THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.5.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2.2.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.2.3.2-Thermometers 1.1 Testing Drugs 2.1.1.1.2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.2.Types of Stomata 2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.) Desv 177 1.2.2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.1.4. 1.1.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.2.1.2.2-Sieves 1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.1.1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1.2.1-Nessler Cylinder.2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.

1.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.2.3.1.3.2-Refractive Index 2.3 Limit Tests 2.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.3.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.1-Powder Fineness 2.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.3.2.Weights and Measures 5.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.

Part-I.). II. accordingly.I. In general. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. 1930 and the Poisons Act. would be deemed to have been amended vii . Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. II. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. Vol. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted.P. the Dangerous Drugs Act. Part-I. Vol. II would be official. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. Vol.

These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. if any. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. Identity. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. viii .Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. If the odour persists to be discernible. indicated in monograph. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Odour and Taste . as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. it is described as having odour.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Weights and Measures . Purity and Strength . unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. English. Mesh Number .The metric system of weights and measures is employed. Synonyms . substances or processes described in Appendix. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. Italics . Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India .The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs .GENERAL NOTICES Title . The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. Introductory Para . The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. distribution and method of collection. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. When the term “drop” is used. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. Hindi.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts.

be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. shall constitute standards. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. V.g. with one of the four meanings given below. colour. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. total ash. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”.) . moisture content.Under this head. wherever given. ether-soluble extractive.In defining standards. ix . alcohol-soluble extractive. However. in 100 grammes of product.C. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. the expression per cent (%). and Identity. is used.For statutory purpose.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. However. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. Percentage of Solutions . under Description. fungi.soluble extractive. Constituents . the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. arsenic and heavy metals. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. The quantitative tests e. micro-organisms.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. Constant Weight . pesticides. even by applying known reference standards. Vol. and other animal matter including animal excreta. according to circumstances. water. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . and show no abnormal odour. sliminess. water-soluble ash. Part-I. Standards . if of equivalent accuracy. which he uses.L. statements appearing in the API. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. those of definition of the part and source plants. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. Purity and Strength. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. mould or other evidence of deterioration. acid-insoluble ash. pests. may be substituted for the tests and assays described.

Reagents and Solutions .000 parts More than 10.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Solutions . thermometric scale. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. are intended to apply at that temperature.56 oC. fibres. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Statements of solubilities.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. Solubility . Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. at a stated temperature.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. all solutions are prepared with purified water. and dust particles. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. Percentage of alcohol . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. such as fragment of filter papers. Temperature .000 parts x . When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.

as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights.5 N.P. TS. Kg. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. ml. PS.1 N. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. 0. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. mg. 0. Part –I and Part-II. 1M. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. µ. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. IN. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. unless otherwise stated. cm.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. mm. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. Fam. l.I. g.

St. Guj. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Ht. Mar. Rz. Assam. Kan. Sd. Tel. Tam. St. Mal. Bk. Rt. Ori. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Fr. xii . Tub. Eng. Punj.Sansk. Rt. Wd. Wh. Kash. Lf. Pl. Beng. Bk. Wd. Pseudo-bulb Rt.

53.1. 1. Akarakarabha (Rt. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. parenchymatous cells. cylindrical. more and wider vessels found towards peripery.231 µ in 1 . a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. odour. thin-walled. 7-15 cm in length. cambium 2-5 layered. (Fam. not easily separable.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. slightly aromatic. Akallakara. Akravu Akkalakara.8 µ in width. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. brown. Akalakarabha. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. b) Microscopic Root . tapering slightly at both ends. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. shrivelled.37-28. Akarakara Akkaraka. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels.2 . bark upto 3 mm thick. an annual. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. characteristically astringent and pungent. vessels pitted. external surface rough. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. taste. elongated. xylem fibres thick-walled. Asteraceae).

secondary phloem and medullary rays. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex.3. bi to tri and multiseriate. medullary rays numerous. secondary phloem. also gives positive tests for inulin. áotha. Appendix 2 percent. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. áv¡sa.Kum¡ry¡sava. Appendix 10 percent. Svedakara.2.0. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent.4. 2.2. radially elongated. IDENTITY.7. K¡sa. Buddhivardhaka. á£laroga. ray cells thick-walled. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix 22 percent. CONSTITUENTS . 2 .5 -1 g. Aj¢rna. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. NaÀ¶¡rtava. Powder . áukrala. Appendix 8 percent. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex.Ash coloured. uniseriate rays very rare. Appendix 2. running straight. V¡jikara. 2. D¢pana.6.Prati¿y¡ya.2. 2. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). Kaphahara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. of the drug in powder form.2. 2. Danta¿£la DOSE . Udararoga.2. Pittahara. secondary phloem and medullary rays.length having narrow lumen. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows vessels having scalariform thickening. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. Grdhras¢.

Sailabhava. coriaceous. Cotyledon . cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. odour.2. irregularly corrugated.Shows 1-2 layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. Powder . shows groups of cells of cotyledon. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels.Cream coloured. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. 3 . Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. broken pieces. under this. Juglandaceae). slightly curved. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. creamish-brown. taste. not distinct. thin-walled. followed by more or less compressed. oily sweet. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. (Fam. collapsed. thin-walled. radially elongated. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. parenchymatous cells. Akshoda (Cotldn. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m.) large deciduous. endosperm mostly single layered. parenchymatous cells. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . B¤´ha¸a. Sara. Balya.3. Kaphakara. 2.IDENTITY.7.2. ViÀ¶ambhi.2. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. Appendix Not less than 7. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. Appendix Not more than 0. 2. DOSE . CONSTITUENTS .0 percent. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.25 g.0 percent.KÀata.2. Appendix Not less than 10. 2.10 . Appendix 2.2. V¡taroga.Walnut oil and Tannin.5 percent. 2. KÀaya. áukral. V¤Àya.4.6. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. 4 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.2.

Syn. radially arranged. parenchymatous cells. Wild Mango Ambeda. with reddish-brown contents. Ranamba. upto 27 m high and 2. fracture.Bk. Anacardiaceae). and 5 . Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Amra. S. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. non Gamble (Fam. external surface smooth. Mampuiti. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas.5 m in girth. tangentially elongated.. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. parenchymatous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Amvara -Mampusli. Ambalam. Amrata (St. a few outer cells exfoliated. acuminata Roxb. grey having lenticels. S. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. Anbalamu. Jangli Aam Ambate. Ambado. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. Jangali Ambo.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. which are thick-walled towards periphery. a small aromatic. laminated. curved. Amra Indian Hog Plum. Ranambo Ambada. Ambazham. Ambadam Amratakamu. deciduous tree. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. consisting of tangentially elongated. internal surface reddish-yellow. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. Stem Bark. thin-walled cells. Kurz. mangifera Willd. f. thin.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows.3.

of the drug in powder form for decoction. V¡tahara. lignified. Raktapitta. 6 .L. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. Powder . Pittakara.Light brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. Rucik¤t.(greyish brown). alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf.5 per cent. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. shows cork cells. containing rosette crystals and starch grains.87 (all greyish brown).Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.75-14 µ in dia.33. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. stone cells. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.33. Not more than 1 per cent. 0.6. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. IDENTITY. 2.. 2. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.2. 0.2. simple. CONSTITUENTS .96. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.40 and 0.7. THERAPEUTIC USES .96 (blue). Under U.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thick-walled. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.KÀata. KÀaya.5-10 g.L. 2.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.C. 0. Appendix 2.V. Ka¸¶hya.2. Appendix Not more than 0.87 (blue) and 0. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.4. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. 0. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent.3. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 0. D¡ha DOSE .2. 2. T.

filament short. actinomorphic.0. bisexual.3-0. erect. greenish-white. PratyakpuÀpa.Simple. obovate. hollow when dry. stamens 5. anther. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. slightly ribbed. the perianth lobes. branched. dorsifixed.3 .0.Cylindrical tap root. secondary and tertiary roots present. numerous. (Fam. Stem .) Amaranthaceae). Apamarga (W. opposite. gradually tapering. subsessile.5 cm in cut pieces. hypogynous. Kharamaµjar. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita.P.4. rough due to presence of some root scars. membranous. May£raka. not distinct. sessile.free. wavy margin.1-1. yellowish-brown. one spine lipped. cylindrical. Flower . alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. perianth segments 5. hairy. 7 . odour. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. two celled.0 cm in thickness. a stiff. contorted or quincuncial. yellowish-brown. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. 0. Leaf . exstipulate. erect. solid. 0. bracteate with two bracteoles. opposite. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. decussate.9 m high herb.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .

secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. single. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. ovary superior. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. syncarpous. two medullary bundles. on both surfaces. unilocular with single ovule. 3-4 celled stalk. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled.Shows crescent-shaped outline.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. cortical and pith cells. scalariform and pitted. elongated. round at the base. oval to rectangular. Midrib . spiral. style. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. rectangular. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. parenchymatous cells. composed of parenchymatous cells. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vessels annular. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. LeafPetiole . secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. followed 8 .Mature root shows 3-8 layered. present in pith. endospermic. thin-walled. brown. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. Stem . capitate. perianth and bracteoles. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal.Shows a single layered epidermis. thin layers of cambium. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled.gynoecium bicarpellary. thin-walled cork cells. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. 2-5 celled. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. tangentially elongated.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. lignified. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. either separate throughout or found in some cases. vessels simple pitted. stigma. b) Microscopic Root . small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. cortex 6-10 layered. epidermis single layered. Seed . xylem composed of usual elements. thin-walled cork cells. demarcating the xylem rings. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide.Sub-cylindric. fibres pitted. truncate at the apex. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. Fruit . fibres being absent. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal.

0 on lower surface. shows fragments of elongated. Lamina . mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. spiral. Medohara. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Appendix 2. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. Powder . rectangular. non-lignified cells. 2. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface.6.2. Abhay¡ Lava¸a.5-9.0 on upper surface.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Tikta Sara.0-11. scalariform and pitted thickening.0-20.4. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 9.3.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Shows single layered. of the drug for decoction. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. Apac¢. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. V¡maka.á£la. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡cana.Light yellow. Ar¿a.2. thin-walled epidermal cells. V¡tahara.2. slightly elongated in upper. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. Ka¸·u. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent.2. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Udara Roga. aseptate fibres. 9 .7. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. palisade ratio 7. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. 2. 2. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. stomatal index 4. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. IDENTITY. Gu·apippali. Kaphahara. 2. mm.20-50 g. Medoroga DOSE . vessels with annular. Chedana.

secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. Fabaceae). (Fam. polygonal. colour. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. bitter. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. taste. cylindrical. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. 1-5 mm in thickness. Aparajita (Rt. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. medullary 10 . secondary xylem consists of usual elements. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. lightbrown. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. a few solitary fibres also present. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. thin-walled. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. distributed in the lower half of the cortex.5. very long. vessels pitted with oblong.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. fracture. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. b) Microscopic Root . fibrous. a few showing slit-like pits.

of the drug in powder form. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia.Yellowish-brown.1 . 2. T. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.2.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2.V. CONSTITUENTS . xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls..C..79 (dull yellow) in visible light. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. ViÀahara. Buddhiprada. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. Pittahara. Starch. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. Under U. Medhya.á£la. 2.79 (blue). 0.L.L. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. oblong and pitted. Appendix per cent. phloem and xylem parenchyma.Mi¿raka Sneha. áotha. M£traroga. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 11 . 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.7.2. 2. 0.3 g. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.4.2. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . shows simple and compound starch grains. Vra¸a DOSE .C.3.54 and 0. Tikta. 0. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.79 (grey). Taraxerol & Taraxerone. Resin.Tannin.79 (both yellow). 0.rays 1-5 cells wide.2. Kaphahara.6. found in secondary cortex. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. KuÀ¶ha. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.

fracture. buds and roots are removed and washed well. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. Allam. pieces 5-15 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . lakottai. 1.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. irregularly arranged. taste. Rhizomes are dug in January-February.6.) Zingiberaceae). gingery. Inji Allamu. isodiametric. (Fam. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. short with projecting fibres. Ale -Adi. radially arranged cells of inner cork. oblique branches on upper side. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. Adrak Injee.Shows a few layered. thin-walled.5 cm thick. odour. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. pungent Rhizome . reaching up to 90 cm in height. tangentially elongated. colourless.5-6. Ardraka (Rz. widely cultivated in India. each having a depressed scar at its apex. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak.

fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. vessels showing reticulate.C. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. Appendix 90 per cent.63 & 0.9 T. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.69 (all light yellow). Appendix 2. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. elongated pits on their walls. 0.7. Appendix 5 per cent. 2.. numerous closed.35. 2. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.2. 0. collateral. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. 0.83 & 0. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.2. free from starch.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. 0.76 (violet) & 0.5 per cent. 0.2. larger bundles consists of 2. 0.dia. 2. reticulate and spiral vessels. vessels 2-5 in number. 0. 0.4. small cells of sieve tube.V. 0. Appendix 8 per cent.08. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 2. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. Appendix 2 per cent.47 (light violet). Appendix 1 per cent.16. 0.L.2. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.16 (blue).L.69 (grey).C. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. endodermis single layered.16.63.l6 (brownish violet).92 (violet). On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. phloem.08 (violet). oleo-resin cells abundent.35 (light violet). 0.63 (grey) & 0. 0. 0.3.35. fibrovascular bundles of two types.2. CONSTITUENTS . 0.03.2.2. walls of oil cells suberised. 0. 0.6. 2. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. composed of xylem.13. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. septate fibres with oblique. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. 0.63 (light violet). 0.47. 0. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. 13 .92 (all yellow). filled with abundant starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. 0.69 (light violet). Powder -Light yellow.69. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.7 vessels. conjoint.76. Under U. 0.

á£la. DOSE . S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Kaphahara. Ën¡ha. V ¤Àaya. Ka¸tharoga. Svarya. RukÀa. 14 . Vibandha. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. Bhedana. H¤dya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. áopha. Rocana.

Sadabala -Haramibaval. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. fibrous. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. lignified. characteristic of dry regions. secondary phloem wide. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. phloem fibres thin-walled.7. Velvelam. exfoliating in irregular scales. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. all traversed by medullary rays. stone cells and phloem cells. with tapering 15 .Bk. parenchyma. not distinct. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. fibres and crystal fibres. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. square to rectangular cells. thinwalled cortical cells. hard. Pilobaval.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. upto 3 m in height. internally light brown to reddish-brown. rough. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. (Fam. Fabaceae). incurved. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. consisting of sieve elements. fracture. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.5-1 cm thick. Arimeda (St. odour and taste.

Meha. shows groups of cork cells.3-5 g in powder form. KuÀ¶ha. composed of thin-walled. 0. Mukharoga.áopha. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.39 and a spot at Rf. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.91 (yellow). β -Amyrin. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. Appendix 1 per cent.2.40 g for decoction.LC. 2. 2. Ka¸·u.7. crystal fibres elongated.4. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.C. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side.78 and 0.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). Powder . Appendix 13 per cent.0.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. IDENTITY.6. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. 16 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . fibres. Udardapra áamana DOSE .2. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. Appendix 2. Visarpa. 0. K¡sa. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Dantaroga.69 (grey) is seen in visible light.2. P¡¸·u.ends.0 to 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. K¤mi. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.3. 2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Atis¡ra.L. sclereid. Appendix 11 per cent.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES .2. T. Appendix 14 per cent.39 and a spot at Rf. ViÀajavra¸a.Reddish-brown. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.91 (both blue). radially elongated cells.2. Meda¿oÀaka.n-Hexacosanol.2. 0 to 0.e.

Vellamaruthi.Bk. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. bitter and astringent. taste. flat. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. Bilimatti. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. Sajada Arjuna Matti. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 .5 cm thick. Arjuna (St. P¡rtha. 0. companion cells. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. (Fam. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. Kellemasuthu. in the middle and outer phloem region. Mattimora. curved. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Arjuna. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. fracture. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. Neermatti. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. a large deciduous tree.2-1. Mathichakke. channelled to half quilled.) Combretaceae). cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark.& A. Torematti Arjuna. traversed by phloem rays.8. consisting of sieve tubes. recurved. short in inner and laminated in outer part. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10.

elliptic. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate.Reddish-brown. 2. round to oval. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. Arjuna Gh¤ta. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Vra¸an¡¿ana. 18 .2.Medoroga. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. 2..2. mostly simple. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 1 per cent. starch grains simple and compound. KÀatakÀaya. IDENTITY.. sometimes upto 5 components. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. Vya´ga. 2. compound of 2-3 components.2.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. present in most of the phloem parenchyma.2. Prameha.3. a few rhomboidal crystals. Kaphahara. DOSE .Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. Vra¸a. alata). distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. H¤dya. 4-12 cells high. fibres.in dia. starch grains. uniseriate phloem rays. Appendix 20 per cent.4. Appendix 25 per cent.3-6 g. elliptical. T¤À¡. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fragments of cork cells.. round to oval. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 20 per cent.6.7. µ Powder .2. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. H¤droga. alternating with fibres.2. Appendix 2. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum.

characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. dark brown. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. mesocarp and endocarp.5-3 cm long. Nallajidiginga Baladur. Scramkotati Nallajidi. smooth. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. nut 2. Bhallataka (Fr. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. Fruit . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. shining with residual receptacle. obliquely ovoid. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified.) Anacardiaceae).Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. 30-40 layers thick. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. mesocarp a very broad zone. 19 . Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. drupaceous. (Fam. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country.9. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles.

Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Powder . KaÀ¡ya Laghu.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. CONSTITUENTS . Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Graha¸¢.1. Appendix 4 per cent.2 g. KuÀ¶ha.2. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. chloroform. 2. Appendix 0. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Tikta.. Appendix 5 per cent.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. Note . Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. ether.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A.6. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. Bhedi.2. 2.7. being highly thickened. Appendix 11 per cent.Dark-brown. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES .2.5 per cent.2. Part-I 20 . very much elongated radial walls. 2. IDENTITY. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. innermost prismatic.4.2.Ar¿a. Ën¡ha. Chedi.2. Ka¶u. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance..endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Kaphahara. Appendix 2. P¡cana.3. Gulma. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). 2. Krimi.I. Snigdha.F. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara.

Karisalai Guntakalagara. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja.Herbaceous. involucral bracts about 8.5 cm long. 1. lanceolate. Bh¤´ga. white. disc flowers 21 . Karisalanganni.Well developed. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. Gurugada. 2. herbaceous.Solitary or 2. ligule small. Knnunni Bhangra.10. node distinct.2 . Leaf . Bhangro Bhangara. spreading. scarcely as long as bracts. often rooting at nodes. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. upto about 7 mm in dia. strigose with oppressed hairs. usually oblong. Kesari -Bhangaro. occasionally brownish. much branched.8. not toothed. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. Flower . strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. Soppu. Bhringiraja. rough due to oppressed white hairs. erect or prostrate. sub-entire.) herbaceous annual. ray flowers ligulate. occasionally rooting at nodes. cylindrical or flat. Kesuriya.Opposite. Tekar¡ja.3 cm wide. greyish. sessile to subsessile. Bhringaraja (W. strigosely hirsute.2. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .P. greenish. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. obtuse or acute. cylindrical. sub-acute or acute. Keshavardhana. branched. Stem . (Fam. M¡rkava. 30 ..50 cm high. together on unequal axillary peduncles. ovate. Asteraceae).2 . Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.

rarely slightly oblique. vessels numerous. xylem ray distinct. one seeded. covered with striated cuticle. xylem composed of vessels. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities.tubular. ray cells pitted. 0. externally covered with cuticle. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. with a narrow wing. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. b) Microscopic Root . upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. and with pointed apical cell. found scattered throughout wood. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. non-glandular. Midrib . tangentially elongated cells. Leaf- Petiole . stamen 5. ovary inferior.25 cm long. pitted. traversed by xylem rays.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells.0. Seed .0. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. unilocular with one basal ovule. drum-shaped. fibre tracheids. epidermis followed by cortex. phloem rays broader towards periphery. cuneate. brown. run straight in tangential section. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found.1 cm wide. fibre tracheids. dark brown. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. in macerated preparation vessels small.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs.Achenial cypsella. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. hairy and non endospermic. fibres and xylem parenchyma. trichomes of two types. 1-5 celled. filaments epipetalous. with very pointed tips.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. covered with warty excrescences.2 . xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . epidermis followed by wide cortex. simple. consisting of rounded cells. warty. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. pappus absent. pistil bicarpellary. uniseriate. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. corolla often 4 toothed. free. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. Fruit . five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle.

the cork where formed. trichomes entire or in pieces. pitted with spiral thickening. pointed tips and pitted walls. uniseriate. peg-like outgrowth. 23 .5. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. pericyclic fibres distinct. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. epidermis single layered. hairs stiff. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. Powder . about 3 celled. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. normally biseriate and uniseriate.Dark green. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. xylem fibres with wide lumen. Lamina . xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. warty. palisade ratio 3. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. secondary cortex composed of large. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. stomatal index 20. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. externally covered with cuticle. pointed. xylem consists of large number of vessels. wide at the base. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. endarch. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. some elongated with simple perforations. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces.0 on lower surface. septa thick-walled. collateral. vascular bundles in a ring. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. arranged in tangential strands. externally covered with cuticle. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. Stem .shows a dorsi ventral structure. more abundant on lower surfaces.0-22. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. while the section cut at apical region. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. a few often bifurcate and a few other large.collenehymatous cells on both sides.5 -26.8 -4. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. middle cells longest.5 on upper and 23. mesophyll traversed by number of veins.

7. V¡tahara. DOSE . H ¤droga. 24 . Appendix per cent.3 . 2. 12 . Appendix per cent. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. ViÀahara. 2. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. Tekar¡ja marica. CakÀusya. Kaphahara. K¤miroga.4.2. 2.2.Alkaloids. Tvacya.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent. P¡¸·u.6.2.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila.2. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY.áotha. Ke¿ya. áirah á£la. Tikta RukÀa. Yak¤droga.2. of the drug in powder form for decoction.36 g.6 ml of the drug in juice form. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Ecliptine and Nicotine. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ëmahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ras¡yana. K¡sa. Appendix 2. Dantya. áv¡sa.3. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.

slightly bitter. Ondelaga. Syn. Brahmi.) Wettst. pedicels 6-30 mm long. green or purplish green. Flower . Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. Stem .Simple. sessile. found throughout India in wet and damp places. slightly bitter.P. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. Brahmi (W. wiry.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) H. a glabrous. obovate-oblong. soft. green. small. small. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. opposite. succulent. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . axillary and solitary.Small. nodes and internodes prominent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Valabrahmi. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. taste. branched creamish-yellow.. 1-2 cm long. (Fam. Scrophulariaceae). glabrous. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi.Thin. about 1-2 mm thick. ovoid and glabrous. prostrate or creeping annual herb.Thin. 25 . taste. Fruit . Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi.& K. Leaf .Capsules upto 5 mm long.11. decussate.B.

V¡tahara. 2. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. Appendix per cent. cortex having large air cavities. Appendix per cent. endodermis single layered.Root .. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Ras¡yana. no distinct midrib present. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. starch grains simple. Praj¡sth¡pana. endodermis single layered.6. pericycle not distinct. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre.2. round to oval. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Medhya. and 8. Appendix per cent. Svarya.0 µ in dia.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. ViÀahara. glandular hairs. Stem .2.0 x 2.7. Powder .Yellowish-brown. IDENTITY. 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .4. ËyuÀya. glandular hairs sessile. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Appendix 2. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. Matiprada. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. simple.2. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. round and oval starch grains. vascular ring continuous. 2. Appendix per cent. Tikta.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces.2. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. respectively.3.0-14. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent.5-9. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. 2.Shows a single layer of epidermis.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. b) Microscopic 26 .

27 .KuÀ¶ha. áopha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.1-3 g in powder form. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ratnagiri Rasa. Jvara. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. Prameha. P¡¸·u.

Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. parenchyma and stone cells.. pale yellowish-brown. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. b) Microscopic Root . phloem rays 1-3 cells wide.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . cork cambium single layered. fracture. varying greatly in shape and size. thin-walled. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. cylindrical.9 layers of thin-walled. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Papparamulli. 1-2. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. ribbed. Badikateri Kirugullia. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. woody. upto 1. short and splintery. Putirichunda Dorli. (Fam. long. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars.15 layers of thin-walled. oval and tangentially elongated cells. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. much branched perennial under shrub. Chichuriti. Heggulla. secondary cortex composed of 5 . isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . Brihati (Rt. Solanaceae).5 cm in dia.12.8 m high. traversed by phloem rays. tangentially elongated. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. a very prickly. phloem parenchyma much abundant. no distinct odour and taste. Ubhibharingani.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn.

29 . 2. measuring 5.5 -11. IDENTITY. all elements being lignified. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. parenchymatous cells.2. 2. áv¡sa.á£la. thick-walled. 2.6 µ in diameter.2. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. shows groups of thin-walled. P¡cana. phloem and medullary rays. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. Agnim¡dya.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. 2. Appendix Not more than 6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. measuring 5. rounded to oval starch grains. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.3. xylem rays uni to biseriate.2..Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.6.2. H¤dya. Powder . Jvara. CONSTITUENTS . DOSE .5 per cent. fibres and xylem parenchyma.6 µ in diameter.4.10-20 g.Cream coloured. cells radially elongated and pitted. H¤droga.2. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. aseptate fibres. tracheids.5 . Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . simple and rounded to oval starch grains. traversed by xylem rays.7. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. V¡tahara. vessels with simple pits. of the drug for decoction. Kaphahara. Appendix 2. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.11.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.

chaba Hunter non Blume. brownish cells. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl.. peppery. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. (Fam. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. short. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Chavya (St. taste. a glabrous. b) Microscopic Stem .5-2. cultivated mainly in Southern India. P. Piperaceae). fibres and xylem parenchyma. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. consisting of round. nodes and internodes distinct. secondary cortex a wide zone.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. greyish-brown. acrid. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. Syn. thin-walled. officinarum DC. Chavya -Kattumulaku. fleshy climber.0 cm in width. P. plenty of simple starch granules present. odour. endodermis single layered. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. tracheid. fracture.13. cork cambium not distinct. oval to rectangular. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays.

2.2. Appendix 3 per cent. D¢pana. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. á£lal DOSE . Gulma. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. round to oval starch grains. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. IDENTITY.2. Powder . Ën¡ha.3. 2. filled with simple. Appendix 2. Appendix 10 per cent. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. starch grains.Greyish-brown.2. Glycosides and Steroids. RukÀa. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. Udara Roga.2. CONSTITUENTS .1-2 g. 31 . Kaphahara.Ar¿a. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Appendix 1.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. cells thin walled.Alkaloids.pitted and reticulate thickenings. Recana. P¡cana. 2. 2.2.2. medullary rays multi seriate. round to oval.7. Appendix 6 per cent. fibres and simple. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. Krimi. Pl¢h¡ Roga.6.4.5 per cent. shows fragments of vessels.

and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. parenchymatous cells. oil globules. Maadalai. 0.2 cm wide. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. LohitapuÀpa.6 cm long. consisting of oval to polygonal.Reddish-brown. Punicaceae). wedge-shaped. 32 . taste. thin walled. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai.14.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. triangular and rectangular. beneath this. sweetish-sour. endosperm absent. round.5-0. Madalam Danimma Anar. round to oval. shows stone cells. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. oval. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. Powder . reddish-brown pigmented layer present. simple. Dadima (Sd. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. found growing wild in the warm valley. angular. (Fam. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. starch grains present in testa.1-0. containing a few oil globules.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. 0. cotyledons coiled. Seed .

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

P. slightly bitter.9 m in high. surface rough. crowded in dense. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts.lanceolate. hairy. white. acute.3-0. fracture. upto 4 mm thick. taste. tubular.Sessile. pungent. long with numerous wiry. 3-9 cm long. size variable. Gumma. corolla.Light greenish-yellow. serrate. an annual. characteristic. 1. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. smooth.5 cm long and 0.7-2 cm 37 . Dronapushpi (W. 10 dentate with a villous throat. Inflorescence . nodes and internodes distinct. erect.5 cm wide. subacute.16. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. ciliate. about 0.6-0. more or less pubescent. (Fam.5 cm across. scaberulous. white. fibrous. ovate or ovate. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. about 2-3. stout herb. glabrous in lower part. lanceolate. fine rootlets.35 cm wide. thin. hairy on upper part.) Lamiaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . globose. taste.Cylindrical.2-1. Leaf . slightly curved. Stem . calyx.25 cm long. crenate. 1-2.Yellowish-green. 1-2. taste. 1. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. zig-zag.

cortex consisting of single layered. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. 4 . Leaf- Petiole . thin-walled 38 . vessels long with spurs. tangentially elongated. Stem . tracheids. consisting of barrel shaped.shows a single layered epidermis. secondary xylem consists of vessels. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem consists of vessels.3 cm long and 0. tracheids. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. nutlets 3 mm smooth. round to angular collenchyma. oblong.Schizocarpic carcerule. fibres and xylem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows.long.1 cm wide. consists of a single layered epidermis. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. thin-walled cells. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one.vascular bundle arc-shaped. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. thin-walled cells. Lamina . spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. composed of oval to rectangular. parenchymatous cells.tangentially elongated.7 layered. brown. bilipped. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. Fruit . vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. Midrib . b) Microscopic Root . medullary rays 1-2 seriate.0. followed by round to oval parenchyma. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. Seed . irregular. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. thin-walled. present in centre.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. some having simple pits. lateral lobes small. wooly. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. upto 8 cells high. vascular bundles 4. upper lip about 4 mm long. trigonous. smooth.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. palisade single layered. endoderm is single layered. dark brown.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Tamaka áv¡sa.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. 2.4. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. a few veins present in this region. 39 .Alkaloid. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.2. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 16.2. stomata diacytic. Powder . CONSTITUENTS .7 on upper surface. RukÀa. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. palisade ratio 7-9.Dull yellow.2.2.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. present on both surfaces. Lava¸a. Ka¶u Guru. Glycoside.6-30.6-40. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. Bhedani.2.áotha. 2.cells. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Pittakara. V¡takara. Agnim¡ndya.3. ViÀamajvara DOSE . stomatal index 16. 2. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.5 on lower surface. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. K¡mal¡.7. aseptate fibres. pitted and spiral vessels.2.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. K¡sa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.

4 cm wide. Hastipani. Hastipani. taste.7-10 cm long. an annual creeping herb. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. cultivated in many parts of the country. cotyledons two. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. B¤hatphala. surface smooth. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. Cucurbitaceae). C. (Fam. sweetish oily. 40 . 0. radially elongated to squarish. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. parenchymatous cells. covered with thick cuticle. Vellarika Kakadi. straight. utilissimus Roxb. glossy. more or less ellipsoid. parenchymatous.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. Ervaru (Sd. 0. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. rounded and tangentially elongated. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. -Kakur.3-0. mesophyll cells thinwalled. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. shows stone cells. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic.17. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. Karka¶¢. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. thin-walled. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. creamish-yellow. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains.

Jvara. 0. 2.77. Gulma.0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0.97 (all grey). RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.V.2.IDENTITY. 0. 0.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. Kaphakara. 0. (366 mm). THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.64. T¤À¸¡.26. 41 . Appendix 10 per cent. 0.0. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .7. 2.2.58. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. of seeds.2.64. Raktapitta.35.35.19.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. 2. T. Tikta Guru. 0.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. 0.83. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. V¡takara.97 (all yellow) .51.C. 0.91 and 0.3-6 g. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.2.77.83. RaktadoÀakara. 0.19.5 per cent. D¢pana. 0. 0. Appendix 5 per cent. A¿mar¢.D¡ha.4. 0. 2. 0. Pittahara.L.91 and 0. CONSTITUENTS .58.2.6.C. Rucya. Appendix 0.26.0.L. Appendix 2.91 (blue) under U. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 4 per cent.51.Oil & Sugars.

surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2.4-0.5 cm thick. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. odour and taste not distinct. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.0-3. thin-walled. 0.0-3. shiny. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a.4 cm wide.18. rough and scaly. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands.Kidney-shaped. 42 .Shows more or less loosely arranged. (Fam. b) Microscopic Fruit . found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. Gajapippali (Fr. a large epiphytic climber. cut surface has a central core.0 cm in diameter and 2. greyish-brown with a dent.6 cm long. Seed .3-0. odour and taste not disticnt. Orissa.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. smooth. 0. Araceae). brownish-grey.

0. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.6. oval to polygonal. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.65 and 0.5 per cent.73 (both light brown) and 0. áv¡sa. Appendix T. 2.4. Ka¸ha Roga. Three spots appear at Rf. in extract (Phant) form. Kaphahara.L. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.73 and 0. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. thick-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES .Atis¡ra.C.7.20. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.3.2. 2. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent.93 (brown). Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. 0. oval to polygonal.V. shows lignified. 0. 0.C.áiv¡gutik¡. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. Stanya.65. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. IDENTITY. 2. V¡tahara.65.2.2. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.2-3 g. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.27.93 (all blue) are visible.65.2. 0.27. 0. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. 2-4 layered. Malavi¿oÀana. 43 . 2. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. Sugars & Fixed Oil. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. thin-walled. Powder .Dark brown.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. pitted and with concentric striations. DOSE . K¤miroga. T.93 (all yellow).73 and 0. oval to polygonal. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. non-lignified. 0.Glucosides viz.Shows a single layered. 2.2. thick-walled. Ka¸¶hya.Seed . 0. Agnivardhaka. 0. 0. Punarnav¡sava.L. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS .

Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha.A drupe.5-1 cm long. cotyledons consisting of single layered. Seed . Verbenaceae). papery. taste.Seed ovate. thin-walled. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells.6 cm wide. sweetish sour. ovoid. black. Hannu -Kumbil. seed coat thin.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. crinkled. tangentially elongated. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp.4-0. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. radially 44 . Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh.0 cm long. Shivani. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. oily. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . 0. P¢takarohi¸¢. fleshy mesocarp. parenchymatous cells. light yellow. sometimes one seeded. thin-walled cells. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. 0. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb.) unarmed tree. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. surface smooth. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered.19. b) Microscopic Fruit . K¡¿marya. 1. Sr¢par¸¢. multilayered. Seed . (Fam. Gambhari (Fr.5-2. two seeded.

