrophulariaceae). bitter.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated.40. bitter. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. 5-10 cm long.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. suberised cells. fracture. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. kaur Katuka rohini. cylindrical. straight or slightly curved. dusty grey. Kaurohi¸¢. cork cambium 1-2 layered. Katuka rohini Kutki. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. a perennial.Thin. subcylindrical. Tiktarohi¸¢. Katki. Kav¢. inner surface black with whitish xylem. Katuka (Rz.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. pleasant. .2. Sutiktaka. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. cortex single layered or absent.05-0. mostly attached with rhizomes. short. Root . katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. 0. Rohi¸¢. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. pleasant. taste. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Katuku rohini.

0. starch grains. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends.6. abundantly found in all cells. IDENTITY. 2. 0. T.V. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. simple round to oval. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf.37. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. vessels have varying shape and size. thick-walled cells of endodermis.in some cases. 0. parenchyma and fibres.21. parenchyma.2.30. 0. secondary xylem consists of vessels. 2.L.41.84 (all brownish grey).2.Dusty grey.L. tracheids long.30 (blue) and 0. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. 0. cortex 8-14 layered. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.35 (green)..104 µ in diameter. secondary phloem poorly developed. shows groups of fragments of cork cells.41 and 0. thick-walled. 0.30. Appendix per cent. measuring 25 . some cylindrical with taillike. tracheids. thick-walled. Appendix 2. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. Appendix per cent. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.84 (all yellow). tapering ends. hypodermis single layered. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. thick-walled. Appendix per cent.72 and 0. consisting of oval to polygonal. 2. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. 92 . starch grains.10.21. 0. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. 0. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres.62. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. cambium 2-4 layered. simple round to oval. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.10.2. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. lignified.17.2. fibres aseptate. thick-walled.C.3. 0.05 (blue). 0.4. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls.2. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. 0.05.2.17. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. Powder .C. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. 0. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent.7. tracheids. 0.

áv¡sa. Bhedin¢.1 . ViÀamajvara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Jvara. DOSE .CONSTITUENTS . D¡ha. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. Pittahara. of the drug in powder form.3 g. K¡mal¡.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Arocaka. D¢pan¢. KuÀ¶ha. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. THERAPEUTIC USES .Glucoside (Picrorhizin). 93 . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya.

didynamous. externally greyish-brown. Kettu. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara.Greenish-brown. upper sepal 1. annual herb. all linear-lanceolate.Anders (Fam.3 cm long. Nirchulli. Kalsunda --Golmidi.6 cm long. Vayalculli Talikhana. common in water logged places throughout the country. Kolavankal ---.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. 1-7 cm long.41. stamens 4. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. broader than the other three.5 cm long. Flower . a spiny. Hygrophila spinosa T. Syn.Usually unbranched. no characteristic odour and taste. bracts about 2. Culli. sub-quadrangular. Leaf . acute. Stem . whitish to brown. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . no characteristic odour and taste. which are 1. 0. entire and hairy. second pair 94 . Kolarind. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. tube 1. lanceolate. calyx 4-partite. swollen at nodes. Kokilaksha (W. corolla 3. stout.6-2 cm long.Yellowish-brown.Mostly adventitious. Nirguvireru. with long white hairs.5-1 cm wide. fasciculate. IkÀuraka.Acanthaceae). coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins.P. abruptly swollen at top. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. subsessile. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. widely 2 lipped.2 cm long.

polygonal cells. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular.8 cm long. cortical cells thin-walled. Fruit . hairy but appearing smooth. subequal.15 cm wide. capsule about 0. thin-walled cells. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. inner cells smaller. compressed. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. composed of transversely elongate. round. truncate at the base. 4seeded. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. style filiform. glabrous. light brown. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips.0. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. broader towards centre. with a number of large air cavities. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. variable in size. xylem present in a ring. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. 95 . ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. brownish cells.2-0. pubescent.larger. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. having small intercellular spaces. thin-walled. radially arranged. pith large. stigma simple. fibre walls uniformly thickened. fibres thick-walled. Stem . most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. radially elongated in xylem region. flat or compressed. peripheral ones larger. endodermis single layered. pointed.1 . involute with a fissure on upper side. a few thick-walled.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. ray cells thin walled. linear-oblong. consisting of round to polygonal cells. vessels with spiral thickenings. phloem fibres thick-walled.Two celled. arranged in radial rows. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. ray cells thin-walled. radially elongated in secondary xylem. b) Microscopic Root . scattered throughout the phloem region. rectangular to cubical. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. anthers two celled. moderately thick-walled.Ovate. filament quite glabrous.25 cm long and 0. single or in groups of 2-3. oblong. Seed . secondary xylem forms continuous ring. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. phloem narrow. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. arranged radially. composed of polygonal. vessels angular. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. 0.

spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. Powder . acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.2. Fruit . palisade ratio 6. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. M£trala.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. V¡jikara. V¤Àya. stomata diacytic. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Amla. IDENTITY. sclerenchymatous cells.75. parenchymatous. stomatal index 17.2.4.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. collenchyma 2-5 layered. Tikta Picchila. oval to hexagonal.2. parenchymatous cells. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. shows aseptate.LeafMidrib .2. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. Appendix per cent.7. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . Lamina . elongated fibres. lignified. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening.2. thick-walled. Rucya.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered.3.6. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. thin-walled. Seed .78. 2. palisade 1-2 layered.25-15. tangentially elongated cells. composed of thin-walled. vein islet number 17-42.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.24-30.Shows concavo-convex outline. unicellular hairs and globules. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. 2. covered with thick cuticle. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. .Light brown. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. Appendix per cent. palisade. 2. Appendix 2.2. Appendix per cent.

Ëmav¡ta áotha.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). 97 . DOSE .3 -6 g. V¡tarakta. of the drug in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .T¤À¸¡.

Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. polygonal cells. thinwalled cells. consisting of small. secondary phloem narrow. annual herb. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. Kokilaksha (Rt. stout. Culli --.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Hygrophila spinosa T. Kolavulike. a spiny. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. Syn.42. Anders (Fam. branches on nodes. Nerugobbi. the size of these cells. Kokil¡kÀ¢. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. slightly transversely elongated.Acanthaceae). whitish to brownish. thin-walled. no characteristic odour and taste. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. 98 . Root-Appears circular in outline. IkÀuraka. common in water logged places throughout the country. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex.

2. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. shows fragments of pitted. angular. M£trala. Appendix per cent. 2. A¿ma¤¢. having spiral thickening. vessels with spiral thickening. V¡tarakta.Ëmav¡ta áotha.2. fibre walls uniformly thickened.2. of the drug for decoction. Tikta Picchila. broader towards centre. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. Appendix 2. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.6. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. lignified fibres. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .4.Light brown to ash coloured. Powder . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows.7. 2. Amla. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. V¡tahara. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . radially elongated in the xylem region.2.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.2. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. scattered throughout the phloem region.3 -6 g. ray cells thin-walled. 99 .R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. Appendix per cent.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. each group composed of 2-6 cells.2. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region.

Daruhuladur Darhald. IkÀuraka.8 -10. shows hairs and oil globules. Powder . when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. taste.43. white. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. Syn. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. stout. hairy but appearing smooth. Maradarishina -Maramannal. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. b) Microscopic Seed . slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Hygrophila spinosa T. Kokilaksha (Sd. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. common in water logged places throughout the country. light yellowish-brown. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. truncate at the base. flat or compressed. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Anders. Swelling Index . Acanthaceae). oil globules present in this region. a spiny. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. annual herb.Greyish-brown. (Fam. the 100 .) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. parenchymatous cells. Maradarishana. thinwalled.

2.41 (light blue). including any sticky mucilage. Santarpa¸a. 2.03. Kaphahara. 0. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.2. 0. Add 25 ml of water.76 (sky blue) and 0. IDENTITY.24 (dark brown). Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. 0.4. 0. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.38 (light brown).áotha.52 (dark brown) and 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.17 (light brown).L. Pitt¡¿mar¢.6. 0. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.52 and 0. T.C.31. related to 1 g of seeds. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.72 (all yellow). 0.03 (light brown). 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.24 (red). Appendix 2.55 (light blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.. Appendix per cent.L. Appendix per cent. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .24. 0. 0.2.17. V¤Àya. Protease and an Alkaloid. of the drug in powder form. 101 .2. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .3 -6 g.72 (dark brown).V. enzymes like Diastase. Appendix per cent.An yellow semi-drying oil. 2.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. 0.2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.38.C. 0. Lipase. V¡tarakta. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. 2. DOSE .10 (light brown). 0.3. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. 0. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf.93 (sky blue). 0.31 (dark brown).

