THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.1.1-Sampling of drugs 2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.2.1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.2-Thermometers 1.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.2.1.2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.5.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.) Desv 177 1.2.1.1.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.4.Types of Stomata 2.2.2.2.2.1.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.1.2.1.2-Sieves 1.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.2.2.2.1.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v . 1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.2.2.3.1.1 Testing Drugs 2.1.1.

6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3 Limit Tests 2.3.2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.Weights and Measures 5.3.3.1-Powder Fineness 2.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.2.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.1.3.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.3.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.3.1.2-Refractive Index 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.

Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. would be deemed to have been amended vii . 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. accordingly. Part-I. In general. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. Part-I. 1930 and the Poisons Act. the Dangerous Drugs Act.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. Part-I.I. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments.). These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. Vol.P. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. II. II would be official. Vol. II. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

The metric system of weights and measures is employed.GENERAL NOTICES Title . When the term “drop” is used. Synonyms . Purity and Strength . This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. if any. it is described as having odour. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Mesh Number . These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg).Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. If the odour persists to be discernible. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. Identity. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. Introductory Para .The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs .The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Weights and Measures . as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. Italics . scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. viii . Odour and Taste . indicated in monograph. distribution and method of collection. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. English. substances or processes described in Appendix.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Hindi. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube.

soluble extractive. the expression per cent (%). be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. under Description. V. moisture content. ether-soluble extractive.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. Vol. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. However. statements appearing in the API. alcohol-soluble extractive. those of definition of the part and source plants. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. if of equivalent accuracy. Purity and Strength. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. with one of the four meanings given below. pesticides. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests .In defining standards.) . water. in 100 grammes of product.g. micro-organisms.C. wherever given. arsenic and heavy metals. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. pests. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. fungi. and Identity. even by applying known reference standards. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. according to circumstances. Part-I. and other animal matter including animal excreta. ix . which he uses. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. colour. is used. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. Constant Weight . sliminess. total ash. acid-insoluble ash. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method.L.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination.Under this head. mould or other evidence of deterioration. Percentage of Solutions . may be substituted for the tests and assays described. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. water-soluble ash. The quantitative tests e. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. and show no abnormal odour. Standards .For statutory purpose. shall constitute standards. However. Constituents .

Statements of solubilities. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. Percentage of alcohol .The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. fibres. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. at a stated temperature.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). all solutions are prepared with purified water. Reagents and Solutions . Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility.56 oC. thermometric scale. Solubility . Solutions . are intended to apply at that temperature. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. such as fragment of filter papers. Temperature . and dust particles. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities.000 parts x .All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given.000 parts More than 10.

A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . Part –I and Part-II. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Kg. cm.5 N. PS. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m.1 N.P. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. ml. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. IN. 1M. 0. Fam. µ. TS. unless otherwise stated. 0. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. mg. g. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes.I. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. l. mm.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are.

Pseudo-bulb Rt. Bk. Rt. Tam. Guj. Assam. Rt. xii . Rz. Wh. Tub. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Kan. Wd. Beng. Punj. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Wd. Sd. St. Kash. Mar. Ht. Pl. Eng.Sansk. St. Tel. Ori. Mal. Fr. Bk. Lf.

shrivelled. Akallakara. Akalakarabha. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. xylem fibres thick-walled. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. not easily separable. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. (Fam. Akarakara Akkaraka. 1.231 µ in 1 . a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex.2 . external surface rough. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. parenchymatous cells. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. tapering slightly at both ends. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 53.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. b) Microscopic Root .8 µ in width. bark upto 3 mm thick. elongated. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. taste. Akarakarabha (Rt. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Asteraceae). characteristically astringent and pungent. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka.1. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. vessels pitted. brown. cylindrical.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. cambium 2-5 layered. 7-15 cm in length. an annual.37-28. thin-walled. Akravu Akkalakara. slightly aromatic. odour.