M£trak¤cchra. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Sara. KaÀ¡ya Guru.42.2. Ras¡yana.94 and 0. H¤dya. 0. KÀaya. Ke¿ya.52. 0. Powder .L. T¤À¸¡.V.93 and 0. 0.03. 2.12.2.2. V¡tahara.2. 0. 0.. 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. Resin and Saccharine. shows stone cells. THERAPEUTIC USES .L. H¤droga. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.D¡ha.4 per cent. 45 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. Appendix 25 per cent. Rakta Pitta DOSE . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.98 (yellow) in visible light. 0.Butyric acid.1-3 g. 0. KÀata.6. Pittahara.2. of the drug in powder form.98 (all yellow). Medhya. Alkaloid.elongated epidermal cells.2.26.22. Appendix 8 per cent.18.98 (orange). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.Blackish-brown. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. IDENTITY. 0. 0.08.7.C. 0. Tartaric acid.3. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Appendix 2.98 (all blue).Arvind¡sava.03. Under U. 0.C. 2. Appendix 6 per cent. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 0.4. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. oil globules and aleurone grains. T. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 2. Amla.

46 . found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. rectangular.20.) Aschers & Schwf. radially arranged cells. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. oval. Tiliaceae). external surface smooth.6-1. Syn. secondary cortex wide. light yellow. arranged in radial groups. elliptical. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled.Bk. taste. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. Grewia populifolia Vahl. blunt tips and moderately long in size. (Fam. 1. channelled. Gangeru (St. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled.Shows a wide cork. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. moderately large in size. fracture. fibrous. a shrub 0. thick-walled.0 m high. traversed by wide phloem rays.. fibrous. a few stone cells.5-5 cm long. consisting of 12-20 layered. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of tangentially elongated. mucilaginous. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen.

35. Ka¶u. 0.3.J¢rak¡di Modaka.41. 2.08 (blue) 0.Sugar. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.35 (violet). 47 .08 (violet). 0. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. of the drug in powder form.17. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0. Pittavik¡ra. α-amyrin. Appendix per cent.2.48.Vra¸a. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.68 & 0.13 (blue).35 (both light yellow) in visible light.88 (light violet). Appendix per cent. 0.2.29 (blue).88 (all yellow).).7. 0. 2.2. IDENTITY. DOSE .2.55.C. Amla. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Powder . 0.6. 0.27 (light violet). 0. 0.61.48 (violet).2.17. 2. 0. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. T.2-3 g. 0. Appendix per cent. 0.Light yellow and fibrous. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Tikta.64 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.55 (blue) & 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). 0.27.17 (light violet).68 (light violet) & 0. 0. Appendix 2.C.L. 0.V.08. 0.35 (dark blue). THERAPEUTIC USES .4. 0. Under U. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix per cent. 0.2. β-amyrin etc. 0.L. Two spots are seen at Rf. 0. 2.

taste. cylindrical. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. flowering in August-September. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. exfoliating in small flakes. pitted walls. fruits ripen during winter. cork cambium. most often irregularly curved. Kakananti Rati Kunch. tangentially elongated cells. bark thin.21. b) Microscopic Root . light brown. thinwalled. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. smaller than stone cells. Fabaceae). becoming mildly bitter. (Fam. some with brownish content. Ghungchi Guluganji. present at short intervals. gulagunja -Kunni. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. simple or branched. feebly sweetish. Gurivinda Ghongchi. a climber.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. spreading throughout the plains. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. slightly corky. Kundumani Guriginga. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. odourless.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. Chonotee Ratti. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . soft. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. when distinct. composed of 1-2 cells wide. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. Chanothee. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. Gunja (Rt.

numerous xylem fibres. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. 2. Powder . medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. pitted walls. 2. 2.2. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.75 µ in diameter. CONSTITUENTS . parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.2. DOSE . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood.2. Appendix 10 per cent.Greyish-brown. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.75 µ in diameter.7.2.Indralupta. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.4.1 . THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta á¢ta. stone cells. áula.5 -13. Appendix 2. 2.6. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. Mukha¿oÀa.3. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.3 g. thin-walled and rectangular. Appendix 4 per cent. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. parenchyma thin-walled. of the drug in powder form.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. IDENTITY. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region.5 per cent. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. Appendix 2. small groups of sclerenchyma. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. shows fragments of cork.2.5-13. 49 . Appendix 9 per cent. xylem vessels with pitted walls. vessels of varying sizes with thick.2. wood composed of narrow concentric.diverging towards periphery.

besides the xylem and phloem elements. Ikshu (St. lignified.) shrub. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. solid. characteristic. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. closed type of vascular bundles. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. conjoint. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. smooth. b) Microscopic Stem . Serdi Ikha.22. more numerous and closer towards periphery. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. cylindrical. (Fam.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. odour. 50 . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. scattered throughout the ground tissue. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. juicy and sweet. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. Poaceae). shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. distinct node and internode. with. taste.

2.Powder light brick red.2.3. 2. 51 . 2.2. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. M£tra KÀaya. vessels and sclerenchyma. 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.400 ml in the juice form. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sara. Appendix Not more than 2. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Pittahara. 2.Sucrose. V¤Àya.6.Powder .200 . DOSE .2. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. shows pieces of epidermis.5 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. Appendix 2. V¡tahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Kaphahara. ground tissue.Raktapitta.7.2. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.4.2. Balya.Bal¡ Taila. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.

(Fam. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell.) Cucurbitaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. xylem forms bulk of root. longitudinal fissures present. dull yellow. parenchyma and medullary rays.5 cm thick. pitted. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. Tumbi Paikamatti. fibres. Havumakke. tangentially elongated cork cells. thin walled. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. b) Microscopic Root . Valiya Pekkumatti. fibres aseptate. consisting of vessels. occurring throughout the country. Indravarana Gothakakucti. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. Indramanoa. Varithummati.2-2. tangentially elongated. Bitter apple Indravaran. composed of sieve elements. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. thick walled. slightly twisted. Tuntikai. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. Indrayanalata. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. 0.5-7.23. an annual or perennial. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. short. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Indravaruni. Gav¡kÀ¢. áatakratulat¡. thick-walled. parenchyma and medullary rays. intensively bitter. lying around vessels. Indravaruni (Rt. a few filled with dark brown contents. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. parenchymatous cells.5 µ in dia. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. taste. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. elongated with pointed ends. mostly simple or rarely 52 . fracture. cylindrical. Indrayan. secondary phloem a narrow-zone.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Paythumatti.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

1 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. coriaceous covering.25.800 m. oval. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1.. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. thin-walled. smooth. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. brownish-black. a large evergreen tree. 1 cm wide. E. b) Microscopic Powder . a few schizogenous cavities are also found. Jambu (Sd. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu..) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. 57 . compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. cuminii Druce. taste. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. rounded starch grains.Brown coloured. Myrtaceae). mesophyll composed of isodiametric. (Fam. oval or roundish.) Skeels Syn. astringent. Seed . Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. Eugenia jambolana Lam.

ViÀ¶ambhi.7.20. of the drug in powder form.L.95 (all yellow). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.20.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.Madhumeha. Appendix per cent. 58 . Udakameha. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Guru.IDENTITY. 2. T. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. CONSTITUENTS .3. 0. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.2.95 (all violet). Tannin. 0. DOSE .C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.6.2.4.2.30 and 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.3-6 g. Appendix per cent. three spots appear at Rf. Amla. 2.95 and 0.2. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.C. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.V. Pittahara. 2.Glycoside (Jamboline). V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.L. 0.30 (blue).30 and 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U.2. Appendix 2.12.

Navval Sambu. forming a rhytidoma.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. Raja Jambu Merale. oval to angular. rough. Neralamara -Njaval. light grey to ash coloured. a large evergreen tree. Myrtaceae). Eugenia jambolana Lam. stratified and reddish-brown. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. fracture. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. younger bark mostly channelled. astringent. fibres aseptate. (Fam. Jamneralae. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem.) Skeels Syn.800 m. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Jambuda Jomuna.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. internal surface fibrous. cuminii Druce. taste. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. E. Jam Jammu Naaval. and reddish brown. Mahamaram.5 cm thick.Bk.26. 0. and phloem rays. Jamu. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. Jambu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. Jambu (St.. stone cells. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. elongated. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. upper few layers thick. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces.5-2. cork cambium not distinct. short and splintery. lower cork thin and colourless.

K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.2. IDENTITY. DOSE .2. oval to angular.Atis¡ra. Stambhaka. Appendix per cent. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . Pittahara.U¿¢r¡sava. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.10-20 g.6. reddish-brown content. Raktapitta. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. 2. V¡tala. 2. 60 . THERAPEUTIC USES . stone cells.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. round to oval starch grains.Light brown. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. 2.2. Appendix per cent.2. Kaphahara.3. of the drug for decoction. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Appendix per cent.7. round to oval starch grains. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. aseptate fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . single or in groups.2.region. 2.4. elongated. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.

hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells.Shows a hard testa. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. kernel yellowish and oily. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. Japal beej. Euphorbiaceae). consisting of a large endosperm. dull cinnamon-brown. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. found throughout tropical India. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. slightly quadrangular. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn.27. Japala.) small evergreen tree. Jayapala (Sd. b) Microscopic Seed . Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. consisting of an epidermal layer. 61 . terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. (Fam. filled with brownish content. Neervalam. thin-walled cells. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. 5-7 m high. Neervalam Jepal. slightly bent at middle. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. Nervala -Nervalam. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. Tinti·¢phala. no marked odour. ovate. oblong. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent.

34.63 and 0. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.Jvara. 2. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. 0. Appendix 0.90 (all yellow).V. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 0. 0.7. (366 nm) three spots at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. of the drug in powder form.5 per cent. 0.C. 0. Vibandha DOSE .2.2.C. 0. Resins & Phorbol esters. THERAPEUTIC USES . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. 2.L.84 (brown). T. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.White with black particles of testa.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. 62 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.L. 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.3.2.49. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.54 and 0.6-12 mg.39.84 (all violet). IDENTITY.2.29.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 7 per cent.10. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.2.34 (grey). Appendix 2. Udararoga. 2.Fixed oil. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 3 per cent. Pittahara. 0. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. Appendix 15 per cent. Powder .6.54 (yellow).

found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. very shortly stalked.5-15. short lived shrub. 1.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. palisade single layered. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. a quick growing.8 cm wide.shows single layered epidermis. Jalugu. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. (Fam. 1. consisting of thin-walled. opposite. parenchymatous cells.. 63 .3-0.) Merr. Atti. stomata anisocytic. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. polygonal. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. jayata Arinintajinamgi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. á£kÀma patra.8-6 m high. -Semp. Jayanti (Lf. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . Lamina . mucronate to acuminate. pith small. S. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.7 layered round. 0. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. Karijimangai. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. linear. present on both surfaces.28. Jay¡.3 cm long. aegyptiaca Pers. Jayanti Jaita. 7. oblong.5 cm long. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. paripinnate. leaflets 6-16 pairs.0-3.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. having secretory cavities in phloem. glabrous. entire.Syn. Fabaceae). Arishimajingai.

DOSE . Appendix per cent. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. 2. palisade cells.56 (all pink) and 0.97 (yellow).19.Dull green.Ratnagiri Rasa.37. 0.4. 0.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Calcium and Phosphorus.C.C. Appendix per cent.29.37.7.M£trak¤cchra. 0. 0.L.3. 0.29.11. in powder form.48.2.56.91 and 0.Protein.11.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 2. 0. Appendix per cent.48. 0. Ras¡yana.29. shows spongy parenchyma. palisade ratio 3.05.05. 0.05.97 (all grey). Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent. 0. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. Galaga¸·a. 0.25-4.2. 0. T. 0.2. 64 . THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Powder .11. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.2.V.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 0. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .19. ViÀaroga. 0.56. Appendix 2. 0. IDENTITY. V¡tahara.L.3-6 g. 0. 0.19. 0. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.97 (all yellow).91 and 0. 2. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. 0.6. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.69.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. 0.

inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.35 mm in breadth. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. unpleasant. brownish-orange. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. taste. Gangunge beeja. Gangunge humpu. odour.5-3. light to dark brown. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. collapsed. bitter. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. seed without aril also prescent. ripe seeds. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side.29. Celastraceae). followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.hard. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . Jyotishmati (Sd. (Fam. colour. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. surface generally smooth and.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. a large climbing shrub. Seed .

0. 0. 0.4. Oil and Tannins.2.89 (both greenish blue).8 IDENTITY. UÀ¸a. V¡tahara. áirovirecanopaga.82 (pink) & 0. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.6. V¡maka.composed of polygonal.04.Alkaloids. stone cells. Tikta Sara. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.20.63. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).C.2. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.2. 2. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Powder . D¢pana. 2. 0. Appendix 2.Oily. 0. Meddhya 66 . 2. 0. Appendix 6 per cent.2.7.C. 0.82.V.94 (yellow) in visible light.3.54. 0. (all blue) & 0.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.54. Appendix 45 per cent.L. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. thin-walled. Under U.2. dark brown. Appendix 1.2. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains.15. 2.35. Kaphahara.2. 0.89 (all yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.35. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0.94 (yellow).V. 2. Appendix 20 per cent. 0.5 per cent.89. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.54 (both blue). Appendix 9 per cent. Virecaka.82 & 0. 0.82.

Sm¤tidaurbalya.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.V¡tavy¡dh¢. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Seed: 1-2 g. Oil : 5-15 drops.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . ávitra. DOSE . 67 .

some cells contain chlorophyll. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. traversed by uni to triseriate. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. elongated cells of phloem rays. (Fam. Kadamba mara. rectangular cells. Vellaikhadambu. a deciduous. 68 b) Microscopic . Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. A. Kadavala. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. phloem composed of sieve tubes. composed of thin-walled. Indulam. Syn. indicus A. Kadappai. bitter. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Kadamba Nipo.Bk. Rich. Kadam Kadam. Kadamba (St. taste.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. Rubiaceae). exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Priyka Roghu.30. Vellai Kadambam. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Kadamba Kadamba. Kadambu Needam. a few cells with brown contents. large tree. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka.

Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.70 (orange yellow).21. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.6. 0.79. 0.7.5 per cent.03.Brown. T. 0. of the drug in powder form.5:10) shows under U. Powder . Lava¸a. DOSE . and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Steroids.D¡ha. 0.57. CONSTITUENTS .Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. Appendix 5 per cent.83 and 0.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.4. 2. shows fragments of cork cells.2.1. phloem cells. 0. cells distinct and slightly elongated. 2.3.0. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Raktapitta. 0. 2.2.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.31.phloem fibres. THERAPEUTIC USES .64. 0. 0. fibres. Appendix 9 per cent. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.13. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Appendix 3 per cent. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2.Alkaloids.2.63 (yellowish grey).79 (grey) and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. 0. Vra¸aropa¸a. 0. 69 . V¡tahara. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. Appendix 1. Vra¸a. YonidoÀa.5 . ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).2. Appendix 2.5 g. 0.90 (grey).C. L C.L. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

hairy at base.25 mm long. pale brown. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. toothed or lobed. style cylindric. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn.5 cm wide. glabrous or pubescent. a herbaceous annual weed. 70 . easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. bark thin.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots.5-8. five lobed. oblong. corolla 4-8 mm long. white or pale violet. thin. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. obtuse notched at apex. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . ovary globose. Ganikesopu. 30-45 cm high. narrowed at both ends. calyx 2-3 mm long. 1.2-2. ganike. Ganikegida. road sides and gardens. oblong.31. hairy in lower part. anther 1.Small. extra-axillary. flattened. ovate or oblong. glabrous. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. slender. yellowish. very slender. quite common in cultivated lands.5 mm long.Simple. petiolate. 2. Leaf . Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. Manatakkali. sub-umbellate. (Fam. green. slightly woody and branched.5 cm long and 2.Erect. Pikachia. Manitakkali. obtuse. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. Kakamachi (W. Manaththakkali. glabrous.P. sinuate. 3-8 flowered cymes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. peduncles 6-20 mm long. found throughout the country in dry parts. filaments short. Flower . externally smooth. pedicels 6-10 mm long. Stem .) Solanaceae).