0. stamens 8-12. at terminal heads. bright yellow. Fruit . 3-4 leaves. swollen at the nodes. Chhotalunia. short. petals obovate.35-0. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. surface smooth. Kuzuppa (W. subtended by an involucre. Pulikkirai.A few. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Almost cylindrical. -Baraloniya. oblique.6 cm wide. style 5-6 fid. Kozhuppa.44. Gho¶ik¡. spathulate. Baranunia Garden Purslane. Kwfa Pasalai.5 cm long. Loni.An ovoid capsule.4 cm long. cuneiform. Loni. Kozuppa. fracture. prostrate herb. branched. Badanuni. (Fam.Simple.25-0. 102 . Lonika. Leaf . dehiscing above the base. Ghola -Lonak. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6.3 cm long.1 to 0. Stem . Khurfa. 0.3 to 2. Peddapavila Kura. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. very delicate and soon falling off.2 cm in diameter. odour. Loni -Koricchira.1 to 0. 50 cm long. sepal 0.Cylindrical. smooth and greenish-brown. rounded and truncate at the apex. less in number. oblong. 0. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Doddagoni Soppu. sub-sessile. ribbed. secondary roots. small. Kozhuppu Pappukura. short. Flower .4 cm long.5 cm long and 0. Payilikura. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. Paruppukkeerai. characteristic. fracture. Kulfa. 0. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Badi Lona Dudagorai.P) Portulacaceae). found throughout the country. root hairs abundant in upper region. Moti Luni Khursa. brownish-grey. an annual succulent.

oval cells.Greyish-brown. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces.3. parenchymatous cells. measuring 6-14 µ .2. having 2-3 components. Appendix per cent. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. reniform. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. LeafMidrib . present in mesophyll cells. b) Microscopic Root . inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. simple as well as compound. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. .2. secondary xylem composed of vessels.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. as well as compound. shows groups of oval to polygonal. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.2.4. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. Appendix per cent.2. black.6. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. phloem. 2. 2. 2.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. IDENTITY. arranged in radial rows. tracheids and parenchyma.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. Appendix 2.7. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres.2.07 cm across. Stem . Lamina . secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. secondary xylem consists of vessels. tracheids and parenchyma. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. fragments of cork cells. vessels.. pitted and spiral vessels. thick-walled with wide lumen. solitary or in groups of 2-5. dark brown. palisade single layered. minute. having simple pits and spiral thickening.2. thin-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells. having intercellular spaces. phloem and xylem parenchyma. stomata paracytic type. oval. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. parenchyma abundant. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. Powder . rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. pericycle fibre present in patches. tracheids.Seed -Numerous.06-0. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. ray cells and pith. 2. covered externally with a thick cuticle. 0.Wavy in outline. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. with reddish-brown content in a few cells.

Under U.50. 0.68 and 0.. Vra¸a DOSE .68 (yellow) and 0.76 (all pinkish red).68.61. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. 0. V¡tahara. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.10. 0. Gulma.Marma Gu¶ik¡.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . Ar¿a. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. T. 0. Pittakara. THERAPEUTIC USES .76 and 0. 0.3 .C.52. 0.Agnim¡ndya. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.6 g. Carbohydrates.41.76 (green) in visible light. 0. Prameha. 0. RukÀa.08.41.52 (both faint green). V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .08.Protein. of the drug in powder form. (both green).V. 0. CakÀuÀya.10.L. 0. áotha.T. 104 .L. 0.10.C. 0. 0.

external surface light brown. Var¡kr¡nt¡. petiolate. Leaf . Lajamani Chhuimui. 0. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 25-50 cm high.3-0. taste. (Fam.week bristles longitudinally grooved. greyish brown to brown.4 cm broad. Lajauni Muttidasenui. Lajavanti. woody. slightly astringent. 105 . alternate.P) diffused undershrub. covered with long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. rependant . bark fibrous. upto 2 cm thick. fracture hard. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. varying in length. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. Fabaceae).5 cm in dia. Adamalati Lajaka.6-1.Cylindrical. Machikegida. acute. Lajjalu (W. obliquely rounded at base.2 cm long.Cylindrical. linear lanceolate. bark fibrous. internal cut surface grey. stipulate. with secondary and tertiary branches. sessile. hairy pinnae. upto 2. sparsely prickly. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. yellowish-green. 0. leaflets 10-20 pairs. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. distinct. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. tapering. sensitive to touch.45.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. Stem . cut surface of pieces pale yellow. easily separable from wood. odour. nearly glabrous. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani.

dry. fibres. thick-walled. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. respectively. 1-1. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. starch grains. fibres single or in groups. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres single or in groups. radially elongated. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma.3 long.3 cm long. b) Microscopic Root . a number of lignified. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. arranged in tangential bands. crystal fibres thick-walled. pith consisting of polygonal. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.Pink. brown to grey. 2-3 seriate more common.6 cm long. 0. thick-walled. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. xylem rays radially elongated. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays.Flower .Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. corolla pink.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish.Compressed. simple. parenchymatous cells. scattered throughout secondary xylem. thick-walled. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. Seed . tracheids pitted with pointed ends. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. scattered throughout. secondary cortex wide. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. moderately thick-walled. ovate oblong. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. crystal fibres elongated. 106 . tangentially elongated to oval.4-0. tangentially elongated cells. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. ovary sessile. ovules numerous. 3-25 chambered. oval-elliptic. Stem . crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. fibres of two types. Fruit . in globose head. calyx very small. 0. peduncles prickly. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. parenchyma. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma.Lomentum. stamens 4. rarely multiseriate. consisting of large. glabrous. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 0. much exserted. lobes 4. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. filled with reddish-brown contents. 2. straw coloured. phloem rays thick-walled. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. spreading bristle at sutures.

C.2. branched. Appendix per cent. shaggy hairs. parenchymatous cells Seed . measuring 6-25 µ in dia. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. endocarp of thick-walled. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. Fruit . followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.Reddish-brown. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular.3. pitted vessels.69 (all blue) and 0.shows epidermis on both surfaces. palisade single layered. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. parenchymatous cells. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. palisade cells non glandular. 2. 0.2. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. shows. shaggy hairs.4. Powder .C.V. 2. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. with 2 .2.3 components IDENTITY.shows single layered epidermis.62.Leaf- Petiole .L. lignified cells followed by single layered. pericycle arranged in a ring. vascular bundle single. covered with thin-cuticle.7. branched. spongy parenchyma single layered. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. fibres. pericycle same as in petiole. 2.6. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. spongy parenchyma.81 (bluish-pink). mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. reticulate.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. T. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. one in each wing. Appendix per cent. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.2. crystal fibres. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. 2.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. 0. Appendix 2. Midrib . single and compound starch grains.35. Lamina . 0.

KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Ku¶aj¡valeha. 108 . Raktapita DOSE . KuÀ¶ha. CONSTITUENTS .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. 0. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Atis¡ra.áopha. áv¡sa. D¡ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Kaphahara.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.10-20 g of the drug for decoction.spots appear at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.35 (orange).35 and 0.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. Vra¸a. Yoniroga.

pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. M. epipetalous and arranged in two series. Mahawash tree Mahudo. sweet. ovate lanceolate. Madhuka (Fl. Androecium . Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Bassia latifolia Roxb. followed by thin-walled. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. anther sub-sessile. tabular. b) Microscopic Corolla . reddish-brown. taste. Ilippa. basifixed. Iluppa. a few 109 . epipetalous. lanceolate. Ippa. erect 0.Petal shows a single layered epidermis.Gmel. (Fam.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. corolla fleshy.46. Eppimara -Irippa.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Hippe. Madhuka. Hippenara. latifolia (Roxb. Sapotaceae) . Mahua Katiluppai. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. short.) Macbride. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues.F. and also cultivated. Halippe. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Kattu Iluppai. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida.5-2 cm long.

T¤À¸¡. pollen grains single or in groups.Dark brown. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. Appendix 2.3.6. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder .áv¡sa.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.unicellular hairs present on one side. shows fragments of epidermal cells. of the drug. Appendix 5 per cent.10 . THERAPEUTIC USES .2.2. Appendix 70 per cent. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Ah¤dya. Appendix 25 per cent. KÀata. endothecium composed of radially elongated. 2. 2.5 per cent. Pittakara. spherical. 2. Appendix 0.2. round. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. 2.15 g. árama DOSE . oval shaped. Appendix 10 per cent.2.4. IDENTITY. El¡di Modaka. V¡tahara. 2. KÀaya. áramahara. tapetum not distinct. D¡ha.2.Madh£k¡sava. 110 .2. unicellular hairs. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . lignified cells. Balya.2. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.7.