Kaphahara. secondary phloem and medullary rays. 2. Powder . K¡sa. medullary rays numerous. áv¡sa. Udararoga. Appendix 2.Kum¡ry¡sava. bi to tri and multiseriate. D¢pana. Buddhivardhaka. Svedakara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Appendix 2 percent.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma.2.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin).2. running straight.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa.4.3.6. Grdhras¢.0. á£laroga. also gives positive tests for inulin. 2. radially elongated. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 -1 g. secondary phloem and medullary rays. ray cells thick-walled.2. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. Danta¿£la DOSE . starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. 2. IDENTITY. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. 2. áotha. CONSTITUENTS . N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form.Prati¿y¡ya.7. PakÀ¡gh¡ta.2. Appendix 22 percent. Appendix 8 percent. uniseriate rays very rare. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. áukrala. V¡jikara. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex.length having narrow lumen. Pittahara. 2 . secondary phloem. NaÀ¶¡rtava. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Aj¢rna. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.Ash coloured. Appendix 10 percent.

thin-walled. oily sweet. taste. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. odour. not distinct. under this. coriaceous. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. (Fam. Sailabhava.) large deciduous. Juglandaceae).2. broken pieces. creamish-brown. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. endosperm mostly single layered. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells. 3 . thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. followed by more or less compressed.Shows 1-2 layered. Akshoda (Cotldn. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. collapsed. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. irregularly corrugated. slightly curved. Cotyledon . abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. Powder .Cream coloured. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. radially elongated.

B¤´ha¸a.0 percent.2. 4 . DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.KÀata. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not more than 0. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.2.2.2. 2. KÀaya. Appendix Not less than 10. Balya. V¡taroga. Kaphakara. 2. Sara.2.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.Walnut oil and Tannin.7. 2. V¤Àya.5 percent. áukral. ViÀ¶ambhi.10 . Appendix Not less than 7. THERAPEUTIC USES . H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .IDENTITY.25 g.0 percent.3.2.6. Appendix 2.4.

3. Jangali Ambo. non Gamble (Fam. laminated. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. Amrata (St. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. upto 27 m high and 2. Wild Mango Ambeda. thin-walled cells. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. Anbalamu. curved.Bk. Mampuiti. Stem Bark. a small aromatic. radially arranged. internal surface reddish-yellow. consisting of tangentially elongated.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. parenchymatous cells. external surface smooth. Ambalam. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. Ambado. Kurz. and 5 . Amra Indian Hog Plum. which are thick-walled towards periphery. grey having lenticels. Ambadam Amratakamu. S.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. tangentially elongated. deciduous tree. a few outer cells exfoliated. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells.5 m in girth. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Amvara -Mampusli. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. thin. Syn. S. f. Ranamba.. Ambazham. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. fracture. Ranambo Ambada. parenchymatous. Anacardiaceae). acuminata Roxb. with reddish-brown contents. Jangli Aam Ambate. mangifera Willd. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Amra.

phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. simple.75-14 µ in dia.96 (blue). (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . stone cells.5-10 g. Appendix 2. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.C. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. Under U. thick-walled. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.6. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres.33.L. 0. IDENTITY. Rucik¤t.KÀata. 0. V¡tahara.4.5 per cent. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf.7.2. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. 6 . shows cork cells. 2.C. 2. Pittakara. Not more than 1 per cent. of the drug in powder form for decoction.Light brown. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. KÀaya.87 (all greyish brown).2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.33. lignified.40 and 0..2. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. Appendix Not more than 0. D¡ha DOSE .2. THERAPEUTIC USES .(greyish brown).3. T. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. 2. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.V. 0. Powder . secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 2. Raktapitta.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.L.2. Ka¸¶hya.87 (blue) and 0.96. 0.

