THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1-Sampling of drugs 2.2.2.1.2-Thermometers 1.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.1.1.2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.5.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.3.1.1.2.4.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2. 1.2-Sieves 1.1 Testing Drugs 2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.1.2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.Types of Stomata 2.1.2.2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.2.2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.1-Nessler Cylinder.1.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.) Desv 177 1.2.2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.1.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.1.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.2.

3 Limit Tests 2.3.2.3.3.1-Powder Fineness 2.3.3.3.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.3.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.1.Weights and Measures 5.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.2-Refractive Index 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.1.5-Limit Test for lead 2.2.3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .4-Limit Test for Iron 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.

These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. the Dangerous Drugs Act.I. In general. Part-I. II. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Vol. Vol. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. Part-I.P. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. II.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. accordingly. II would be official. 1930 and the Poisons Act.). would be deemed to have been amended vii . 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982).

Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. if any. viii . Weights and Measures . English. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. indicated in monograph. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. Mesh Number . Ayurvedic Formulary of India.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Identity.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs .Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Introductory Para .Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. substances or processes described in Appendix. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Italics .GENERAL NOTICES Title . When the term “drop” is used. distribution and method of collection. If the odour persists to be discernible. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Purity and Strength . Synonyms . the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. it is described as having odour. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. Hindi. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. Odour and Taste . as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name.

with one of the four meanings given below. the expression per cent (%). Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. pests. However. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. micro-organisms. Vol.soluble extractive. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. Purity and Strength. total ash. wherever given. acid-insoluble ash. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. shall constitute standards. under Description. in 100 grammes of product.For statutory purpose. Constant Weight . according to circumstances. moisture content.Under this head.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. Standards . The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. The quantitative tests e. water. sliminess. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. is used. alcohol-soluble extractive. arsenic and heavy metals. if of equivalent accuracy. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1.In defining standards. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . those of definition of the part and source plants.) .In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. Percentage of Solutions . Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter.C. colour. ix . The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. However. water-soluble ash.g. pesticides. and other animal matter including animal excreta. mould or other evidence of deterioration.L. Constituents . even by applying known reference standards. and Identity. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. ether-soluble extractive. which he uses. and show no abnormal odour. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. Part-I. statements appearing in the API. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. V. fungi. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects.

Reagents and Solutions . thermometric scale. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Solutions .000 parts x .All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. are intended to apply at that temperature. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. at a stated temperature.000 parts More than 10. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). fibres. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. all solutions are prepared with purified water. and dust particles.56 oC. Temperature . Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. such as fragment of filter papers. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. Statements of solubilities. Solubility . The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Percentage of alcohol .

0.5 N.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . mg. l. Kg. 0. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0.1 N.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. µ. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.I. cm. Part –I and Part-II. 1M. TS.P. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. PS. IN. Fam. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. g. mm.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. ml. unless otherwise stated. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes.

Mar. Tam. Fr. Wh. Kash. Rt. xii . Lf. Wd. Pl. Rt. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Eng. Kan. Guj. Ori. Bk. Tub. Beng. St. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Mal. Sd. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Assam. Bk. St. Ht.Sansk. Wd. Punj. Rz. Tel.

odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. vessels pitted.8 µ in width. elongated. 7-15 cm in length. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. shrivelled.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. parenchymatous cells.37-28. Akalakarabha. bark upto 3 mm thick. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. Akarakara Akkaraka. cambium 2-5 layered. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. Asteraceae). thin-walled. 53. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. taste. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. slightly aromatic. (Fam. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. 1. tapering slightly at both ends.2 . hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems.231 µ in 1 .1. xylem fibres thick-walled. not easily separable. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. external surface rough. an annual. Akallakara. brown. Akarakarabha (Rt. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. b) Microscopic Root . characteristically astringent and pungent.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. Akravu Akkalakara. cylindrical.

Powder . radially elongated. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. Kaphahara. Appendix 8 percent.2. Appendix 2 percent. Appendix 2. PakÀ¡gh¡ta.2. Udararoga. 2. CONSTITUENTS .2. Appendix 22 percent.3. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. IDENTITY.5 -1 g. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. Aj¢rna. áotha. secondary phloem. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Danta¿£la DOSE .2. K¡sa.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). áv¡sa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. secondary phloem and medullary rays. 2. Appendix 10 percent. uniseriate rays very rare. áukrala.2. also gives positive tests for inulin. 2. of the drug in powder form.2.length having narrow lumen. Pittahara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. NaÀ¶¡rtava. bi to tri and multiseriate. secondary phloem and medullary rays. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex.Prati¿y¡ya. medullary rays numerous. D¢pana. running straight. á£laroga.Ash coloured. 2 . Grdhras¢.6. V¡jikara. 2. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Svedakara. Buddhivardhaka. ray cells thick-walled. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.7.Kum¡ry¡sava.0.

3 . paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. Juglandaceae). endosperm mostly single layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. irregularly corrugated. parenchymatous cells. Sailabhava. radially elongated. coriaceous. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. Powder . Cotyledon .) large deciduous. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. collapsed. under this.Shows 1-2 layered. thin-walled. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. broken pieces. creamish-brown. not distinct. taste. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal.Cream coloured. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. parenchymatous cells. Akshoda (Cotldn. followed by more or less compressed. thin-walled. (Fam. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. oily sweet.2. slightly curved. odour.

THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. 2. Appendix 2.25 g.4. Appendix Not more than 0.2. V¡taroga. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. Kaphakara.0 percent. B¤´ha¸a.6.2. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. Appendix Not less than 7. 4 .3.2.2.5 percent.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. áukral. Appendix Not less than 10.2. 2. Sara. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS .10 .2. Balya.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. DOSE .KÀata.0 percent. ViÀ¶ambhi. V¤Àya. KÀaya.IDENTITY.Walnut oil and Tannin.

which are thick-walled towards periphery. thin. grey having lenticels. Ambadam Amratakamu. acuminata Roxb. Amvara -Mampusli. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. non Gamble (Fam.. thin-walled cells. tangentially elongated. Anbalamu. Jangali Ambo. Ranamba. internal surface reddish-yellow. consisting of tangentially elongated.3. Amra Indian Hog Plum. parenchymatous cells.Bk. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. external surface smooth. Wild Mango Ambeda. f. Ranambo Ambada. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. laminated. deciduous tree. Ambado.5 m in girth. mangifera Willd. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. Amra.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Ambazham. a few outer cells exfoliated. and 5 . secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Amrata (St. upto 27 m high and 2. Anacardiaceae). S.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. fracture. S. with reddish-brown contents. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Jangli Aam Ambate. a small aromatic. parenchymatous. Ambalam. curved. Stem Bark. Kurz. Syn. Mampuiti. radially arranged.

33. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.C. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.V. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf.33. 0. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.3. simple.2.40 and 0. KÀaya. D¡ha DOSE . shows cork cells.2. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. Not more than 1 per cent. IDENTITY.87 (blue) and 0.96. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Ka¸¶hya. lignified. Rucik¤t.5 per cent. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.2. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. V¡tahara.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thick-walled.7. 2.(greyish brown).Light brown. T. Powder .D¡dhika Gh¤ta.L. 0. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . containing rosette crystals and starch grains. Pittakara. THERAPEUTIC USES .6. stone cells.75-14 µ in dia.C. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. Appendix Not more than 0. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. 0.4. Under U.2. 2.L. CONSTITUENTS .. 6 . 2.5-10 g. Raktapitta.KÀata. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. 2. 0.87 (all greyish brown). Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.96 (blue). prominent lysogenous cavities are present. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. Appendix 2.

alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. a stiff. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. erect.free. odour. two celled. not distinct.Cylindrical tap root. sessile. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . hypogynous. 7 . cylindrical. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. contorted or quincuncial. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. Stem . dorsifixed. 0. Kharamaµjar.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. stamens 5. gradually tapering. the perianth lobes. hairy. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn.P. May£raka.0. filament short. solid.5 cm in cut pieces. anther. opposite. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita.3-0. membranous.3 . branched. slightly ribbed.) Amaranthaceae).9 m high herb. hollow when dry. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. greenish-white. yellowish-brown. rough due to presence of some root scars.0. PratyakpuÀpa. bracteate with two bracteoles.1-1. perianth segments 5. Flower .4. decussate. Apamarga (W.Simple. Leaf . 0. (Fam. exstipulate. erect. wavy margin. subsessile. obovate. actinomorphic.0 cm in thickness. numerous. bisexual. secondary and tertiary roots present. one spine lipped. yellowish-brown. opposite.

covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. brown. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. vessels simple pitted. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. spiral. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. round at the base. cortex 6-10 layered. style. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. demarcating the xylem rings. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. b) Microscopic Root . transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. vessels annular. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. ovary superior. perianth and bracteoles. thin-walled cork cells.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. unilocular with single ovule. 2-5 celled. fibres being absent. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. scalariform and pitted.Sub-cylindric. Fruit . small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. Stem . epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. Seed . on both surfaces. truncate at the apex. oval to rectangular. thin-walled. cortical and pith cells. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. thin-walled cork cells. present in pith. Midrib . parenchymatous cells. xylem composed of usual elements.Shows crescent-shaped outline. LeafPetiole . either separate throughout or found in some cases. 3-4 celled stalk. capitate. elongated. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. composed of parenchymatous cells. followed 8 . each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. rectangular. endospermic. two medullary bundles. epidermis single layered. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. fibres pitted. lignified. tangentially elongated. stigma.Shows a single layered epidermis. thin layers of cambium. syncarpous. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells.gynoecium bicarpellary. single.

stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. V¡tahara. Medohara.0-20. 9 .20-50 g.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. Ka¸·u. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . aseptate fibres. of the drug for decoction. shows fragments of elongated. 2. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. Apac¢. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.Light yellow. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . palisade ratio 7.5-9. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Ar¿a. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. stomatal index 4. Udara Roga. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .7.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. Appendix 2.0 on lower surface. 2. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells.á£la. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. spiral.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. V¡maka.2. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. IDENTITY. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled epidermal cells.0-11. slightly elongated in upper. vessels with annular. Medoroga DOSE . 2. Powder .Shows single layered. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. rectangular.0 on upper surface. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. 2. Gu·apippali. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces.2.4. Lamina .2. P¡cana.6.2. 9. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3.2. mm. Chedana. scalariform and pitted thickening. non-lignified cells. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. Kaphahara. Tikta Sara.

a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. vessels pitted with oblong. fracture. polygonal. colour. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. bitter. a few solitary fibres also present. fibrous. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. very long. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. lightbrown. Fabaceae). secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. a few showing slit-like pits. Aparajita (Rt. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. b) Microscopic Root . 1-5 mm in thickness.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. medullary 10 . phloem fibres 2-8 in groups.5. (Fam. cylindrical. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. thin-walled. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. taste. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips.

Appendix per cent. 2.7.L. IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS . found in secondary cortex.1 .4.V. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.54 and 0.C.2. V¡tahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.Tannin. Medhya.C. 0. Powder .rays 1-5 cells wide. 0. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya.2. Resin. Appendix per cent. KuÀ¶ha. 2. áotha. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. Pittahara.2.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. 2.L.2. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .. of the drug in powder form. oblong and pitted. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components.Yellowish-brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.79 (blue).Mi¿raka Sneha. Appendix per cent. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .79 (both yellow). Kaphahara.. Starch.á£la.2. Under U.3 g. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia.2.6. shows simple and compound starch grains. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. ViÀahara. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3. Tikta. Vra¸a DOSE .79 (grey). T. phloem and xylem parenchyma. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. Buddhiprada. 0. 0. 11 . Appendix 2. M£traroga.

ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. gingery. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells.5 cm thick. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. radially arranged cells of inner cork. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. pungent Rhizome . Ardraka (Rz. oblique branches on upper side. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. (Fam. 1.) Zingiberaceae). Adrak Injee.5-6. Allam. widely cultivated in India. colourless. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. Ale -Adi.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. Inji Allamu. each having a depressed scar at its apex. fracture. thin-walled. buds and roots are removed and washed well. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. lakottai. reaching up to 90 cm in height. tangentially elongated. isodiametric. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. short with projecting fibres. pieces 5-15 cm long. odour.6. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. taste. irregularly arranged.Shows a few layered.

16.2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0.08 (violet). greater number occurring in inner cortical region. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.76 (violet) & 0. Appendix 2 per cent. 0. conjoint.63.47 (light violet). fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.08. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. 0. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.35 (light violet). On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. collateral. vessels 2-5 in number. IDENTITY. walls of oil cells suberised.2.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. elongated pits on their walls.63 & 0.69. endodermis single layered. 2. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. 2. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.dia. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.l6 (brownish violet). Appendix 90 per cent.6. 0. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf.35. free from starch. CONSTITUENTS .69 (grey).69 (light violet). 0. larger bundles consists of 2. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. fibrovascular bundles of two types. 0.03. Appendix 5 per cent. small cells of sieve tube. composed of xylem.7 vessels. phloem. 2. 0.35.69 (all light yellow). 0. 0. 0. Under U. oleo-resin cells abundent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.3. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.13. 0. 0.C. 0.2.4. 0.83 & 0. 0. reticulate and spiral vessels. septate fibres with oblique. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. 0. 0.2. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum.L. Appendix 1 per cent. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. 2. Powder -Light yellow.92 (all yellow).L. 2. 0. 0. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.76. 0. 0. 13 .2.16.16 (blue).63 (grey) & 0. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin.63 (light violet).7. filled with abundant starch grains.C. Appendix 8 per cent.. Appendix 2. vessels showing reticulate. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 0.2.92 (violet).2. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. numerous closed.5 per cent.47. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T.9 T.V.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. DOSE . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .á£la. H¤dya. RukÀa. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. 14 . S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Rocana. Ën¡ha. Vibandha. V ¤Àaya. Svarya.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Ka¸tharoga. Kaphahara. áopha. Bhedana.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha.

internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. all traversed by medullary rays. internally light brown to reddish-brown. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. not distinct. exfoliating in irregular scales. characteristic of dry regions. fracture. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. with tapering 15 . lignified. consisting of sieve elements. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. fibres and crystal fibres. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda.Bk. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. upto 3 m in height. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. hard. Arimeda (St.7. odour and taste. rough. incurved. (Fam. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. fibrous.5-1 cm thick. parenchyma. Velvelam. Sadabala -Haramibaval. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. square to rectangular cells. phloem fibres thin-walled. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. Pilobaval. stone cells and phloem cells. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. thinwalled cortical cells. Fabaceae). sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. secondary phloem wide.

39 and a spot at Rf. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.Reddish-brown. Appendix 14 per cent.3-5 g in powder form. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.áopha. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. shows groups of cork cells.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Dantaroga. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. Atis¡ra. Ka¸·u. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Appendix 1 per cent.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.78 and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Appendix 11 per cent. P¡¸·u.2. 0. Appendix 2.e. β-Sitosterol and Tannin.ends.LC.40 g for decoction.2. sclereid. K¡sa. 2. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. 2. IDENTITY. K¤mi. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES .7. Udardapra áamana DOSE . β -Amyrin.4. 2. crystal fibres elongated.L. ViÀajavra¸a. Meda¿oÀaka. 0 to 0. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga).0 to 0.91 (both blue). Meha. composed of thin-walled. 0.3.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. radially elongated cells. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0.2. Appendix 13 per cent.2. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.91 (yellow).0. T.6. 2. Powder .39 and a spot at Rf. Mukharoga.C. Visarpa. 16 . KuÀ¶ha. fibres.2.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS .n-Hexacosanol.

taste. Arjuna (St. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. traversed by phloem rays. Bilimatti. Mathichakke.8.2-1. short in inner and laminated in outer part. 0.& A.5 cm thick. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. Vellamaruthi. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. bitter and astringent. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. curved. fracture. Torematti Arjuna. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. P¡rtha. flat. consisting of sieve tubes. channelled to half quilled. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. in the middle and outer phloem region.) Combretaceae). a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. Arjuna. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha.Bk. Neermatti. a large deciduous tree. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. companion cells. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. recurved. Mattimora. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. (Fam. Kellemasuthu. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 .

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KÀatakÀaya. uniseriate phloem rays.Medoroga. DOSE . 2. alata). Appendix 25 per cent. Vya´ga. starch grains simple and compound. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Reddish-brown. a few rhomboidal crystals. 2. present in most of the phloem parenchyma.2. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. IDENTITY. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. Vra¸an¡¿ana.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara.2. 4-12 cells high. Kaphahara. Appendix 20 per cent.6. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. fibres. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate.2.7. Appendix 1 per cent. Appendix 2.2. shows fragments of cork cells. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. starch grains. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum..2. round to oval. T¤À¡. sometimes upto 5 components. Pittahara. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. elliptical. H¤dya.. µ Powder . measuring 5-13 µ in dia. 2. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. THERAPEUTIC USES .P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. Appendix 20 per cent. Prameha.3-6 g.in dia. H¤droga. compound of 2-3 components. 18 . round to oval. Arjuna Gh¤ta..3. Vra¸a. alternating with fibres. of the drug in powder form. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4. mostly simple.2. elliptic. 2.

mesocarp and endocarp. 19 . Nallajidiginga Baladur. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. smooth.) Anacardiaceae).9. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. drupaceous.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. Bhallataka (Fr. obliquely ovoid. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. mesocarp a very broad zone. Scramkotati Nallajidi. (Fam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. 30-40 layers thick.5-3 cm long. Fruit . Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. shining with residual receptacle. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. nut 2. dark brown.