Shows single layered.Discoid. smooth shining Seed . Midrib . Stem . phloem rays uniseriate. conjoint and open. slightly striated cuticle. measuring 2. central vascular bundle shallow. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. uniseriate. embedded in perimedullary zones. minutely pitted. pith large. LeafPetiole . phloem consists of thin-walled. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. endoderrnis single layered. yellow or black. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. covered with thick.5 mm in dia. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. radially elongated cells. slightly elongated. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. covered with striated cuticle. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. polygonal cells. epidermis single layered. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre.' oval parenchymatous cells. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.Fruit . measuring 2.. uniseriate. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls.. cambium 2-4 layered. uniseriate.A berry.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. compactly arranged. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. single or with two or rarely 3 components. tangentially elongated. filled with starch grains. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. bicollateral. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. covered with striated cuticle. trichomes similar to those found on petiole.5-11 µ in dia. 1. usually accompanied by fibres. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. starch grains. xylem rays homogenous.25 µ in dia. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round.5-8. smooth. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. arcshaped. 6mm in dia. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. obtuse. but 4. oval to round starch grains.. rays composed of thin-walled. yellow.. internal phloem. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. vascular bundles-collateral. covering trichomes. arc71 . cortex of large. composed of thin-walled. in small or large patches. parenchyma 4-6 layered.10 layered in angular parts. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. trichomes multicellular. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces.

5 . pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. Appendix per cent. epidermis with irregular outline. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. palisade ratio 2-4. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.6.2.2.Shows thin.3. vein islet number 7-10. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit.L. papery epicarp. T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. 72 . 2. Under U.2.34 (both pink). Appendix per cent.2. single. unicellular hairs.L. measuring 2. stomata anisocytic.V. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.7. Fruit . palisade single layered.Alkaloids and Saponins.97 (all yellow). scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. a few broken pieces of pointed. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.06 & 0. Lamina .Creamish-green.11 µ in diameter. both upper and lower epidermis single layered.dorsiventral. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. 0. 0. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. Powder .06 & 0. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. Appendix per cent.C. present beneath palisade parenchyma.4. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. 0.34 (both brown) in visible light. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.C.2. 2.2. 034 and 0. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. IDENTITY.06. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

of the drug in juice form. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. KuÀ¶ha. Pittahara. Hikk¡. Ar¿a. H¤dya. Sara.áotha. V¡tahara.5 -10 ml. Jvara. Ras¡yana. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara. Tikta Laghu. 73 . Svarya. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Chardi. Ka¸·u. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . Prameha. Netraroga. H¤droga.

aquatic herb with creeping stem. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. yellowish-brown.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. petals numerous.5-3 cm wide. membranous. Padma. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Kalh¡ra. 1. 1. Chenthamara.4-2 cm long. (Fam. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. androecium. anther. starchy and large. erect. corolla. elliptic. Sitopala. Pamposh Tamarai. obtuse. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. Aravindan. gynoceium apocarpous. linear 1. gynoecium and thalamus.. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Thamaraipoo. seed hard. extended into clavate appendages. Kamalam. fruit an etaerio of achenes. crimp led. Aravinda.32. dark brown.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Naidile. Nymphaeaceae). Sarojam Kaluva. crimpled. broken pieces also occur. carpels many. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. sepals leaf-like. Kanwal Kamal. Kamala (Fl. Kamal. finely veined. 2-4 cm long. 74 . becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. 3-5 cm long. comprising of calyx. embedded in a creamy. black.3-2 cm wide. Syn. Venthamara. free. a large. Tavare. Paduman.

vascular bundle single. Stamen Filament . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. parenchymatous cell.2. ViÀavik¡ra. Appendix per cent.6. columnar. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. followed by ground tissue of oval. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. angular. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. Powder . Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. yellow pollen grains.Aravind¡sava. Appendix 2. two on either sides.7. IDENTITY. Sant¡pahara.2.2. M£tra Virajan¢ya. rectangular. Anther .3.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . DOSE . measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. having smooth exine and intine. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. 2. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. of the drug for decoction. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. spherical. 2.Raktapitta. parenchymatous cells.12 -24 g.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. Visarpa.2. . composed of thin-walled. 2. Pittahara. Tikta.filament appears circular in outline. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.Dusty brown. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.4.2.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.shows four chambered anther. spore sac contains yellow.

Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Siwalik range and forests. Belada hannu. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. hard. with concentric striations and narrow lumen.Reddish-brown. Balada. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . found in groups. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. a deciduous. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. Syn. Kapittha (Fr. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. axillary thorns.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. taste. aromatic. parenchymatous cells. elephantum Correa (Faro. odour. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. thin-walled. sharp. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Pulp. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings.) Swingle.33. 76 . Rutaceae). found throughout the plains of India. Belalu. rough. stone cells. reddish brown. slightly triangular and oval. often cultivated in many parts of India. glabrous tree with strong. Powder . Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram.shows irregular. sour. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. semicircular. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. F. Bilvara. stone cells. Kavataleal. Haminamara -Vilar maram. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. straight.

2.L. 0. 0.6.áv¡sa. 0. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf.91 (blue) and 0.91 (violet) and 0. Gr¡h¢. DOSE .L. 0. 0. Pittav¡tahara.50 (violet). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Under U.91 (grey) in visible light. 2.IDENTITY. 0.12 (brown). V¡mi.06. CONSTITUENTS . Hikk¡. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 77 .95 (all yellow). Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. 2. Appendix per cent.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.14 (sky blue).2.91 and 0. Vra¸an¡¿aka. Amla. 6. Appendix 2.2. 2.1-3 g.37 (brown). Appendix per cent.50.V.12. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.2. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Agnim¡ndya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent.95 (blue). Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.2. Appendix per cent.7.2. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. of the drug in powder form. 0.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. 0. 0.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. KaÀ¡ya.C. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. 2. Lekhana.95 (violet) . Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. Sangr¡h¢. T.3. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.37. Unripe Pulp: Amla.Citric acid and Mucilage. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ripe-T¤À¡. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.

flat or slightly curved pieces.Bk. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. met throughout India in wild state. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places.Greyish-brown. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. tubular.) Apocynaceae). 78 . cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. Karamarda (St. starch grains simple.34. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. (Fam . b) Microscopic Powder . fracture. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. external surface brownish-grey. rough due to longitudinal striations. shows single and groups of stone cells. internal surface grey and smooth. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. sometimes cultivated. simple and compound starch grains. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. light in weight. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. short. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. and compound having 2-3 components.

V.90 (pink) and 0.58 (both light grey). Appendix per cent. 0.KuÀthahara.2. Appendix per cent.97 (violet).Marma Gu¶¢k¡. 2.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.35. 0. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 79 .6. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.C. of the drug for decoction. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.2. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.52 (light sky blue).2.48 g. 2. DOSE .7.L. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.2.3. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.L.IDENTITY. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. 2.C. Pittakara.4. T.

internally. Bk. Nakt¡hv¡. tangentially elongated cells. Fabaceae). fibrous. Karanja (Rt. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary phloem very wide. a glabrous tree. thin-walled. fracture. external surface rough.) Merr. very bitter. taste. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.. Naktam¡la. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. P. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. single cells of varying shape and size. cells.) glabra Vent. most of phloem 80 . traversed by phloem rays. 3-11 µ in dia. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka.35. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. Syn. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. due to peeling off. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. tangentially elongated. (Fam.

0. shows thin-walled.47 (greenish yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. 0. Appendix 2.1-3 g. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. most of ray cells contain starch grain. 0. ViÀaghma.K¤miroga. 0. Appendix 3. 2.47.31. phloem fibres. mostly straight. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.08 (greenish blue). 0. DOSE . Pittahara. 0. 0. Tikta.47.L. 0. CONSTITUENTS .37.V. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of the drug for decoction. similar to those present in secondary cortex. Appendix 2 per cent. 2.98 (all yellow).7. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. phloem rays many. Ëntravidradhi. parenchymatous cells. 0. DuÀ¶avra¸a.04 (blue). Ka¸·£ghna. 0.5 per cent. Prameha.6. 0. 81 . 0. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ka¸·u. 2.80 (light blue). Appendix 17 per cent.18. 1-2 seriate.Flavones Kanugin. 0. T.51.C. cork cells.18 (blue) 0.2.09. IDENTITY. Yoniroga. 0. Appendix 11 per cent.2.13 (Sky blue). 2.80 and 0.42 (sky blue). 0.31 (sky blue). 0. V¡tahara. 0.37 (greenish yellow).Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.L.C. Powder -Creamish-yellow.2.2. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. similar to those present in secondary cortex.3.25 (sky blue). 0.51 (light blue).2. consisting of thin-walled.2.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. KuÀtha.

Fabaceae). consisting of 82 . P. Nakt¡hv¡. tangentially elongated cells. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. cells. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes.) Vent. 3-11 µ in dia. light in weight. fracture. Karaµjaka. rounded to oval in shape. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. Syn. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally.. internally light yellow. secondary phloem a very wide zone.36. 1-2 seriate. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. reddish-brown or dull brown. bark. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. bitter. taste. tangentially elongated. thin-walled. bark does not easily separate from xylem.. rough due to the presence of numerous. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga.) Merr. a glabrous tree. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. irregularly distributed. Karanja (Rt. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size.

tracheids. 2. Ka¸·£. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. thin-waned cells towards inner region. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .radially elongated. Ëntravidradh¢. 2. Yoniroga. Vidradh¢.2. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Pittahara.1-2 g. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.2.3.6.Methylfisetin. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Demethoxy-kanugin.4. starch grains. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.2.2. tangentially elongated towards outer region.2. Prameha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. of the drug in powder form. DOSE .DuÀ¶avra¸a. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. more. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. Appendix per cent.Karanjin. K¤miroga. rounded to oval in shape. Tikta. 83 . Vra¸a¿odhana.7. consisting of 2-3 components. fibres and parenchyma. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fibres in singles or groups. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Kanugin. Appendix per cent. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. ViÀaghna.2. IDENTITY. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. KuÀ¶ha. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix per cent.. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. Kaphahara. 2. Powder -Light yellow.

unpleasant.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. more or less smooth. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. Karanja (St. phloem fibre and stone cells.2-1 cm thick. phloem parenchyma. taste. alternating with stone cells. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Syn. tangentially elongated. slightly quilled. fibre small. fracture. a glabrous tree. odour.) Merr. P. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. at some places lenticels also appear. 84 .) glabra Vent. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. short and fibrous. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. parenchymatous cells. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells.. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. (Fam. filled with reddish-brown content. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. arranged in a tangential manner. Karaµjaka. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Bark . Nakt¡hv¡. bitter. Karanja.Bk. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Fabaceae). traversed by medullary rays.37. thick-walled cells. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. composed of rectangular. lenticellate pieces. usually 0. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. recurved.

2. Pongapin. oil globules found in secondary phloem only.1-2 g.2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. CONSTITUENTS . Gamatin.7. Appendix 3 per cent.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form. K¤miroga. Pinnatin. Kaphahara. Tikta. usually 2-4 cells wide. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vidradh¢. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. present in secondary cortex. KuÀ¶ha. IDENTITY. simple and compound starch grains.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. ViÀaghma. Ka¸·u. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. Demethoxy- kanugin.2. rounded to oval.2. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Kanugin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Ëntravidradh¢.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Appendix 18 per cent. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. 2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. medullary rays wavy. Appendix 2. Ka¶u. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 3".2.6.. thin-walled and aseptate. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. Powder -Yellowish-cream. 2. Prameha. V¡tahara. 2.3. 2. and rarely. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". starch grains simple.4. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. 5Methoxyfurano (2".polygonal.5 per cent. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. Pittahara. Appendix 1. Appendix 13 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. elongated. Yoniroga DOSE .2. 3" 7 : 8). 85 . aseptate fibre and stone cells. oil globules. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

11. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . ovate or elliptic with smooth margins.9-8. Kanajo Karuaini. Hulagilu -Pungu. dark green. 86 . Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja.8 cm. Unu. isodiametric. xylem vessels arranged radially. Ungu.5 cm long and 3. P. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces.) Merr. a glabrous tree. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. consistig of tabular cells. Fabaceae). cortex consisting of angular. 6. arcshaped. Karaµjaka.5-0. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Karanja. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Pongana Ganuga. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Dithouri Honge. petiolule short. 0. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Syn. vascular bundle single. consisting of xylem and phloem.) Vent. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Nakt¡hv¡. covered with cuticle. epidermis single layered.circular in outline. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate.3 cm wide. Karanja (Lf. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai.38. (Fam.2 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. traversed by xylem rays. leaflets 2-3 pairs.. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji.

shows spiral xylem vessels. Powder -Green. 2.2. cortex consists of round to oval.6. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.3.A new Furanoflavone -3' . a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Ka¸·ughna. Appendix 3. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 .2.6. 7) -flavone. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.2. vascular bundle.5 per cent.7. Ka¶u. covered with thick cuticle. Appendix 16 per cent. . collateral. K¤imihara. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. 2. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.6. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. Appendix 10 per cent. Tikta. palisade ratio 3.4. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.shows single layered epidermis.2. stomatal index 12. 2. 2. 5" .flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.6. Appendix 11 per cent. palisade two layered.5) . Kaphahara.5". prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. 5". conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. mesophyll cells. stomata anisocytic.5-20.2. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.5-50. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.Mid rib . present in lower surface. V¡tahara.(4". CONSTITUENTS . consisting of tabular cells. Pittavardhaka.2. phloem and pith.

88 . Vra¸a. KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE .For external use only. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ka¸·au.K¤miroga.J¡ty¡di Taila.

2. Appendix 6 per cent. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. (Fam. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.2.) Cucurbitaceae). Appendix 0. Kakiral. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. taste.5 . Varivall¢. 3 valved at the apex when mature. usually pointed or beaked.7. K¡ravall¢.5 per cent. fusiform.2.Fr.2. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. upto an altitude of 1500 m.6 per cent.4. IDENTITY. Kathilla. Nil Appendix 8.2. 2. extremely bitter. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . Appendix 28 per cent. 2. pendulous.2.6.3. Karavallaka (Fresh. surface rough. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. oblong.25 cm long. 2. Appendix 2.2.39.

V. Aruci. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. Raktavik¡ra.46.03. 0. DOSE . 0.43. H¤dya. Prameha. K¡sa.15 ml. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 0.C.60. KuÀ¶ha. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. 0. Jvara.81 and 0.áv¡sa.50. 0. P¡¸·u.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.61 (light sky blue).98 (all yellow). 0.10 .L.96 (sky blue). T. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. 0. D¢pana.98 (red & sky blue). THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 90 .17. 0.T. 0. K¡mal¡. juice of fresh drug.75. Kaphahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. 0. CONSTITUENTS .98 (all blue). 0.C.23 (red). K¤miroga.L.67 and 0.34. 0. V¡tahara. 0.16.

katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. inner surface black with whitish xylem. externally greyish-brown. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. pleasant.2. Kaurohi¸¢. kaur Katuka rohini. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. fracture. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. Sutiktaka. odour. short. Root . at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. suberised cells. (Fam. Tiktarohi¸¢. taste. Rohi¸¢.05-0. b) Microscopic Rhizome . fracture. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . cortex single layered or absent. primary cortex persists 91 . Scrophulariaceae). . straight or slightly curved. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini.1 cm in diameter. Kav¢. pleasant. Katuka rohini Kutki.Thin. cork cambium 1-2 layered. odour. subcylindrical.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Kauka. cylindrical. Katuku rohini. dusty grey. 5-10 cm long.40. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Katki. Katuka (Rz. bitter. mostly attached with rhizomes. taste. bitter. 0. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. a perennial.

35 (green). starch grains. tapering ends. 0. parenchyma.30. 0. lignified. Appendix per cent. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.L. Appendix per cent.V. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.7. cortex 8-14 layered.2. Powder . simple round to oval.72 and 0. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs.05.84 (all brownish grey).6. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. Appendix per cent.41 and 0. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. 2. thick-walled. IDENTITY. tracheids long.2.in some cases. 0.2. 0. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. some cylindrical with taillike. 2. parenchymatous cells. parenchyma and fibres.05 (blue). 0. 0. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.21. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.62. tracheids.17. starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.17.L. vessels have varying shape and size. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells.C. thick-walled.3. abundantly found in all cells.30 (blue) and 0. 0. consisting of oval to polygonal.10. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. 2. 92 . 0. thick-walled cells of endodermis. T.10. hypodermis single layered. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.84 (all yellow). cambium 2-4 layered. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. Appendix per cent.2. fibres aseptate. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.2. 0. 0. thick-walled. 0.Dusty grey. secondary xylem consists of vessels. 0. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls.30.41. 0. 0.C. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. tracheids. thick-walled. secondary phloem poorly developed. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. 2. measuring 25 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent.2.37. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends.4. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. simple round to oval.21. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. Appendix 2. 0. 0..104 µ in diameter.

of the drug in powder form. Pittahara. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta.3 g. 93 . Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Jvara. DOSE . ViÀamajvara. K¡mal¡.CONSTITUENTS .áv¡sa. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1 . Bhedin¢. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. KuÀ¶ha. Arocaka. D¡ha. D¢pan¢.