4. two celled. rough due to presence of some root scars. bisexual. (Fam. branched.3-0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. filament short.3 . gradually tapering. Kharamaµjar. sessile. the perianth lobes. 0. hollow when dry. actinomorphic. hypogynous. slightly ribbed. cylindrical. secondary and tertiary roots present. 0. erect. opposite. contorted or quincuncial.Cylindrical tap root.P.0 cm in thickness. Flower . Apamarga (W. bracteate with two bracteoles. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . solid. obovate.) Amaranthaceae). odour.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. PratyakpuÀpa. decussate.9 m high herb. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. stamens 5. greenish-white. subsessile. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. 7 . Leaf .0.0.1-1. dorsifixed. not distinct. a stiff. yellowish-brown.5 cm in cut pieces. numerous. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. yellowish-brown. hairy. erect. perianth segments 5.Simple. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. wavy margin. membranous. opposite. May£raka.free. exstipulate. one spine lipped. Stem . anther.

cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. parenchymatous cells. fibres being absent. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. ovary superior. lignified. rectangular. unilocular with single ovule. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. followed 8 . truncate at the apex. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. thin-walled cork cells. composed of parenchymatous cells. either separate throughout or found in some cases. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. Seed . secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. thin layers of cambium. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. epidermis single layered. spiral. b) Microscopic Root . epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side.Shows crescent-shaped outline. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. style. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. single. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. capitate. Fruit . two medullary bundles. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. stigma. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Sub-cylindric. on both surfaces. brown. oval to rectangular.Shows a single layered epidermis. thin-walled. xylem composed of usual elements. present in pith. elongated. vessels simple pitted. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. vessels annular. LeafPetiole . fibres pitted. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. Midrib .gynoecium bicarpellary. scalariform and pitted. endospermic. tangentially elongated. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. round at the base. Stem . thin-walled cork cells. 2-5 celled.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. perianth and bracteoles. cortex 6-10 layered. syncarpous.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. demarcating the xylem rings. cortical and pith cells. 3-4 celled stalk.

Ar¿a. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled.0-20. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Lamina . 2.2. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. shows fragments of elongated.0 on upper surface.Shows single layered. Chedana.2. stomatal index 4. rectangular.2. V¡maka. thin-walled epidermal cells. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.5-9. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. 9. V¡tahara.20-50 g. Medohara. IDENTITY. Apac¢.4. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. palisade ratio 7. 9 . 2.0 on lower surface. Tikta Sara.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Udara Roga.6.3. non-lignified cells. Medoroga DOSE . vein islet number 7-13 per sq. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. Kaphahara.á£la. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .2. scalariform and pitted thickening. P¡cana. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. mm. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. 2. Gu·apippali. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. Appendix 2. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. of the drug for decoction.0-11. aseptate fibres. spiral. vessels with annular. slightly elongated in upper. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface.Light yellow. 2. Ka¸·u. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Powder .2.

ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. fibrous. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. taste. vessels pitted with oblong.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. a few showing slit-like pits.5. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. polygonal. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. Fabaceae). Aparajita (Rt. thin-walled. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. b) Microscopic Root . very long. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. fracture. bitter. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. colour. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. medullary 10 . a few solitary fibres also present. (Fam. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. cylindrical. lightbrown. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. 1-5 mm in thickness.

2.2. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya.7. of the drug in powder form. T. Vra¸a DOSE .79 (grey). 2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. Buddhiprada. shows simple and compound starch grains. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .rays 1-5 cells wide. phloem and xylem parenchyma. Appendix per cent. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.. IDENTITY.V. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.. Medhya. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. 2. Tikta. KuÀ¶ha. CONSTITUENTS . 0.79 (dull yellow) in visible light.2.C.79 (both yellow).4. áotha.79 (blue).á£la. Appendix per cent. oblong and pitted.2.54 and 0. Kaphahara.C. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. Resin.3.Tannin. Starch. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Powder . (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.Yellowish-brown. 0. Appendix 2. found in secondary cortex.L. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf.2. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6. ViÀahara. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. V¡tahara.2.3 g. M£traroga. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. 0. Pittahara.L. 2.Mi¿raka Sneha. Under U.1 . 11 .

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. Adrak Injee. tangentially elongated. pieces 5-15 cm long. lakottai. gingery. Allam.5 cm thick. short with projecting fibres.) Zingiberaceae). thin-walled. Ale -Adi. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. oblique branches on upper side. odour. each having a depressed scar at its apex. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. pungent Rhizome . isodiametric.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. Inji Allamu. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. fracture. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal.5-6. (Fam. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. reaching up to 90 cm in height. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. buds and roots are removed and washed well. widely cultivated in India. colourless.6. irregularly arranged. taste. Ardraka (Rz. radially arranged cells of inner cork.Shows a few layered. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. 1.