2.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A.4.2. being highly thickened. Tikta. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. chloroform. KuÀ¶ha.Ar¿a. Graha¸¢.. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.2.endocarp consists of two distinct layers.F. Powder . Appendix 5 per cent. Bhedi.2.. of the drug in Ksirapaka form.Dark-brown. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former.I. Krimi. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.1. Appendix 4 per cent. Part-I 20 . Note . Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES .2.6. innermost prismatic. Ën¡ha. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. P¡cana.2. 2.2 g.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. ether.7.5 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . very much elongated radial walls.3. 2. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 2. V¡tahara. Chedi. Appendix 11 per cent. Kaphahara. Gulma. DOSE . lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. 2. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. Ka¶u. Appendix 2. Snigdha. Appendix 0. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY.

Bhangaraiya Garujalu.Well developed. Kesari -Bhangaro.50 cm high. (Fam. Karisalanganni. not toothed. usually oblong. ligule small. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. 2.2 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja.2 . Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. involucral bracts about 8.Solitary or 2. occasionally brownish. Gurugada.P. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Keshavardhana.5 cm long. Leaf . Karisalai Guntakalagara. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. node distinct. Stem . rough due to oppressed white hairs. Knnunni Bhangra. sessile to subsessile. lanceolate. together on unequal axillary peduncles. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. scarcely as long as bracts. often rooting at nodes. white. much branched. greyish.8. spreading. herbaceous. strigose with oppressed hairs. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. ray flowers ligulate. Flower . Kesuriya. ovate. greenish.2. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. sub-acute or acute. Asteraceae).10. Tekar¡ja. cylindrical.3 cm wide. Bhringaraja (W. M¡rkava..Opposite. occasionally rooting at nodes. disc flowers 21 . strigosely hirsute. Soppu.Herbaceous. Bhringiraja. 1. branched. Bhangro Bhangara. obtuse or acute. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. upto about 7 mm in dia. 30 .) herbaceous annual. cylindrical or flat. Bh¤´ga. erect or prostrate. sub-entire.

xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. 1-5 celled. found scattered throughout wood. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. one seeded. Fruit .tubular. fibre tracheids. externally covered with cuticle.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends.0. with a narrow wing. and with pointed apical cell.2 .Achenial cypsella. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. filaments epipetalous. covered with warty excrescences. simple. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. Midrib . inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. b) Microscopic Root . anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. pappus absent. pistil bicarpellary. epidermis followed by wide cortex. consisting of rounded cells. with very pointed tips. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. cuneate. pitted. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. trichomes of two types.1 cm wide. dark brown. corolla often 4 toothed. uniseriate. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. unilocular with one basal ovule. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. traversed by xylem rays. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. fibre tracheids.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. drum-shaped. in macerated preparation vessels small. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. 0. stamen 5. free. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. phloem rays broader towards periphery. covered with striated cuticle. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. epidermis followed by cortex. ovary inferior. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. xylem composed of vessels. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. Leaf- Petiole . hairy and non endospermic. warty. non-glandular. vessels numerous. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. xylem ray distinct. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. rarely slightly oblique. tangentially elongated cells. ray cells pitted. Seed . fibres and xylem parenchyma. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. brown.0.25 cm long. run straight in tangential section.

endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. collateral. while the section cut at apical region. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. pointed. Stem . anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. normally biseriate and uniseriate. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. endarch. middle cells longest. Lamina . shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides.5. peg-like outgrowth. Powder .5 on upper and 23. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. epidermis single layered. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. arranged in tangential strands.Dark green. uniseriate. about 3 celled. trichomes entire or in pieces. externally covered with cuticle. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped.shows a dorsi ventral structure. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. some elongated with simple perforations.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. pointed tips and pitted walls. warty. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata.8 -4. stomatal index 20. septa thick-walled.0-22. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. pericyclic fibres distinct. hairs stiff. wide at the base. pitted with spiral thickening.5 -26. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. externally covered with cuticle. the cork where formed. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes.0 on lower surface.collenehymatous cells on both sides. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. 23 . spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. palisade ratio 3. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. more abundant on lower surfaces. xylem consists of large number of vessels. secondary cortex composed of large. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. xylem fibres with wide lumen. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. vascular bundles in a ring. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side.

2. DOSE . Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. K¡sa.36 g. Dantya. of the drug in powder form for decoction.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila.6 ml of the drug in juice form. CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Tikta RukÀa. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila.2. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. 2.2. 24 . Ëmahara.2. CakÀusya. Appendix per cent. P¡¸·u. áirah á£la.IDENTITY. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. Tvacya. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. Yak¤droga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ke¿ya.Alkaloids. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. Tekar¡ja marica.7.6.2.3. 2.áotha. ViÀahara. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila.2. 2. V¡tahara. K¤miroga.3 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áv¡sa. 12 . Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent. H ¤droga. Appendix per cent.

) Wettst.11. a glabrous.Capsules upto 5 mm long. (Fam. Fruit . Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. nodes and internodes prominent. Valabrahmi. small. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. Ondelaga. ovoid and glabrous. glabrous. succulent. Flower .Thin. taste. about 1-2 mm thick. pedicels 6-30 mm long. opposite. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. slightly bitter.& K. branched creamish-yellow. 25 .Simple. prostrate or creeping annual herb. slightly bitter. green. found throughout India in wet and damp places.B.Small. soft. obovate-oblong. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. Leaf . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. green or purplish green. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. decussate. Brahmi. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. wiry. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. Scrophulariaceae). Brahmi (W. Syn.. sessile.Thin. axillary and solitary. Stem . taste. small.) H.P. 1-2 cm long.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .

Matiprada. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. Appendix per cent.Root . b) Microscopic 26 . endodermis single layered. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers.0 µ in dia. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.4. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. IDENTITY. pericycle not distinct. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. glandular hairs sessile.2. Appendix 2. Stem .2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. ËyuÀya.2. 2. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. Appendix per cent. vascular ring continuous. Powder .Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. simple. Ras¡yana. cortex having large air cavities.Yellowish-brown. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. round and oval starch grains.2. Medhya.6. 2.0-14. Praj¡sth¡pana.. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.5-9. no distinct midrib present.0 x 2.2.3. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. respectively. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. Svarya. V¡tahara.2. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Tikta. ViÀahara. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. round to oval. 2.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. endodermis single layered.Shows a single layer of epidermis. and 8. Appendix per cent. starch grains simple. glandular hairs. Appendix per cent.7.

KuÀ¶ha. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. áopha. Ratnagiri Rasa. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Jvara. 27 . Prameha. P¡¸·u.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1-3 g in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.

Papparamulli. oval and tangentially elongated cells. a very prickly. short and splintery. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. phloem parenchyma much abundant. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai.9 layers of thin-walled..Shows thin cork composed of 5 . Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . Solanaceae). Heggulla.8 m high. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. cork cambium single layered. Ubhibharingani. pale yellowish-brown. 1-2. woody. Brihati (Rt.12. Badikateri Kirugullia. tangentially elongated.15 layers of thin-walled. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata.5 cm in dia. b) Microscopic Root . no distinct odour and taste. much branched perennial under shrub. cylindrical. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. Chichuriti. upto 1. varying greatly in shape and size. long. Putirichunda Dorli. (Fam. fracture. parenchyma and stone cells. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. traversed by phloem rays. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. secondary cortex composed of 5 . ribbed.

2. of the drug for decoction. Appendix 2. aseptate fibres.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. áv¡sa.. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. V¡tahara.5 .2.10-20 g.11. 2. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. all elements being lignified. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. 2.á£la.5 -11.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. DOSE . oval to elongated stone cells and simple. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. IDENTITY.6 µ in diameter. 29 . CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. H¤droga. fibres and xylem parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. tracheids.5 per cent. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. thick-walled. P¡cana. vessels with simple pits.Cream coloured.2. cells radially elongated and pitted.6 µ in diameter. rounded to oval starch grains. phloem and medullary rays. xylem rays uni to biseriate. parenchymatous cells.4.3. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.2.6. Appendix Not more than 6. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. Kaphahara.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. measuring 5. 2. Powder . measuring 5.2. traversed by xylem rays. 2. shows groups of thin-walled. H¤dya.2. Agnim¡dya. Jvara. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.

odour.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. a glabrous. acrid. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Chavya -Kattumulaku. tracheid. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam.0 cm in width. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. short. taste. consisting of round. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi.. nodes and internodes distinct. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. fibres and xylem parenchyma. fleshy climber. peppery.13. oval to rectangular. b) Microscopic Stem . cultivated mainly in Southern India. officinarum DC. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. P. Chavya (St. Piperaceae). surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. fracture. P. endodermis single layered. chaba Hunter non Blume. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. greyish-brown. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. (Fam. plenty of simple starch granules present. thin-walled. secondary cortex a wide zone. Syn. brownish cells.5-2. cork cambium not distinct.

6. cells thin walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu.3. Appendix 1. Appendix 3 per cent.Greyish-brown.2. 2. medullary rays multi seriate. of the drug in powder form.2.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡.Ar¿a. IDENTITY. starch grains. Glycosides and Steroids. á£lal DOSE . Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. filled with simple.2. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. RukÀa. 2. 2. Appendix 6 per cent. D¢pana. CONSTITUENTS . 2.2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. shows fragments of vessels.4. 31 . Krimi. fibres and simple. Powder .1-2 g. Appendix 2.5 per cent.pitted and reticulate thickenings.7. P¡cana. Udara Roga. round to oval starch grains. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pl¢h¡ Roga.Alkaloids.2. Gulma. Kaphahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 10 per cent. round to oval. Recana. Ën¡ha.2.

simple.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. thin walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. Dadima (Sd. cotyledons coiled. triangular and rectangular. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. shows stone cells. wedge-shaped.1-0. 32 . 0.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. round to oval. starch grains present in testa. Punicaceae).6 cm long. endosperm absent. Seed .Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. sweetish-sour. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. round. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. oval. taste. oil globules. LohitapuÀpa. parenchymatous cells.2 cm wide. reddish-brown pigmented layer present.14. containing a few oil globules.5-0. 0. (Fam. angular. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. beneath this. found growing wild in the warm valley. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Madalam Danimma Anar. consisting of oval to polygonal.Reddish-brown. Powder . Maadalai.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country.Light greenish-yellow. calyx. upto 4 mm thick. subacute. ovate or ovate. about 0. Gumma. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. hairy on upper part.5 cm across. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. Dronapushpi (W. tubular. smooth. long with numerous wiry. characteristic. scaberulous.lanceolate. fibrous.35 cm wide.Cylindrical. nodes and internodes distinct. corolla. thin.16.6-0. fine rootlets.2-1.25 cm long. lanceolate. globose. 1.3-0.7-2 cm 37 . Stem . taste. Leaf . an annual. glabrous in lower part. 3-9 cm long.P.5 cm long and 0. stout herb. crenate. zig-zag.9 m in high. 1.Yellowish-green. fracture. surface rough. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. taste. 1-2. more or less pubescent. 1-2. erect. taste.) Lamiaceae). 10 dentate with a villous throat. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. ciliate. serrate. (Fam. white. Inflorescence . pungent. acute. about 2-3. slightly bitter. slightly curved. size variable. crowded in dense.5 cm wide. white. hairy.Sessile.

upto 8 cells high.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows.Schizocarpic carcerule. trigonous. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. Leaf- Petiole .vascular bundle arc-shaped. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. wooly. parenchymatous cells. nutlets 3 mm smooth. 4 . xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. xylem consists of vessels.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. thin-walled. tangentially elongated.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes.0. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. fibres and xylem parenchyma. present in centre. endoderm is single layered. b) Microscopic Root . bilipped. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. tracheids. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled.3 cm long and 0. thin-walled cells. smooth. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. composed of oval to rectangular. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Midrib . upper lip about 4 mm long. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. thin-walled cells. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. cortex consisting of single layered. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. irregular. round to angular collenchyma.tangentially elongated. vascular bundles 4. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. consists of a single layered epidermis. Fruit . vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening.1 cm wide.long. lateral lobes small. Seed . secondary cortex 5-9 layered. followed by round to oval parenchyma. oblong. consisting of barrel shaped. vessels long with spurs. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes.shows a single layered epidermis.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. brown. Lamina . fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. tracheids. thin-walled 38 . secondary xylem consists of vessels. dark brown. some having simple pits.7 layered. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. palisade single layered. Stem . pith wide consisting of circular to oval.

1-3 g of the drug in powder form. present on both surfaces. 2. K¡sa.6. THERAPEUTIC USES .6-30.Alkaloid.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.3.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.2. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.7.2. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . stomatal index 16.cells. palisade ratio 7-9. 16.2. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. Bhedani. K¡mal¡.áotha. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. pitted and spiral vessels. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.Dull yellow. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. ViÀamajvara DOSE . 2. 39 . Agnim¡ndya. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. IDENTITY. Tamaka áv¡sa.5 on lower surface. RukÀa. 2. Ka¶u Guru.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form.2. V¡takara. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.2.6-40. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. stomata diacytic. Glycoside. a few veins present in this region. Lava¸a. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent.7 on upper surface. Powder . aseptate fibres. Appendix 2. Pittakara. CONSTITUENTS .2.

radially elongated to squarish. Vellarika Kakadi. (Fam. 40 . sweetish oily. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. Karka¶¢.7-10 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. straight. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. cotyledons two. parenchymatous cells.4 cm wide. cultivated in many parts of the country. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi.17. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. mesophyll cells thinwalled. glossy. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. shows stone cells. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. utilissimus Roxb. Hastipani. creamish-yellow. surface smooth. 0.3-0. Cucurbitaceae). Ervaru (Sd. 0. more or less ellipsoid. rounded and tangentially elongated. Hastipani. C. thin-walled. taste. covered with thick cuticle. parenchymatous. B¤hatphala. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. -Kakur. an annual creeping herb.

RaktadoÀakara. (366 mm). 0. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.19.77. Appendix 2.4. Appendix 0. V¡takara.35.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Jvara.19. D¢pana. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .58. 2. Rucya. 2.5 per cent. 0.35.C. Appendix 5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 2.2. Appendix 4 per cent.26.0.64.2.91 and 0. of seeds.64.91 (blue) under U. 2. Appendix 10 per cent.7.L. 0.51.26.51. T. 0.D¡ha. 0. 0. Gulma.6. 0.77. Pittahara. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. THERAPEUTIC USES .V. Kaphakara. 0.0.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.83.0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.97 (all grey). 0.3-6 g.2. A¿mar¢.3. Raktapitta. Tikta Guru.Oil & Sugars.58.91 and 0.IDENTITY. T¤À¸¡.97 (all yellow) . 41 .C.2.L.83.2. 0.

greyish-brown with a dent.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. 0.Kidney-shaped. (Fam.18.0-3.0 cm in diameter and 2. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. odour and taste not distinct.0-3.5 cm thick. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. 42 . b) Microscopic Fruit . a large epiphytic climber.3-0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.6 cm long. brownish-grey. thin-walled. Seed .4-0. cut surface has a central core. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. Araceae). Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . smooth. rough and scaly. odour and taste not disticnt. Orissa.Shows more or less loosely arranged.4 cm wide. Gajapippali (Fr. 0. shiny.

2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. 2. Powder . thick-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES .áiv¡gutik¡. 43 . 0.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U.27.20. 0.73 and 0. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. 2. áv¡sa.Dark brown.65 and 0. V¡tahara.L.4. Three spots appear at Rf. Sugars & Fixed Oil. shows lignified. thick-walled.2.65. Malavi¿oÀana.73 and 0. thin-walled. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. Agnivardhaka. 2-4 layered.65. oval to polygonal.65. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.Seed . Ka¸¶hya. Kaphahara. non-lignified. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.7. CONSTITUENTS .93 (brown).93 (all blue) are visible.27. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. 0.Shows a single layered.2. DOSE . pitted and with concentric striations. Stanya. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.Atis¡ra. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. 2. Punarnav¡sava.L.C. 2. T. 0. 0. 0. 0.2.2-3 g.Glucosides viz. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. 0. oval to polygonal.2. IDENTITY.2. K¤miroga. 0. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.6. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.C.3. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. in extract (Phant) form. Appendix T.73 (both light brown) and 0. 0. Ka¸ha Roga.V. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.93 (all yellow). 2. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. oval to polygonal.5 per cent. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.

Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. Seed . parenchymatous cells. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. 0. seed coat thin. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled.A drupe.4-0. tangentially elongated. fleshy mesocarp. sweetish sour. parenchymatous cells. K¡¿marya.6 cm wide. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. Seed . Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha.) unarmed tree. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. thin-walled cells.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. Sr¢par¸¢. cotyledons consisting of single layered. sometimes one seeded.Seed ovate.19. surface smooth.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed.5-1 cm long. thin-walled. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. ovoid. multilayered. (Fam. radially 44 . Gambhari (Fr. b) Microscopic Fruit .0 cm long. taste. Verbenaceae). sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. Shivani. 0. light yellow. Hannu -Kumbil. crinkled. papery. 1. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. two seeded.5-2. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. oily. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. black. P¢takarohi¸¢.

2.2. 0. 45 . KÀata. of the drug in powder form.4 per cent. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS ..6. 0. shows stone cells. 0. 0. Amla. oil globules and aleurone grains.94 and 0.V. Rakta Pitta DOSE .7. H¤dya.03.12.elongated epidermal cells. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.Blackish-brown. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.D¡ha. T¤À¸¡.L. 0. 0. IDENTITY.1-3 g. Pittahara.03.22. Alkaloid. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. T. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.42. 2.08. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.4. THERAPEUTIC USES .98 (yellow) in visible light. Ke¿ya.2. 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. KaÀ¡ya Guru.98 (all yellow).3. Ras¡yana. KÀaya. 0. 0. M£trak¤cchra.93 and 0. Powder . 2. 2. 0.52.26. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara.2. Resin and Saccharine. Tartaric acid. 0.2. H¤droga.Arvind¡sava.2. Appendix 6 per cent.Butyric acid. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.18.C.98 (orange). Under U. Appendix 25 per cent. Medhya.L. Appendix 0.98 (all blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 2. Sara. Appendix 8 per cent. 2.C.

fracture. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells. traversed by wide phloem rays. blunt tips and moderately long in size.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. consisting of 12-20 layered. consisting of tangentially elongated. fibrous. moderately large in size. 1. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. a shrub 0.20.Shows a wide cork.0 m high. (Fam. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. thin-walled. arranged in radial groups.6-1. radially arranged cells. secondary cortex wide. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. external surface smooth.) Aschers & Schwf. taste.5-5 cm long. mucilaginous. rectangular. light yellow. Grewia populifolia Vahl. Gangeru (St. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. channelled. oval. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. Syn. fibrous. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . 46 . secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. thick-walled. Tiliaceae). elliptical. a few stone cells. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate..Bk.

KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. IDENTITY. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). Amla.55. 0.2-3 g.7. T.6. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.2.29 (blue).Sugar. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.08. Two spots are seen at Rf.68 & 0.Light yellow and fibrous. 0. 2.68 (light violet) & 0. 0.L. Pittavik¡ra.2.17 (light violet). 0.35 (dark blue).Vra¸a. 0. 47 . Ka¶u.L.Powder .). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.08 (blue) 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.88 (all yellow). 2. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. β-amyrin etc. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.17.2. Tikta. THERAPEUTIC USES .C. DOSE . of the drug in powder form.64 (blue).55 (blue) & 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.17. Appendix per cent. 0.V.2. 0.C. Under U. 0. 0.48. 0. 2. 0. Appendix per cent.4.35. 0. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.3. 2. 0. 0. 0.J¢rak¡di Modaka.88 (light violet). α-amyrin.27 (light violet). under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles.41.13 (blue).35 (both light yellow) in visible light.48 (violet). 0.61.35 (violet). 0.2.08 (violet).27.

small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. slightly corky. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. Gurivinda Ghongchi. Chanothee. taste. when distinct. Kakananti Rati Kunch. smaller than stone cells. present at short intervals. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. some with brownish content. thinwalled.21. Chonotee Ratti. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. feebly sweetish. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. most often irregularly curved. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. composed of 1-2 cells wide. pitted walls. spreading throughout the plains. bark thin. a climber. Kundumani Guriginga. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. cork cambium. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. cylindrical. b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . tangentially elongated cells. Fabaceae). simple or branched. exfoliating in small flakes. Ghungchi Guluganji. becoming mildly bitter. odourless. Gunja (Rt. light brown. (Fam. flowering in August-September. fruits ripen during winter. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. soft. gulagunja -Kunni.

3 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2.4.Greyish-brown. 2. DOSE . thin-walled and rectangular. Appendix 2. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays.1 .7.5-13. Tikta á¢ta. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.75 µ in diameter. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.2. Appendix 10 per cent. vessels of varying sizes with thick. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. áula. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.3.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. small groups of sclerenchyma.75 µ in diameter.6. parenchyma thin-walled. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. pitted walls. of the drug in powder form. shows fragments of cork. 49 . Appendix 2.2. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. 2. stone cells. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. Mukha¿oÀa. CONSTITUENTS .diverging towards periphery. 2. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. wood composed of narrow concentric. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region.5 per cent. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Indralupta.5 -13.2. numerous xylem fibres. Powder .2. Appendix 9 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. xylem vessels with pitted walls. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. Pittahara. IDENTITY.2.

22. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. closed type of vascular bundles. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. Poaceae). characteristic. Serdi Ikha. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre.) shrub. solid. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. (Fam. distinct node and internode. juicy and sweet. scattered throughout the ground tissue. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. cylindrical. b) Microscopic Stem . lignified. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. with. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. conjoint. smooth. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. taste. more numerous and closer towards periphery. besides the xylem and phloem elements. Ikshu (St. 50 . ground tissue consisting of thin-walled.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. odour.

2. Appendix Not more than 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.Powder . 2.7. Sara.200 .Bal¡ Taila. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. vessels and sclerenchyma. 2.400 ml in the juice form.Powder light brick red.3.2. ground tissue. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. Kaphahara. shows pieces of epidermis. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY.2. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. Appendix 2.Sucrose. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.5 per cent. Balya. 2. Pittahara.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. V¤Àya. 51 .4. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.Raktapitta.2.6. DOSE . Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. 2. V¡tahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M£tra KÀaya.

parenchymatous cells.5 cm thick. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. mostly simple or rarely 52 . vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. thick-walled. fracture. consisting of vessels. xylem forms bulk of root. parenchyma and medullary rays. composed of sieve elements. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. elongated with pointed ends. Gav¡kÀ¢. tangentially elongated.5-7. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana.2-2. Indravaruni. thin walled. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. Tumbi Paikamatti. Tuntikai. Bitter apple Indravaran. lying around vessels. starch grains oval to round in shape 2.23. fibres aseptate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. pitted. Indrayan. longitudinal fissures present. short. a few filled with dark brown contents. cylindrical. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. taste. 0. slightly twisted.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Indravarana Gothakakucti. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. b) Microscopic Root . Havumakke. an annual or perennial. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. áatakratulat¡. dull yellow. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. fibres. thick walled. Indravaruni (Rt. Valiya Pekkumatti. parenchyma and medullary rays. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. (Fam. Paythumatti. Indramanoa. tangentially elongated cork cells.) Cucurbitaceae). Indrayanalata. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical.5 µ in dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. intensively bitter. occurring throughout the country. Varithummati.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

25. 57 . shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. (Fam. oval. 1 cm long. smooth. Eugenia jambolana Lam. E. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. Myrtaceae). mesophyll composed of isodiametric. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. coriaceous covering. cuminii Druce. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja.800 m. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. rounded starch grains.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. thin-walled. 1 cm wide.. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. Seed . found throughout India upto an altitude of 1.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis.. brownish-black. b) Microscopic Powder . oval or roundish.) Skeels Syn. astringent.Brown coloured. a large evergreen tree. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. Jambu (Sd. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. taste. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter.

20. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid.3-6 g. Kaphahara.30 and 0. 0.2.Glycoside (Jamboline). Amla.7.2. 0.C.12. Tannin.2.20.30 (blue).6. 0.4.IDENTITY.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. 2. Appendix 2.L. 2. 58 . T.2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. DOSE . Udakameha.V.95 (all violet). THERAPEUTIC USES .95 and 0. Appendix per cent. 2. of the drug in powder form. three spots appear at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.95 (all yellow). Appendix per cent.Madhumeha.2. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .30 and 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru.3. 0. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.2. Pittahara. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. ViÀ¶ambhi. 0.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

. Jamneralae. Jambu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. Jambu (St. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. light grey to ash coloured.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. and reddish brown. Raja Jambu Merale.800 m. fibres aseptate. taste.Bk. Myrtaceae). phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. fracture. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. cuminii Druce. Jamu. forming a rhytidoma. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 .5-2.) Skeels Syn. internal surface fibrous. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. E. oval to angular. a large evergreen tree. 0. stratified and reddish-brown. Jambuda Jomuna. astringent. short and splintery. and phloem rays. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. Mahamaram. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. Neralamara -Njaval. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells.26. rough. Eugenia jambolana Lam. lower cork thin and colourless. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. Jam Jammu Naaval. cork cambium not distinct. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. stone cells. Navval Sambu. elongated.5 cm thick. upper few layers thick. (Fam. younger bark mostly channelled.

round to oval starch grains. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. 2. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . of the drug for decoction.Light brown. round to oval starch grains. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . V¡tala.10-20 g. Appendix 2.7. IDENTITY. 2.2. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. elongated. 2.2.Atis¡ra. reddish-brown content. DOSE .6.U¿¢r¡sava. stone cells.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. single or in groups. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. 60 .2. oval to angular. Stambhaka. 2.4.2. Raktapitta. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.region. Pittahara.2. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .3. aseptate fibres. Kaphahara.

a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. ovate. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. 5-7 m high. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. filled with brownish content. dull cinnamon-brown. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. b) Microscopic Seed . consisting of a large endosperm. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Jayapala (Sd. Neervalam. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. consisting of an epidermal layer.27. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. oblong. thin-walled cells. slightly quadrangular. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. Tinti·¢phala. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. Japala.Shows a hard testa. Euphorbiaceae). found throughout tropical India. no marked odour. kernel yellowish and oily. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. 61 . Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. slightly bent at middle. Japal beej. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. Nervala -Nervalam. Neervalam Jepal.) small evergreen tree. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. (Fam.

0. Appendix 0.63 and 0. CONSTITUENTS .2.White with black particles of testa.10.34.Fixed oil.39. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.49. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.29. 2.L. 0. Appendix 7 per cent. Powder . 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.6-12 mg. T.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.6.2. 2.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.84 (brown).7.90 (all yellow).3. Udararoga.C.C. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Pittahara.54 (yellow). Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. 2. 62 . Vibandha DOSE .2.84 (all violet).V. Appendix 15 per cent. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Appendix 3 per cent. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.L. Resins & Phorbol esters.34 (grey).Jvara.5 per cent.4. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. 0. 0.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2. IDENTITY.2.54 and 0.

thin-walled parenchymatous cells. palisade single layered.3 cm long. aegyptiaca Pers. pith small.5 cm long. Jalugu.shows single layered epidermis. 7. 1. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . leaflets 6-16 pairs. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. glabrous. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. present on both surfaces.. Jay¡. Jayanti (Lf. having secretory cavities in phloem. opposite. Fabaceae).5-15.28. linear. a quick growing. very shortly stalked. á£kÀma patra. (Fam. Atti. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells.8 cm wide. paripinnate. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. stomata anisocytic. mucronate to acuminate. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.0-3. parenchymatous cells. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.Syn. 1. S.3-0.) Merr. 63 .7 layered round.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. oblong. entire. Lamina . Arishimajingai.8-6 m high. 0. Karijimangai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. consisting of thin-walled. short lived shrub. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. Jayanti Jaita. jayata Arinintajinamgi. polygonal. -Semp.

Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.3. Appendix per cent.29. 0. Appendix 2. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.11. shows spongy parenchyma.48. CONSTITUENTS . 2. 0. IDENTITY.7. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.91 and 0.91 and 0. 0.37.69. Calcium and Phosphorus. 2.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. ViÀaroga.05. palisade ratio 3. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. 0. Appendix per cent.19. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.48.2. 2. 0.Protein. in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES .V.97 (all grey).19. 0.56 (all pink) and 0. 0.37.56.29. Pittahara. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 2. palisade cells. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. 0.Dull green.11.56. 0.3-6 g.L.C. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 0. 0.C. 0. 64 . Appendix per cent.25-4.97 (yellow). V¡tahara. DOSE .Ratnagiri Rasa.4. 0. 0.19.05. 0.2. Ras¡yana. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.05. 0. T. Appendix per cent. 0. Galaga¸·a.2.2.6. 0.29.M£trak¤cchra.97 (all yellow).11.L. Powder .2.

light to dark brown. Celastraceae). unpleasant.29. collapsed. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. Gangunge beeja.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. ripe seeds. surface generally smooth and.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. colour. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. Jyotishmati (Sd. odour. brownish-orange. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2.5-3. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. taste. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. bitter. seed without aril also prescent.35 mm in breadth.hard. (Fam. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. a large climbing shrub. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. Gangunge humpu. Seed .

embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 2.2.82. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.8 IDENTITY.04. 2.C. 2. 0.2. dark brown.35.2. (all blue) & 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.L.82.82 (pink) & 0. Meddhya 66 . 0. thin-walled. V¡maka. Appendix 1.C.63. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.4. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).V. Kaphahara.35. Virecaka. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.94 (yellow) in visible light.L. Appendix 20 per cent. Under U. 0. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. 2. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.54. Appendix 45 per cent. Appendix 9 per cent.94 (yellow). stone cells. 0. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.2.2.Oily.89.5 per cent. áirovirecanopaga. 0.89 (both greenish blue). 0. 0. 0. 0. Appendix 6 per cent.Alkaloids.54. 0. 0. Oil and Tannins.composed of polygonal. UÀ¸a. V¡tahara. Tikta Sara.2.7.82 & 0. Powder . 0. 0.6.89 (all yellow).15. D¢pana. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. Appendix 2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.20.54 (both blue). CONSTITUENTS . 2.V.3.

Seed: 1-2 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . 67 . Sm¤tidaurbalya.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. DOSE . ávitra.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. Oil : 5-15 drops.V¡tavy¡dh¢.

30. Rubiaceae). Kadamba Nipo. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. large tree. Vellaikhadambu. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. traversed by uni to triseriate. a few cells with brown contents. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. a deciduous. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. composed of thin-walled. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Kadavala. Kadamba mara.Bk. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. A. bitter. indicus A. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. some cells contain chlorophyll. Indulam. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Kadamba Kadamba. Kadappai. (Fam. Rich. Vellai Kadambam. Kadamba (St. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. 68 b) Microscopic . phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. elongated cells of phloem rays. Syn.. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadambu Needam. rectangular cells. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. taste. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Priyka Roghu.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Kadam Kadam.

5 .83 and 0. V¡tahara. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).5:10) shows under U. 0. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.79 (grey) and 0.90 (grey). Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.31. Steroids.03. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. phloem cells.7. Lava¸a. 69 . of the drug in powder form.2. Vra¸a. fibres.21. 0.57. 0. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.2. L C. 2.L. YonidoÀa. T.2.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2.4.3. 0. shows fragments of cork cells. 2. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.70 (orange yellow). companion cells and phloem parenchyma. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Appendix 3 per cent.2. 2. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal.64. Raktapitta. 0.13.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 5 per cent. 0. 2. Appendix 1.5 per cent. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.63 (yellowish grey). Vra¸aropa¸a. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13.Brown. Appendix 9 per cent.6.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.phloem fibres.1. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . cells distinct and slightly elongated. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.5 g.C.0. 0. 0.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.Alkaloids. 0.79.D¡ha. Powder .V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.

white or pale violet. ganike. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. Leaf . petiolate. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. hairy in lower part. Ganikesopu. obtuse. ovate or oblong. Pikachia. a herbaceous annual weed. Manitakkali. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. oblong. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. glabrous or pubescent.Small. calyx 2-3 mm long. Flower . sub-umbellate.5 mm long. ovary globose. slightly woody and branched. 30-45 cm high. Stem . pale brown. sinuate. narrowed at both ends. corolla 4-8 mm long. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . quite common in cultivated lands.5 cm long and 2. Manatakkali.25 mm long. five lobed.31. obtuse notched at apex.P.5-8. bark thin. (Fam. hairy at base. thin. filaments short. 70 .2-2. 3-8 flowered cymes. green. style cylindric. yellowish. glabrous. Manaththakkali. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. road sides and gardens. 1. found throughout the country in dry parts.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. glabrous.5 cm wide. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn.Erect. peduncles 6-20 mm long. very slender. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. extra-axillary. anther 1. toothed or lobed.) Solanaceae). externally smooth. Kakamachi (W. pedicels 6-10 mm long. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood.Simple. 2. slender. Ganikegida. oblong. flattened.

b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells.Discoid. arc71 . single or with two or rarely 3 components. usually purplish-black but sometimes red.. rays composed of thin-walled. covered with striated cuticle.. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. tangentially elongated. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. minutely pitted. polygonal cells. pith large.5-8. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered.' oval parenchymatous cells. conjoint and open. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. endoderrnis single layered. epidermis single layered. yellow or black. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. internal phloem. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls.. Stem . secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. cambium 2-4 layered. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. smooth shining Seed . tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. embedded in perimedullary zones.Fruit . xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre.25 µ in dia. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. measuring 2. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. central vascular bundle shallow. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. oval to round starch grains. filled with starch grains.A berry. parenchyma 4-6 layered.Shows single layered. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. uniseriate. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. covered with striated cuticle. in small or large patches. measuring 2. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. xylem rays homogenous. 1. obtuse. compactly arranged.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. starch grains. composed of thin-walled. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. trichomes multicellular. 6mm in dia.10 layered in angular parts.5 mm in dia.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. covered with thick. yellow.5-11 µ in dia. usually accompanied by fibres. but 4. phloem consists of thin-walled. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. bicollateral. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. phloem rays uniseriate.. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. smooth. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. vascular bundles-collateral. slightly elongated. covering trichomes. LeafPetiole . uniseriate. Midrib . radially elongated cells. uniseriate. slightly striated cuticle. arcshaped. cortex of large.