6 cm long.Acanthaceae). subsessile. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. upper sepal 1. acute. 1-7 cm long. Vayalculli Talikhana. IkÀuraka. lanceolate. whitish to brown. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. Culli. tube 1. didynamous.Yellowish-brown. Stem . Kokilaksha (W. Kolarind. a spiny. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. Kolavankal ---. no characteristic odour and taste. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara.P. 0. fasciculate. sub-quadrangular. which are 1. Nirguvireru. calyx 4-partite.41. Syn.5 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura.Anders (Fam. entire and hairy. second pair 94 . externally greyish-brown. annual herb. Hygrophila spinosa T. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. stamens 4.6-2 cm long. Flower . abruptly swollen at top.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees.3 cm long. widely 2 lipped. stout. Kalsunda --Golmidi. bracts about 2. Kettu. no characteristic odour and taste.Mostly adventitious. swollen at nodes. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . all linear-lanceolate.2 cm long. Nirchulli.Greenish-brown. with long white hairs.5-1 cm wide. corolla 3. common in water logged places throughout the country.Usually unbranched. Leaf . broader than the other three.

arranged radially.larger. hairy but appearing smooth. anthers two celled. pith large. pubescent. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. a few thick-walled.25 cm long and 0. pointed. phloem narrow. round. arranged in radial rows. vessels with spiral thickenings. 0. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. Fruit . truncate at the base. filament quite glabrous. oblong. having small intercellular spaces. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. phloem fibres thick-walled. flat or compressed. with a number of large air cavities. 95 . vessels angular. ray cells thin walled. fibre walls uniformly thickened.Ovate. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. radially elongated in xylem region. cortical cells thin-walled. 4seeded. light brown. moderately thick-walled. Stem . polygonal cells. endodermis single layered. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. fibres thick-walled. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. thin-walled. scattered throughout the phloem region. broader towards centre. brownish cells.2-0.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. ray cells thin-walled. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. capsule about 0. stigma simple. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct.Two celled. variable in size. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. composed of transversely elongate. single or in groups of 2-3. style filiform. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cells. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. inner cells smaller.8 cm long. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. Seed . radially arranged. linear-oblong. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. compressed. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. composed of polygonal. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. involute with a fissure on upper side. consisting of round to polygonal cells. b) Microscopic Root . radially elongated in secondary xylem. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. glabrous. rectangular to cubical. peripheral ones larger. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. xylem present in a ring. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. subequal.15 cm wide.0.1 . size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region.

spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. vein islet number 17-42. Appendix per cent. tangentially elongated cells. stomata diacytic. lignified.3. thin-walled. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate .Shows epidermis single layered on either surface.2. shows aseptate. Appendix per cent. covered with thick cuticle.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.2. 2.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. oval to hexagonal. composed of thin-walled. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces.78. palisade.4. Amla.6.2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. stomatal index 17. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. collenchyma 2-5 layered. Appendix per cent.LeafMidrib . loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins.75. palisade 1-2 layered. Fruit . Lamina . . unicellular hairs and globules. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. Powder . parenchymatous.2. sclerenchymatous cells. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.2. parenchymatous cells.Shows concavo-convex outline. elongated fibres. V¤Àya. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .24-30. IDENTITY. V¡jikara. 2. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. 2. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. 2. Tikta Picchila. Seed .25-15. thick-walled. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.2.Light brown. M£trala. Rucya. palisade ratio 6.7. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent.

DOSE .T¤À¸¡. Ëmav¡ta áotha. V¡tarakta. 97 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). of the drug in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES .3 -6 g.

Hygrophila spinosa T. whitish to brownish. slightly transversely elongated.42. Kolavulike. 98 . Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. Nerugobbi. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Anders (Fam. no characteristic odour and taste. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. polygonal cells. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. annual herb. Syn.Acanthaceae). thin-walled. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. Kokilaksha (Rt. a spiny. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. the size of these cells. Kokil¡kÀ¢. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. stout. consisting of small. branches on nodes. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. common in water logged places throughout the country. Culli --. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. secondary phloem narrow. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. thinwalled cells. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. IkÀuraka.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Root-Appears circular in outline. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs.

Powder . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 2.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. of the drug for decoction.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. Appendix per cent.3 -6 g.2.Ëmav¡ta áotha. 99 . angular. V¡tahara. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres.7. radially elongated in the xylem region. M£trala. scattered throughout the phloem region. ray cells thin-walled. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. A¿ma¤¢. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. each group composed of 2-6 cells. V¡tarakta.2.4.2. Appendix per cent. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. 2. broader towards centre.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Light brown to ash coloured. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. lignified fibres. Tikta Picchila. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. having spiral thickening.2.3.6. 2. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. Amla. vessels with spiral thickening.2. shows fragments of pitted. fibre walls uniformly thickened.

oil globules present in this region. Hygrophila spinosa T.8 -10. Powder . Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. white. parenchymatous cells. light yellowish-brown. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. hairy but appearing smooth. Maradarishina -Maramannal. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. truncate at the base.43. Maradarishana. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. b) Microscopic Seed . 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. IkÀuraka. taste. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Syn. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. thinwalled.Greyish-brown. annual herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. Acanthaceae). the 100 . stout. common in water logged places throughout the country. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. a spiny. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. shows hairs and oil globules. Swelling Index . flat or compressed. Kokilaksha (Sd. Anders. (Fam. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Daruhuladur Darhald.

31.24 (red).93 (sky blue). 0. DOSE . V¡tarakta.C.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. 0. 2. Protease and an Alkaloid. 0. Santarpa¸a.17. 2.C.03.72 (dark brown). On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. Add 25 ml of water. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. V¤Àya. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.72 (all yellow). and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.áotha.31 (dark brown). 0. Pitt¡¿mar¢. Appendix per cent.3.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. related to 1 g of seeds. 0.38 (light brown). Appendix 2.2.03 (light brown). of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent.76 (sky blue) and 0. 0. 0.V. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . enzymes like Diastase.41 (light blue).6.38. 0. Lipase..24 (dark brown). Kaphahara. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. IDENTITY.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.2. 101 . Appendix per cent. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.An yellow semi-drying oil.3 -6 g. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.52 and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS .2. 0.L. 0. including any sticky mucilage. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.55 (light blue).24.2.2. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .10 (light brown).52 (dark brown) and 0. 0.L. 2. 0. T.4.17 (light brown).

short. (Fam. Stem . an annual succulent. 3-4 leaves. swollen at the nodes. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Kozhuppu Pappukura. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. smooth and greenish-brown.44. less in number. secondary roots. Gho¶ik¡. dehiscing above the base. Kozuppa. 0.P) Portulacaceae). Fruit . found throughout the country. characteristic. Ghola -Lonak. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. Moti Luni Khursa. Khurfa. fracture. Loni. fracture. branched. 0. at terminal heads. Kuzuppa (W. 0. Flower . cuneiform.5 cm long. brownish-grey.6 cm wide. 0. sepal 0. root hairs abundant in upper region. Pulikkirai. subtended by an involucre. Kozhuppa. Common Indian Purslane Luni. odour.2 cm in diameter. 102 . Peddapavila Kura.35-0.3 to 2.Almost cylindrical. Loni. 0. ribbed. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . very delicate and soon falling off. prostrate herb. oblong. Leaf .Simple.4 cm long.A few. Badi Lona Dudagorai. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Baranunia Garden Purslane. Payilikura.25-0. Badanuni. Doddagoni Soppu.1 to 0. oblique. surface smooth.1 to 0. Kwfa Pasalai. Loni -Koricchira. Chhotalunia. Lonika. petals obovate. 50 cm long. -Baraloniya. stamens 8-12.Cylindrical. Paruppukkeerai. bright yellow.An ovoid capsule. Kulfa. style 5-6 fid. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. spathulate. short.4 cm long. rounded and truncate at the apex.5 cm long and 0.3 cm long. sub-sessile. small.

spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. thin-walled. IDENTITY. solitary or in groups of 2-5. ray cells and pith. vessels. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. LeafMidrib . phloem. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root ..Greyish-brown. Appendix per cent. phloem and xylem parenchyma. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. Powder .6. palisade single layered. black.06-0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. minute. 2. pitted and spiral vessels. Lamina . dark brown. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. Appendix 2.7. simple as well as compound. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. measuring 6-14 µ . secondary xylem consists of vessels. oval.Seed -Numerous. Appendix per cent. shows groups of oval to polygonal. present in mesophyll cells.2. arranged in radial rows. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. stomata paracytic type. as well as compound.2. tracheids. Stem . pericycle fibre present in patches. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. 0. reniform. having simple pits and spiral thickening. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. tracheids and parenchyma.4.2. . paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. parenchymatous cells.Wavy in outline.3. Appendix per cent. with reddish-brown content in a few cells.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. thick-walled with wide lumen. covered externally with a thick cuticle. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled.2. secondary xylem composed of vessels. tracheids and parenchyma. having 2-3 components.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells.2.2. fragments of cork cells. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.07 cm across. 2.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. parenchyma abundant. 2. having intercellular spaces. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. 2. Appendix per cent. oval cells.

98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . Ar¿a.Agnim¡ndya. 0. 0.41.76 and 0. Prameha.L.C.68 (yellow) and 0.6 g.76 (green) in visible light. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .10. 0. 0. Under U. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.Marma Gu¶ik¡. 104 . 0.41. of the drug in powder form.61.08.08. 0. 0. 0.C. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. V¡tahara.52 (both faint green). CakÀuÀya. 0.V. (both green).3 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.76 (all pinkish red). 0.68. 0. Pittakara. Carbohydrates.52. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 0.68 and 0.50.L. 0. T.. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Gulma. áotha. RukÀa.Protein.10. Vra¸a DOSE . Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.10.T.

upto 2. (Fam. distinct. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. leaflets 10-20 pairs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. Adamalati Lajaka. bark fibrous. woody. Lajjalu (W. upto 2 cm thick. cut surface of pieces pale yellow.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. sessile. acute. internal cut surface grey. Leaf .45. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. Lajamani Chhuimui. Lajauni Muttidasenui. covered with long. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . yellowish-green. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. varying in length. obliquely rounded at base. easily separable from wood.3-0. Var¡kr¡nt¡.Cylindrical. 0.week bristles longitudinally grooved.2 cm long. with secondary and tertiary branches. hairy pinnae. nearly glabrous. rependant . taste. external surface light brown. sensitive to touch. odour. 105 . stipulate.P) diffused undershrub. slightly astringent.4 cm broad. fracture hard. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. greyish brown to brown. 0. Stem . Fabaceae). Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata.Cylindrical. tapering.6-1.5 cm in dia. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. Machikegida. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. linear lanceolate. petiolate. Lajavanti. bark fibrous. 25-50 cm high. sparsely prickly. alternate.

wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. brown to grey. dry. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated.Flower . ovules numerous. parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. xylem rays radially elongated. 3-25 chambered.Pink. fibres of two types. pith consisting of polygonal.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. straw coloured. 2-3 seriate more common. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. 0. a number of lignified. secondary cortex wide. crystal fibres elongated. calyx very small.Lomentum. Fruit . tangentially elongated cells. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.3 long. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. filled with reddish-brown contents.Compressed. scattered throughout. b) Microscopic Root . rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. ovate oblong. tangentially elongated to oval. phloem rays thick-walled. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. crystal fibres thick-walled. spreading bristle at sutures. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres single or in groups. moderately thick-walled. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. thick-walled. scattered throughout secondary xylem. starch grains. much exserted. ovary sessile. fibres single or in groups. respectively.6 cm long. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen.4-0. corolla pink. simple. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. radially elongated. 0. in globose head. 1-1. fibres. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. glabrous.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.3 cm long. stamens 4. Stem . secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 106 . secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. consisting of large. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. rarely multiseriate. arranged in tangential bands. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. thick-walled. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thick-walled. 0. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. Seed . oval-elliptic. lobes 4. 2. peduncles prickly.

Appendix per cent. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.35. covered with thin-cuticle. endocarp of thick-walled. 0. pericycle same as in petiole.69 (all blue) and 0.L. shaggy hairs. reticulate. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. parenchymatous cells. fibres.2. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. Appendix per cent.62. with 2 . Appendix 2.V. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled.Leaf- Petiole .shows single layered epidermis. Appendix per cent. crystal fibres. Midrib . Powder .2.L. Lamina . On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .6.3 components IDENTITY. embryo straight with short and thick radicle.C. one in each wing. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. pitted vessels. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells.4. T. lignified cells followed by single layered.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. shows. thin-walled. branched.7. 2.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. 2.2. palisade single layered. spongy parenchyma. shaggy hairs. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. 0. 0. 2.2. Appendix per cent.2.3. Fruit . some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region.C. vascular bundle single. spongy parenchyma single layered. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells Seed . single and compound starch grains. parenchymatous cells.shows epidermis on both surfaces. measuring 6-25 µ in dia.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.81 (bluish-pink). pericycle arranged in a ring. branched. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. palisade cells non glandular. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf.Reddish-brown. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2.

áopha. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Vra¸a. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. Atis¡ra.35 (orange). KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.35 and 0. Raktapita DOSE . KuÀ¶ha. áv¡sa. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.spots appear at Rf. Ku¶aj¡valeha. 108 .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a.10-20 g of the drug for decoction.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Yoniroga. D¡ha. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara.

Mahawash tree Mahudo. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India.F. Sapotaceae) . Androecium . anther sub-sessile. b) Microscopic Corolla . latifolia (Roxb.5-2 cm long. Syn. a few 109 . Madhuka. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. Kattu Iluppai. epipetalous. Eppimara -Irippa. followed by thin-walled. sweet. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Madhuka (Fl. lanceolate. (Fam. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand.) Macbride. Iluppa. taste. Hippenara. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). Mahua Katiluppai. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. M. ovate lanceolate. Ilippa.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Bassia latifolia Roxb.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. short. erect 0. basifixed. Hippe.Gmel. epipetalous and arranged in two series. tabular. corolla fleshy. Halippe.46. Ippa. reddish-brown. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. and also cultivated.Petal shows a single layered epidermis.

unicellular hairs. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. Ah¤dya.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. áramahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 10 per cent. árama DOSE . 2. lignified cells. Powder . Appendix 25 per cent. endothecium composed of radially elongated. El¡di Modaka. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.10 . Pittakara. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. oval shaped. tapetum not distinct.3.Madh£k¡sava. round.15 g.2.6. 2. shows fragments of epidermal cells. Appendix 5 per cent. V¡tahara.5 per cent. KÀaya. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.áv¡sa. 2.7. IDENTITY. Appendix 70 per cent. Appendix 2.4.2. D¡ha. KÀata.2.2. 110 .Dark brown.unicellular hairs present on one side. spherical. T¤À¸¡. 2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Balya.2. 2.2. pollen grains single or in groups. of the drug.

Matsy¡duni. triandra Lam. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. no characteristic odour and taste.P..47. Stem . obtuse or subacute. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Flower . Br. Syn. linear-oblong... Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. yellowish-brown to light-brown. 0. A.Cylindrical. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. denticulata R.6 cm diameter. internodes 0. bracteoles 111 .3-2 cm wide.1-0. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets.5 cm long. Br. fracture. Matshyakshi (W. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. or elliptic. A. repens Gmel. A.3-7. weak. cream to grey.Herbaceous. nodes and internodes distinct. Gandal¢. 0. Amaranthaceae).Flower in small axillary sessile heads. white often tinged with pink. non Link.) R.5 cm wide.. 2. A. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. nodiflora R.1. short. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. no characteristic odour and taste. often rooting at lower nodes.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. with spreading branches from the base. Br. no characteristic odour and taste. fracture. sessile.5-5 cm long. short. sometimes reaching 10 cm long.. Leaf . Bahli.

vascualr bundles radially arranged.2 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste. Leaf- Midrib . present in the centre. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. parenchymatous cells. style very short. ovary obcordate. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. thin. composed of thin-walled. with are conjoint. covered wtith striated cuticle. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. palisade ratio 3-5. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. with anomalous secondary growth. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. 112 . parenchymatous cells. acute. single layered. parenchymatous cells. shows wavy or undulate. sepals ovate.5-3 mm long. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. Stem . collenchymatous cells. thin-walled round or oval.Utricle. bicollateral. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. compressed with thickened margins. no characteristic odour and taste. isodiametic cells. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. secondary cortex narrow. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. palisade 2-3 layers. Lamina . isodiametric. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. ovate. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. scarious. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. xylem tissues lignified. b) Microscopic Root . pith distinct. round or oval. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. perianth 2. numerous. parenchymatous cells.dorsiventral. compressed. irregular. Fruit . radially arranged cork cells. round to oval.5 mm long. pith consisting of thin-walled. consistig of thin-walled.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.1. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. orbicular. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. each consisting of xylem and phloem. stomata paracytic. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. 1. open and exarch. vascular bundles three. capitellate. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. consisting of thin-walled cells.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. thin-walled.