A.3-7. Amaranthaceae). A. fracture. Flower . often rooting at lower nodes. short. Syn. or elliptic.3-2 cm wide. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Bahli. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. bracteoles 111 . Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . linear-oblong. Br. obtuse or subacute.5 cm long.Cylindrical. repens Gmel. A. Br.1-0. 2.Herbaceous. nodiflora R. (Fam. short. no characteristic odour and taste.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. triandra Lam. weak. denticulata R. A. no characteristic odour and taste.5 cm wide. nodes and internodes distinct. white often tinged with pink.1.) R. sessile. Br. Stem ..P. 0. 0. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. internodes 0. Gandal¢.. Leaf .. cream to grey.5-5 cm long. fracture. no characteristic odour and taste.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. yellowish-brown to light-brown. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets.47. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. non Link.6 cm diameter. with spreading branches from the base. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region... Matsy¡duni. Matshyakshi (W.

a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. ovate. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. covered wtith striated cuticle. consisting of thin-walled cells.2 cm long. style very short. thin-walled. round or oval. ovary obcordate. stomata paracytic. vascular bundles three. xylem tissues lignified. numerous. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. pith distinct.5-3 mm long. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Lamina . compressed. open and exarch. with anomalous secondary growth. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. with are conjoint. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. composed of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. Fruit . radially arranged cork cells. orbicular. perianth 2. palisade 2-3 layers. isodiametric. shows wavy or undulate. parenchymatous cells.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. consistig of thin-walled. no characteristic odour and taste. Leaf- Midrib . tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. scarious. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. collenchymatous cells.5 mm long. Stem . vascualr bundles radially arranged. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. sepals ovate. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. secondary cortex narrow. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. present in the centre. isodiametic cells. palisade ratio 3-5. bicollateral. capitellate. parenchymatous cells. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. acute. b) Microscopic Root . a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. compressed with thickened margins. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. thin. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. round to oval. single layered. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. no characteristic odour and taste.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. parenchymatous cells. 1.dorsiventral.1. 112 .Utricle. each consisting of xylem and phloem. pith consisting of thin-walled. thin-walled round or oval. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. irregular. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring.

54 and 0. Under U.59.2 -3 g.7. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.2. 113 .Olive green. 0. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.96 (all yellow). Kaphahara.18. Appendix 4.16.44. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. Tikta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 2.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.L.94 and 0.33. T. 2.44 (all green). Raktavik¡ra DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .C.2. 0.V. Appendix 10 per cent.16. V¡tahara. 0. CONSTITUENTS .2. 0.6.81.44. 0.L. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. IDENTITY. Appendix 19 per cent.2. Appendix 2.C. paracytic stomata. Pittavik¡ra. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. 0..25.35. 0. 0.Powder .5 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent. 0.33 and 0.68 (all red).Sugar. 0.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.2. 0.KuÀ¶ha. 0.2. 2. of the drug in powder form.4. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.

(Fam. 0. annual herb. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. pleasant. covered externally with thick cuticle.2-0. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. cells flat at base.Seed shows a layer of thick. thin-walled. 0.) aromatic. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. several layers of thin walled. cultivated throughout the country. 30-60 cm tall. very hard. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe.5 cm long. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part.walled. columnar palisade. Fabaceae).35 cm broad. b) Microscopic Seed . dull yellow.15-0. Methi (Sd. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. mucilaginous cells. bitter. odour. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. 114 . seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. varying in size. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. smooth. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side.48. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. parenchymatous cells.

Yellow. THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder .4. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.Mustak¡riÀ¶a.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS . 2. 115 .3. 2.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll.2. oil globules. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.2.2. Appendix 0.Graha¸¢. 2. Appendix 2.Alkaloid. IDENTITY. of the drug in powder form. Rucya. Appendix 5 per cent. Sapogenins and Mucilage. aleurone grains. Prameha.6.3-6 g. Aruci DOSE .5 per cent. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. Kaphahara. Appendix 4 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. Jvara.2.

white or lilac with yellow or 116 .Lower leaves hairy. bright green. 0. taste. Rakhyasmula Mulaka.Slender.1-1. seplas 6.3 cm long. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. petiole 5-5. oblong. slightly pungent.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. not distinct. an annual or biennial bristly herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. Stem . coarsely toothed. yellowish-green. cylindrical. Muli. petals 1. sub-marginate at the apex. complete 1-2 cm long. compressed. upper most leaves simple. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . blade obovate.5-10 cm long. (Fam.Root cylindrical. lyrate. odour. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3..Flower in long terminal raceme. Leaf . regular. sub-linear but narrowed at the base.) Brassicaceae).49. bisexual. variable size and thickness.P. having a few longitudinal striations. Flower . sometimes brown red.0 cm in dia. Mulaka (W.2 cm long.7-2. pedicel with scattered hairs. hollow.

solitary or ingroups. Leaf- Petiole . present in cortex and phloem. present in cortex. 10-12 ovuled.Reddish-brown. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. elliptical. continuous or more or less constricted. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. phloem. Lamina . 2-4 mm long. Stem . present only on upper side. 117 . starch grains simple. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. pith a wide zone of polygonal. one central and two lateral.1. single layered. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. medullary rays four to many cells wide. stamen 6 in two whorls. endodermis at some places. b) Microscopic Root . vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. vascular bundle three in number. epidermis followed by 6. traversed by xylem rays. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. green or brown-purple. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. oily.8. Seed . Midrib . epidermis single layered. round to oval. parenchymatous cells. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. 2 mm wide.appears biconvex in outline. greenish-yellow.4 cm thick. style about 4 mm long. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. palisade 2-3 layers.dorsiventral. 3-9 cm long and 0. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. 1-2 chambered. erect. round to oval. thin-walled. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. occasionally pale purple. covered with thick cuticle. two outer smaller and four inner longer. longitudinally sulcatus.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.Siliqua. sometimes flattened. Fruit . cork cells. cylindrical.purple vein. hairs unicellular. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. parenchymatous cells. traversed by phloem rays. irregularly globose. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. radially arranged.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. ovary superior. taste. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends.

oil globules and round to oval starch grains. tangentially elongated. IDENTITY.2. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.20 . covered with a thin-cuticle. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed.Glucoside. parenchymatous cells.4. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. Pittahara.Fruit . Powder . Appendix per cent. 2. Rucya. 118 .Yellowish-green. CONSTITUENTS . H¤dya. Gulma. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. Svarya.Agnim¡ndya. covered with thin. 2. parenchymatous cells present.2. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. 2.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2.M£lakakÀ¡ra. of columnar cells.2. P¡cana. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Gandhaka Va¶¢. Ar¿a. reddish-brown. Ud¡varta. thin-walled. thinwalled. DOSE . Appendix 2. spiral vessels.40 ml. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. 2. Kaphahara. straight cuticle.3. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal.2.2.6.Shows a single layered epidermis. shows aseptate fibres. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. P¢nasa. Tikta Laghu. Seed . of the drug in juice form.

taste. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Mula Muli Moolangi. variable in size. Brassicaceae).2.) annual or biennial bristly herb. fusiform. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. Mullangi. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Appendix per cent.50. 2. Mulaka (Rt. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.7. slightly or strongly pungent. 119 . Moclangi gadde.6. 2. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. white in colour. usually 25-40 cm in length. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. Appendix per cent. Saleya.3. 2.2. cylindrical. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn.2. Appendix 2.2. Rakhyasmula Mula.4.2. (Fam. rarely sweet. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent.2. Mulaka. Visra. Appendix per cent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. 2.

Pittahara. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. 0. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa. Rucya. Netraroga. Tikta Laghu.T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.09.04.34.C. 0. H¤dya. 0.L. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. 0. Svarya. Jvara. Gulma.Agnim¡ndya.09 & 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . 0. of the drug in the juice form 120 . (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.15-30 ml. T. P¢nasa. 0.Glucoside.V.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.09 (both blue). Kaphahara.04 & 0. Ar¿a.04. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ud¡varta DOSE . Galaroga. Vrana. Dadru. P¡cana.49 & 0. áv¡sa.LC.69 (all yellow).

traversed by xylem rays. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. Mura (Rt. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. slightly bitter. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. taste. S. 6-12 cm long and 0. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. thin-walled cells. Daitya. Syn.3 . fibres and parenchyma.) DC.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths.Shows 10 . Root . found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 .51. (Fam. traversed by phloem rays. inner cells thin-walled.6 . Gandhakuti. 0. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . tenuifolium Wall. aromatic. consisting of tangentially elongated. cambium 2-4 layered. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. secondary cortex composed of rounded.4 m tall. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. Apiaceae ).2.42000 m. dull brown. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. colour. tangentially elongated.1. thin-walled cells. a perennial herb. odour. rectangular cells. secondary phloem shows wide zone. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC.

. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Sucrose and Mannitol. Appendix 2.2. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 9 per cent. secretory canals. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . present in secondary cortex.2. Appendix 3. distributed throughout secondary cortex.4. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. oil globules and simple starch grains. 122 . Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 9 per cent. M£rchha.2. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. Tikta.1-3 g. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide.7.2. xylem parenchyma.2.having spiral thickenings. IDENTITY. secondary phloem. secretory canals numerous. Appendix 17 per cent. fibres aseptate. 2. Ka¶u. shows groups of cork cells. starch grains simple.Arvind¡sava.6.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin).áv¡sa. 2. Jvara. 2. secondary xylem and medullary rays. somewhat oval cells.Brown. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . 2.5 per cent. composed of radially arranged. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. Powder . short with blunt ends. xylem and phloem rays.3. Bhrama. round to oval. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. D¡ha. secondary phloem. CONSTITUENTS .