Appendix per cent.34 (both pink). composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. 2.C. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. Appendix per cent. a few broken pieces of pointed. present beneath palisade parenchyma.06 & 0. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. 2. Appendix per cent. palisade ratio 2-4.06 & 0. Fruit .2. measuring 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. unicellular hairs. 2.11 µ in diameter.97 (all yellow). 0.L. 0. Under U.7.2.Alkaloids and Saponins.L. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. stomata anisocytic. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 2. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.2. Appendix per cent.Creamish-green. both upper and lower epidermis single layered.dorsiventral.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.5 .2.2.Shows thin.4.C. Lamina . papery epicarp.6. palisade single layered. 72 .V.2. T. IDENTITY.34 (both brown) in visible light. Appendix 2. single. Powder . oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. vein islet number 7-10.3.06. 034 and 0. epidermis with irregular outline. CONSTITUENTS .

Netraroga. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H¤droga. H¤dya. Kaphahara. Svarya. Rasar¡ja Rasa. KuÀ¶ha. of the drug in juice form. Jvara. Ar¿a.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Ras¡yana. Prameha. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 73 . Tikta Laghu. Hikk¡. V¡tahara. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Pittahara.5 -10 ml. DOSE . Ka¸·u.áotha. Chardi. Sara. THERAPEUTIC USES .

crimp led.3-2 cm wide. anther. black.32. Venthamara. gynoceium apocarpous. Chenthamara. free. Sarojam Kaluva. embedded in a creamy.. extended into clavate appendages.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. carpels many. comprising of calyx. a large. Nymphaeaceae). Sitopala. Naidile. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. (Fam. 74 . sepals leaf-like. linear 1. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. seed hard. elliptic. aquatic herb with creeping stem. petals numerous. Thamaraipoo. obtuse. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Padma.4-2 cm long. Kamal. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Paduman. Syn. Kamala (Fl. Tavaregedd -Tamara. corolla. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. yellowish-brown. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Pamposh Tamarai. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. crimpled. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. Aravinda.5-3 cm wide. 1. dark brown. broken pieces also occur. 3-5 cm long. Aravindan. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. 2-4 cm long. 1. gynoecium and thalamus. finely veined. membranous. androecium. starchy and large. Tavare. Kalh¡ra. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. erect. Kamalam.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Kanwal Kamal.

Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent.12 -24 g. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Stamen Filament . Visarpa. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. 2.Raktapitta. composed of thin-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS .shows four chambered anther. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2.3. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. angular. 2. Appendix per cent.6. Anther . two on either sides. 2.Aravind¡sava.filament appears circular in outline. 2. Appendix per cent. vascular bundle single.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). IDENTITY.2. Pittahara.4. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha.2. Appendix per cent. columnar.Dusty brown. yellow pollen grains. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. of the drug for decoction. Sant¡pahara. spherical.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. rectangular. Appendix per cent. followed by ground tissue of oval. M£tra Virajan¢ya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.2.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . Tikta. . parenchymatous cells.2.2. parenchymatous cell. Powder . THERAPEUTIC USES .7. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.2. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. ViÀavik¡ra. spore sac contains yellow. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. having smooth exine and intine. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. DOSE .

shows irregular. stone cells. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. found in groups. Kavataleal. elephantum Correa (Faro. sour. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. taste. sharp. hard. Balada. F.Reddish-brown. odour. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. Bilvara. Siwalik range and forests. Syn.33. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. parenchymatous cells. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Belalu. axillary thorns. Pulp. straight. glabrous tree with strong. slightly triangular and oval. reddish brown. 76 . at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Rutaceae).) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. Belada hannu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. semicircular. often cultivated in many parts of India. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp .) Swingle. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. Kapittha (Fr. Powder . aromatic. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. a deciduous. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. Haminamara -Vilar maram. found throughout the plains of India. rough. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. thin-walled. stone cells.

THERAPEUTIC USES .37 (brown).95 (blue). Ripe-T¤À¡.2. V¡mi.06.L.2.C.7. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Under U. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Gr¡h¢.37. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta.12 (brown). 0.14 (sky blue). Sangr¡h¢.50.4.2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0.C.L. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .91 (violet) and 0. Amla. Lekhana. Agnim¡ndya. 0. 2. 2.V. Unripe Pulp: Amla. T.IDENTITY.12. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. 0. Hikk¡. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.95 (violet) . Pittav¡tahara.Citric acid and Mucilage. KaÀ¡ya. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.2.2. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. Appendix per cent.áv¡sa.3.2. 6. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.91 (blue) and 0.95 (all yellow). 0.6. DOSE . Vra¸an¡¿aka. 77 . (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. 2. 0.1-3 g. 0.91 and 0. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya.91 (grey) in visible light.50 (violet). Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.

a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. rough due to longitudinal striations. met throughout India in wild state. 78 . measuring 3-7 µ in dia. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. (Fam .Greyish-brown. and compound having 2-3 components. light in weight. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells.34. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. shows single and groups of stone cells. short. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Karamarda (St. internal surface grey and smooth. external surface brownish-grey. b) Microscopic Powder . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. fracture. starch grains simple. flat or slightly curved pieces. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. tubular. simple and compound starch grains. sometimes cultivated.) Apocynaceae). cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3.Bk. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.52 (light sky blue).C. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.L. 0.3.2.IDENTITY. 79 . 0.4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.35. Appendix per cent. Pittakara.48 g. Appendix per cent.97 (violet).Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. Appendix 2. DOSE . T. of the drug for decoction. CONSTITUENTS . 0.2. 2.58 (both light grey).7. 2. Appendix per cent.L. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.2.90 (pink) and 0.2. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .6.V.C.2. 2.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.KuÀthahara. Appendix per cent. 2.

composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. fibrous. Karanja (Rt. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. Syn. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.) Merr. a glabrous tree. Fabaceae). Nakt¡hv¡..) glabra Vent. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary phloem very wide. thin-walled. Naktam¡la. (Fam. 3-11 µ in dia. tangentially elongated cells. tangentially elongated. P. very bitter. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. due to peeling off.. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. external surface rough. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. fracture. cells. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. most of phloem 80 .35. Bk. internally. traversed by phloem rays. single cells of varying shape and size. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups.

0. 0.08 (greenish blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.42 (sky blue).2. 1-2 seriate. similar to those present in secondary cortex.25 (sky blue).K¤miroga.C. 0. Appendix 3. cork cells. phloem fibres.51. KuÀtha.47.7. mostly straight. 0. DOSE .80 (light blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.1-3 g. of the drug for decoction.2.V.2. Appendix 2. Ëntravidradhi. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. similar to those present in secondary cortex.09. ViÀaghma. 0.98 (all yellow). 2.2.2. 0. 0. 0. Powder -Creamish-yellow.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. Appendix 2 per cent. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. Ka¸·£ghna. parenchymatous cells. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. most of ray cells contain starch grain. V¡tahara.2. IDENTITY.51 (light blue).80 and 0. Ka¸·u.37 (greenish yellow). Appendix 11 per cent.47. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. phloem rays many. shows thin-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Appendix 17 per cent. 81 . Tikta.5 per cent.6. T. CONSTITUENTS . 2. 0. 2.L. 0. DuÀ¶avra¸a.37. 0.13 (Sky blue).Flavones Kanugin. 0.18. 0. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Yoniroga.31. Pittahara.31 (sky blue).18 (blue) 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.L.4.47 (greenish yellow). Prameha.3. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.04 (blue). consisting of thin-walled. 0. 0.

. rough due to the presence of numerous. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. bark does not easily separate from xylem. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. tangentially elongated cells. (Fam. thin-walled. tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. rounded to oval in shape.) Merr. Fabaceae). alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. reddish-brown or dull brown. secondary phloem a very wide zone. Nakt¡hv¡. light in weight. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.36. taste. Karanja (Rt. Karaµjaka. bitter. bark. P. 3-11 µ in dia.) Vent. consisting of 82 . irregularly distributed.. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. cells. internally light yellow. fracture. 1-2 seriate. a glabrous tree.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. consisting of 2-3 components. DOSE . Pittahara. KuÀ¶ha. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. thin-waned cells towards inner region. Kaphahara.7. Demethoxy-kanugin. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. Tikta.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. 2. 2. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Yoniroga. CONSTITUENTS .2. Prameha. THERAPEUTIC USES .Karanjin. tracheids. V¡tahara.2. 2. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells.2. 83 .radially elongated. Powder -Light yellow. shows fibres in singles or groups. more.Methylfisetin.2. Ëntravidradh¢.2. K¤miroga. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. Appendix per cent. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. 2.. ViÀaghna. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. Vidradh¢. fibres and parenchyma. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Appendix 2.4.1-2 g. rounded to oval in shape. Vra¸a¿odhana. starch grains. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. of the drug in powder form.DuÀ¶avra¸a. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Kanugin. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated towards outer region.3. Ka¸·£.

b) Microscopic Bark . composed of rectangular. Nakt¡hv¡. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) glabra Vent. short and fibrous..Bk. taste. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. traversed by medullary rays. usually 0. alternating with stone cells. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. fracture. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. thick-walled cells. more or less smooth. filled with reddish-brown content. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. 84 . phloem parenchyma. Syn. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. Fabaceae). secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. P. arranged in a tangential manner. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Karaµjaka. Karanja. tangentially elongated. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. bitter. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.) Merr. lenticellate pieces.37. Karanja (St. fibre small. unpleasant. phloem fibre and stone cells. slightly quilled. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. at some places lenticels also appear. (Fam. recurved.2-1 cm thick. a glabrous tree.

2. IDENTITY. and rarely. Vidradh¢. Appendix 2. oil globules.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. 3" 7 : 8).3. ViÀaghma.2. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin.2. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta. starch grains simple. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". 3".1-2 g. Kanugin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. medullary rays wavy. Prameha. elongated.4. present in secondary cortex. 2. Demethoxy- kanugin. K¤miroga. of the drug in powder form. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem.polygonal.2. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. thin-walled and aseptate. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. 2.6. Pittahara. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. CONSTITUENTS . Ëntravidradh¢. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. usually 2-4 cells wide. Appendix 3 per cent. aseptate fibre and stone cells. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.. V¡tahara. Pongapin. Gamatin. Ka¸·u. Yoniroga DOSE . Appendix 1.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pinnatin. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Appendix 13 per cent. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. 2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex.2. Appendix 18 per cent. Kaphahara. 2. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. 5Methoxyfurano (2". Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. KuÀ¶ha. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. 85 .5 per cent. simple and compound starch grains.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape.7. rounded to oval.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Ka¶u. Powder -Yellowish-cream.

Unu. 6. consistig of tabular cells. Karanja (Lf. a glabrous tree. consisting of xylem and phloem. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. isodiametric. Fabaceae). ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. Kanajo Karuaini. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji.38. Pongana Ganuga.8 cm. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. dark green. cortex consisting of angular.9-8. vascular bundle single. petiolule short. Nakt¡hv¡.2 . (Fam. traversed by xylem rays. covered with cuticle. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. leaflets 2-3 pairs. Karanja. Karaµjaka. arcshaped. Ungu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.3 cm wide.) Merr. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Syn.circular in outline. epidermis single layered.5-0. P. xylem vessels arranged radially. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. Hulagilu -Pungu. 0.) Vent.. Dithouri Honge. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. 86 .5 cm long and 3.11.

Appendix 3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 7) -flavone. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. Kaphahara. 2.6. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.3.6. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. covered with thick cuticle. consisting of tabular cells. stomata anisocytic. Appendix 11 per cent. Powder -Green.A new Furanoflavone -3' . K¤imihara.2. cortex consists of round to oval. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square.5-50. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". CONSTITUENTS . 2. . conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. Appendix 2. palisade ratio 3.shows single layered epidermis. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.Mid rib . epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". V¡tahara.2.5 per cent.7.4. stomatal index 12. phloem and pith.2.5-20. vascular bundle. Appendix 10 per cent. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. 5". 5" .2.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. Ka¸·ughna.5". occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. Tikta.6. Ka¶u.6. shows spiral xylem vessels.5) . mesophyll cells. 2.2. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.(4". collateral. 2. palisade two layered.2. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Pittavardhaka. present in lower surface. Appendix 16 per cent.

J¡ty¡di Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE .K¤miroga. Vra¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .For external use only. KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·au. 88 .

2.6 per cent. fusiform. Karavallaka (Fresh. IDENTITY. K¡ravall¢. 3 valved at the apex when mature. Appendix 0. Kakiral.4. surface rough. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa.3. 2.2.) Cucurbitaceae). Kathilla. Appendix 2. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella.5 . light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds.2.7. extremely bitter.2. Varivall¢.5 per cent.6. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. taste. oblong.2. Appendix 6 per cent. Appendix 28 per cent. upto an altitude of 1500 m. pendulous. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. 2.Fr.25 cm long. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 .2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. (Fam. Nil Appendix 8. usually pointed or beaked.2.39.

On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. P¡¸·u. juice of fresh drug.60. 0.34.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.T.L. 0. 90 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. T.81 and 0.C.46.98 (all yellow). 0. Raktavik¡ra. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.98 (all blue). K¡mal¡. 0.C.03. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. V¡tahara. CONSTITUENTS .áv¡sa. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. DOSE .61 (light sky blue).23 (red).Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. D¢pana. K¡sa. 0. Kaphahara. KuÀ¶ha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0.10 . 0.16.96 (sky blue). 0.67 and 0. Aruci. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. 0. H¤dya. 0.43.50. Jvara.V.15 ml.L. K¤miroga.98 (red & sky blue).17. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. Prameha.75.

surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. . cylindrical.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. externally greyish-brown.40. Katki. taste. suberised cells. primary cortex persists 91 . fracture. straight or slightly curved. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. bitter.05-0. Kauka. mostly attached with rhizomes. taste. a perennial. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. Kav¢. inner surface black with whitish xylem. 0. odour. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached.1 cm in diameter. bitter. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. fracture. Tiktarohi¸¢. kaur Katuka rohini. subcylindrical. Katuku rohini. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Katuka (Rz.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. Katuka rohini Kutki. Rohi¸¢. b) Microscopic Rhizome .2. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. Root . short. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu.Thin. Kaurohi¸¢. cork cambium 1-2 layered. short. odour. cortex single layered or absent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. dusty grey. pleasant. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Sutiktaka. (Fam. pleasant. Scrophulariaceae). Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . Kalikutki Katuki Karru.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. 5-10 cm long.

2.Dusty grey.41 and 0. tracheids. secondary phloem poorly developed. cortex 8-14 layered. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf.L. lignified. 0. consisting of oval to polygonal. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. secondary xylem consists of vessels. 0.10. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. vessels have varying shape and size. simple round to oval.6. thick-walled. starch grains.84 (all brownish grey). 0.17. 0. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.21.30 (blue) and 0.. tracheids.3. some cylindrical with taillike.2.41. parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Powder . vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. 0. Appendix per cent. measuring 25 . hypodermis single layered. Appendix 2. 2. tracheids long. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. cambium 2-4 layered.30. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. 0. thick-walled cells of endodermis. 0. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. T.10.7. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. parenchyma and fibres. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. 0. abundantly found in all cells.62.C. 0.05. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered.in some cases. Appendix per cent. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. 2.30.2.2. 1-2 layers of cork cambium.2.C. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. thick-walled.17. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U.21.72 and 0.2. 2. 0. simple round to oval.104 µ in diameter. 0. 2. parenchymatous cells. 92 . pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. 0. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.L. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. 0. thick-walled. Appendix per cent. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. thick-walled. starch grains. tapering ends. fibres aseptate. IDENTITY.V.37. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.05 (blue). more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends.35 (green). 0. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. 0.4.84 (all yellow).