2. 0.V.44. Tikta.44 (all green). V¡tahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.L. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . 0. Appendix 4.C. 0. 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Olive green.2. Appendix 19 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.25. 2. Appendix 2.96 (all yellow). 0. T.5 per cent.2 -3 g. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.81.3.L. 0. 113 . 0. 0.33. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. paracytic stomata. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.4.6. Pittavik¡ra.68 (all red). 0.. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. 0.2.KuÀ¶ha. 2.35.C.16.16. CONSTITUENTS .18. Appendix 3 per cent.44. of the drug in powder form.Powder . IDENTITY.59.Sugar. Under U. Kaphahara.7.94 and 0.2.2. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .54 and 0. 0. 0.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.33 and 0. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view.

mucilaginous cells. dull yellow. 0. annual herb.48. Fabaceae). very hard.Seed shows a layer of thick. pleasant.15-0.5 cm long.35 cm broad. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. smooth. cells flat at base. covered externally with thick cuticle. columnar palisade. 30-60 cm tall. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. varying in size. thin-walled. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. taste. 114 . bitter. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. parenchymatous cells. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.2-0. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. odour.) aromatic. (Fam. Methi (Sd. several layers of thin walled.walled. b) Microscopic Seed . 0. cultivated throughout the country.

Graha¸¢. Appendix 0. Rucya. THERAPEUTIC USES . oil globules.4.3-6 g. IDENTITY.5 per cent.6. aleurone grains. 115 . Kaphahara. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.3.2. Prameha. Appendix 2. 2.Yellow. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. 2. CONSTITUENTS .2. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa.2.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. 2. of the drug in powder form. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.Alkaloid. Sapogenins and Mucilage. Powder . M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. Appendix 4 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. Appendix 5 per cent. Jvara. Aruci DOSE .Mustak¡riÀ¶a.

bright green. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying.5-10 cm long. having a few longitudinal striations. seplas 6. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula.7-2. sometimes brown red. pedicel with scattered hairs.Flower in long terminal raceme.2 cm long..P. not distinct.Lower leaves hairy. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. Stem . odour.) Brassicaceae). Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. Leaf . regular.1-1. Flower . yellowish-green. oblong. hollow. complete 1-2 cm long.Slender. lyrate. upper most leaves simple. blade obovate. bisexual. an annual or biennial bristly herb. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . (Fam. taste. variable size and thickness.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Muli. 0. slightly pungent.49.Root cylindrical. coarsely toothed. sub-marginate at the apex. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. Mulaka (W. petiole 5-5.3 cm long.0 cm in dia. petals 1. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. cylindrical. compressed.

appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. traversed by phloem rays. solitary or ingroups. greenish-yellow. thin-walled. Midrib . covered with thick cuticle. traversed by xylem rays. thin-walled. green or brown-purple. parenchymatous cells. ovary superior. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. 1-2 chambered. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. occasionally pale purple.Reddish-brown.dorsiventral.appears biconvex in outline. round to oval. erect. pith a wide zone of polygonal. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. phloem. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. 117 . Lamina . secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal.purple vein. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. round to oval. radially arranged.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. irregularly globose. Stem . longitudinally sulcatus. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. stamen 6 in two whorls. medullary rays four to many cells wide. vascular bundle three in number. one central and two lateral.8.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. 10-12 ovuled. style about 4 mm long. continuous or more or less constricted. parenchymatous cells. sometimes flattened. starch grains simple. Seed . collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. taste. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. Leaf- Petiole . two outer smaller and four inner longer. cork cells. elliptical.Siliqua. present in cortex and phloem. 3-9 cm long and 0. cylindrical. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. b) Microscopic Root . measuring 3-6 µ in dia. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. present in cortex. parenchymatous cells. present only on upper side. 2 mm wide. epidermis followed by 6. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.4 cm thick. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. 2-4 mm long. endodermis at some places.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. oily. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. Fruit . spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. epidermis single layered. hairs unicellular. palisade 2-3 layers.1. single layered.

beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. of the drug in juice form. Powder . thin-walled.2. straight cuticle. 2. Appendix per cent.2. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal.Agnim¡ndya.2. Tikta Laghu.Yellowish-green. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent.4.2. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. reddish-brown. Gulma. Appendix per cent.3. shows aseptate fibres.7. Appendix per cent.20 . Kaphahara. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡cana. parenchymatous cells.40 ml. IDENTITY.2. Gandhaka Va¶¢. H¤dya.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. Svarya. covered with a thin-cuticle.M£lakakÀ¡ra. tangentially elongated. Pittahara. Rucya. Ar¿a. Appendix 2. spiral vessels.6. 118 . measuring 3-14 µ diameter. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. Ud¡varta. Seed . parenchymatous cells present. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Shows a single layered epidermis. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.Glucoside. Appendix per cent.Fruit . of columnar cells. 2. P¢nasa. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2. thinwalled. CONSTITUENTS . covered with thin. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. DOSE .

an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy.7. Mulaka (Rt.6. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. rarely sweet. Mula Muli Moolangi. Mullangi. Visra. 2. 2. fusiform. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. (Fam. Saleya. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. IDENTITY. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.) annual or biennial bristly herb. taste.2. Appendix per cent.2. 119 . Mulaka. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent.2. usually 25-40 cm in length. slightly or strongly pungent. Appendix per cent. variable in size.3. white in colour. Brassicaceae).50. 2. Rakhyasmula Mula.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.2. cylindrical.4. Moclangi gadde. Appendix per cent. having a few lateral fibrous roots.2.2. 2. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn.

04. áv¡sa.69 (all yellow). 0. 0. Gulma. 0.V.09 (both blue). Galaroga.09 & 0. Ud¡varta DOSE . of the drug in the juice form 120 .L. Jvara. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .49 & 0.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.T. Ar¿a. Pittahara. Rucya. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. K¡sa. H¤dya.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. 0. 0. Tikta Laghu. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . P¡cana.LC. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. T. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.Agnim¡ndya. Vrana.15-30 ml.34. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.04 & 0. Kaphahara. P¢nasa. Netraroga.Glucoside. Dadru. Svarya. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.04.09.C.

Apiaceae ). secondary phloem shows wide zone. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated.3 . tangentially elongated. odour. tenuifolium Wall. 0.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. slightly bitter. 6-12 cm long and 0. rectangular cells. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.42000 m. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. fibres and parenchyma. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. Root . S. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. taste.) DC.2.51. traversed by phloem rays.6 . dull brown. aromatic. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. thin-walled cells. inner cells thin-walled. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . thin-walled cells. cambium 2-4 layered.4 m tall. a perennial herb. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma.1. Syn. (Fam. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Daitya.Shows 10 . roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. secondary cortex composed of rounded. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . Mura (Rt. traversed by xylem rays. Gandhakuti. colour. consisting of tangentially elongated.

2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Arvind¡sava. round to oval.7. secretory canals numerous.. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . starch grains simple.having spiral thickenings. secretory canals.2. oil globules and simple starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. secondary xylem and medullary rays. somewhat oval cells.2. of the drug in powder form.3.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). secondary phloem. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. IDENTITY. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents.5 per cent.áv¡sa. D¡ha. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara.Brown. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. Appendix 9 per cent.2. CONSTITUENTS .2. secondary phloem. Sucrose and Mannitol. present in secondary cortex. composed of radially arranged. 2. Appendix 3. distributed throughout secondary cortex. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 9 per cent. M£rchha. xylem parenchyma. shows groups of cork cells. xylem and phloem rays. Jvara.1-3 g. Appendix 2. Appendix 17 per cent. Powder .6. Bhrama.4. fibres aseptate. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. 2. 122 .2.2. short with blunt ends. Tikta. Ka¶u. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .

secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. twining shrub. a large stout.) Asclepiadaceae). resin cells present irregularly in this region. bark easily separable from wood. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. Halukaratige. taste. (Fam. tangentially elongated. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. rectangular cells. slightly bitter. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. odour. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Murva (Rt. some filled with reddish-brown contents. & Am. Madhusrava. Jartor Koratige Hambu. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. phloem fibres absent. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. Koratige. similar to those present in secondary cortex.52.5-3 cm thick. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. phloem rays 1 123 . indistinct.Shows a cork. fracture. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. b) Microscopic Root . Kallu Shambu.

Appendix 5 per cent.3 cells wide. vessels with pitted walls.4.Ar¿a.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. fibres.Light brown. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. 2.5 per cent. starch grains simple. IDENTITY. 124 . tracheids. K¤miroga. Mukha áosa. Appendix 2. Prameha Mihira Taila. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. Medoroga.6. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. Appendix 7 per cent. Jvara. of the drug for decoction. H¤droga. 5. composed of vessels. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains.2. fibres. T¤Àn¡.5-22 µ dia. V¡tahara. Appendix 14 per cent. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. Powder .2-6 g. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. measuring 5.5 .2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . consisting of small tangential. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. DOSE . present in parenchymatous tissues. 2.7. Appendix 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Tikta Guru..tracheids.2. simple and compound starch grains. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. THERAPEUTIC USES . fibretracheids. shows a number of stone cells. Pittahara. fragments of cork. 2.3.. Raktapitta.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. Ka¸·£. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. 2. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. Meha.2.22 µ in diameter. 10-20 g. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue.

Assam.9-1. N¡gapuÀpa. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards.5 cm long. exine and intine distinct. Veluthapala. basifixed. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. quite brittle. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. fragrant. Hem¡. thick-walled. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. slender. an Ke¿ara. often buttressed at the base. b) Microscopic Androecium . Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. linear. Sachunagkeshara. consisting of thin-walled. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. Powder . shows elongated cells of filament. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. Peri. taste.) evergreen tree. odour. Guttiferae). Nahar Nageshvara. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. Nagchampa. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. distinct protuberances on walls. more or less twisted. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Konkan. Naugaliral. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. filiform. containing pollen grains. Bengal. coppery or golden brown.1.0 cm long. each stamen 0.53. N¡ga. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Nauga. anther about 0. Nagachampakam. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. astringent.9 cm long. filament 0.Anther shows golden-brown. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. connective not visible with naked eye. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. yellowish and thin-walled. (Fam. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara.8 . Nagppu. Nagakesari -Nangaa. soft to touch. Nagakesar (Stmn. 125 . parenchymatous cells.Brown. connective and filament. Pilunagkesar.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. Appendix per cent. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . áopharoga. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tarakta. 2.2.2.2.Essential oil and Oleo-resin.2. Appendix per cent. 2.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Tikta.4.Raktapitta. 2.6. Var¸ya.1-3 g.2. 126 .2. Kaphahara. Vastiroga DOSE . Appendix 2. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. Appendix per cent.3. of the drug in powder form.IDENTITY. Kum¡ry¡sava.7. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.

leaflet 1-2.3-1.8 m high. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.5 cm long and 0. no characteristic odour and taste. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. pith composed of round to oval. Fabaceae). pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring.1.) shrub. (Fam. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.2 cm wide. pale green to greenish-black. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. N¢l¢n¢.54. Nili (Lf. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu.2. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 127 . 1.

Ke¿ya.Midrib . Appendix 10 per cent. V¡tarakta. Appendix 25 per cent. cuticle and hair. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. of decoction. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . vascular bundle single.2. similar as in petiole. 128 . Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .50-100 g. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. 2. Gulma.Ëmav¡ta. aseptate fibres.Glycoside (Indican). 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Udararoga. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. palisade 2-3 layers. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.6. Appendix 2 per cent. collateral and crescent shaped.3.7.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. K¤imiroga.2. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. Ud¡varta. shows groups of mesophyll cells. Appendix 7. 2.. Jvara.4.2.5 per cent.shows epidermis. pitted vessels. cuticle and hair.2. similar as in petiole and midrib. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. Appendix 2. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Lamina .2.Greenish-grey. K¡sa. Pl¢haroga. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.shows dorsiventral structure. IDENTITY. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate... epidermis.2.

parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. Indian Indigo Gali. Nil. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. Olleneeli -Amari. Rangapatr¢. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. Gari Nili Kadunili.8 m high. Nili. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. 1. group of fibres. odour not distinct. Nili (Rt. (Fam. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. Nila Nili. 129 .55. rectangular. secondary cortex a narrow zone. Karunili. Nili Chettu. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays.) shrub. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. slightly bitter. Neeli Nili. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. Nila -Neel Avuri. thin-walled cells. Neeligida. woody. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. 0.. hard.10 layers of tangentially elongated. cylindrical. taste.2-1. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex.5 cm thick. with lenticels. thin-walled cells. consisting of usual elements. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. Fabaceae).1 -1.

33.C. 0.75. 0. 130 . K¡sa.40.14 (blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.7.30 (bluish green). 0. 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 4 per cent. 0. IDENTITY. present in cortex.0.91 (all grey). rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. pitted vessels. 0. K¤imiroga.50. 0. 0.58.2.50. V¡tahara. 0. 0. V¡tarakta.47 (blue).. 2.27. Ud¡varta. phloem. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 0. Pl¢h¡roga. Appendix 0.21. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.75 (blue). 0.75. 0. simple and compound starch grains.06. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.2. and 0. Ke¿ya. Ëmav¡ta. 0.2.. xylem parenchyma and rays.6.86.81 (blue). Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7 per cent.63 (bluish green).58.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. 0.81. round to oval. 0.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 6 per cent. T. 0. 0. 0.63.V. 0.2. 0. 2.Arvind¡sava.10. Appendix 3 per cent.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. 0.27. 0. 0.14. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. 0.L. 0.40 (blue). 0. of drug for decoction.Creamish-brown. Udararoga. DOSE .91 (all yellow). 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.C.14.40.33.48 g. 2.2.80.4. shows aseptate fibres.63.10.86 (green) and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.58 (blue). ViÀavik¡ra.91 (blue). starch grains simple.3. Appendix 2.2.06.Gulma. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. Recan¢. Powder .0.86 and 0.

stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Juss Syn. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Limbado. serrate. Veppu. Bakayan. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand.0-1. Arulundi. alternate. Bevinama -Veppu. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Veppan Vemu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Nimbam.7 cm wide. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle.Compound. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Bakan. opposite. lanceolate. odour. 131 . exstipulate. Kohumba Nim. acute. crystals also present in phloem region.56. Melia azadirachta Linn. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. slightly yellowish-green. rachis 15-25 cm long. Limba. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Nimba (Lf.5 cm long and 1. 0. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Nim. (Fam. leaflets with oblique base. indistinct. 7-8. Meliaceae). Nim Vemmu.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. taste. Aryaveppu.1 cm thick. Bevu. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Nimba Nimba. Oilevevu. Limado. Veppa Balantanimba. Kahibevu.

1-3 g. covered externally with thick cuticle. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction.0-14. ViÀarogas DOSE . spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. shows vessels.Green. thin-walled cells. Appendix per cent. 132 . K¤miroga. Ëma¿otha.2. 2. Appendix per cent. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.2.Lamina .K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.Triterpenoids and Sterols.5 on upper surface. palisade single layered. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. Vrana.2.2.5.0-4. 2.5 on lower surface and 8. of the drug in powder form. 2. fibres. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.0-11. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS . traversed by a number of veins. V¡tal¡. Appendix per cent. composed of thin walled.shows dorsiventral structure.3. epidermis on either surface. Netraroga. palisade ratio 3. Appendix 2.7. stomatal index 13. KuÀ¶ha. tangentially elongated cells. Prameha. 2.2. Appendix per cent.4.2.Jvara. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. Powder .6.

57. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. a moderate sized to fairly large. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Nimba (St. woody. fibrous. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. taste. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Aruveppu Balantanimba. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Limba Nimba Nim. Nimba. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. fracture. Nimba. odour. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. characteristic. Melia azadirachta Linn. Juss. fissured and rusty-grey. Oilevevu -Veppu. Vembu Vemu. Bakam Veppai. Kadunimb. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. considerably thick in older barks. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Kahibevu. extemal surface rough.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. (Fam. evergreen tree. Syn. Nimb Bevu. Meliaceae).

H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .90 (green). lignified rectangular to polygonal. round with central hilum. Appendix 1. simple starch grains.2. 0. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.90 (all blue).2. 2.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands.C.outer surface. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. 0. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.5 per cent. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. secondary cortex absent in most cases.2.72 (blue). ViÀaghna. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. Appendix 5 per cent.2. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends.3. simple.63 and 0. measuring 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. 2.2.4.Reddish-brown.L. Appendix 2.75-5 µ in diameter.7. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . 0. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.45. and 0. T. Appendix 7 per cent. 2. having wide lumen and distinct striations.L. cork cells. 0.C. Kaphahara. 0. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. 2.20. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Pittahara. Appendix 6 per cent. stone cells mostly in groups. starch grains.measuring 2.86 (blue). most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate.V. IDENTITY.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.6. Powder .