Halukaratige. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. Koratige. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. & Am. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. Kallu Shambu. some filled with reddish-brown contents. b) Microscopic Root . (Fam. phloem rays 1 123 .52. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. similar to those present in secondary cortex. a large stout. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. odour. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. twining shrub. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. Murva (Rt. bark easily separable from wood. resin cells present irregularly in this region.5-3 cm thick. Madhusrava.) Asclepiadaceae). slightly bitter. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. indistinct. fracture. Jartor Koratige Hambu. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size.Shows a cork. tangentially elongated. phloem fibres absent. rectangular cells. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. taste. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical.

of the drug for decoction. starch grains simple..2. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. fibres. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. Pittahara. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. fragments of cork.6.Light brown. V¡tahara.3 cells wide. consisting of small tangential. composed of vessels.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Medoroga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Meha. K¤miroga.2.22 µ in diameter. measuring 5. Ka¸·£. 2. Appendix 7 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T¤Àn¡.5 per cent. 124 . Appendix 14 per cent. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue.2. 5. THERAPEUTIC USES . tracheids. H¤droga. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. vessels with pitted walls. present in parenchymatous tissues.2. shows a number of stone cells.tracheids. Tikta Guru.Ar¿a.4.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Powder . xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified.7. Appendix 2. Mukha áosa. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components.2.3. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Prameha Mihira Taila.5-22 µ dia. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.2. fibretracheids. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. Appendix 5 per cent. IDENTITY. simple and compound starch grains. 2. Raktapitta.2-6 g. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. 2. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 . 10-20 g. Jvara. DOSE . fibres. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Appendix 0.. of the drug in powder form.

Bengal. Guttiferae). forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. often buttressed at the base.0 cm long. Nagakesar (Stmn. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. each stamen 0. basifixed. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. parenchymatous cells. yellowish and thin-walled. anther about 0.9-1. filiform. thick-walled. connective not visible with naked eye. Pilunagkesar.5 cm long. 125 . Nagppu. N¡ga. b) Microscopic Androecium . fragrant. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. consisting of thin-walled. distinct protuberances on walls. Konkan. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. Nahar Nageshvara. Veluthapala. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards.Anther shows golden-brown.Brown. Naugaliral. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Hem¡. exine and intine distinct. coppery or golden brown. shows elongated cells of filament. an Ke¿ara. filament 0. Nagchampa. slender. Peri. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. taste. Powder . (Fam.53. quite brittle. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. odour.9 cm long. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single.8 . linear. containing pollen grains. more or less twisted. N¡gapuÀpa.1. Assam.) evergreen tree. connective and filament. soft to touch. Nagakesari -Nangaa. Sachunagkeshara. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. astringent. Nauga. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. Nagachampakam.

IDENTITY. Kum¡ry¡sava. 126 . Tikta. 2.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. Appendix 2.4. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.2. Var¸ya. 2. 2.6. 2.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. Vastiroga DOSE . áopharoga.2.3.2. V¡tarakta. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.Raktapitta.7. CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara.1-3 g. Appendix per cent.2.

Fabaceae). large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.8 m high. pale green to greenish-black. 127 .2 cm wide. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. 1. (Fam. Nili (Lf. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole .) shrub. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring.2. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings.54. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. leaflet 1-2. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu.1. N¢l¢n¢. pith composed of round to oval.5 cm long and 0. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.3-1. no characteristic odour and taste.

2.Ëmav¡ta. 2. palisade 2-3 layers. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent..4. V¡tahara. aseptate fibres. K¡sa. epidermis. Jvara. Pl¢haroga. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. shows groups of mesophyll cells. Gulma. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .. 128 .5 per cent.Glycoside (Indican). Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . Ud¡varta. Ke¿ya. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.Midrib .Greenish-grey. of decoction. K¤imiroga.. collateral and crescent shaped. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tarakta.7. Appendix 7. vascular bundle single. similar as in petiole. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3.2. 2. cuticle and hair.2. Lamina . unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 2 per cent.50-100 g. CONSTITUENTS . 2.shows epidermis. similar as in petiole and midrib.2. cuticle and hair. IDENTITY. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Udararoga.2.6. Appendix 25 per cent. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma.shows dorsiventral structure. pitted vessels. Appendix 10 per cent. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered.2.2. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . Appendix 2.

measuring 11-17 µ in dia. thin-walled cells.10 layers of tangentially elongated.55. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. with lenticels. Karunili. Indian Indigo Gali. Nil. hard. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. Neeli Nili. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. Nili (Rt. 0. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits.5 cm thick. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. Neeligida. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Rangapatr¢.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Nili. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. group of fibres. slightly bitter. Olleneeli -Amari. rectangular. Nili Chettu. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. Nila -Neel Avuri. (Fam. secondary cortex a narrow zone. cylindrical. consisting of usual elements. taste. thin-walled cells. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. woody.) shrub. wood occupies bulk parts of the root.8 m high.1 -1. odour not distinct. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. Nila Nili.2-1. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. 129 . Gari Nili Kadunili. Fabaceae). thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. 1.

0. 130 .50. 0. 0. phloem.21.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. 0. DOSE . starch grains simple. 0. CONSTITUENTS .75 (blue).06.81. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.3. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .Arvind¡sava. 0. Pl¢h¡roga. Appendix 6 per cent.Creamish-brown.58. 0.40 (blue).75..91 (blue). 0.C. K¤imiroga. 0. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.81 (blue). V¡tahara.2.27.7.47 (blue). 2. 0. V¡tarakta.2..14 (blue). Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6.L. xylem parenchyma and rays.Gulma.40.33. Appendix 2. 2.30 (bluish green).40.27. simple and compound starch grains. 0.63. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. 0. 0.48 g.0.63. 0.06. Udararoga.50. 0.91 (all grey).C.2. 0.2. 0. 0.75. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0.86. Appendix 4 per cent.2. 0.L.7 per cent. shows aseptate fibres. 0. Appendix 3 per cent. Powder .58. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Ëmav¡ta. IDENTITY.58 (blue). 0. Appendix 0.91 (all yellow).4.0. pitted vessels. 0. K¡sa.14. 0. present in cortex. Recan¢.86 (green) and 0.33. 0. 0. 0. 0. round to oval. and 0. Ud¡varta.86 and 0.14. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.63 (bluish green). (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. ViÀavik¡ra.V. of drug for decoction.10. Ke¿ya. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 2.10. 2.80.2.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.

Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. exstipulate. Nimba Nimba.7 cm wide.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Meliaceae). Limado. 0. Nim Vemmu. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. leaflets with oblique base. indistinct. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. rachis 15-25 cm long. serrate. Bakayan. Nimba (Lf. Limba. Arulundi. 131 . Aryaveppu. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Melia azadirachta Linn. (Fam. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. slightly yellowish-green. Veppu.0-1. Nimbam. crystals also present in phloem region. Kohumba Nim. Limbado. lanceolate. Oilevevu.5 cm long and 1. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Kahibevu. 7-8. Bevinama -Veppu. Nim. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. taste.1 cm thick. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Bakan. Juss Syn.Compound. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Veppa Balantanimba. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Bevu. acute.56. Veppan Vemu. alternate. opposite.

3.2. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.1-3 g.4. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only.5. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga. Ëma¿otha. Powder .Jvara. shows vessels. traversed by a number of veins. Appendix 2. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. V¡tal¡. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta.6. Netraroga.5 on lower surface and 8. composed of thin walled.5 on upper surface. fibres.Triterpenoids and Sterols. 2.2. covered externally with thick cuticle. 2. IDENTITY.0-4. tangentially elongated cells.7. stomatal index 13. Appendix per cent. 132 .shows dorsiventral structure. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. 2. palisade single layered. epidermis on either surface.0-11. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha.0-14. KuÀ¶ha. Prameha. Appendix per cent.2. ViÀarogas DOSE . 2. Appendix per cent. Vrana.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. of the drug in powder form. thin-walled cells.2. palisade ratio 3.Lamina . Appendix per cent.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Green. CONSTITUENTS .2. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡.

(Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. fissured and rusty-grey. fibrous. Vembu Vemu.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. characteristic. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Nimba (St. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. woody. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. taste. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Kahibevu. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Juss. fracture. Limba Nimba Nim. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nimb Bevu. Kadunimb. Oilevevu -Veppu. Nimba. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m.57. evergreen tree. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Bakam Veppai. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Nimba. a moderate sized to fairly large. Meliaceae). Syn. extemal surface rough. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. odour. considerably thick in older barks.

and 0. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium.2.72 (blue). a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. 2.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. ViÀaghna. 2. Kaphahara.90 (all blue). (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. lignified rectangular to polygonal. round with central hilum.2.3. 0. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. 0.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. secondary cortex absent in most cases.6.L. 2. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.Reddish-brown. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.4. CONSTITUENTS . T.75-5 µ in diameter. Appendix 5 per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.outer surface. Appendix 1. cork cells. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Pittahara. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder . starch grains. IDENTITY.2.86 (blue).63 and 0. 2.90 (green).7.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. simple.20. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.C.measuring 2.45. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. measuring 2.V. simple starch grains. 0. 0.L.5 per cent. Appendix 7 per cent.C. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. having wide lumen and distinct striations.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. stone cells mostly in groups. Appendix 6 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. Appendix 2. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . 0.

Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2-4 g. Vra¸a DOSE . Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Jvara. KuÀ¶ha. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Prameha. Decoction should be used externally.D¡ha. Rakta Pitta. 135 . Ka¸·u. K¤miroga.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Pa´canimba C£r¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form..

curved. Modugu. Camata. Muttala -Plasu. moderately thick-walled. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. often in groups. Tesu Muttug. except in very arid parts. dark brown. Paras Moduga. rectangular. greyish to pale brown. dark-brown.) Kuntze (Fam. 5-10 or more layered. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. Plas. Chettu Dhak. Khakhapado Dhak.1 cm thick. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. Tesu Purasu.5 . rectangular 136 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. Muttuga. Dhak. Palash. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. 0. Khakharo. 12 . secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. Palasha (St. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. exposing light brown surface. having brown colour. cork cells. pale brown. slightly astringent.2 cm thick usually peels off. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. rough due to presence of rhytidoma.15 m high with irregular branches. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. tanniniferous cells. internal surface rough. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone.58. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. rhytidoma 0. fracture. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. thin-walled.Bk) Fabaceae). taste. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part.

0.75 . 0. Appendix 12 per cent. 0. 0.C.18. crystal fibres. traversed by phloem rays.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. straight. 137 . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. 0. 2. Powder . phloem parenchyma. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.L. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.67 (all violet).. 7 . 2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.4 layers of sclereids.V. T.10..2. thin-walled cork cells.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. companion cells. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. Appendix 14 per cent.C. Appendix 10 per cent. 2.48.48 and 0.13.2. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.5 per cent.2.L. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.65 (all blue). numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.2. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.cells followed by a zone of 2 .2.7. 0.50 cells in height.3 components. 0.12 cells wide. measuring 2. Appendix 2. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly.48 and 0. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.10. Appendix 1.3.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.75 µ in dia.6. 2. phloem fibres. sclereids mostly in groups. dark brown coloured cells. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . 0.4. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . starch grains simple and compound with 2 .10.67 (all yellow).Reddish-brown. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath.

KaÀ¡ya Sara. Gulma. K¤miroga. 138 .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Vra¸a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya.5-10 g. Graha¸¢. S¡raka .Ar¿a. Agnid¢paka. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Tikta.

Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. parenchymatous cells. Paribhadra (St. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . stone 139 . Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai.59.0 cm thick. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. quick growing tree. (Fam. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. inner bark fibrous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. secondary cortex consists of large. exfoliating in narrow strips. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. Pangara Hongar. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. Mulmurumgai Badisa.Bk) Fabaceae). also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. yellowish to cream coloured. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. radially arranged and thin-walled. smooth. medium sized. tangentially elongated to squarish.5-2. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

of drug in powder form.2-4 g. V¡taroga DOSE .Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. V¤Àya. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.CONSTITUENTS .V¡tarakta.Alkaloids. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Balak¤t.. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .. Volatile Oil. 148 .

mottled with darker brown lines.5 cm wide. taste. sweetish-oily. 0.3-0. collapsed cells of integument. 0. (Farn. hilum present at the apex of round edge. latifolia Roxb. followed by remnants of disorganised. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. micropyle superior. sclerenchymatous cells. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. odour.) Anacardiaceae). Satdhan -Charal. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. large. Piyar. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. occurring mostly in groups. Shalichokha Piyal. linear. pleasant.4-0. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. b) Microscopic Seed . Priyala (Sd.6 cm long. B. Korka. pitted. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. Chowl. Priyalam. Syn. funicle stout. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. which are of various size. Saraparuppu Sara. creamish-brown. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi.63. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. thick-walled.

L.98 (all yellow). Powder . in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. 0. 0.10 .D¡ha. 0. 2. T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.0 µ in dia.5-5. procambium bundles.2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.A creamish-brown paste. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. Priy¡la Taila. áukrakara. Oil and Starch.type. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara.2.98 (all violet). 0.2. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sara. of the drug in powder form. V¤Àya. shows numerous mesophyll cells.Albuminoids.measuring 2. 0.94 (blue). BrÆha¸a.P£gakha¸·a. DOSE . 0.72.2. and sclerenchymatous cells.54. 0.20 g.5-5. 0.4. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. Appendix 0. 0. 2. Kaphakara.C. Bhagnas¡dhaka. 0.91. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. H¤dya. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf.3. IDENTITY.2. 150 .08.72. and oil globules. THERAPEUTIC USES . running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. Pittahara.0 µ in dia.6.L. Appendix 7 per cent. 0.94 and 0. Appendix 2. V¡tahara.27.V. 2.94 and 0. Raktapitta.27.54. 2.08. 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. KÀata.84. KÀaya.C. 0.91. CONSTITUENTS .7.2.5 per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. Balya.72 and 0.

brown.3 mm in dia. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. ovary 2-4 celled. peduncle cylindrical. densely clothed with wooly hairs.0. tubular. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. b) Microscopic Peduncle . and abundant in Bengal plains. densely hairy.) Verbenaceae). Priyangu (Infl.64. corolla. 2. an erect. basifixed. style. epipetalous. calyx. bell-shaped. stamens 4. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. Flower . 4 lobbed spreading.Cymose. stigma minutely capitate. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs.5-7. brown. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. 1.5 cm across. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. 1. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . long.2. equal in size.Shows more or less wavy outline. thin-walled. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. hairy.2. parenchymatous cells. filament very long. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 .5 cm long.5 . (Fam. anther ovate.4 m high shrub.

2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. N¢lik¡dya Taila. Resin and Saponin. 2. Rakta-Pitta. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. aseptate fibres. Appendix per cent.6. V¡tahara. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. 2. Pakv¡tis¡ra. Jvara.Glycosides. Daurgandhyahara.2. Powder . KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Appendix per cent.2. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. 2. Phenolic compound.4. M£travirajan¢ya.Brown.2. Sandh¡n¢ya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. Sved¡dhikya. groups of thin-walled. Appendix 2. 152 . Rakta. DOSE . Vra¸aropa¸a. spiral vessels. Pras¡dana. 2.D¡ha.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡.3.1-3 g. Appendix per cent. Terpenes.fibres. Ku´kum¡di Taila.2. Kanaka Taila. CONSTITUENTS . elliptical. IDENTITY. xylem consists of usual elements. fibres aseptate. El¡di C£r¸a. (Mukharoga).7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening.

smooth. Jhona Arishi.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. middle zone consisting of radially elongated.05-0. (Fam. thick-walled. Bhata. Vr¢hi. Dhan Rice. Bhatta. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. an annual herb. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Dhanarmul. Akki -Ari. Dhana Bhatto. Corava. Powder . both consisting of round to oval. Cala. Dhana. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Poaceae). parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. b) Microscopic Root . outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Biyyamu Chaval. Coke Chaval. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. cortex differentiated into three zones. Nivara -Chaval.) cultivated throughout India. Dh¡nya. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs.Greyish-cream. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. thin.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Nellu. soft. Chawl. Damgara. exodermis 1-2 layered. Odalu. cylindrical. Sali. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. pitted vessels and 153 .65. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Paddy Shalichokha. Shali (Rt. Nellu Tandulamul. sclerenchymatous cells. sclerenchymatous cells. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Nelver Dhanyamu. composed of thick-walled.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Balya.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2.2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .2. Appendix per cent. 2. of the drug for decoction.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Baddh¡lpavarcasa.2. V¡tahara.4.7.2. BrÆha¸a.StanyakÀaya. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. Appendix per cent. 2. H¤dya.50 g. Kaphahara. Laghu. 154 . Svarya. CakÀuÀya.2. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Pittahara. Rucya. M£trala. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.3. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Var¸ak¤t.

Flower . corolla shortly discoid. Kakkanangudi. acute.66. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡.Usually branched. about 0. 1-5 cm long. ovary superior and bicarpellary.White or pinkish. Karakhuratt. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. hairy.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. sub-erect. light green.5-2 cm long and 0. Sankhapuspi. Shankhavela. 0. a prostrate. 155 . ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. yellowish-brown to light brown. Stem . Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam.1-0. sparsely hairy.1-0. Sankhahuli Kakattam. perennial herb with a woody root stock.5 cm broad. sepals narrowly. linear-lanceolate. Shankhapushpi. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. linear-lanceolate. light green. 0. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. hairy on both surfaces. stamen 5. Leaf . found throughout the country. cylindrical.) Convolvulaceae).P.4 cm thick. cylindrical.Shortly petiolate. Sankha pushpin (W. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. inserted deep in the corolla tube.Slender. alternate with the petals. epipetalous. free. spreading. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .

Seed .0. covered with thick cuticle. phloem. Lamina . shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. thin. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. present on both surfaces. oblong globose with coriaceous. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. elliptical. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. unicellular hairs. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. 156 .8 µ in dia. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. present in cortex. endoderrnis single layered.walled cells. fibres and parenchyma. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin.. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. at places unicellular hairs present.8-17.Shows single layered epidermis. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. phloem a narrow zone. mm. thick-walled cells. round to oval in shape. epidermis single layered. palisade two layered. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. cortex differentiated in two zones. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. covered with thick cuticle. pale brown pericarp. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. tanniniferous. elongated. hairs unicellular. both having round to oval. starch grains solitary or in groups.Capsule.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. vascular bundle bicollateral.. xylem consisting of usual elements. Stem . fibres and tracheids. Powder . vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. secretory cells present in this region. LeafMidrib . simple and composed of 2-3 components. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. minutely puberulous. vein islet number 21-25 per sq.Fruit . palisade ratio 6-9. xylem consists of vessels. measuring 3 . fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. mm. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. xylem rays and parenchyma.Appears nearly circular in outline. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. . rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root .Brown.Light yellowish-green. phloem composed of sieve elements. simple and compound starch grains. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. 13.

2.4. ËyuÀya.IDENTITY.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Ras¡yana. 2.6. Kaphahara. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Ras¡yana.2.3. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Agastyahar¢tak¢.3-8 g. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Tikta. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Medhya.M¡nasaroga. Appendix per cent. 2.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.2.2. 2. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . Br¡hma.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ras¡yana. Clitoria ternatea Linn.2.7. Pittahara. Appendix per cent.

Saptala (W. free to the base. linear. ovate. trilocular. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. solitary. style. odour and taste indistinct. cylindrical. gland semilunate. Carmas¡hv¡. shortly 2-fid at the apex. lobes short. a much branched. smooth. annual herb.P. 1 mm long. Flower .67. odour and taste not distinct. Bilikalli. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. sessile. 158 . Joyachi. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali.celled with or without attached pedicel. 3. Siju. having a few secondary roots.2-0.7-7 cm long. 0. 4-5 cm long. ribbed. fracture. Leaf . Kalli -Chasma Lantha.5-2 mm thick. ciliolate. greenish-yellow. Chagulputputi Satala.1. lanceolate or linear oblong. pale brown.Involucre broadly campanulate. 20-40 cm high. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sub-sessile.Capsule. subacute.5 mm across at the mouth. gradually tapering. (Fam. 2.) Euphorbiaceae).Small. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.8 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. 3-4 mm in dia. 0. filament pubescent. Fruit . horned. short. found throughout India in the plains and low hills.

filled with yellowish-brown content. starch grains simple. all elements thick-walled and lignified. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. elliptical. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. all elements. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. simple. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. rounded to oval. mature root shows thin walled cork. 2. thickwalled and lignified. grooved at one side. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells.5-19. with wide lumen present in this region. striated cuticle. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. stone cells oval to elongated.3 mm long. fibres elongated and aseptate. solitary or in groups.75 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells. fibres. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. parenchymatous cells. fibres and vessels having simple pits. epidermis single layered.Young root shows exfoliated. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. rounded at the base.shows slightly convex outline. Leaf- Midrib . fibres and tracheids. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. found scattered in phloem region. 159 . flattended. rarely a few oil globules also present. secondary xylem composed of vessels. traversed by numerous xylem rays. tracheids and medullary rays. leprous tuberculate testa. elliptical. Stem . a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. rectangular. tangentially elongated elliptical. secondary cortex consists of 4. consisting of thick-walled. secondary xylem consists of vessels. thick-walled lignified. circular to oval. single layered epidermis. b) Microscopic Root . covered externally with thick. endodermis not distinct. secondary phloem narrow. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. composed of sieve elements. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. lignified cells with wide lumen. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade.25 µ in diameter. centre occupied by a pith.Seed . epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. measuring 5.6 layers of oval. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. tangentially elongated cells. palisade single layered present on both sides. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. vessels having simple pits. some rounded. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. parenchymatous cells.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. rounded to oval.

C.2.57 (all yellow). N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. aseptate fibres.0. RaktadoÀahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. Vibandha. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug for decoction.Ën¡ha.C. Appendix per cent. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. IDENTITY.L. Ud¡vartta.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.87 (violet).3. rounded to oval starch grains. stone cells thick-walled. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.04.67. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.Powder .Light yellow. shows vessels with simple pits. and 0. 0.2. simple.2. T.50 g. Gulma.2.04 and 0. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf.2.46 (brown) and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. Udararoga. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent.46. elliptical. Appendix 2. V¡tal¡.4.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 160 . 0. lignified with wide lumen. 2.V. 2. Pittahara.7. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Mi¿raka Sneha. Appendix per cent. 2. CONSTITUENTS . DOSE . 0. oval to elongated.6. Visarpa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. RukÀa.L. 2.

Satahva (Fr. dark brown. slightly sharp taste. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. Shepa. 2 lateral prolonged into thin.. mericarps usually separate and free. odour. mesocarp. brown. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. dorsal 161 . 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. Shulupa. Sulpha. A.68. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. sowa Roxb. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. glabrous. graveolens Benth. and a warm. Apiaceae). vittae.. a tall. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. parenchymatous. 4 mm long. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. akin to caraway. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. A. filiform and incospicuous. Syn. (Fam.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. graveolens Linn.. ex Flem. yellowish membranous wings. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. P. b) Microscopic Fruit . glabrous. often stalk attached. var. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. graveolens DC. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. slightly raised.

each costae with vascular strands. Kaphahara. 2.2. IDENTITY. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. 2.costae three. 162 . Appendix 4 per cent.2.59 and 0.5 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. Appendix 2. Atis¡ra. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. 2. Netra Roga DOSE .37 (pink) 0. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.2.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.Essential Oil. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.59 (blue) and 0.7.68 (all yellow).3-6 g.á£la.C. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.6.C.Brown. 2. Vra¸a. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.68 (violet). âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .L. CONSTITUENTS . one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. cellulosic.2.3.4.10 T. of the drug in powder form. Powder .2. Appendix 1. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. V¡tahara. shows spiral vessels. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. carpophore split. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Jvara. Appendix 15 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent.2.L. 2. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Appendix 14 per cent.

) Gaertn. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. thickened. Nugge ele -Murinna. Rachis . Sajna. Tishnagandha. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound.2-2 cm long and 0.69. Muringa. Leaflet . (Fam. Segata pana. Muringa Elai Sevaga. Munga.5-1 cm wide. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Shewgachi pane Sajana. ovate or obovate. parenchymatous cells. pith and phloem parenchyma. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. oval to elliptical. slender. Syn. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Segata. Sekato.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. central region 163 b) Microscopic . found wild in sub Himalayan tract. leaflet 1. Shigru (Lf. Mocaka -Sajina. Bahala. parenchymatous cells. palisade single layered. and articulated at the base.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. odour and taste not distinct. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. pericycle forming a broken ring. commonly cultivated throughout the country. Moringaceae). vascular bundle collateral. thin walled. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. elliptic. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. entire. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. a small or medium sized tree. Mungna Neegge. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. AkÀ¢va. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers.

Carbohydrate.6. 0.2. Sirovirecaka 164 . stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.53 (yellow). 0.38. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.94 (yellow) in visible light. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0.7. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.46 (both blue).18. palisade ratio 6-11. 0.69 (blue) and 0. 0. T.46 (all red) & 0. 0.36.87 (blue).46 (green). 0. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .occupied by a crescent-shaped.94 (blue). vein islets number 50-65. (all green). K¤mihara.2. stomata anornocytic.26 (all green). present on both surface but more on lower sur face.4. 0. 0. RukÀa. 0. 0. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.82 (yellow) and 0. 2.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.05.C. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. áukra N¡¿aka. 0. 2. Medohara. Pittahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. 0. Appendix 2.18.30 (pink).2.52 (green).2. 0. 0. 0. 0. Powder -Greyish-green. Protein.46 (dark green) & 0.69 (yellow).05. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. Appendix per cent.V.26.59 (blue). 0.20. spiral vessels. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.36 (yellowish green). Appendix per cent. B ¤Æhana. V¡tahara. 2. 2. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY.C.94 (violet).3. 0.L. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. Under U. Appendix per cent.26.2. 0. 0. palisade cells.0.36 (green). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.05.

165 .áopha. DOSE .20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.10 . K¤miroga.Ratnagiri Rasa. ViÀatinduka Taila. Vidradhi. Gulma.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Pl¢haroga. Galaga¸·a. Medoroga.

brown to dark brown. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. odour.70. Beraelam. thin walled.3 cm wide. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. thin-walled. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. Sthulaela (Sd. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. aromatic. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam.) Zingiberaceae). which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. spicy pungent. membraneous aril. 0. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. sclerenchymatous. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. (Fam. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells.. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. taste. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed.4 cm long. perispenn encloses the 166 . perisperm consists of polygonal.