Bhedin¢.3 g.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). 93 .CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . Arocaka.áv¡sa.1 . of the drug in powder form. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. ViÀamajvara. K¡mal¡. KuÀ¶ha. D¡ha. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Pittahara. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Jvara. DOSE . D¢pan¢.

entire and hairy. acute. with long white hairs. corolla 3. widely 2 lipped. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. Vayalculli Talikhana. which are 1. externally greyish-brown. calyx 4-partite.6 cm long. swollen at nodes. Kolavankal ---. fasciculate.Usually unbranched. bracts about 2. second pair 94 . stout. Nirguvireru. Kettu.Anders (Fam. stamens 4.5-1 cm wide. broader than the other three.Mostly adventitious. Stem . Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. common in water logged places throughout the country. Kolarind. Nirchulli. no characteristic odour and taste.3 cm long. Culli. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. Hygrophila spinosa T. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. all linear-lanceolate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. a spiny.Greenish-brown.6-2 cm long. subsessile.41. 0. tube 1. upper sepal 1.2 cm long. annual herb. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 1-7 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste. abruptly swollen at top. Syn.Acanthaceae). covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. Kalsunda --Golmidi. Leaf . whitish to brown. Kokilaksha (W. sub-quadrangular. didynamous. creamishbrown in cut surfaces.P. Flower . IkÀuraka.5 cm long.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees.Yellowish-brown. lanceolate.

variable in size. brownish cells. cortical cells thin-walled. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. 4seeded. phloem fibres thick-walled. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region.Two celled. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. ray cells thin walled. 0. radially elongated in secondary xylem. rectangular to cubical.1 . oblong. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. phloem narrow. pubescent. fibres thick-walled.8 cm long. round. thin-walled cells.15 cm wide. a few thick-walled. Stem . secondary xylem forms continuous ring. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. broader towards centre. scattered throughout the phloem region. single or in groups of 2-3. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. truncate at the base.larger. having small intercellular spaces. arranged radially. compressed. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. linear-oblong. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. xylem present in a ring. filament quite glabrous.25 cm long and 0. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. polygonal cells. subequal. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. fibre walls uniformly thickened. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers.Ovate. radially arranged. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. vessels with spiral thickenings. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. 95 . taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. pith large. capsule about 0. Seed . vessels angular. with a number of large air cavities. peripheral ones larger.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. hairy but appearing smooth. involute with a fissure on upper side. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. endodermis single layered. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex.2-0. arranged in radial rows. moderately thick-walled. pointed. flat or compressed. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. stigma simple. consisting of round to polygonal cells. radially elongated in xylem region. style filiform. light brown. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. ray cells thin-walled. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root . glabrous. composed of transversely elongate. anthers two celled. Fruit . composed of polygonal.0. inner cells smaller.

parenchymatous cells. Amla.2.25-15. Seed . palisade ratio 6. 2. palisade 1-2 layered. collenchyma 2-5 layered. thick-walled. stomata diacytic. 2. Lamina .LeafMidrib . vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. Tikta Picchila. V¤Àya.2. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix per cent. tangentially elongated cells. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. stomatal index 17. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. Appendix 2.2. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. 2.75. unicellular hairs and globules. palisade. Rucya.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. parenchymatous.3. vein islet number 17-42.Shows concavo-convex outline. composed of thin-walled. oval to hexagonal. Appendix per cent.2. sclerenchymatous cells. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. V¡jikara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. 2. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. shows aseptate. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. Appendix per cent. M£trala. thin-walled. Appendix per cent. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate .78. elongated fibres.2.2.4.6.7. covered with thick cuticle. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface.24-30. lignified. Powder .Light brown. . Fruit .

THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. DOSE .T¤À¸¡. 97 .P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). Ëmav¡ta áotha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tarakta.3 -6 g.

42. stout. no characteristic odour and taste. common in water logged places throughout the country.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. annual herb. slightly transversely elongated. Kokilaksha (Rt. Culli --. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. 98 .Acanthaceae). Kolavulike. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. IkÀuraka. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. Nerugobbi. branches on nodes. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. Kokil¡kÀ¢. Anders (Fam. the size of these cells. thinwalled cells. Syn. consisting of small. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. a spiny. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. Hygrophila spinosa T. secondary phloem narrow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. thin-walled. whitish to brownish. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Root-Appears circular in outline. polygonal cells.

broader towards centre. angular. of the drug for decoction.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3. Appendix per cent. lignified fibres. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. 2. Tikta Picchila.7.2.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. A¿ma¤¢. ray cells thin-walled. having spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. M£trala. 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. fibre walls uniformly thickened.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.3 -6 g. Appendix per cent.2. Amla. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. each group composed of 2-6 cells.4.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells.Ëmav¡ta áotha. V¡tarakta. 2. Appendix per cent. Powder . vessels with spiral thickening.2.Light brown to ash coloured. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . scattered throughout the phloem region. V¡tahara. radially elongated in the xylem region.2. 99 . Appendix 2. IDENTITY. shows fragments of pitted.2.

shows hairs and oil globules. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. Maradarishina -Maramannal.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Daruhuladur Darhald.43. b) Microscopic Seed . Anders. (Fam. light yellowish-brown. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Swelling Index . Hygrophila spinosa T. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. common in water logged places throughout the country. the 100 . a spiny. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. flat or compressed. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. truncate at the base. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. taste. Acanthaceae). stout. oil globules present in this region. IkÀuraka. annual herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Syn. Maradarishana. Kokilaksha (Sd. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide.Greyish-brown. Powder .8 -10. hairy but appearing smooth. parenchymatous cells. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. white. thinwalled.

0.C. 0.2. V¡tarakta.52 (dark brown) and 0.31.31 (dark brown).38. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.93 (sky blue). 0.10 (light brown).An yellow semi-drying oil. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.4. 0. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form.L.72 (all yellow). Santarpa¸a.L. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. 2.6. 0.2. 0.3 -6 g. 0. including any sticky mucilage.24 (red).03 (light brown). 101 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. 0. enzymes like Diastase. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. CONSTITUENTS .internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0..2. 0. Add 25 ml of water. 0. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .17.17 (light brown). V¤Àya. Appendix per cent. 0. related to 1 g of seeds.24 (dark brown).24. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.2. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 2. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.41 (light blue). T. Appendix per cent. 2.áotha. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. DOSE . Pitt¡¿mar¢. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. Lipase. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. 0. IDENTITY.03. 0.55 (light blue). 0.2.76 (sky blue) and 0. 0. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.72 (dark brown).C. Kaphahara.V.52 and 0.3.38 (light brown). Protease and an Alkaloid. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.

Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6.6 cm wide.35-0. smooth and greenish-brown. Common Indian Purslane Luni. oblong. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Payilikura. Leaf . odour. Kwfa Pasalai. Peddapavila Kura. found throughout the country. fracture. Kozhuppa. Stem .3 cm long. 0.4 cm long. Badanuni. spathulate. at terminal heads. sepal 0. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. very delicate and soon falling off. Doddagoni Soppu. stamens 8-12. cuneiform. oblique. swollen at the nodes. short. rounded and truncate at the apex. bright yellow. 0.An ovoid capsule. 0.4 cm long. Ghola -Lonak. brownish-grey. Baranunia Garden Purslane.5 cm long and 0. Loni. -Baraloniya. Paruppukkeerai. fracture. Moti Luni Khursa. Kuzuppa (W. ribbed. small. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Flower .3 to 2. subtended by an involucre.5 cm long. secondary roots. dehiscing above the base. petals obovate. 0. prostrate herb. Kozuppa. Loni. 102 . Chhotalunia.P) Portulacaceae). short.1 to 0. characteristic. sub-sessile. Pulikkirai. less in number. Khurfa. root hairs abundant in upper region. 3-4 leaves. (Fam.1 to 0. Kulfa. Loni -Koricchira. Badi Lona Dudagorai.25-0. Lonika. Fruit . 50 cm long. Kozhuppu Pappukura.A few. 0.Almost cylindrical.Simple. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡.44. branched.Cylindrical. an annual succulent. surface smooth. style 5-6 fid. Gho¶ik¡.2 cm in diameter.

rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. oval cells. measuring 6-14 µ . xylem parenchyma and ray cells. parenchyma abundant. tracheids and parenchyma. LeafMidrib . arranged in radial rows.2. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells. simple as well as compound. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. 2. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. ray cells and pith.Shows 5-15 layers of cork.6. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. covered externally with a thick cuticle. oval. 2. tracheids. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. tracheids and parenchyma. thin-walled. palisade single layered. Appendix per cent. stomata paracytic type. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. 0. reniform. 2. as well as compound. present in mesophyll cells. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled.. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent.7.Wavy in outline. secondary xylem consists of vessels. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. shows groups of oval to polygonal. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. phloem. Appendix 2. pitted and spiral vessels. fragments of cork cells. Appendix per cent. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen.2. Stem . Appendix per cent. thick-walled with wide lumen.06-0. Lamina . having 2-3 components. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia.07 cm across. 2. Powder . secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. IDENTITY.2. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. . having simple pits and spiral thickening. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. pericycle fibre present in patches.2. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. dark brown.2. vessels. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary xylem composed of vessels. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.Greyish-brown. solitary or in groups of 2-5.4.Seed -Numerous.3. minute. black. phloem and xylem parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root . paracytic stomata present on both surfaces.2. having intercellular spaces.

Vra¸a DOSE .76 and 0. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. 0. 0. CakÀuÀya. 0.C.50. of the drug in powder form.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .08.Marma Gu¶ik¡. 0.76 (all pinkish red).10. 0. Carbohydrates. 104 .10. (both green). On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.41. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.6 g.52.3 .. 0. RukÀa.L.41. Pittakara.52 (both faint green).08.Agnim¡ndya.68 and 0. áotha.C. Gulma.L. 0. 0. Prameha. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Under U.Protein.68. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.V.68 (yellow) and 0. 0.10.61. Ar¿a.T. V¡tahara. 0.76 (green) in visible light. 0. 0. T. 0.

a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . easily separable from wood. 105 .Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. slightly astringent. covered with long. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. alternate. internal cut surface grey. Lajjalu (W. bark fibrous.2 cm long. Fabaceae).Cylindrical. stipulate.45.Cylindrical. upto 2. nearly glabrous. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. varying in length. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. Lajamani Chhuimui. Machikegida. Lajavanti.4 cm broad. rependant . with secondary and tertiary branches.3-0. upto 2 cm thick. distinct. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. Adamalati Lajaka.6-1.week bristles longitudinally grooved. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. leaflets 10-20 pairs. tapering. fracture hard. linear lanceolate. petiolate.P) diffused undershrub. hairy pinnae. obliquely rounded at base. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. sensitive to touch. bark fibrous. 0. odour. 0. external surface light brown. greyish brown to brown. Stem . sessile. sparsely prickly. woody. taste. acute. Var¡kr¡nt¡. Lajauni Muttidasenui.5 cm in dia. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. (Fam. Leaf . 25-50 cm high. yellowish-green.

starch grains. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 3-25 chambered. thick-walled. 2. 106 . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. ovate oblong. thick-walled. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. 0. consisting of large. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. crystal fibres thick-walled. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. phloem fibres single or in groups. oval-elliptic.Pink. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. Seed . fibres single or in groups. parenchymatous cells. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. calyx very small. in globose head. brown to grey. scattered throughout secondary xylem. 2-3 seriate more common. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. a number of lignified. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. respectively.Compressed. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. straw coloured. Stem . fibres. dry. rarely multiseriate. Fruit . parenchyma. spreading bristle at sutures. arranged in tangential bands.6 cm long.3 cm long. 1-1. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. lobes 4. phloem rays thick-walled. tangentially elongated to oval.Lomentum. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. fibres of two types. simple. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen.3 long. corolla pink. pith consisting of polygonal. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. stamens 4.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. ovules numerous. peduncles prickly. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.4-0. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. much exserted. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. moderately thick-walled. crystal fibres elongated. thick-walled. ovary sessile. secondary cortex wide. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. scattered throughout. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays.Flower . radially elongated. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. glabrous. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem rays radially elongated. 0. 0.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. tangentially elongated cells.

shows single layered epidermis. single and compound starch grains. branched. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. palisade single layered.shows epidermis on both surfaces. spongy parenchyma single layered.L.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. pericycle same as in petiole.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. 2.C. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. 0. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. branched. one in each wing. endocarp of thick-walled.2. shaggy hairs. 2. spongy parenchyma. Lamina . Appendix per cent. 2. fibres. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . pitted vessels.V. Powder . lignified cells followed by single layered.Reddish-brown. covered with thin-cuticle. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells.C.69 (all blue) and 0.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. Appendix per cent. 2.3 components IDENTITY. T.4. Appendix 2. palisade cells non glandular. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. crystal fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. Appendix per cent. Fruit . 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. parenchymatous cells.6. Appendix per cent.7. pericycle arranged in a ring. 0. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells.81 (bluish-pink). with 2 .2. shows.35. parenchymatous cells.2. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. 0. shaggy hairs. parenchymatous cells Seed . reticulate.2.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.Leaf- Petiole .3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. thin-walled.L. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. Midrib .62. vascular bundle single.

108 .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. Vra¸a. KuÀ¶ha. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. D¡ha. 0. Yoniroga.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. áv¡sa. Ku¶aj¡valeha. Atis¡ra.spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapita DOSE . 0.áopha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara.35 (orange).Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.35 and 0.

Gmel.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Madhuka. short. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. taste.Petal shows a single layered epidermis.46. Hippenara. Sapotaceae) . tabular. and also cultivated. Iluppa. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Syn. erect 0. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Mahua Katiluppai. Bassia latifolia Roxb. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). latifolia (Roxb. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. reddish-brown. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. Ilippa. Halippe. Androecium . anther sub-sessile. Ippa. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. b) Microscopic Corolla . lanceolate. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. (Fam. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. Madhuka (Fl. basifixed. a few 109 . Eppimara -Irippa. Kattu Iluppai. Mahawash tree Mahudo. Hippe. M.5-2 cm long.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. ovate lanceolate.) Macbride. corolla fleshy.F. followed by thin-walled. sweet. epipetalous. epipetalous and arranged in two series. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells.

spherical. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. árama DOSE . Appendix 10 per cent. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. round.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. oval shaped. Appendix 5 per cent. V¡tahara.Dark brown. El¡di Modaka. D¡ha.5 per cent. 2. unicellular hairs. 110 .2. KÀata. Appendix 2.2. Ah¤dya.7. 2. Appendix 25 per cent.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . lignified cells.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áramahara. pollen grains single or in groups. endothecium composed of radially elongated. Pittakara. T¤À¸¡.3. 2.4. 2. Powder .Madh£k¡sava. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS .10 .áv¡sa.2. shows fragments of epidermal cells. IDENTITY. Appendix 70 per cent.2. Balya. of the drug. Appendix 0.2.15 g.6. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. tapetum not distinct. 2. KÀaya. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.unicellular hairs present on one side. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac.

short. obtuse or subacute.5 cm wide. or elliptic. Matshyakshi (W. cream to grey. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡..5 cm long.3-7. Flower . repens Gmel. internodes 0. bracteoles 111 . A. yellowish-brown to light-brown.5-5 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste. (Fam. fracture.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. with spreading branches from the base. short. A. Bahli.Cylindrical.1. no characteristic odour and taste.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. 0. Br. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds..3-2 cm wide. Br. Amaranthaceae)..Herbaceous. non Link. Gandal¢. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. A. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa.47. sessile. no characteristic odour and taste. triandra Lam. Syn. white often tinged with pink. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. Matsy¡duni. fracture. denticulata R. Stem . linear-oblong. weak. 2. Br.6 cm diameter. 0. often rooting at lower nodes. nodiflora R.1-0. A.) R.. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. Leaf .P.. nodes and internodes distinct.

style very short. thin-walled.1. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval.2 cm long. perianth 2. parenchymatous cells. ovate. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. present in the centre. scarious. consistig of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root . compressed. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. palisade ratio 3-5. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. thin-walled round or oval. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. round to oval. open and exarch. orbicular.dorsiventral. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. shows wavy or undulate. 1. parenchymatous cells. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. acute. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. no characteristic odour and taste. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. vascular bundles three. 112 .5 mm long. stomata paracytic. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. palisade 2-3 layers. with are conjoint. parenchymatous cells. ovary obcordate. bicollateral. parenchymatous cells. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. pith consisting of thin-walled. compressed with thickened margins. isodiametic cells. secondary cortex narrow. single layered. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. Leaf- Midrib . radially arranged cork cells. consisting of thin-walled cells. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. xylem tissues lignified.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. round or oval. pith distinct. each consisting of xylem and phloem. Lamina . capitellate. vascualr bundles radially arranged. covered wtith striated cuticle. collenchymatous cells.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. no characteristic odour and taste. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. irregular. Fruit . there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. numerous. Stem .5-3 mm long. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. composed of thin-walled. sepals ovate. with anomalous secondary growth.Utricle. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. isodiametric. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. thin.

CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0.2.KuÀ¶ha.44.L.V.L.. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.59. 0. 0. Kaphahara.16.54 and 0.7. Appendix 3 per cent.2. Tikta. paracytic stomata.16. 0. V¡tahara. Pittavik¡ra. 2. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. 0. Appendix 4. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2 -3 g. Raktavik¡ra DOSE .Powder . 0.2. Appendix 2.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.68 (all red). 113 .18. 2.5 per cent.6.C.2. 0. T.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.94 and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C. 0. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.33 and 0. 0.Sugar.35. 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.2.33. Under U. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. IDENTITY. 0. Appendix 19 per cent.81.3. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.96 (all yellow).4.25. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view.44 (all green). Appendix 10 per cent. 2.44. of the drug in powder form.Olive green.

bitter. 0. varying in size. annual herb.2-0.5 cm long. Methi (Sd. taste. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region.15-0. thin-walled. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. cultivated throughout the country. 30-60 cm tall. columnar palisade. 0. mucilaginous cells.48. covered externally with thick cuticle. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. smooth. cells flat at base. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe.) aromatic. pleasant. (Fam. parenchymatous cells.walled. 114 .35 cm broad. b) Microscopic Seed . dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. very hard. dull yellow. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. odour.Seed shows a layer of thick. several layers of thin walled. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. Fabaceae).

Appendix 5 per cent. 2.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Aruci DOSE . Prameha. 115 .Alkaloid.3-6 g. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.2. IDENTITY.3.2. 2.2. CONSTITUENTS .Graha¸¢. 2. Appendix 2. Appendix 4 per cent.Yellow.2.4. Rucya. Powder . aleurone grains. Kaphahara. Sapogenins and Mucilage. Jvara. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. of the drug in powder form.6. Appendix 0. oil globules. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.

hollow. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn.3 cm long. Leaf . pedicel with scattered hairs. odour.5-10 cm long. blade obovate. yellowish-green. slightly pungent. Mulaka (W. compressed. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .) Brassicaceae). coarsely toothed.. regular. Flower . having a few longitudinal striations.0 cm in dia.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. petals 1.Flower in long terminal raceme.Lower leaves hairy. upper most leaves simple.49. Rakhyasmula Mulaka.Root cylindrical.1-1. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . cylindrical. an annual or biennial bristly herb. bright green. Stem . seplas 6. variable size and thickness. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.P.7-2. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. sub-marginate at the apex.2 cm long. taste. bisexual. petiole 5-5. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. not distinct. (Fam. lyrate.Slender. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. complete 1-2 cm long. oblong. Muli. 0. sometimes brown red.

measuring 6-14 µ in dia. Leaf- Petiole . pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. hairs unicellular. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. covered with thick cuticle.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. irregularly globose. round to oval. phloem. solitary or ingroups. b) Microscopic Root . green or brown-purple. 1-2 chambered. stamen 6 in two whorls.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. oily.Siliqua. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. palisade 2-3 layers. continuous or more or less constricted. parenchymatous cells. Lamina . cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. ovary superior. 2 mm wide. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. 3-9 cm long and 0.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. medullary rays four to many cells wide. style about 4 mm long. Stem . two outer smaller and four inner longer. epidermis single layered. endodermis at some places. vascular bundle three in number. 2-4 mm long. elliptical. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group.1. parenchymatous cells. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. Midrib . Seed .Reddish-brown. traversed by xylem rays. sometimes flattened. longitudinally sulcatus. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. present only on upper side. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. one central and two lateral. thin-walled.dorsiventral. cylindrical. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle.4 cm thick. round to oval.appears biconvex in outline. traversed by phloem rays.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. thin-walled. Fruit . present in cortex. erect. occasionally pale purple. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. cork cells. 117 . 10-12 ovuled. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma.purple vein. taste. single layered.8. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. epidermis followed by 6. pith a wide zone of polygonal. present in cortex and phloem. radially arranged. greenish-yellow. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. starch grains simple.

2.2. H¤dya.7. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ud¡varta. tangentially elongated.M£lakakÀ¡ra. reddish-brown. P¢nasa. 2. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . covered with thin. Ar¿a. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Agnim¡ndya. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. straight cuticle. Rucya. parenchymatous cells present.Shows a single layered epidermis. Appendix per cent. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal.40 ml. 2. shows aseptate fibres. DOSE . of columnar cells. of the drug in juice form. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. thin-walled. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Powder . P¡cana. Seed . Svarya.2. measuring 3-14 µ diameter.Glucoside. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. 2.Fruit . 2. 118 .20 .4. IDENTITY.2. covered with a thin-cuticle. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells.Yellowish-green. Gandhaka Va¶¢. Pittahara.2.3. Gulma. CONSTITUENTS .2. thinwalled. Tikta Laghu.6. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. spiral vessels. Appendix per cent.

Visra. IDENTITY.2. white in colour. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Mulaka. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Brassicaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka.3. fusiform. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Moclangi gadde. Appendix per cent. 2.2. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. rarely sweet.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Mullangi. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. 119 . Saleya.4.7.2.2. 2. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. Appendix per cent.50. 2.2. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. (Fam.6. taste.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. 2. slightly or strongly pungent. Mula Muli Moolangi.2. cylindrical. Mulaka (Rt. Rakhyasmula Mula. variable in size. usually 25-40 cm in length.

04. 0.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. áv¡sa. Ud¡varta DOSE . P¢nasa. 0. Pittahara.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 0. T.Agnim¡ndya. P¡cana. Dadru. Vrana.09 (both blue). (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Svarya.T. 0. Kaphahara.09 & 0. Gulma.04. Jvara.34.69 (all yellow). K¡sa. Ar¿a.04 & 0.09. H¤dya. Rucya. of the drug in the juice form 120 . Tikta Laghu.L.49 & 0.Glucoside.C.V. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. Galaroga. Netraroga.15-30 ml. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.LC.

traversed by xylem rays. secondary cortex composed of rounded. odour. Root . traversed by phloem rays. inner cells thin-walled.4 m tall. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. Syn.42000 m.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. tenuifolium Wall. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . taste.1. consisting of tangentially elongated.6 .3 . colour.2. rectangular cells. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. S.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. thin-walled cells. a perennial herb.) DC. thin-walled cells. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. aromatic. dull brown. cambium 2-4 layered. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . slightly bitter. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. 0. secondary phloem shows wide zone. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. tangentially elongated. Daitya. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. fibres and parenchyma. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. 6-12 cm long and 0. Mura (Rt. Gandhakuti. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated.51. Apiaceae ).Shows 10 .

3. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . shows groups of cork cells.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin).4. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.5 per cent. round to oval.áv¡sa. 122 . xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. CONSTITUENTS . parenchymatous cells. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. Ka¶u. Appendix 3. of the drug in powder form. xylem and phloem rays. Tikta. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . oil globules and simple starch grains. D¡ha.Brown.. secretory canals. Appendix 9 per cent.1-3 g. secondary phloem. distributed throughout secondary cortex. Sucrose and Mannitol. 2.2.having spiral thickenings. Jvara.6.2. somewhat oval cells. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. starch grains simple. Bhrama. short with blunt ends. secondary phloem.2.2. present in secondary cortex. xylem parenchyma. 2.Arvind¡sava. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. M£rchha. measuring 7-55 µ in dia.7. Appendix 9 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. Powder . fibres aseptate. IDENTITY. secondary xylem and medullary rays. secretory canals numerous.2. composed of radially arranged. Appendix 2. 2. Appendix 17 per cent.

Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. fracture. Halukaratige. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. & Am. Jartor Koratige Hambu. twining shrub. rectangular cells.) Asclepiadaceae). secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. Kallu Shambu. odour. indistinct. bark easily separable from wood. Murva (Rt. similar to those present in secondary cortex. slightly bitter. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. b) Microscopic Root . stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. phloem fibres absent. taste. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork.52. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. (Fam. a large stout. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. tangentially elongated. resin cells present irregularly in this region. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells.5-3 cm thick. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. Madhusrava. some filled with reddish-brown contents. phloem rays 1 123 . short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Koratige.Shows a cork.

2. simple and compound starch grains.2-6 g..2. 2. fibretracheids. Meha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. Appendix 14 per cent. Raktapitta. of the drug in powder form. T¤Àn¡.Ar¿a. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue.2. Appendix 0.22 µ in diameter.. Jvara.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. fibres. 124 .6. Tikta Guru. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. 2.7. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. Medoroga.tracheids. composed of vessels. IDENTITY. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Ka¸·£. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. fragments of cork.3. Appendix 2. Appendix 7 per cent. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 10-20 g.Light brown.2. Pittahara. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma.5-22 µ dia. Mukha áosa. 2. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. shows a number of stone cells.2. tracheids. H¤droga. K¤miroga. measuring 5. Prameha Mihira Taila.5 per cent. present in parenchymatous tissues. of the drug for decoction. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 5 per cent. DOSE .2. vessels with pitted walls. Powder . fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls.3 cells wide. V¡tahara. fibres. consisting of small tangential.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. starch grains simple. 5. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations.2.5 . rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

quite brittle. Peri. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. thick-walled. containing pollen grains. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single.1. each stamen 0.53. Nagppu. slender. Nauga.8 . Hem¡. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. often buttressed at the base.Brown. odour. taste. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. coppery or golden brown. b) Microscopic Androecium .) evergreen tree. Veluthapala. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. an Ke¿ara. distinct protuberances on walls. Sachunagkeshara. filiform.0 cm long. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. (Fam. fragrant. Konkan. Nagakesari -Nangaa. shows elongated cells of filament. basifixed. more or less twisted. Nagchampa. soft to touch. N¡ga. filament 0. connective and filament. consisting of thin-walled. 125 . Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. Nahar Nageshvara. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. Nagakesar (Stmn. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. N¡gapuÀpa. Guttiferae). Nagachampakam. Powder . longitudinally dehiscent anther wall.9 cm long. connective not visible with naked eye.5 cm long. astringent. Assam. anther about 0. exine and intine distinct. linear. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Bengal. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara.9-1. Pilunagkesar. parenchymatous cells. yellowish and thin-walled. Naugaliral.Anther shows golden-brown.

THERAPEUTIC USES . Kum¡ry¡sava.2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara.6. CONSTITUENTS .Essential oil and Oleo-resin. V¡tarakta. Var¸ya.Raktapitta. Appendix per cent. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. 126 . 2.2.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.2. 2. áopharoga. Appendix 2. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY.2.3.7. of the drug in powder form.4. Vastiroga DOSE . 2. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. Appendix per cent. Tikta.1-3 g.2.2.

epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. no characteristic odour and taste.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili.8 m high. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. 1.54. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.5 cm long and 0.3-1. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. pale green to greenish-black.1.2. pith composed of round to oval.2 cm wide. 127 .) shrub. N¢l¢n¢. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. (Fam. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. Nili (Lf. leaflet 1-2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Fabaceae).

a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . cuticle and hair. Ud¡varta. epidermis. K¡sa. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. IDENTITY.Greenish-grey. shows groups of mesophyll cells. vascular bundle single.Glycoside (Indican).2. 2. similar as in petiole and midrib.6.. aseptate fibres. Appendix 2 per cent.2.3.5 per cent.4. collateral and crescent shaped. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ke¿ya.. CONSTITUENTS . paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. of decoction.Ëmav¡ta. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .. V¡tarakta. cuticle and hair.Midrib . Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Udararoga. Jvara.shows epidermis. pitted vessels. K¤imiroga. Appendix 10 per cent.50-100 g. Appendix 25 per cent. similar as in petiole.2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. 128 . 2. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. Gulma.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. Appendix 7.2.2. palisade 2-3 layers. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. V¡tahara. Lamina .shows dorsiventral structure. Pl¢haroga. Appendix 2. 2. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered.7.2.

with lenticels. woody. consisting of usual elements. 129 . Nila Nili. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Fabaceae).8 m high. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. Nili (Rt. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma.. odour not distinct. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. hard. thin-walled cells.) shrub. Indian Indigo Gali. Rangapatr¢. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown.1 -1. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Nila -Neel Avuri. 0. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. taste. Karunili. (Fam. secondary phloem composed of usual elements.10 layers of tangentially elongated. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. slightly bitter. 1. Neeli Nili. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. group of fibres. Olleneeli -Amari. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. thin-walled cells. Nili. Nil. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.5 cm thick.55. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. Gari Nili Kadunili. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. secondary cortex a narrow zone. cylindrical. Nili Chettu. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.2-1. Neeligida. rectangular.

Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 0. shows aseptate fibres. 0.6. simple and compound starch grains.86.Arvind¡sava.06. CONSTITUENTS . 0.50. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0. 0.80. present in cortex.86 and 0.7. 2.47 (blue).63.30 (bluish green).0. Appendix 2. 0.40.50. T.14 (blue). 0. Ëmav¡ta. Appendix 4 per cent.58. 0. 0. Appendix 3 per cent. 2. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.C. 2. phloem..91 (blue). starch grains simple.Gulma. xylem parenchyma and rays. V¡tarakta.58 (blue).58. 0. 0. 2.C.06. 0. Ke¿ya. IDENTITY.10. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. 0. 0.14. 0. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡sa.33.33. K¤imiroga. 0.14.2.40 (blue). and 0. 0. 0. 0..4. V¡tahara.81 (blue).0. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.91 (all grey). 0. 0.75.2.2. Powder .3. ViÀavik¡ra. 0.10.27. 0. 0. 0.2. of drug for decoction. Udararoga.86 (green) and 0. Appendix 6 per cent.91 (all yellow). measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Recan¢. round to oval.27. 0. pitted vessels.75.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.2. DOSE . On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .7 per cent. Pl¢h¡roga. 0.Creamish-brown. 0.75 (blue).81. 0.40.L.L. Ud¡varta. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.48 g. 130 .V.63. 0.63 (bluish green).2. 0. 0.21.

Nimbam. Bakan.7 cm wide. Arulundi. Juss Syn. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present.Compound. odour. leaflets with oblique base. Veppan Vemu. Nimba (Lf. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Nim. alternate. Kahibevu. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface.1 cm thick. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Oilevevu. Aryaveppu. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. 131 . crystals also present in phloem region. Nim Vemmu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Melia azadirachta Linn. slightly yellowish-green. indistinct. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Nimba Nimba. 7-8. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Kohumba Nim. lanceolate. Limbado. serrate. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Bevinama -Veppu. opposite. acute. rachis 15-25 cm long. Veppu. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. taste. Limado. Bakayan.0-1. Meliaceae). attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches.5 cm long and 1.56. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. (Fam. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. Veppa Balantanimba. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Bevu. Limba. exstipulate. 0.

Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. 2.5. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta.7. tangentially elongated cells. Appendix per cent.4. traversed by a number of veins. shows vessels.Jvara. 2. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. 132 . KuÀ¶ha. thin-walled cells.1-3 g. epidermis on either surface. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. Vrana. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.shows dorsiventral structure. composed of thin walled. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2.Lamina .Triterpenoids and Sterols.2. Netraroga. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction.5 on upper surface.0-14.3. 2.2. palisade single layered. Powder .2.2. palisade ratio 3. K¤miroga.0-11. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. of the drug in powder form. stomatal index 13. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .6. covered externally with thick cuticle.2.2. Appendix 2. ViÀarogas DOSE . Ëma¿otha.5 on lower surface and 8. V¡tal¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.0-4. Prameha. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only.Green. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . fibres. Appendix per cent.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.

considerably thick in older barks. Nimba. Nimb Bevu. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Meliaceae). former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Kahibevu.57. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Aruveppu Balantanimba. fissured and rusty-grey. Oilevevu -Veppu. woody. Nimba. evergreen tree. Kadunimb. characteristic. a moderate sized to fairly large. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Vembu Vemu.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Syn. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. (Fam. Juss. Limba Nimba Nim. taste. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. Bakam Veppai. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. Melia azadirachta Linn. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. fibrous. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. fracture. Nimba (St. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. odour. extemal surface rough.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. simple starch grains.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.63 and 0. ViÀaghna. Pittahara. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.2. simple. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.L.2.Reddish-brown. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Appendix 7 per cent. secondary cortex absent in most cases.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. 2. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. T. stone cells mostly in groups.5 per cent.V.3.90 (all blue).outer surface. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.2.20. Appendix 5 per cent. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem.C.L. CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara.86 (blue).6.2. cork cells. 0. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.90 (green).7. starch grains. round with central hilum. measuring 2. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . Appendix 2. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.2. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. 2.C. IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. Powder . and 0.2.measuring 2. lignified rectangular to polygonal. 2.72 (blue). Appendix 6 per cent. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 1. 0. having wide lumen and distinct striations.75-5 µ in diameter.4. 2.45. 0.

Rakta Pitta. K¤miroga.2-4 g. KuÀ¶ha. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.. Prameha. 135 . Vra¸a DOSE . Nimb¡di C £r¸a.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Ka¸·u.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .D¡ha. Decoction should be used externally. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Jvara. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Pa´canimba C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form.

curved. Muttuga. Khakharo. Palash. Modugu. 12 . greyish to pale brown. taste. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. cork cells. dark-brown. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures.15 m high with irregular branches.2 cm thick usually peels off.Bk) Fabaceae). Paras Moduga. having brown colour. Camata. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline.58. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. 0. except in very arid parts. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. Khakhapado Dhak. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. 5-10 or more layered. Muttala -Plasu. internal surface rough. Dhak. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. Chettu Dhak. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. often in groups. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Palasha (St. fracture. moderately thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. exposing light brown surface.) Kuntze (Fam. Plas. thin-walled. rough due to presence of rhytidoma.5 .1 cm thick. Tesu Purasu. Tesu Muttug. rhytidoma 0. tanniniferous cells. slightly astringent. pale brown. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. dark brown. rectangular 136 . rectangular. secondary cortex and phloem tissue.

Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 7 . tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.67 (all violet). Appendix 2.L. T. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. 2.2. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . phloem fibres. phloem rays multiseriate 4 .48 and 0. 0.3 components.4.. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends. 2. traversed by phloem rays. 0. straight. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.67 (all yellow).. Appendix 12 per cent. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.5 per cent.75 µ in dia. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. companion cells. sclereids mostly in groups. measuring 2.10. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma.2.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.C.4 layers of sclereids.50 cells in height.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath.18.Reddish-brown. thin-walled cork cells.48.V. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . 0. 0. 2. Powder .L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. 137 .75 . Appendix 14 per cent.2. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . phloem parenchyma. 2.10.6.10.2. 0.7. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly.cells followed by a zone of 2 . dark brown coloured cells.C.13.48 and 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.65 (all blue).3. 0. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.2. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. crystal fibres.12 cells wide. 0. Appendix 1. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.

Ar¿a. 138 . Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. of the drug in powder form for decoction. KaÀ¡ya Sara.5-10 g. Agnid¢paka. Graha¸¢. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga. DOSE . Tikta.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vra¸a. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. Gulma. S¡raka .

outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. exfoliating in narrow strips. radially arranged and thin-walled. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers.5-2. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. secondary cortex consists of large.0 cm thick. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. stone 139 . somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. quick growing tree. yellowish to cream coloured. tangentially elongated to squarish. medium sized.59. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. inner bark fibrous. Mulmurumgai Badisa. smooth. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells.Bk) Fabaceae). whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. Pangara Hongar. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. (Fam. Paribhadra (St. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

.2-4 g.V¡tarakta. of drug in powder form. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡taroga DOSE . 148 . Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¤Àya. Balak¤t.CONSTITUENTS .. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.Alkaloids. Volatile Oil.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru.

Korka. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high.5 cm wide.6 cm long. 0. Chowl. Syn. micropyle superior.4-0. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 .3-0. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. Satdhan -Charal. pleasant. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. Saraparuppu Sara. occurring mostly in groups. hilum present at the apex of round edge. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. which are of various size. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. mottled with darker brown lines. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. taste. (Farn. funicle stout. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed.63.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests.) Anacardiaceae). latifolia Roxb. Priyalam. 0. followed by remnants of disorganised. sweetish-oily. odour. Piyar. Priyala (Sd. linear. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. B. sclerenchymatous cells. thick-walled. b) Microscopic Seed . pitted. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. Shalichokha Piyal. large. collapsed cells of integument. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. creamish-brown.

P£gakha¸·a.10 .98 (all yellow).94 (blue). Raktapitta. áukrakara.L. Bhagnas¡dhaka. 2.4. 2. Appendix 7 per cent.98 (all violet).5-5. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. KÀaya.C.5 per cent.91.2. KÀata. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Appendix 4 per cent. Sara. IDENTITY. 2. 150 . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. Balya. T.2. BrÆha¸a. and oil globules.72. 0. 0. V¡tahara.2. 0.type.27.A creamish-brown paste.2.5-5.0 µ in dia.08. V¤Àya. 0. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. 0.27.V. and sclerenchymatous cells. 0.2.Albuminoids. Appendix 10 per cent. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. Pittahara.20 g. 0. Powder . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara.54. DOSE .72 and 0. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. procambium bundles. 0.91. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Kaphakara. 0.84. CONSTITUENTS .94 and 0.72. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.0 µ in dia.2.6. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. of the drug in powder form.C. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.D¡ha. Oil and Starch. 0.L. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7.94 and 0.3. shows numerous mesophyll cells. Appendix 0. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells.08. 0. H¤dya.54. 0.measuring 2. Priy¡la Taila.

phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . equal in size.5 cm long. 1. long. brown.4 m high shrub. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. Flower . cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. basifixed. stigma minutely capitate.5 cm across.Cymose. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. 1. and abundant in Bengal plains. b) Microscopic Peduncle . stamens 4. bell-shaped. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. Priyangu (Infl. peduncle cylindrical. 4 lobbed spreading.5 . style.2. thin-walled.64. an erect. corolla. densely clothed with wooly hairs.2. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. anther ovate.3 mm in dia. parenchymatous cells. epipetalous. densely hairy. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl.5-7.) Verbenaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . calyx.Shows more or less wavy outline. (Fam. tubular. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. 2. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. ovary 2-4 celled.0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. filament very long. hairy. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. brown.

Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. 2. Rakta-Pitta. fibres aseptate.Glycosides.Brown.2. Appendix per cent.2.2. N¢lik¡dya Taila. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Pakv¡tis¡ra. Terpenes. elliptical. Kanaka Taila. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent.1-3 g. Powder . V¡tahara. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. El¡di C£r¸a. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. IDENTITY. groups of thin-walled. Pras¡dana.2. Daurgandhyahara.2. 2. Ku´kum¡di Taila. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. aseptate fibres. Appendix 2. Jvara. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Vra¸aropa¸a.3. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. xylem consists of usual elements. Phenolic compound.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡.4. Resin and Saponin. DOSE . spiral vessels. (Mukharoga).fibres. Rakta.6.7. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sved¡dhikya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.D¡ha. Sandh¡n¢ya. M£travirajan¢ya. 2. 152 .

Jhona Arishi. Bhatta. Coke Chaval. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Poaceae). an annual herb. Dh¡nya. exodermis 1-2 layered. both consisting of round to oval. cylindrical.05-0. Nellu. (Fam. Paddy Shalichokha. Biyyamu Chaval. Damgara. Corava. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. 5-15 cm in length and 0. b) Microscopic Root . outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. sclerenchymatous cells. Dhan Rice. soft. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Cala. Akki -Ari. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Dhanarmul. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Dhana.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Nelver Dhanyamu. composed of thick-walled. pitted vessels and 153 .65. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Shali (Rt. Nivara -Chaval.) cultivated throughout India. Odalu. thin.Greyish-cream. Bhata. thick-walled.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. Vr¢hi. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. sclerenchymatous cells. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Nellu Tandulamul. Sali. cortex differentiated into three zones. smooth. Chawl. Dhana Bhatto. Powder .

Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Rucya. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. Balya. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. CakÀuÀya. BrÆha¸a. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2.2. 2.4. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Svarya.2. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. KaÀ¡ya Guru.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 154 . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. Var¸ak¤t. M£trala. 2. Kaphahara.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.StanyakÀaya.50 g. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Laghu. Pittahara. Appendix 2. V¡tahara.7. 2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . H¤dya.2.

hairy.P.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. linear-lanceolate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. ovary superior and bicarpellary. Flower . perennial herb with a woody root stock.Usually branched. sub-erect. Shankhapushpi. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. yellowish-brown to light brown.1-0. stamen 5. sepals narrowly. linear-lanceolate. Kakkanangudi. inserted deep in the corolla tube.5 cm broad.White or pinkish. alternate with the petals. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. light green. hairy on both surfaces. free. Leaf .) Convolvulaceae).Shortly petiolate. spreading. a prostrate.Slender. corolla shortly discoid. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .1-0. epipetalous. Shankhavela. 0. acute. 155 . Sankhahuli Kakattam. Karakhuratt.5-2 cm long and 0. 0. cylindrical. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. about 0.4 cm thick. 1-5 cm long. sparsely hairy. Stem . found throughout the country. Sankhapuspi.66. cylindrical. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. Sankha pushpin (W. light green.

. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. minutely puberulous. phloem a narrow zone. palisade ratio 6-9. unicellular hairs. 156 . medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. hairs unicellular. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. LeafMidrib .. cortex differentiated in two zones. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated.Fruit . 13. b) Microscopic Root . tanniniferous. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq.8 µ in dia. pale brown pericarp. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface.Appears nearly circular in outline. thin. phloem.walled cells. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. endoderrnis single layered. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. simple and compound starch grains. covered with thick cuticle.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. elliptical. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. xylem consists of vessels. mm.Light yellowish-green. starch grains solitary or in groups. mm. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin.0. at places unicellular hairs present. Seed . round to oval in shape.Capsule. xylem consisting of usual elements. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. present in cortex. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. thick-walled cells. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. oblong globose with coriaceous.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.Brown. vascular bundle bicollateral. fibres and tracheids. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. Lamina . secretory cells present in this region. covered with thick cuticle. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. measuring 3 . elongated. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. phloem composed of sieve elements.. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. simple and composed of 2-3 components. both having round to oval. fibres and parenchyma. present on both surfaces. palisade two layered. Stem . vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits.Shows single layered epidermis.8-17. epidermis single layered. xylem rays and parenchyma. Powder .

2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Ras¡yana. 2. Kaphahara. ËyuÀya.7. 2. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.IDENTITY. 2. Appendix 2.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Medhya. Apasm¡ra DOSE . M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Appendix per cent.3-8 g.3. Ras¡yana. Ras¡yana.2. Pittahara.2.M¡nasaroga. 2. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Br¡hma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Appendix per cent.6.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 .4. Clitoria ternatea Linn.2. Agastyahar¢tak¢. Tikta.2.2. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.

3-4 mm in dia. shortly 2-fid at the apex.2-0. 20-40 cm high. 158 .67. Saptala (W. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. Siju. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate.celled with or without attached pedicel. lobes short.P. sub-sessile.5-2 mm thick. 0. having a few secondary roots. ciliolate. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. pale brown. linear. Flower . glabrous outside and pubescent inside. Bilikalli. sessile. subacute. gland semilunate. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. found throughout India in the plains and low hills.7-7 cm long.5 mm across at the mouth. odour and taste indistinct. 2. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. ovate.Small. cylindrical. trilocular. lanceolate or linear oblong. Joyachi. short.1.Capsule. Leaf . Fruit . Chagulputputi Satala. gradually tapering. greenish-yellow. a much branched. (Fam. 3. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. Carmas¡hv¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . odour and taste not distinct.Involucre broadly campanulate. 4-5 cm long. style. free to the base. horned. fracture. solitary.8 cm wide.) Euphorbiaceae). annual herb. 1 mm long. 0. filament pubescent. smooth. ribbed.

parenchymatous cells. measuring 5. consisting of thick-walled. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. 159 . pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. secondary xylem consists of vessels. rarely a few oil globules also present. Stem . striated cuticle. secondary xylem composed of vessels.75 µ in dia.5-19. single layered epidermis. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. simple. composed of sieve elements.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. filled with yellowish-brown content. fibres and vessels having simple pits. flattended. tracheids and medullary rays. tangentially elongated elliptical. centre occupied by a pith. mature root shows thin walled cork. secondary cortex consists of 4. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. rounded to oval. thickwalled and lignified. endodermis not distinct. rounded at the base. starch grains simple. fibres and tracheids. some rounded. epidermis single layered. 2. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. elliptical. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. rounded to oval.Seed . traversed by numerous xylem rays. fibres. all elements thick-walled and lignified. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. all elements. with wide lumen present in this region. circular to oval. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side.Young root shows exfoliated. found scattered in phloem region. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. thick-walled lignified. leprous tuberculate testa. fibres elongated and aseptate. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated cells. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. elliptical. rectangular. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells.shows slightly convex outline. vessels having simple pits. parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem narrow. lignified cells with wide lumen. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. stone cells oval to elongated. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. palisade single layered present on both sides. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. grooved at one side. solitary or in groups. parenchymatous cells.6 layers of oval. b) Microscopic Root .3 mm long. covered externally with thick. Leaf- Midrib .25 µ in diameter.

KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2.04. stone cells thick-walled. 160 . rounded to oval starch grains. shows vessels with simple pits. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a.87 (violet).50 g. RaktadoÀahara.2.04 and 0. Pittahara. 0. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.V. Mi¿raka Sneha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. Appendix per cent. RukÀa. simple. aseptate fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.0.C.4. V¡tal¡.57 (all yellow). Appendix 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0. lignified with wide lumen. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara.2. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L. Udararoga. oval to elongated.2.Ën¡ha. Appendix per cent.Powder .Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. DOSE .46. Ud¡vartta. and 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.Light yellow.L.46 (brown) and 0. of the drug for decoction. 0.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). 2.7. T.3. Visarpa.6. 2. IDENTITY.2.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Gulma. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. elliptical. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf.C.67. Vibandha. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.

ex Flem. var. filiform and incospicuous. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. glabrous. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. graveolens Linn. akin to caraway. A. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. slightly sharp taste. Apiaceae). Satahva (Fr. parenchymatous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. A. mesocarp. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. sowa Roxb. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. Shepa. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. brown.. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. often stalk attached.. graveolens DC. 4 mm long. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. P.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. a tall. b) Microscopic Fruit . and a warm. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil.68. odour. mericarps usually separate and free.. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. (Fam. yellowish membranous wings. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. Syn. dark brown.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. vittae. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. glabrous. graveolens Benth. slightly raised. dorsal 161 . Shulupa. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. Sulpha.

each costae with vascular strands. 162 . V¡tahara.2.6. 2. cellulosic. Appendix 4 per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. 2. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels.37 (pink) 0. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.2. of the drug in powder form. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. Appendix 15 per cent. 2. Appendix 1. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 0.L.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Kaphahara. Atis¡ra. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.2. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent.7. shows spiral vessels.Brown. Jvara. 2. Appendix 3 per cent. IDENTITY.3. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . carpophore split.5 per cent.10 T.2.C. Netra Roga DOSE .2.2.68 (violet). Powder .3-6 g. 0. Vra¸a. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .L.59 and 0. CONSTITUENTS .Essential Oil. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.á£la. Appendix 2.59 (blue) and 0.2. Appendix 14 per cent. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.costae three.68 (all yellow). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.C.

Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Sajna. AkÀ¢va. Segata. Syn. Shigru (Lf. odour and taste not distinct. elliptic. Mungna Neegge. Bahala. Tishnagandha. Shewgachi pane Sajana. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. (Fam. Mocaka -Sajina.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. oval to elliptical. thin walled. parenchymatous cells. thickened. Muringa. Segata pana.69. and articulated at the base. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. entire. palisade single layered. ovate or obovate. slender. central region 163 b) Microscopic . Nugge ele -Murinna. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.5-1 cm wide. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. leaflet 1. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. pith and phloem parenchyma. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. pericycle forming a broken ring. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. Muringa Elai Sevaga. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Sekato. consisting of pericyclic fibres. vascular bundle collateral. Leaflet . Rachis . commonly cultivated throughout the country. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces.) Gaertn. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. Moringaceae). a small or medium sized tree.2-2 cm long and 0. Munga. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis.

IDENTITY.6.05.87 (blue). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.0.26.occupied by a crescent-shaped. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Appendix per cent.36 (yellowish green). RukÀa. K¤mihara. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. 2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. Medohara.2.82 (yellow) and 0. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.2.4. 2. 2. 0. Sirovirecaka 164 . 0. (all green).94 (yellow) in visible light.69 (blue) and 0. 0. 0. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0.L. spiral vessels. 0.20.59 (blue). shows groups of spongy parenchyma. Appendix 2. present on both surface but more on lower sur face.26.2. 0. 0. B ¤Æhana. 0.C. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Protein.36.36 (green).26 (all green). 0.05.2. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. 0.53 (yellow).52 (green).C. Appendix per cent.46 (both blue). V¡tahara. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. 0.2. 0. T.Carbohydrate.05. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0.94 (violet). stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Pittahara. 0.3. 0.18. vein islets number 50-65. 0. áukra N¡¿aka. palisade ratio 6-11. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.L.38.2.V. 0.30 (pink). Under U.18. Powder -Greyish-green. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. 0. stomata anornocytic. 0.46 (green).7. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.46 (all red) & 0.46 (dark green) & 0.94 (blue). palisade cells. 0.69 (yellow). CONSTITUENTS .

Medoroga. Gulma. K¤miroga. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . 165 .áopha.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Vidradhi. DOSE .Ratnagiri Rasa. ViÀatinduka Taila. Galaga¸·a. Pl¢haroga.10 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless.70. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. membraneous aril. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. (Fam.) Zingiberaceae). thin-walled parenchymatous cells. aromatic. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. Sthulaela (Sd. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. sclerenchymatous. parenchymatous cells. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. perisperm consists of polygonal. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. perispenn encloses the 166 . spicy pungent. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki.3 cm wide. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi.. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. odour. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. thin-walled. Beraelam. brown to dark brown. thin walled.4 cm long. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. taste. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed.

6. 2. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.2. oil globules. both composed of polygonal.2. H¤ll¡sa.áv¡sa. T¤À¸¡. Mukharoga. IDENTITY. thin-walled. 2. shows fragments of testa. RukÀa.(Seed).Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.Light brown. perisperm cells. rounded to oval. simple. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. Appendix 2. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. 2. Kaphahara.2. Rocaka.7. K¡sa. V¡tahara. DOSE . Appendix 14 per cent. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. thin-walled. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. 167 . Mukha¿odhaka. 2. Chardi. Tikta Laghu.5 per cent.4. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.5 -1 g. Appendix 1. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .10 CONSTITUENTS .2. Appendix 4 per cent.2. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. polygonal.3.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Note . parenchymatous cells.2. 2. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. of the drug in powder form.S¡rivady¡sava.endosperm and embryo. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder . (Seed). Appendix 5 per cent. rich in protein. Ka¸·u.