2. 0. 0. 0. filled with abundant starch grains.92 (violet).47.63 & 0.16. 0.l6 (brownish violet). 0.dia.V. reticulate and spiral vessels. conjoint. 0. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. Appendix 2 per cent.L.3. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.63 (grey) & 0.08. 0. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. Appendix 1 per cent. 2. Appendix 90 per cent. vessels showing reticulate. fibrovascular bundles of two types. phloem. 13 . 2. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. 0.69. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.6.35. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. composed of xylem.L.16. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. free from starch.35. small cells of sieve tube.C. 2. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. numerous closed. walls of oil cells suberised. oleo-resin cells abundent. greater number occurring in inner cortical region.69 (grey). Appendix 8 per cent.7 vessels.83 & 0.9 T. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. CONSTITUENTS .2. septate fibres with oblique. 0. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 2. 0. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene.7. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.92 (all yellow).76. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.63. 0. IDENTITY. Powder -Light yellow.76 (violet) & 0. larger bundles consists of 2.16 (blue). 0.63 (light violet). 2.2.03.2. 0. Appendix 5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. 0. 0. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.69 (light violet).C.13. 0. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. elongated pits on their walls. 0.2.5 per cent. endodermis single layered.2.47 (light violet). Under U.69 (all light yellow).35 (light violet).. collateral. vessels 2-5 in number. 0.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.2. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf.08 (violet). Appendix 2.4.

DOSE . Vibandha. Ën¡ha. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ka¸tharoga. Svarya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. V ¤Àaya. H¤dya. Bhedana. THERAPEUTIC USES .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. Rocana. Kaphahara.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. V¡tahara. RukÀa. 14 .2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. áopha.á£la.

not distinct. Sadabala -Haramibaval.5-1 cm thick. hard. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. thinwalled cortical cells. Velvelam. with tapering 15 . fibres and crystal fibres.Bk. stone cells and phloem cells. characteristic of dry regions. phloem fibres thin-walled. all traversed by medullary rays.7. Fabaceae). sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchyma. fibrous. Pilobaval. internally light brown to reddish-brown. odour and taste. Arimeda (St. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. upto 3 m in height. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. incurved. (Fam. secondary phloem wide. square to rectangular cells. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. consisting of sieve elements. rough. exfoliating in irregular scales. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. lignified.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. fracture.

sclereid.7.C.2. β -Amyrin. ViÀajavra¸a. Meda¿oÀaka. 0.0 to 0.78 and 0. Appendix 13 per cent.2.39 and a spot at Rf. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side.39 and a spot at Rf.3-5 g in powder form. Meha.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.2.91 (yellow). Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 11 per cent.4.LC. 2. Udardapra áamana DOSE . K¡sa. K¤mi.áopha. composed of thin-walled.n-Hexacosanol. 2. Powder .69 (grey) is seen in visible light. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.91 (both blue).3. shows groups of cork cells.6. Appendix 1 per cent.40 g for decoction. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. T. 0. fibres. 2.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 16 . 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.ends. Mukharoga. IDENTITY. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.e. Visarpa.Reddish-brown. radially elongated cells. Ka¸·u. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. crystal fibres elongated. Dantaroga. Appendix 14 per cent.2.2. Atis¡ra.L.0. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0.2. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0 to 0. KuÀ¶ha. P¡¸·u. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka.

phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. in the middle and outer phloem region. recurved. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. 0. Torematti Arjuna.& A. (Fam. short in inner and laminated in outer part. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. P¡rtha. traversed by phloem rays. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. Sajada Arjuna Matti. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. Kellemasuthu. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. Arjuna. bitter and astringent. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark.2-1. Vellamaruthi. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. a large deciduous tree.5 cm thick. Mathichakke. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. curved. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. Arjuna (St. companion cells.Bk. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. Neermatti. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. channelled to half quilled.8. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. Mattimora. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. consisting of sieve tubes. fracture. taste. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. flat. Bilimatti.) Combretaceae).