IDENTITY. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.6. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.(Seed). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara. RukÀa. Ka¸·u. (Seed). Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. Karp£r¡dy¡rka.5 per cent.10 CONSTITUENTS .2.2. Kaphahara. simple. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder .2. Mukha¿odhaka.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Mukharoga.S¡rivady¡sava.3. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter.5 -1 g.2. polygonal. H¤ll¡sa. rich in protein. Appendix 1.áv¡sa.endosperm and embryo. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. DOSE . oil globules.4. 2. Appendix 2. Appendix 4 per cent. K¡sa. 2. perisperm cells.Light brown. thin-walled.2. 2.0. 167 . both composed of polygonal. Appendix 14 per cent.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. parenchymatous cells. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.2. shows fragments of testa. T¤À¸¡. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Note . 2. thin-walled.2. rounded to oval.7. THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta Laghu. Appendix 5 per cent. Chardi. Rocaka.

armed with long. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. rather deeply furrowed.) Roxb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. brownish. aromatic. Syn. taste. thin-walled. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. Tumburudra. sharp prickles. stone cells found in 168 . found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels.71. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. light yellow to pale brown. lignified. Tejovati (St. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. internal surface smooth. external surface pale brown. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. odour. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . short. aromatic pungent. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. Z.1-0. Jimmi.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. thick-walled cells. fracture. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. stem and branches. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. parenchymatous cells. Thumbooni. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati.0. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. Rutaceae).Bk.2 cm thick. Tumbura. phloem fibres thickwalled. (Fam.

phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. 2. Appendix 8.2.Aruci.75 µ in diameter.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. Rucya. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix 12 per cent. Ëmav¡ta. aseptate fibres.4. 2. 2. a Volatile Oil and Resin. Powder .5 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. THERAPEUTIC USES .7.2.13. IDENTITY. oil globules and starch grains. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mukharoga. stone cells. of the drug for decoction.2.Yellowish-brown. K¡sa. Appendix 1. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex.2.6. measuring 2.75 µ in diameter. round and oval measuring 2. P¡cana. 169 . shows fragments of cork cells. 2.13. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS . K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). starch grains round and oval. Hikk¡. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem.3. DOSE .75 .5 per cent. Appendix 2. Medhya. Appendix 13 per cent.10-20 g.75 .Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. áv¡sa.

obtuse or acute.Purplish or crimson coloured.60 cm high. characteristic. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. herbaceous. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. wiry. petiole thin. sub quadrangular. Stem . fracture. about 1.5-5 cm long 1. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi.2. Thulasi. taste. much branched. coloured. soft. pedicels longer than calyx. odour.72. Leaf .6 . pubescent. externally purplish-brown to black.2 cm wide.P.Erect. elliptic oblong. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. found throughout the country.Thin. slender. pubescent on both sides. Tulasi (W. internally cream. branched. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. violet internally. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . woody. lower lip 170 . branched. entire or serrate. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. Lamiaceae). annual herb. blackish-brown externally and pale. hairy. Shree Tulasi. hairy.5-3 cm long hairy. small in close whorls. aromatic. odour faintly aromatic. shortly apiculate.) an erect. (Fam. 30 .3. K¤À¸atulas¢. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. Flower .

rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. glandular trichomes short.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. found scattered in phloem. veined calyx. Leaf- Petiole . consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. brown.epidermis. three vascular bundles situated centrally. nearly smooth. tracheids. pubescent.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends.shows somewhat cordate outline. phloem consisting of sieve elements. thin-walled. Midrib . thin-walled. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled.A group of 4 nutlets. odour. aromatic. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. slightly notched at the base. long. no odour. each with one seed. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. taste. slightly mucilaginous. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. membranous. taste. Fruit . xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. rectangular. odour. in groups and rarely in singles. phloem consists of sieve elements. slightly compressed. middle one larger than other two. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled.1 cm long. xylem surrounded by phloem. occasionally a few cells collapsed.Rounded to oval. pitted with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. pungent. round to oval polygonal. lateral two short and central two largest. measuring 22-27 in dia. vessels pitted. parenchymatous cells. 171 . multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. xylem consists of vessels. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. Seed . vessels pitted. Stem .Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. fibres with pointed ends. mucilaginous when soaked in water. pungent. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. taste.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. elongated. thin-walled. aromatic. fibre tracheides. b) Microscopic Root . fibres and parenchyma. filled with brown content. enclosed in an enlarged. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. pungent. corolla about 4 mm long. 0.

minutes Under observation. H¤dya. 2. Appendix 8 per cent. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.7. Record Rf. a few containing reddish brown contents.C. palisade ratio 3. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. 2.2. 2. RukÀa.6. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). thin walled fibres. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Greenish: shows thin-walled. Kaphahara.L. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. T. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. rounded to oval.2.C. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. parenchymatous cells.16 on lower surface. IDENTITY. vein islet number 31 .7.4. Rf.Lamina . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . Powder .Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .35. 2. Appendix 1.15 .1.Essential Oil. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. value 0. CONSTITUENTS . palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. in thoroughly vanillin . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. V¡tahara.2. Appendix 4 per cent.8. Rucya. Pittavardhin¢. Durgandhihara 172 .epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole.3.2.2. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.L.5 per cent. Appendix 2. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. Tikta.2. Appendix 10 per cent. On cooling spray. oil globules.

áv¡sa.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. Hikk¡. K¤miroga. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed).IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. 173 . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . Chardi. Netraroga. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. K¡sa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .A¿mar¢.

petiolate.2 cm wide. Holy Basil Tulasi. K¤À¸atulas¢. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. covering trichomes multicellular. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. 1. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. LeafPetiole . (Fam. middle one larger than the other two. thin. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. Lamiaceae). uniseriate 1-8 celled long.. found throughout the country. an erect. obtuse or acute. taste.5-5 cm long. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. balloon-shaped head. petiole 1. three vascular bundles situated centrally. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. hairy. and 2-8 celled. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. entire or serrate.73.6-3.) 30-60 cm high. consisting of xylem and phloem. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. aromatic. measuring 22-27 µ dia. upper epidermis. 174 b) Microscopic . characteristic. odour.shows cordate outline. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. Tulasi (Lf. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. elliptic-oblong. glandular trichomes short. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. pubescent on both surfaces. much branched annual herb.5-3 cm long.

45. 0.2.93 (pink) & 0.12. Under U. 0. Powder .). 0.7. 0. 0..2.2. Lamina .2. 175 . less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.54. 0. Appendix per cent. Nerol and Camphene etc. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. 0.75.12 (light violet). 0.30.Light-green. 0. 0. 0.04. 0.04.75 (violet). palisade and spongy parenchyma.04. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.33 (both green) 0.V. Appendix per cent.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.21.L. 0.C. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. 0. vein islet number 31-33.3. 0. 0.8. 2.83.85 (blue). shows fragments of polygonal. 2.83 (blue).45 (yellowish green).45 (violet). 0. 0. 0.4. 0.12 (light green).2.98 (blue). Appendix per cent.45.21. Appendix per cent.54 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 0.2. 0. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. 0.85 & 0.6. Caryophyllene.93 (all0 yellow). palisade ratio 3. 2. 0. IDENTITY.93 (both light green).33 (violet). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.epidermis. 2. CONSTITUENTS .C. 0.98 (blue). except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.33.21 (brown). 0.33. T.08.88 and 0. 0. 0. 0.L.03 (dark green).08 (violet). covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.93 (violet) and 0. Appendix 2. 0.Midrib .Essential Oil (Carvacrol.08 (both green).83 (all pink) 0. 0.

176 . THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara.2-3 g.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. K¤miroga. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. áv¡sa. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. V¡tahara. RukÀa. H¤dya. of the drug in powder form. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Tikta. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa.Aruci. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Hikk¡. K¡sa. Prati¿y¡ya. Kaphahara. KuÀ¶ha.

âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj.5-1. smaller. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas.5 cm thick. enclosing large air spaces. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. Vacha (Rz. short. and 0. thin-walled cells of various sizes. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. broadly. cells towards periphery. somewhat collenchymatous. Vekhandas -Varch. triangular. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. Gora-bach Baje. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. Araceae). fracture. Rhizome .) semiaquatic herb. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. Ugr¡. (Fam. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. pungent and bitter. aromatic. upper side marked with alternately arranged. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. taste. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. large. odour.Shows single layered epidermis. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened.74. buff coloured intemally. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. Ghodvach Bach. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. Ghodavaca Vasambu. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side.

7. 2. Appendix per cent.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. spherical. shows fibres.Yellowish-cream b. Appendix per cent. 2. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. 2. Powder . parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. 178 ..Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol.2. CONSTITUENTS . Methanol-Yellowish green iv. Appendix per cent. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.2.3.C. endodermis distinct.2. Chloroform-Light green iii. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.L. Appendix 2. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. Appendix per cent.2.14 (violet) and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. 2.10 T.L.2. Appendix per cent. 2.Buff coloured. 0.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. stele composed of round. reticulate. Starch and Tannin.C. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. Powder as such: . Benzene-No change IDENTITY.region. Petroleum ether-No change ii. starch grains simple.4. present in cortex and ground tissue. Extracts in i.2.6. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. Eugenol and Asarone).

Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vibandha. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Ka¸¶hya.Vac¡di Taila. V¡tahara. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Ëdhm¡na.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. áv¡sa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Apasm¡ra. Tikta Laghu. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. C£r¸a.á£la. Medhya. K¡sa. DOSE . Unm¡da. 179 . Kar¸a Sr¡va. 1. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . Khadir¡di Va¶¢.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2 g. S¡rasvata. K¤mihara. Kaphahara. Sm¤ti daurbalya.

Beesh. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. 2-4. taste.8 cm thick. Vatsanabha. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. Mahura. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . Sth¡varaviÀa. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. occasionally separated due to breakage. Naabhi Bachnak. cartilaginous. Basanaag Bisa.5 cm. rough due to root scars. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered.1. Ranunculaceae). Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. without or with a few intercellular spaces. papillose on outside. ovoid. Mithalelia. plant is an erect. small portions of stem sometimes attached. Bachhnaag. roots are generally collected late in September. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. perennial herb. tapering downwards to a point. Teliya Bish Basanalli. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. 0. Nabhi. suberised. conical. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. Vatsanabha (Rt. thin-walled. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. dark brown to blackish-brown.) (Fam. fracture.4 . odour indistinct. rarely 5 cm long. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. poisonous.75. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Vatsanabhi. parenchymatous cells. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Meethabisha. Vatsanabhi. Mithvisa Mitha Visha.

consisting of round to oval cells.C. a few aseptate fibres. Appendix 2. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. Trid°Àahara.L.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.4.20. Viyav¡yi.2. UÀ¸a. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.39. 0. Appendix 24 per cent. Appendix 5. T. 0.3. 2. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. RukÀa.56. some scattered. Sv®dala.10. IDENTITY.2.endodermis.L. xylem exarch. S £tasekhara Rasa.5 per cent. occupying more than half the radius. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. shows vessels. Laghu.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. cambium having 6 10 angles. Powder . On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.39 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. Appendix 8 per cent. Anandabhairava Rasa.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring.Light grey. 2.2. 2. 0. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . Appendix 2 per cent. 0. CONSTITUENTS .74 and 0. 2. often forming 'V' shaped ring.2. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. 0. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. containing a few groups of phloem strands. inner bark parenchymatous. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre.C. metaxylem vessels met in centre. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre.96 (both orange). present in cortical cells.2.6.2. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. ÙikÀ¸a.

V¡takaphajvara.THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE .30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Kanharoga. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.15 . Jvar¡tis¡ra. Sannip¡ta.V¡taroga. 182 .

Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. starchy and somewhat porous. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. but pliable. smooth except for protuberances at some places. usually does not break. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda.76. (Fam. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . sweetish. outer surface reddish-brown. Gumadi belli.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. thinwalled. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Eagio. Vidari (Tub. Nelagumbala. Fabaceae). Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. taste. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Nelagumbula. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. cut surface creamish-brown.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Bhuikumra Vidari. thin-walled cells. Vid¡rik¡. Bhonykoru. stone cells moderately thick-walled. Bhoikolu. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. -Mudakku Bhuikohala.Rt. Bhumikusmanda. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated.

THERAPEUTIC USES .75 µ in dia. Appendix 2. highly thickened.D¡ha. phloem fibres much elongated. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Buff coloured. Appendix 4 per cent.3-6 g. áoÀa.Gluconic and Malic acids. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. CONSTITUENTS . Stanyada. somewhat round.2. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). Appendix 4.13. having central hilum and striations. J¢van¢ya.. 2.5 . and also rarely in stone cells. Powder . Appendix 24 per cent. M£trala.7. Appendix 17 per cent. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. Pittahara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. Svarya.4. fragments of cork.5 . a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells.3. Daurbalya. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. radially elongated cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. angular to oval. IDENTITY.2.13. Var¸ya. distributed throughout this region.Marma Gu¶ik¡.2. measuring 5. 2. Ras¡yana. of the drug in powder form. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5.75 µ in dia.2. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.5 per cent.and pits. V¡tahara. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. present in all parenchymatous cells. Angmarda. 184 . DOSE . 2. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. lignified with narrow lumen. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. Raktapitta. a few latex duct also present. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. Balya. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.2. 2. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening.6. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled.

(Fam. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. followed by more or less.77.2-0. followed by 2-3 layers. Jav Barley Cheno. polygortal inner epidermal cells. about 1 cm long and 0. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka.3 cm wide. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. seed coat appears as a colourless line.) Poaceae). sweetish-acrid. 50-100 cm high. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . H. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. thick-walled. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. oblong. odour. Yava (Fr. sclerenchymatous fibres. square or quadrilateral. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. not distinct. Syn. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. round to oval wavy walled cells. an annual. erect herb. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. cultivated chiefly in North India. sativum Pers. spongy parenchymatous cells. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. elliptic. smooth. pale-greenish-yellow.

sclerenchymatous fibres. Appendix 4 per cent. round to oval. endosperm divided into two zones.6. Kaphahara.2.4. and the rest starch layers. 0. Sugars. 0. Var¸ya 186 . Fats. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.06. 2. Appendix 2.31. M£trahara. IDENTITY.L. Proteins (Albumin. 0. Svarya. Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.36. 0. Globulin.C. 0.22. Appendix 2. 0. 0. Medahara. Pur¢Àak ¤t. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. 0.65 & 0.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.68.72 (all pink. Orientoside. 0. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. 0.) CONSTITUENTS .68. Appendix 1. 2. 0. 0. 0.C.2. 0. Appendix 5.22. V¡tak¤t.2.83 and 0. Vitexin etc. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent.V. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.24. 2. V¤Àya. Sthairyakara. starch grains simple. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 0.Creamish-white.31.10. 0. Lekhana. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.Starch.L. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.53.92 (all grey).2. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. 0.2.10.56. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 0.16.14.2. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.5 per cent. 0. 2.7 T.92 (yellow).31.narrow lumens. simple starch grains.5 per cent.3.44.5 2. Appendix 4 per cent.83 (all violet) and 0.45. Orientin. 0.

K¡sa. El¡dya Modaka. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Gandharvahasta Taila. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Kanharoga. 187 . Medoroga. THERAPEUTIC USES .áv¡sa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .100 .200 g. Tvagroga DOSE . of the drug. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. T¤À¸¡. P¢nasa. Prameha. Urustambha. Dh¡nvantara Taila.

filled with reddish-brown contents.5-0. drooping. alternate. secondary and tertiary root absent. Desv. elliptical. sharp axillary spines upto 3. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. dark brown. glabrous. Punjab. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Leaf . striate.2-1 cm thick. Neladangara. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. secondary cortex almost 188 . 0. nearly 0.7 cm broad. stipules green.1-1 cm thick. terete. Yavasaka (W.Well developed. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. short. hard. fracture. Y¡sa. Stem .78. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. no taste and odour. 20-30 cm long and 0.P. slightly rough at basal region with slender.Cylindrical. extipulate. branched. gradually tapering.) Fabaceae). Javasa. ballidurabi. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. a small thorny shrub. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. mucronate obtuse. glabrous. oblong. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa.5-1 cm long.Simple. radially arranged cork cells. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. cork cambium single layered. (Fam. opposite.8 cm long. 0.

paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. xylem consists of vessels. xylem fibres. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. xylem consists of vessels. Stem . xylem situated above phlome. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. filled with tannin. epidermis single layered. phloem composed of sieve elements. elongated.absent. starch grains simple. rounded to oval. covered externally with thick cuticle. 189 . round and oval starch grains measuring 5. filled with tannin. fibres. tangentially elongated cells. 5.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. covered with cuticle. hypodermis 2-3 layered. 3-45 cells long. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. parenchymatous cells. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. pith composed of a few thin-walled. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. present throughout the region. tracheids.75 µ in diameter.5.14. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. phloem composed of sieve elements.appears circular in outline. simple. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. Midrib . tracheids. pitted vessels. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. thin-walled. Leaf- Petiole . tracheids and fibres. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal.Greenish-brown. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. a few with thick wall and simple pits. parenchyma and fibres.75 µ in dia. hypodermis 1-2 layered. Lamina . Powder . thin-walled. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. parenchymatous cells. angular. vascular bundle collateral. tanniniferous cells. some cells filled with tannin. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends.5-14.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous.appears biconvex in outline. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval.

2. THERAPEUTIC USES .6. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS . Raktapitta.20 . Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.IDENTITY. Appendix 10 per cent. 2.50 g.2.7. Appendix 2. Appendix 13. 2.5 per cent. Invert Sugars). Jvara.2.2. Kaphahara. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Tikta. Arimed¡di Taila.5 per cent.Sugars (Melizitose. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2 per cent. T¤À¸¡. Sucrose.2.2. V¡tarakta.3.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 2. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. of the drug in powder form for decoction.Chardi.4. D¢pana. K¡sa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Visarpa DOSE . 190 .