Rakta Pitta. K¤miroga.2-4 g.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Decoction should be used externally.D¡ha. of the drug in powder form. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Pa´canimba C£r¸a.. Prameha. Ka¸·u. Jvara. 135 . Vra¸a DOSE . KuÀ¶ha. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .

greyish to pale brown. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate.1 cm thick. rectangular 136 . rhytidoma 0. taste. fracture. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. tanniniferous cells. exposing light brown surface. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. Tesu Purasu. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. dark brown. rectangular. Palasha (St. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. often in groups.) Kuntze (Fam. pale brown.2 cm thick usually peels off. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. thin-walled. 12 . Paras Moduga. Modugu. Chettu Dhak. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged.Bk) Fabaceae). sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. Muttuga. curved. having brown colour. Khakharo. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. 0. Plas. 5-10 or more layered. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. cork cells. except in very arid parts. Tesu Muttug.58. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. Camata. slightly astringent. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. Muttala -Plasu.15 m high with irregular branches. Khakhapado Dhak. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. internal surface rough. moderately thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Dhak.5 . Palash. dark-brown.

of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.10. 7 . phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. 0. 2. 137 .2. companion cells.18.67 (all yellow). T.48. phloem rays multiseriate 4 .50 cells in height. dark brown coloured cells. 0. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.C. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.48 and 0. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.12 cells wide.5 per cent.4.48 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . straight. Appendix 2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 14 per cent.L. Appendix 12 per cent. 2.2.10. starch grains simple and compound with 2 .67 (all violet). numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. thin-walled cork cells.L. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. 2.13.7. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.6.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.4 layers of sclereids. phloem parenchyma.75 .2.10. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. sclereids mostly in groups.. 0.3 components.. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. 0.2. 0. traversed by phloem rays.Reddish-brown. 0. Appendix 1.2. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. 2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 10 per cent. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.2.75 µ in dia. 0.cells followed by a zone of 2 . phloem fibres. measuring 2. Powder .C. crystal fibres.V.65 (all blue).

S¡raka . KaÀ¡ya Sara.5-10 g. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Graha¸¢. Vra¸a. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Ar¿a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. DOSE .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Agnid¢paka. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. K¤miroga. Gulma. 138 .Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra.

Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. medium sized. Paribhadra (St.Bk) Fabaceae). b) Microscopic Stem Bark .0 cm thick. (Fam. radially arranged and thin-walled. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. yellowish to cream coloured. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. quick growing tree. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Mulmurumgai Badisa.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed.5-2. inner bark fibrous. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex consists of large. Pangara Hongar. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. exfoliating in narrow strips. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. stone 139 . Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. smooth. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. tangentially elongated to squarish.59. parenchymatous cells.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

148 ...CONSTITUENTS .V¡tarakta. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Alkaloids. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. V¡taroga DOSE .Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. V¤Àya.2-4 g. of drug in powder form. Volatile Oil. Balak¤t.

hilum present at the apex of round edge. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. large. Syn. linear. Saraparuppu Sara. occurring mostly in groups. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. Piyar. Priyalam. funicle stout. Priyala (Sd. Chowl. (Farn. sclerenchymatous cells. B. which are of various size. followed by remnants of disorganised.) Anacardiaceae). collapsed cells of integument. 0. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. latifolia Roxb. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. mottled with darker brown lines. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. thick-walled.6 cm long. Shalichokha Piyal. pitted. pleasant. Satdhan -Charal. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. odour. sweetish-oily.4-0.5 cm wide. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima.3-0. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. taste.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. creamish-brown. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. micropyle superior. Korka. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed.63. b) Microscopic Seed . 0. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 .

áukrakara.Albuminoids. KÀata. procambium bundles. Oil and Starch.91. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. and sclerenchymatous cells.6. 2.V. 2.2.08. and oil globules.0 µ in dia.54. Pittahara. 0.91.2. 0. 0.5-5. 0. Powder .72 and 0. Appendix 7 per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara.98 (all violet). filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Balya.10 . H¤dya.5 per cent. Sara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.C. Appendix 2.L. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.4. 0. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. IDENTITY. V¤Àya.A creamish-brown paste.D¡ha.C.0 µ in dia.94 and 0.84. 150 .94 and 0.08.P£gakha¸·a. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 10 per cent. Raktapitta. 0. 2.2. BrÆha¸a.54. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .72. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. Priy¡la Taila. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0.3. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.20 g.94 (blue).2. DOSE .type. T.L. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .72.98 (all yellow).27. KÀaya. Kaphakara. Appendix 4 per cent. Bhagnas¡dhaka. shows numerous mesophyll cells. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.5-5.7.2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.2. Appendix 0.measuring 2.27. 0. V¡tahara.

3 mm in dia. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. 4 lobbed spreading. thin-walled. (Fam. epipetalous.2. Priyangu (Infl. calyx. b) Microscopic Peduncle . Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. style. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl.5 . bell-shaped. long. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 .5-7. stamens 4.5 cm long. and abundant in Bengal plains. peduncle cylindrical.5 cm across. ovary 2-4 celled. equal in size.) Verbenaceae). densely hairy. stigma minutely capitate. parenchymatous cells. brown. hairy. an erect. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . corolla. 1. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres.64. Flower . 1.0. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. densely clothed with wooly hairs. tubular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. 2.2.Cymose. brown.4 m high shrub. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. anther ovate. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. basifixed. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. filament very long.Shows more or less wavy outline. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs.

Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. Sved¡dhikya. Rakta. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. 152 .2. DOSE . Phenolic compound.2.1-3 g. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Jvara. Appendix per cent. 2. Kanaka Taila. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Resin and Saponin. 2. (Mukharoga). Ku´kum¡di Taila. Pras¡dana.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Terpenes. fibres aseptate. spiral vessels. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.3. M£travirajan¢ya. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. 2. Powder . elliptical. Pakv¡tis¡ra.7.2. Vra¸aropa¸a. N¢lik¡dya Taila. xylem consists of usual elements. CONSTITUENTS .D¡ha. Appendix 2.fibres.2. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. groups of thin-walled. El¡di C£r¸a.6. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.2.4. Daurgandhyahara.Glycosides.2. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. Appendix per cent. Rakta-Pitta. aseptate fibres.Brown. of the drug in powder form. Sandh¡n¢ya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Poaceae). Dhanarmul. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. thick-walled. both consisting of round to oval. Odalu. pitted vessels and 153 . outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Dh¡nya. Dhana. Jhona Arishi. composed of thick-walled. Shali (Rt. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Akki -Ari. Coke Chaval. Bhata.65. thin. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces.Greyish-cream. Nivara -Chaval. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. cylindrical. smooth. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. 5-15 cm in length and 0.05-0. Vr¢hi. Chawl. Dhana Bhatto. soft. Dhan Rice. Paddy Shalichokha.) cultivated throughout India. Powder .1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Nellu Tandulamul. Corava. Nellu. Bhatta. Bhata Chamul -Dhan.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Damgara. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. exodermis 1-2 layered. Biyyamu Chaval. cortex differentiated into three zones. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. (Fam. Cala. Nelver Dhanyamu. an annual herb. Sali. sclerenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root . sclerenchymatous cells.

BrÆha¸a. KaÀ¡ya Guru.2. Balya. Svarya. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Appendix per cent.2. of the drug for decoction.50 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix 2. Pittahara. Appendix per cent.2. Var¸ak¤t. M£trala.3. 154 . Laghu. H¤dya.StanyakÀaya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Rucya.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.4. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. IDENTITY. Kaphahara.7. 2.2. CakÀuÀya.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. V¡tahara.

cylindrical. sepals narrowly. 155 . Shankhavela. Shankhapushpi. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam.Usually branched. free. linear-lanceolate. spreading. about 0.P.Slender.White or pinkish.4 cm thick. Sankha pushpin (W. sparsely hairy. light green. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Leaf .5 cm broad. Flower .66. hairy on both surfaces. Karakhuratt. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. 0. stamen 5.1-0. Kakkanangudi. Stem . alternate with the petals. epipetalous. ovary superior and bicarpellary. found throughout the country. yellowish-brown to light brown. light green.1-0.) Convolvulaceae). 1-5 cm long. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Sankhapuspi.Shortly petiolate. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. inserted deep in the corolla tube. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. cylindrical. corolla shortly discoid. sub-erect. linear-lanceolate.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. acute. a prostrate. hairy. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. perennial herb with a woody root stock.5-2 cm long and 0.

starch grains solitary or in groups. thin. phloem. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. covered with thick cuticle.. . vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. LeafMidrib . simple and composed of 2-3 components. present on both surfaces. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. fibres and tracheids. elliptical.Brown.8-17. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. pale brown pericarp. vascular bundle bicollateral. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. round to oval in shape. Powder . palisade ratio 6-9. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. cortex differentiated in two zones. unicellular hairs.8 µ in dia. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. xylem consists of vessels. minutely puberulous.0. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. epidermis single layered. oblong globose with coriaceous. phloem composed of sieve elements. endoderrnis single layered.Appears nearly circular in outline. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. palisade two layered. covered with thick cuticle. simple and compound starch grains. mm.Capsule. hairs unicellular. present in cortex. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. secretory cells present in this region. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. both having round to oval. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. phloem a narrow zone. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. tanniniferous. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. at places unicellular hairs present.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct.walled cells. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. measuring 3 . Seed .Fruit . thick-walled cells. Lamina . xylem consisting of usual elements.Shows single layered epidermis. b) Microscopic Root . mm. 156 . fibres and parenchyma. Stem . elongated. xylem rays and parenchyma.Light yellowish-green.. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. 13.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.2. Medhya.IDENTITY.M¡nasaroga. ËyuÀya.2. Ras¡yana. 2. Apasm¡ra DOSE . and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. 2. Appendix per cent. Tikta. Agastyahar¢tak¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .3.4. Pittahara. Ras¡yana. Clitoria ternatea Linn.6. Kaphahara. Ras¡yana.2.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.7. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 .2.2. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Appendix 2. Br¡hma. 2. Appendix per cent. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.3-8 g. 2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.

a much branched. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. smooth.7-7 cm long.8 cm wide. Joyachi. trilocular. found throughout India in the plains and low hills.Involucre broadly campanulate. subacute.5-2 mm thick. sub-sessile.5 mm across at the mouth. 1 mm long. 2. pale brown. fracture. 158 . Saptala (W. linear.) Euphorbiaceae).Small. solitary. 20-40 cm high. ciliolate. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. horned. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. lobes short. gland semilunate.67. cylindrical. 0. odour and taste not distinct. Siju. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. style. filament pubescent. Carmas¡hv¡. 3. 4-5 cm long. shortly 2-fid at the apex. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate.Capsule. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. lanceolate or linear oblong. ovate. ribbed. free to the base. Leaf .P. Bilikalli. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 3-4 mm in dia. gradually tapering. Flower . sessile. Chagulputputi Satala. Fruit . 0.1.2-0. having a few secondary roots.celled with or without attached pedicel. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. odour and taste indistinct. greenish-yellow. annual herb. (Fam. short.

25 µ in diameter. composed of sieve elements. all elements thick-walled and lignified. covered externally with thick. elliptical. epidermis single layered. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled.shows slightly convex outline. fibres and vessels having simple pits. lignified cells with wide lumen. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. stone cells oval to elongated. secondary cortex consists of 4. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. tracheids and medullary rays. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. leprous tuberculate testa.5-19. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. secondary xylem consists of vessels. mature root shows thin walled cork.75 µ in dia. palisade single layered present on both sides. parenchymatous cells. all elements. found scattered in phloem region. rounded at the base. rarely a few oil globules also present. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. grooved at one side.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. b) Microscopic Root . endodermis not distinct. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. secondary phloem narrow. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. parenchymatous cells. some rounded. single layered epidermis. fibres and tracheids. solitary or in groups. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. rectangular.Young root shows exfoliated. Leaf- Midrib . tangentially elongated cells. vessels having simple pits. traversed by numerous xylem rays. 159 . 2. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. elliptical.6 layers of oval. flattended. rounded to oval. circular to oval. starch grains simple. thick-walled lignified. centre occupied by a pith. secondary xylem composed of vessels. parenchymatous cells. fibres. Stem . consisting of thick-walled. filled with yellowish-brown content.3 mm long. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. fibres elongated and aseptate. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. simple. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. measuring 5. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. striated cuticle. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. tangentially elongated elliptical. rounded to oval. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. thickwalled and lignified. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular.Seed . with wide lumen present in this region.

Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Vibandha.46 (brown) and 0. Mi¿raka Sneha. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara.04. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. Appendix per cent.V.7.L.50 g. 160 . 0. CONSTITUENTS . 2.2. T. V¡tal¡. of the drug for decoction.C. 2. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. Ud¡vartta.46. Appendix 2.2.0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Pittahara.6. simple. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES .L.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. Udararoga. stone cells thick-walled. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.2. rounded to oval starch grains. shows vessels with simple pits. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a.Light yellow. elliptical.2. RukÀa. 2.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). and 0.2. 2. aseptate fibres.Ën¡ha. Appendix per cent. DOSE . oval to elongated.87 (violet).67.2.57 (all yellow). Visarpa. IDENTITY. RaktadoÀahara. 0.4.3. lignified with wide lumen.C. Appendix per cent. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf.04 and 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Gulma.

Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt.. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. Sulpha. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. b) Microscopic Fruit . dorsal 161 . (Fam. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. Apiaceae). Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. mericarps usually separate and free. A. parenchymatous. akin to caraway. sowa Roxb. brown.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. Sova Sabasige --Badishep.. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. Syn. often stalk attached. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. slightly raised. yellowish membranous wings.68. a tall. P. ex Flem. Satahva (Fr. dark brown. mesocarp. graveolens Linn.. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. glabrous. A. vittae. filiform and incospicuous. Shepa. graveolens DC. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. var. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. slightly sharp taste. odour. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. Shulupa. 4 mm long. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. glabrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. graveolens Benth. and a warm.

162 . shows spiral vessels.4. IDENTITY. Netra Roga DOSE . 0. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.2. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. Appendix 15 per cent. 2.2.6. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.68 (all yellow).5 per cent. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.L.2. Appendix 1.10 T. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Essential Oil.3.costae three. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. V¡tahara. 2. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.3-6 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. 2.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. 2. Vra¸a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Brown. Powder . Appendix 14 per cent.L. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.á£la.7.2.68 (violet). cellulosic. carpophore split. 0. of the drug in powder form. Kaphahara.C. Appendix 3 per cent. 2.C. Appendix 2.2. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a.59 and 0. Jvara. each costae with vascular strands. Appendix 4 per cent.2. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.59 (blue) and 0. Atis¡ra.37 (pink) 0.

Munika Sohanjana Murungai. odour and taste not distinct. Syn. and articulated at the base. parenchymatous cells. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Segata. elliptic. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. a small or medium sized tree.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. central region 163 b) Microscopic . T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. pericycle forming a broken ring.5-1 cm wide. entire. palisade single layered. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Leaflet . Mocaka -Sajina. consisting of pericyclic fibres. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Moringaceae). rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Munga. thickened. Tishnagandha. (Fam. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. Rachis . parenchymatous cells. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. pith and phloem parenchyma. vascular bundle collateral.2-2 cm long and 0. Muringa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. oval to elliptical. Saragavo Parna Shajoma.69. Shigru (Lf. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. Nugge ele -Murinna.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. AkÀ¢va. leaflet 1. Segata pana. Shewgachi pane Sajana. Mungna Neegge. Sekato. ovate or obovate. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis.) Gaertn. slender. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Muringa Elai Sevaga. thin walled. Bahala. Sajna. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. commonly cultivated throughout the country. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis.

pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.20. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. 0. Under U. 0. 0. (all green). 2. 0.87 (blue). spiral vessels.94 (violet).05.4. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. 2. 0.2. 2.05. Pittahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.36 (green).26.05. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.69 (yellow).2. IDENTITY. 0. palisade cells. stomata anornocytic. Appendix 2.V.36.C. RukÀa. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf.59 (blue). áukra N¡¿aka. K¤mihara.30 (pink).18.52 (green). V¡tahara. Medohara.26. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.L. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.94 (blue). 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.2. 0. Protein.2.46 (green). B ¤Æhana.C.0. palisade ratio 6-11.38. Powder -Greyish-green. 0. T.L. 0. 0.7. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.94 (yellow) in visible light. 0. 0.82 (yellow) and 0.6.26 (all green). 2. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.69 (blue) and 0. vein islets number 50-65.18. Appendix per cent.Carbohydrate. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. 0. 0.46 (both blue).2. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. 0. Appendix per cent.46 (all red) & 0. 0. Sirovirecaka 164 .2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.53 (yellow).36 (yellowish green).3. Carotene and Ascorbic acid.46 (dark green) & 0.occupied by a crescent-shaped.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pl¢haroga. Galaga¸·a. K¤miroga.áopha. Gulma.Ratnagiri Rasa. Vidradhi. ViÀatinduka Taila. 165 . Medoroga.10 . Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE .20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.

beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam.. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. (Fam. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. aromatic.4 cm long. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. parenchymatous cells. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. perispenn encloses the 166 .) Zingiberaceae). b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. 0. spicy pungent. odour. Sthulaela (Sd. membraneous aril. thin walled. perisperm consists of polygonal.70. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. taste. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho.3 cm wide. Beraelam. sclerenchymatous. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. brown to dark brown. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. thin-walled.

áv¡sa. V¡tahara. rounded to oval. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.0. IDENTITY.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.2.10 CONSTITUENTS . Mukha¿odhaka. both composed of polygonal. polygonal. thin-walled. 2. rich in protein.2. Rocaka. RukÀa. Appendix 4 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Appendix 1. THERAPEUTIC USES . Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Note .5 -1 g.endosperm and embryo. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. K¡sa.2. Ka¸·u. T¤À¸¡. Kaphahara.5 per cent. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter.2. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. DOSE .Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole).Light brown. thin-walled. Chardi. of the drug in powder form.6.(Seed). Mukharoga.7. 2. H¤ll¡sa.S¡rivady¡sava. Powder . simple. Appendix 14 per cent. 2. perisperm cells. parenchymatous cells. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. (Seed). 167 . oil globules.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2. Tikta Laghu. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.2. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. Appendix 5 per cent. shows fragments of testa. 2.4. 2. Appendix 2.

Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. parenchymatous cells. Thumbooni. thick-walled cells. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. Tumbura. aromatic. stem and branches. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam.2 cm thick. Tejovati (St.0. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. rather deeply furrowed. external surface pale brown. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. Syn. taste. fracture. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . light yellow to pale brown. sharp prickles. Tumburudra. armed with long. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. lignified. stone cells found in 168 . aromatic pungent. brownish. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Z. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. Rutaceae). odour.71. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows.) Roxb. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. internal surface smooth. phloem fibres thickwalled. short. Jimmi.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. thin-walled.1-0. Tejovanti -Thumboonal.Bk.

7. CONSTITUENTS . Powder . a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. Appendix 1.13. DOSE .2. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. oil globules and starch grains. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. stone cells. 169 .75 µ in diameter. Kaphahara.2.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.Aruci. P¡cana.2. measuring 2.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. Hikk¡.2.3. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. THERAPEUTIC USES .6.2.75 . 2.4. round and oval measuring 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.10-20 g. K¡sa. Appendix 2. 2.75 . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. Appendix 8. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Medhya.5 per cent. Rucya. Appendix 12 per cent.5 per cent. IDENTITY.Yellowish-brown. áv¡sa. Mukharoga.75 µ in diameter. Appendix 13 per cent. 2.13. a Volatile Oil and Resin. shows fragments of cork cells. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. aseptate fibres. of the drug for decoction.2. Ëmav¡ta. starch grains round and oval. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa).tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.

) an erect. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. aromatic. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. Flower . violet internally. herbaceous. Lamiaceae). pedicels longer than calyx. hairy. entire or serrate. fracture. pubescent. taste. Shree Tulasi. pubescent on both sides. odour faintly aromatic. about 1. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi.2 cm wide. lower lip 170 . Leaf . Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. annual herb. sub quadrangular. externally purplish-brown to black. 30 . soft. small in close whorls. petiole thin. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. shortly apiculate.5-5 cm long 1. hairy.5-3 cm long hairy. obtuse or acute. Tulasi (W. much branched. internally cream. blackish-brown externally and pale. Stem .Purplish or crimson coloured. branched. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped.60 cm high.Erect. found throughout the country. branched. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. K¤À¸atulas¢.P.3. characteristic. coloured.2.Thin. Thulasi. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. woody. odour.6 . (Fam. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. wiry.72. slender. elliptic oblong. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan.

elongated.1 cm long. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. Fruit . taste. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. xylem surrounded by phloem.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. pubescent. phloem consists of sieve elements. xylem consists of vessels. pungent. measuring 22-27 in dia. taste. 171 . enclosed in an enlarged. Seed . nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. middle one larger than other two. membranous.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex.epidermis. 0. each with one seed. odour. vessels pitted. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. slightly compressed. filled with brown content. occasionally a few cells collapsed. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. Midrib . fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem.Rounded to oval. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. in groups and rarely in singles. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. slightly mucilaginous. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. odour. long. found scattered in phloem. fibres and parenchyma. thin-walled. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. lateral two short and central two largest. tracheids. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. phloem consisting of sieve elements. parenchymatous cells. fibres with pointed ends. aromatic. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root .A group of 4 nutlets. brown. pungent. pungent. veined calyx. thin-walled. rectangular. no odour. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. slightly notched at the base. round to oval polygonal.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. mucilaginous when soaked in water. corolla about 4 mm long. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. Stem . Leaf- Petiole . glandular trichomes short. thin-walled. vessels pitted. nearly smooth. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. fibre tracheides. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. taste. three vascular bundles situated centrally.shows somewhat cordate outline. aromatic. pitted with pointed ends.

RukÀa. 2. 2.2. vein islet number 31 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.L. oil globules. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.16 on lower surface.Essential Oil. IDENTITY. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Lamina . fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.3. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.2. Rucya.7. Rf. Record Rf. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. thin walled fibres. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. values of eugenol and caryophyllence.2. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.1. Tikta. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. V¡tahara. in thoroughly vanillin .15 . Powder .Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.35. 2. Pittavardhin¢. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. parenchymatous cells.Greenish: shows thin-walled. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .2.6. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .C.8.minutes Under observation. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. Appendix 4 per cent. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10).4. Durgandhihara 172 . a few containing reddish brown contents. 2.7. Appendix 1. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. palisade ratio 3. On cooling spray. Appendix 10 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. value 0.L. rounded to oval. Appendix 8 per cent.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. Kaphahara. T.2.C. H¤dya.5 per cent.2.

1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. áv¡sa. Netraroga. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. K¤miroga. K¡sa.A¿mar¢. Chardi.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. Hikk¡. 173 .

middle one larger than the other two. consisting of xylem and phloem. LeafPetiole . glandular trichomes short. an erect.5-5 cm long. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. much branched annual herb. entire or serrate. taste. and 2-8 celled. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. upper epidermis. pubescent on both surfaces. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. hairy. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells.73. covering trichomes multicellular. petiolate. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells.6-3. characteristic. balloon-shaped head. Lamiaceae). uniseriate 1-8 celled long. rarely slightly reflexed at tip.2 cm wide. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil.) 30-60 cm high. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. thin. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢..shows cordate outline. obtuse or acute. aromatic. found throughout the country.5-3 cm long. Tulasi (Lf. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Holy Basil Tulasi. three vascular bundles situated centrally. K¤À¸atulas¢. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. (Fam. 1. odour. petiole 1. measuring 22-27 µ dia. elliptic-oblong. 174 b) Microscopic .

0. Appendix per cent. shows fragments of polygonal.45 (yellowish green).3. 0. 2.45. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.54 (blue).54.04. 0. 0.75. 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. 0. vein islet number 31-33.85 & 0. 0.08 (both green).30.). Appendix per cent.45.21 (brown). 0.04.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.08 (violet). Under U. 0. 0.C.Light-green.21.6.12 (light violet). 0.2.21. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.4.epidermis.93 (all0 yellow). 0. Appendix per cent. 0. 2.33.8. 0. 0.03 (dark green). Appendix 2. 0. palisade ratio 3. 0. 0.12. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.7.98 (blue).L.2.C. 0.Midrib .33..04. 0.75 (violet).83. Powder . 0. Appendix per cent.V.2.33 (violet).L. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. 0.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.93 (both light green). Nerol and Camphene etc. 2.33 (both green) 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. 0.83 (all pink) 0. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.98 (blue).88 and 0.45 (violet). 0.83 (blue).93 (pink) & 0. 175 .93 (violet) and 0. palisade and spongy parenchyma.85 (blue). 0.2. Caryophyllene.12 (light green). 2. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.2. 0. Lamina . stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces. 0.08. T.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS .

Tikta. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2-3 g. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. V¡tahara. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. K¡sa. Kaphahara. áv¡sa. of the drug in powder form. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.Aruci. THERAPEUTIC USES . Hikk¡.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. 176 .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Prati¿y¡ya. RukÀa. K¤miroga. H¤dya. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. KuÀ¶ha. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE .

rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. somewhat collenchymatous. enclosing large air spaces.74. large. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. smaller. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. thin-walled cells of various sizes. short.) semiaquatic herb. broadly.5-1. upper side marked with alternately arranged. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. Vekhandas -Varch. Ghodvach Bach. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. pungent and bitter. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. cells towards periphery. Araceae).5 cm thick. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca.Shows single layered epidermis. Vacha (Rz. Ghodavaca Vasambu. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. Ugr¡. Rhizome . fracture. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. (Fam. Gora-bach Baje. and 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. odour. buff coloured intemally. taste. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. aromatic. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. triangular.

Chloroform-Light green iii.2. Petroleum ether-No change ii. starch grains simple. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.Yellowish-cream b. 2.2. Appendix per cent.2.10 T.L. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. spherical. Appendix 2.2. stele composed of round.4. Appendix per cent. reticulate.L. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. 2. present in cortex and ground tissue. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. 2. Eugenol and Asarone). shows fibres. endodermis distinct. 2.2.2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent.C. 178 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.3. Powder .6.Buff coloured. Powder as such: . parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. Appendix per cent. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside)..Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.region.2. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains.C. Appendix per cent. Extracts in i.7.14 (violet) and 0. Starch and Tannin.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.

Unm¡da. Medhya.2 g. áv¡sa. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta Laghu. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. V¡tahara. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a.Vac¡di Taila. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Ka¸¶hya. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. THERAPEUTIC USES . 179 . Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Vibandha.á£la. S¡rasvata. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. C£r¸a. K¡sa. Ëdhm¡na. K¤mihara. DOSE . Sm¤ti daurbalya. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Apasm¡ra. Kar¸a Sr¡va.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara. 1. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Khadir¡di Va¶¢.

Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. conical. cartilaginous. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. Bachhnaag. Mithalelia. fracture. suberised. Vatsanabhi. Basanaag Bisa. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. parenchymatous cells. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. odour indistinct.) (Fam. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. occasionally separated due to breakage.75. Beesh. without or with a few intercellular spaces. rough due to root scars. ovoid. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. plant is an erect. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Meethabisha. roots are generally collected late in September. dark brown to blackish-brown. rarely 5 cm long. tapering downwards to a point. 2-4. Vatsanabha (Rt. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Sth¡varaviÀa. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Naabhi Bachnak. Vatsanabha. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. perennial herb. taste. Teliya Bish Basanalli.8 cm thick.1. Nabhi. papillose on outside. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . thin-walled. Vatsanabhi. 0.5 cm. Mahura. small portions of stem sometimes attached.4 . Ranunculaceae). ViÀa Vajran¡ga. poisonous.

S £tasekhara Rasa.C. consisting of round to oval cells. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. 0. 2. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre.2. 2.L.39 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. shows vessels. Appendix 5. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. 0. 0. cambium having 6 10 angles. 0.L.2. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.5 per cent.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. UÀ¸a.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. ÙikÀ¸a. IDENTITY. Sv®dala.4. Appendix 2. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa.Light grey. 2. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.2.74 and 0. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.96 (both orange). 0.2. xylem exarch. Powder .10. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. Appendix 24 per cent.3. Appendix 2 per cent. T. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.39. CONSTITUENTS .7. RukÀa. Appendix 8 per cent. Anandabhairava Rasa. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.endodermis.20.C.56. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . occupying more than half the radius. some scattered.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. 0. often forming 'V' shaped ring.6. a few aseptate fibres. containing a few groups of phloem strands.2. inner bark parenchymatous. Viyav¡yi. Laghu. metaxylem vessels met in centre. Trid°Àahara. present in cortical cells.

Kanharoga. 182 . Sannip¡ta. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.15 . V¡takaphajvara.V¡taroga. DOSE .30 mgs of the drug in powder form.THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvar¡tis¡ra.

tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. (Fam. Bhonykoru. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Bhuikumra Vidari. cut surface creamish-brown. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Nelagumbula. but pliable. sweetish. Nelagumbala. Gumadi belli. Vid¡rik¡. taste. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. thinwalled. starchy and somewhat porous. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Bhoikolu. outer surface reddish-brown. smooth except for protuberances at some places.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Bhumikusmanda. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde.76. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. usually does not break. Eagio. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Vidari (Tub. Fabaceae). thin-walled cells. stone cells moderately thick-walled.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda.Rt. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated.

having central hilum and striations. fragments of cork. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . distributed throughout this region.Buff coloured.2. 184 . Pittahara.D¡ha.13.5 per cent. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. 2. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. phloem fibres much elongated. J¢van¢ya.4. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5.Gluconic and Malic acids. CONSTITUENTS . 2. 2.2. Appendix 2.13.75 µ in dia.5 . measuring 5. Svarya.2.6. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. and also rarely in stone cells. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. Raktapitta.7. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Daurbalya. Appendix 4.2. highly thickened. somewhat round. 2. angular to oval. Angmarda. DOSE . P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content.5 .Marma Gu¶ik¡. áoÀa. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. Var¸ya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M£trala.3. IDENTITY.3-6 g. Ras¡yana. present in all parenchymatous cells. Stanyada. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. Appendix 17 per cent.75 µ in dia.2. radially elongated cells. of the drug in powder form. Balya. lignified with narrow lumen. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. a few latex duct also present. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. Appendix 24 per cent. Powder .and pits. Appendix 4 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. polygortal inner epidermal cells. followed by more or less. H. elliptic. taste. oblong.3 cm wide. erect herb. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. thick-walled. seed coat appears as a colourless line. sweetish-acrid. square or quadrilateral.77. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. not distinct. sclerenchymatous fibres. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. 50-100 cm high. Syn. followed by 2-3 layers. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. spongy parenchymatous cells. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. Jav Barley Cheno. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. Yava (Fr. smooth.2-0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis.) Poaceae). a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. cultivated chiefly in North India. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . round to oval wavy walled cells. an annual. about 1 cm long and 0. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. (Fam. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. odour. pale-greenish-yellow. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. sativum Pers.

92 (yellow). On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.L. Pur¢Àak ¤t. 0.36.) CONSTITUENTS .65 & 0. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Sugars.56. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. 0. 0. sclerenchymatous fibres.2. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. Sthairyakara. round to oval.4. Appendix 2.31.31. 2.5 2. Appendix 5.16. 0. Kaphahara. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.68. M£trahara. Appendix 2. Orientoside.5 per cent.72 (all pink. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.22.83 (all violet) and 0.10. 2. 2. 0. 0.5 per cent. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. 2. V¤Àya.C. Proteins (Albumin. Appendix 4 per cent.2. Appendix 1. simple starch grains. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. Pittahara. Orientin. 0.68. Var¸ya 186 .3. Lekhana. 0. V¡tak¤t.Starch.2.Creamish-white. 0. 0. Fats. 0.06. endosperm divided into two zones. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 0.V. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.31. IDENTITY. Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Medahara. 0. and the rest starch layers.44. Vitexin etc.22.5 per cent.14. 0.2. 0.C.10.2.L.53. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. 0.narrow lumens. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. starch grains simple.7 T. Svarya.83 and 0. 0.24.92 (all grey).45. Globulin. 0.6.

of the drug. Kanharoga. P¢nasa. Prameha. El¡dya Modaka. 187 . Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Medoroga. Gandharvahasta Taila.100 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Urustambha. K¡sa.200 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Tvagroga DOSE . Dh¡nvantara Taila. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.áv¡sa. T¤À¸¡.

gradually tapering. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. secondary cortex almost 188 . cork cambium single layered.7 cm broad.Well developed. a small thorny shrub.P. 20-30 cm long and 0. sharp axillary spines upto 3. ballidurabi. Stem . radially arranged cork cells. slightly rough at basal region with slender. drooping. short. glabrous. Yavasaka (W. extipulate.Simple. 0. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan.5-1 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . hard.2-1 cm thick. alternate. mucronate obtuse. Punjab. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Desv. Javasa.8 cm long. oblong. filled with reddish-brown contents.Cylindrical. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. Y¡sa.1-1 cm thick. glabrous. 0. (Fam. Leaf .78. branched. fracture. dark brown. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. striate. secondary and tertiary root absent. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. nearly 0. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Neladangara. stipules green.) Fabaceae). smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. terete. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. no taste and odour. opposite. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri.5-0. elliptical.

Stem . xylem fibres. thin-walled. epidermis single layered. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. present throughout the region. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. pith composed of a few thin-walled. xylem consists of vessels.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. tangentially elongated cells. angular. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. fibres. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. parenchymatous cells. rounded to oval. parenchyma and fibres. pitted vessels. 5. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. 189 . tanniniferous cells. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. tracheids. covered externally with thick cuticle.Greenish-brown.75 µ in dia. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. parenchymatous cells. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. vascular bundle collateral. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. phloem composed of sieve elements. Leaf- Petiole . some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. Midrib . numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll.appears circular in outline. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays.14. covered with cuticle. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. some cells filled with tannin. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin.5-14. Powder . 3-45 cells long. filled with tannin. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. xylem situated above phlome.75 µ in diameter.absent. filled with tannin. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. thin-walled. Lamina . medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. hypodermis 1-2 layered.appears biconvex in outline.5. tracheids and fibres. elongated. xylem consists of vessels. hypodermis 2-3 layered. starch grains simple. a few with thick wall and simple pits. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. tracheids. phloem composed of sieve elements. simple. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands.

THERAPEUTIC USES .6. Tikta. Raktapitta.IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent. Visarpa DOSE .Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2. V¡tarakta. Kaphahara.20 . 2. 2. Appendix 2. Arimed¡di Taila. T¤À¸¡.5 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. of the drug in powder form for decoction.50 g. Sucrose. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.2.Sugars (Melizitose. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3. 190 . Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Invert Sugars).4. Appendix 13. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7. Jvara. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 2.2. 2. Appendix 2 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2.2. D¢pana.Chardi. 2. K¡sa.

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