mostly simple. 2. Appendix 20 per cent.3-6 g. compound of 2-3 components.. Prameha. alata).2.7.Reddish-brown. elliptical. T¤À¡. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. sometimes upto 5 components.. Vra¸a. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. 2. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a.3. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. round to oval. Kaphahara. 2. alternating with fibres. uniseriate phloem rays. Vya´ga. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.Medoroga. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. H¤droga. Arjuna Gh¤ta.4. a few rhomboidal crystals. 4-12 cells high.. H¤dya. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. of the drug in powder form. shows fragments of cork cells. Appendix 2. 18 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . present in most of the phloem parenchyma. starch grains simple and compound.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. KÀatakÀaya. Appendix 1 per cent.2. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. starch grains. fibres. Pittahara.in dia. Vra¸an¡¿ana. elliptic.2. DOSE .6. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. IDENTITY. round to oval. Appendix 25 per cent. µ Powder .2. Appendix 20 per cent. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. THERAPEUTIC USES .

19 .) Anacardiaceae).Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. Fruit . drupaceous. nut 2. Nallajidiginga Baladur. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. mesocarp and endocarp. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. (Fam. shining with residual receptacle. Bhallataka (Fr. obliquely ovoid. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country.5-3 cm long. smooth. 30-40 layers thick. mesocarp a very broad zone.9. dark brown. Scramkotati Nallajidi. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn.

Appendix 5 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 2.6. of the drug in Ksirapaka form.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Ën¡ha.endocarp consists of two distinct layers.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Krimi.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Note . insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.2. Chedi. 2.I. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .4. Bhedi. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former.Ar¿a. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. Graha¸¢.Dark-brown. being highly thickened.2.1. IDENTITY. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.2. Kaphahara. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).F...Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.3. very much elongated radial walls. 2. ether.5 per cent.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. chloroform. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Appendix 11 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent.2. DOSE . Powder . Part-I 20 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Snigdha.2 g. 2. V¡tahara. KuÀ¶ha. Gulma. Tikta.7. P¡cana. innermost prismatic. Appendix 0. Ka¶u.

sub-acute or acute. branched. strigose with oppressed hairs.Opposite. Tekar¡ja. greyish.3 cm wide. herbaceous. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Herbaceous. Kesuriya.2 . Stem .Solitary or 2. 30 .50 cm high. M¡rkava. Bhringiraja. sub-entire. Karisalanganni. a number of secondary branches arise from main root.8. usually oblong. (Fam. much branched. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. ovate. strigosely hirsute. scarcely as long as bracts. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. sessile to subsessile. Kesari -Bhangaro.10. white. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. obtuse or acute. cylindrical. 2. Bhringaraja (W. node distinct.Well developed. erect or prostrate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. upto about 7 mm in dia. Bhangro Bhangara.) herbaceous annual.2. disc flowers 21 . lanceolate. Flower . strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. occasionally rooting at nodes. occasionally brownish. spreading..5 cm long. involucral bracts about 8. ligule small. ray flowers ligulate. cylindrical or flat. often rooting at nodes. Keshavardhana. together on unequal axillary peduncles. Gurugada. not toothed. rough due to oppressed white hairs. Bh¤´ga.P. Karisalai Guntakalagara. Soppu. Asteraceae). greenish. Leaf . Knnunni Bhangra.2 . 1. Bhangaraiya Garujalu.

brown. unilocular with one basal ovule. covered with warty excrescences. ray cells pitted. Fruit . fibre tracheids. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. 1-5 celled. rarely slightly oblique.2 . drum-shaped. trichomes of two types. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. ovary inferior.25 cm long. Midrib . a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. stamen 5. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. b) Microscopic Root . cuneate. xylem ray distinct. 0. found scattered throughout wood. hairy and non endospermic. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. epidermis followed by cortex. pitted.Achenial cypsella. in macerated preparation vessels small. corolla often 4 toothed.Mature root shows poorly developed cork.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. with a narrow wing. free. covered with striated cuticle. Seed .cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. pistil bicarpellary. consisting of rounded cells. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. epidermis followed by wide cortex. externally covered with cuticle. non-glandular. warty. xylem composed of vessels. fibres and xylem parenchyma. fibre tracheids. traversed by xylem rays. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. tangentially elongated cells.1 cm wide. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. dark brown. with very pointed tips. vessels numerous. and with pointed apical cell. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. run straight in tangential section. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. Leaf- Petiole . consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. pappus absent. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . simple.0.tubular. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. in singles or in groups of various shape and size.0. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. phloem rays broader towards periphery. filaments epipetalous. uniseriate. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. one seeded.