Bk. Tumbura. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. fracture. thin-walled.0. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. aromatic. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. stem and branches. stone cells found in 168 . Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC.71. external surface pale brown.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. Syn.) Roxb. brownish. short. light yellow to pale brown. odour. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. taste. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. internal surface smooth. parenchymatous cells. Thumbooni. rather deeply furrowed. armed with long. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. lignified. thick-walled cells. phloem fibres thickwalled. Z. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. (Fam. aromatic pungent.2 cm thick. Tumburudra. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. Rutaceae). Tejovati (St.1-0. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. sharp prickles. Jimmi. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam.

75 µ in diameter.13. K¡sa.Yellowish-brown.2. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix 8. DOSE . oil globules and starch grains.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 12 per cent.3. P¡cana.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.5 per cent.2. Hikk¡.13.5 per cent. Ëmav¡ta. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex.2. Powder .7. THERAPEUTIC USES . a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. stone cells.4. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. shows fragments of cork cells.6. Mukharoga. 2.10-20 g.75 . phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. measuring 2. a Volatile Oil and Resin. Rucya. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). 169 . IDENTITY. Kaphahara. 2.Aruci. 2. round and oval measuring 2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix 13 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix 1. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.2. of the drug for decoction.75 . aseptate fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. áv¡sa.75 µ in diameter. Medhya.2. Appendix 2. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. starch grains round and oval.

externally purplish-brown to black. hairy. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. internally cream. 30 . branched. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. entire or serrate. petiole thin. lower lip 170 . Stem . violet internally. much branched. pubescent on both sides. wiry.) an erect.60 cm high.5-3 cm long hairy. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . odour. Lamiaceae). K¤À¸atulas¢. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. slender.3. (Fam. annual herb. hairy. shortly apiculate. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular.6 . blackish-brown externally and pale. coloured. obtuse or acute.2 cm wide. fracture. woody. Tulasi (W.2. Leaf . about 1. taste. sub quadrangular. elliptic oblong. herbaceous. branched. Shree Tulasi. soft. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped.P.Erect. odour faintly aromatic. pedicels longer than calyx. fibrous in bark and short in xylem.Thin. pubescent. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. characteristic. Flower . Thulasi. small in close whorls.Purplish or crimson coloured.5-5 cm long 1. aromatic.72. found throughout the country.

taste. three vascular bundles situated centrally. Leaf- Petiole . aromatic. slightly mucilaginous. odour. xylem consists of vessels. found scattered in phloem. 171 . odour. mucilaginous when soaked in water. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. pungent. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. tracheids fibres and parenchyma.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. round to oval polygonal. filled with brown content. Seed . taste. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. in groups and rarely in singles. pungent. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. xylem surrounded by phloem. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. lateral two short and central two largest. occasionally a few cells collapsed. thin-walled. Midrib .shows somewhat cordate outline. fibres and parenchyma. corolla about 4 mm long. veined calyx.epidermis. rectangular. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. membranous. phloem consisting of sieve elements. phloem consists of sieve elements. pubescent. pitted with pointed ends. enclosed in an enlarged. glandular trichomes short. aromatic. parenchymatous cells. each with one seed. thin-walled.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. slightly compressed. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. no odour. tracheids.A group of 4 nutlets. brown. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. Stem .1 cm long. taste.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. 0. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. pungent. slightly notched at the base. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled.Rounded to oval. vessels pitted. long. Fruit . nearly smooth. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. elongated. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. b) Microscopic Root . vessels pitted. fibre tracheides. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. thin-walled. measuring 22-27 in dia. middle one larger than other two. fibres with pointed ends.

thin walled fibres. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. 2.3. Appendix 1. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). rounded to oval.5 per cent.minutes Under observation. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.6.2. slightly raised above the level of epidermis.4.L. Appendix 8 per cent.16 on lower surface. Durgandhihara 172 .7. Appendix 2.15 . CONSTITUENTS .2.C.7. H¤dya.2. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. T. in thoroughly vanillin . On cooling spray. 2. palisade ratio 3. Appendix 10 per cent. parenchymatous cells.C. vein islet number 31 . oil globules. Rucya. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.L. IDENTITY. 2. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. Rf. Record Rf. 2.2. V¡tahara. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. Powder .epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. RukÀa. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.Greenish: shows thin-walled. Tikta. Kaphahara.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .Lamina . simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components.8. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. Appendix 4 per cent. a few containing reddish brown contents. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . value 0.Essential Oil.35. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.1. Pittavardhin¢.2.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. áv¡sa. 173 . Chardi. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .A¿mar¢. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . K¡sa.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. Netraroga. Hikk¡. K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha.

(Fam. obtuse or acute. Tulasi (Lf. entire or serrate. 174 b) Microscopic .6-3. and 2-8 celled. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan.73. glandular trichomes short. pubescent on both surfaces. upper epidermis. consisting of xylem and phloem. 1.2 cm wide. elliptic-oblong.5-5 cm long. Holy Basil Tulasi. balloon-shaped head.5-3 cm long. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. aromatic. taste. much branched annual herb. hairy. measuring 22-27 µ dia. found throughout the country. odour. uniseriate 1-8 celled long.shows cordate outline. an erect. petiolate. K¤À¸atulas¢.. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. thin.) 30-60 cm high. three vascular bundles situated centrally. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. middle one larger than the other two. characteristic. Lamiaceae). petiole 1. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. LeafPetiole . sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. covering trichomes multicellular. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled.

85 (blue). Appendix 2. 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.C. Under U. 175 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.6. 0.93 (violet) and 0.75. 0. palisade ratio 3.88 and 0. 0. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.21.75 (violet). Appendix per cent. 0.V.85 & 0. 0.83.45 (yellowish green). 0.08 (violet).45.L. Appendix per cent.12 (light violet).).83 (all pink) 0. Powder .L.98 (blue).Light-green. vein islet number 31-33.04. 0. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0. Nerol and Camphene etc.03 (dark green). 2.30. 0. 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.21 (brown). except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.2. 0.8. 0. 2. 0.4.33 (both green) 0.33 (violet).2. 0.04. shows fragments of polygonal. 0.2.33.epidermis.2.. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. palisade and spongy parenchyma.93 (pink) & 0.08 (both green).08.98 (blue). palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. 0. 0.3.33.7.93 (all0 yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. T. 0.12 (light green).C. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.83 (blue).21.Midrib . 0. 0. 0.54 (blue).Essential Oil (Carvacrol. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.45 (violet). 0. 0.2. 0.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. 2.45.04. 2. CONSTITUENTS .93 (both light green).2. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.12. 0. IDENTITY. 0. Caryophyllene. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Lamina . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0.54. 0.

of the drug in powder form. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. áv¡sa. Pittahara.Aruci. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Prati¿y¡ya. K¤miroga.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. 176 . H¤dya. KuÀ¶ha. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. Tikta. RukÀa. V¡tahara.2-3 g. Hikk¡.

(Fam. broadly.5-1. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. odour. Ghodvach Bach. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. Vacha (Rz. upper side marked with alternately arranged. buff coloured intemally.) semiaquatic herb. aromatic. Ugr¡. enclosing large air spaces.74. Ghodavaca Vasambu. Rhizome . Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj.Shows single layered epidermis. and 0. taste. thin-walled cells of various sizes. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. fracture. large.5 cm thick. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. triangular. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. Gora-bach Baje. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. Vekhandas -Varch. somewhat collenchymatous. pungent and bitter. Araceae). short. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. cells towards periphery. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . cortex composed of spherical to oblong. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. smaller. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes.

7. Appendix per cent.L.Yellowish-cream b.Buff coloured. Chloroform-Light green iii.14 (violet) and 0. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains.L.10 T. Appendix per cent. shows fibres. 2. reticulate. present in cortex and ground tissue. Appendix per cent. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. stele composed of round. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. Eugenol and Asarone).. Powder as such: . Extracts in i. 0. Starch and Tannin.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol.2. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent.2.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.2.C.2.2.region. Benzene-No change IDENTITY.2. 2. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.3. 2.6. 178 . Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. Methanol-Yellowish green iv.2. starch grains simple. spherical. Powder . Appendix per cent.C. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). endodermis distinct. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. Petroleum ether-No change ii. CONSTITUENTS . 2.

179 . Khadir¡di Va¶¢.Vac¡di Taila. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta Laghu. DOSE . C£r¸a. Unm¡da.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Apasm¡ra. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. K¤mihara. Kar¸a Sr¡va.á£la. Medhya. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. áv¡sa. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. S¡rasvata. K¡sa. Ka¸¶hya. Vibandha. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. 1. V¡tahara.2 g. Ëdhm¡na.

Vatsanabha. roots are generally collected late in September. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. suberised. Vatsanabha (Rt. Ranunculaceae). hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. rarely 5 cm long. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely.) (Fam. 2-4. Nabhi.5 cm. poisonous. conical. taste.75. cartilaginous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Bachhnaag.4 . dark brown to blackish-brown. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Mahura. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. plant is an erect. Beesh. Basanaag Bisa. without or with a few intercellular spaces. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . perennial herb. ovoid. odour indistinct. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. Naabhi Bachnak. Meethabisha. papillose on outside. small portions of stem sometimes attached. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered.8 cm thick. Vatsanabhi. 0. Teliya Bish Basanalli. Vatsanabhi. Mithalelia. thin-walled. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. occasionally separated due to breakage. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. Sth¡varaviÀa. fracture. tapering downwards to a point. rough due to root scars. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. parenchymatous cells. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag.1.

2. metaxylem vessels met in centre.20.2. Anandabhairava Rasa. occupying more than half the radius. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.L.C. 2.39. present in cortical cells. xylem exarch. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. 0. Laghu. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. often forming 'V' shaped ring.2. Appendix 8 per cent. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. 0. RukÀa. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. Appendix 5. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. shows vessels. Appendix 2 per cent. IDENTITY.2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. Sv®dala. 2. 0. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. Viyav¡yi.7.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.96 (both orange). 0.4.56. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.endodermis. Appendix 2.C. a few aseptate fibres. ÙikÀ¸a.6. Appendix 24 per cent.2. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.L.39 and 0. cambium having 6 10 angles.3. containing a few groups of phloem strands.5 per cent. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.Light grey.10. 0. UÀ¸a. Trid°Àahara. Powder . T. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . consisting of round to oval cells. 2. inner bark parenchymatous.74 and 0. some scattered. S £tasekhara Rasa.

30 mgs of the drug in powder form.15 . Sannip¡ta.V¡taroga. Jvar¡tis¡ra.THERAPEUTIC USES . Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. Kanharoga. 182 . DOSE . V¡takaphajvara.

thin-walled cells. Fabaceae). BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. Eagio. thinwalled. Nelagumbala. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . outer surface reddish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. Bhoikolu.76. Bhuikumra Vidari. Gumadi belli. sweetish. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Nelagumbula.Rt. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. starchy and somewhat porous. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. smooth except for protuberances at some places. Vidari (Tub. Bhumikusmanda. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Bhonykoru. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. but pliable. usually does not break. (Fam. -Mudakku Bhuikohala.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. stone cells moderately thick-walled. Vid¡rik¡. cut surface creamish-brown.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. taste. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size.

consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements.and pits. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. fragments of cork.4.2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . radially elongated cells. M£trala.3. Ras¡yana.75 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form.6. Var¸ya.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Raktapitta. Powder . a few latex duct also present.. Stanyada. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . somewhat round. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. phloem fibres much elongated. Daurbalya. highly thickened. CONSTITUENTS .5 . Appendix 17 per cent. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.2. distributed throughout this region. 2. J¢van¢ya.Buff coloured. áoÀa. Pittahara.7.13. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. present in all parenchymatous cells. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.75 µ in dia. lignified with narrow lumen. 2.3-6 g. measuring 5. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta.Marma Gu¶ik¡.5 . V¡tahara. Appendix 24 per cent.2. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. plenty of starch grains mostly simple.2. DOSE . Appendix 4. 184 . angular to oval. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. Svarya. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. Angmarda.2. Manmath¡bhra Rasa.D¡ha. and also rarely in stone cells.2. Balya. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.13. having central hilum and striations. 2. Appendix 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Appendix 4 per cent.Gluconic and Malic acids. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. IDENTITY.

thick-walled.) Poaceae). (Fam. pale-greenish-yellow. erect herb. spongy parenchymatous cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. not distinct. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. round to oval wavy walled cells. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. oblong. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . square or quadrilateral. Syn. sclerenchymatous fibres. 50-100 cm high. Yava (Fr.2-0. sativum Pers. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. followed by more or less. Jav Barley Cheno. odour. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. polygortal inner epidermal cells. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. smooth. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. H. an annual.77. taste. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. about 1 cm long and 0. cultivated chiefly in North India. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs.3 cm wide. seed coat appears as a colourless line. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. sweetish-acrid. followed by 2-3 layers. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. elliptic. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped.

0. round to oval. simple starch grains. Var¸ya 186 . Globulin. 0.L. 2.53.10. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.22. 0. Orientoside. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.2. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.2. 2. Sthairyakara. 0.Creamish-white.2. Medahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.45. 0.C. 2.Starch.7 T.6. IDENTITY. Svarya. 0. 0. Appendix 1. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.L. endosperm divided into two zones.5 2. 0.56.2.31. Lekhana.3.68. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. Sugars. 0.68. sclerenchymatous fibres.2.2.5 per cent.83 (all violet) and 0. M£trahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. 0. 0. 0. Appendix 5. Appendix 2.) CONSTITUENTS .72 (all pink.22. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.83 and 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 0.31.44.06. 0.24.5 per cent. and the rest starch layers. Pittahara. Proteins (Albumin.2. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Powder . Appendix 2. Fats. V¤Àya. 0.92 (all grey).narrow lumens.36. Orientin. Pur¢Àak ¤t.4.92 (yellow).65 & 0. Kaphahara. 0. 2. 0. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.16.31. Appendix 4 per cent.C. 0.V. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. starch grains simple. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. V¡tak¤t.10. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. Vitexin etc.14.

Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. P¢nasa. of the drug.100 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 187 . Tvagroga DOSE .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Dh¡nvantara Taila. Gandharvahasta Taila.200 g. Prameha. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. T¤À¸¡. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Urustambha.áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . El¡dya Modaka. Kanharoga. K¡sa. Medoroga.

filled with reddish-brown contents. glabrous.2-1 cm thick. Duralabha -Venkatithura. mucronate obtuse. gradually tapering. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. radially arranged cork cells. slightly rough at basal region with slender. ballidurabi. extipulate.5-0. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. 0. secondary and tertiary root absent. Punjab. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . Stem .7 cm broad.5-1 cm long. opposite. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb).P. (Fam. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi.78. oblong.8 cm long. stipules green. cork cambium single layered.) Fabaceae). smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. a small thorny shrub. striate. elliptical.Well developed. drooping. Yavasaka (W. secondary cortex almost 188 .Cylindrical. alternate. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. terete. Javasa. Leaf . 20-30 cm long and 0.1-1 cm thick. Neladangara. glabrous. nearly 0. sharp axillary spines upto 3. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. hard. Desv. short. dark brown. no taste and odour. Y¡sa. branched.Simple. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. 0. fracture.

some cells filled with tannin. angular. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous.75 µ in dia. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. Leaf- Petiole . rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. Midrib . medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. tracheids. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. xylem situated above phlome. filled with tannin. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. rounded to oval. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. 3-45 cells long.5-14. tracheids and fibres. present throughout the region.5. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits.75 µ in diameter. tracheids. starch grains simple. tangentially elongated cells. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. phloem composed of sieve elements. elongated. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. a few with thick wall and simple pits. covered with cuticle. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. fibres. filled with tannin. thin-walled. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. hypodermis 1-2 layered. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. xylem consists of vessels. pitted vessels. 5.14. hypodermis 2-3 layered.appears biconvex in outline. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. xylem fibres. epidermis single layered. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. 189 . pericycle present in form of fibre groups.Greenish-brown. Powder . Stem .appears circular in outline. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. vascular bundle collateral. phloem composed of sieve elements. xylem consists of vessels. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. pith composed of a few thin-walled. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. covered externally with thick cuticle. Lamina . simple. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. parenchyma and fibres.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. tanniniferous cells.absent. parenchymatous cells.

of the drug in powder form for decoction. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Tikta. 2.7. Appendix 2. D¢pana.Chardi. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. Appendix 13.2. Appendix 2. Arimed¡di Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 10 per cent. Sucrose.2. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. T¤À¸¡. 190 . Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent.5 per cent. Kaphahara. Visarpa DOSE . Raktapitta.Sugars (Melizitose. Jvara. Invert Sugars).4.50 g.2. K¡sa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2.2.6. Appendix 2 per cent.20 . CONSTITUENTS . V¡tarakta.2. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3. 2.