0 on lower surface. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. secondary cortex composed of large. the cork where formed. xylem consists of large number of vessels.collenehymatous cells on both sides. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. about 3 celled.5 -26. vascular bundles in a ring. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. pointed. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. some elongated with simple perforations. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays.shows a dorsi ventral structure. middle cells longest. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. wide at the base. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. collateral. stomatal index 20. externally covered with cuticle.8 -4. palisade ratio 3. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis.Dark green. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. trichomes entire or in pieces. septa thick-walled. hairs stiff. peg-like outgrowth. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells.0-22. normally biseriate and uniseriate. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. externally covered with cuticle. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. xylem fibres with wide lumen. pointed tips and pitted walls. epidermis single layered. Powder . endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. uniseriate. 23 . Stem . anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. more abundant on lower surfaces. pericyclic fibres distinct. warty.5. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. Lamina . pitted with spiral thickening. while the section cut at apical region. endarch. arranged in tangential strands. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells.5 on upper and 23.

2. Ras¡yana. ViÀahara.áotha.IDENTITY. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ecliptine and Nicotine.2.2. áirah á£la.3.4. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila.6 ml of the drug in juice form. Ëmahara. Tekar¡ja marica. 24 . DOSE .Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila.2. 2. áv¡sa. Appendix per cent. 12 . Dantya. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. K¡sa.2. Tvacya. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.Alkaloids.7. Ke¿ya.36 g. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. Tikta RukÀa.2. 2. Yak¤droga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara.6. P¡¸·u. 2. H ¤droga. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. CakÀusya. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. K¤miroga.2. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix per cent.3 .

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. succulent. prostrate or creeping annual herb. ovoid and glabrous. soft. slightly bitter. obovate-oblong. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. 25 .Thin.Capsules upto 5 mm long. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. Brahmi (W. opposite.11. 1-2 cm long. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. Fruit . small.P. Stem . sessile. nodes and internodes prominent. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. a glabrous.Thin.& K. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . wiry. Leaf . taste. taste. axillary and solitary. Brahmi. green. Flower . small. (Fam. Valabrahmi. about 1-2 mm thick. pedicels 6-30 mm long..Simple.Small. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. decussate. branched creamish-yellow.) Wettst. Syn. found throughout India in wet and damp places. slightly bitter.) H. Scrophulariaceae).) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. glabrous.B. green or purplish green. Ondelaga.

Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Stem . ËyuÀya.0-14. respectively.6. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent.Yellowish-brown. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces.7. 2.2. pericycle not distinct. Medhya.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. glandular hairs sessile. V¡tahara. round and oval starch grains. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.2.3.2.. glandular hairs. 2. Ras¡yana.Shows a single layer of epidermis. endodermis single layered.0 µ in dia. Tikta.5-9. vascular ring continuous.0 x 2. Appendix per cent. Powder .2. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. b) Microscopic 26 . Appendix per cent.2. simple. endodermis single layered. cortex having large air cavities. Praj¡sth¡pana.Root . round to oval. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. Svarya. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. IDENTITY. ViÀahara. no distinct midrib present. and 8.4. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. starch grains simple. Appendix per cent. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. Matiprada. 2.

THERAPEUTIC USES .KuÀ¶ha. 27 . Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. áopha. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. P¡¸·u.1-3 g in powder form. Jvara. Ratnagiri Rasa. S¡rasvata C£r¸a.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Prameha. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

no distinct odour and taste. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. Brihati (Rt. parenchyma and stone cells.12. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. Badikateri Kirugullia. short and splintery. tangentially elongated. Putirichunda Dorli. long. much branched perennial under shrub.5 cm in dia. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. b) Microscopic Root .Shows thin cork composed of 5 . oval and tangentially elongated cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. secondary cortex composed of 5 . cylindrical.8 m high. (Fam. 1-2. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide.9 layers of thin-walled. traversed by phloem rays. phloem parenchyma much abundant.. varying greatly in shape and size. Papparamulli. Chichuriti. Solanaceae). Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. ribbed. fracture. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. Heggulla. cork cambium single layered. upto 1.15 layers of thin-walled. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. pale yellowish-brown. woody.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. Ubhibharingani. thin-walled. a very prickly. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region.

11. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.á£la. H¤droga. shows groups of thin-walled.4. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.2. 2. 29 .6 µ in diameter.6. traversed by xylem rays.2. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Kaphahara.2. Jvara. P¡cana. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. Appendix 2. cells radially elongated and pitted. CONSTITUENTS .3. 2.2.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.. measuring 5. Appendix Not more than 6. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. rounded to oval starch grains. measuring 5. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. IDENTITY. parenchymatous cells. xylem rays uni to biseriate. aseptate fibres. vessels with simple pits. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. áv¡sa.5 . 2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Agnim¡dya.Cream coloured. Powder .5 -11. thick-walled. H¤dya.2. tracheids. phloem and medullary rays. of the drug for decoction.7. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.5 per cent. DOSE . occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays.2. all elements being lignified.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.6 µ in diameter.10-20 g.

parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. odour.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. oval to rectangular. a glabrous. tracheid. P. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. endodermis single layered. thin-walled. short. officinarum DC. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0.13. fibres and xylem parenchyma. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. brownish cells. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. secondary cortex a wide zone. Chavya (St. fracture. taste. cork cambium not distinct.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. P. cultivated mainly in Southern India. acrid. Syn. Piperaceae). consisting of round. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. cylindrical and somewhat twisted.. (Fam.5-2. peppery. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. Chavya -Kattumulaku. b) Microscopic Stem . isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. nodes and internodes distinct.0 cm in width. chaba Hunter non Blume. fleshy climber. plenty of simple starch granules present. greyish-brown.

5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . round to oval. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.2. round to oval starch grains. Ën¡ha. Recana.1-2 g.6. fibres and simple.7.2. 2. Kaphahara.3. Appendix 1. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.Ar¿a. D¢pana. IDENTITY. á£lal DOSE .2.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. Gulma. Krimi. of the drug in powder form. Glycosides and Steroids.4. 2. Appendix 2. starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. 31 . shows fragments of vessels. medullary rays multi seriate.2. Pl¢h¡ Roga.pitted and reticulate thickenings. Appendix 3 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.Greyish-brown. 2.2. Udara Roga. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. filled with simple. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡cana. cells thin walled.Alkaloids. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent. Powder . RukÀa.

Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. oil globules.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. thin walled. 0.Reddish-brown. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. simple.6 cm long. wedge-shaped. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. found growing wild in the warm valley. 0. (Fam. parenchymatous cells. Maadalai.1-0. Madalam Danimma Anar. shows stone cells. cotyledons coiled. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen.14. LohitapuÀpa. beneath this. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown.5-0. endosperm absent. Seed . containing a few oil globules. round to oval.2 cm wide. angular. taste. round.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. consisting of oval to polygonal. triangular and rectangular. Dadima (Sd. oval. Punicaceae).) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. starch grains present in testa. 32 . sweetish-sour. Powder .

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

16.25 cm long. more or less pubescent. 1. upto 4 mm thick. calyx. about 0. 3-9 cm long. erect. hairy. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati.P. serrate.9 m in high. 1-2.6-0. zig-zag. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Inflorescence . (Fam. ciliate. fine rootlets. Stem . taste. acute. 1-2. crenate. 1. slightly bitter. scaberulous. ovate or ovate. Dronapushpi (W. taste. pungent.7-2 cm 37 .5 cm across.5 cm wide. taste. characteristic. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. white. an annual. glabrous in lower part. crowded in dense.3-0.Light greenish-yellow. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. globose. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. Leaf . smooth. nodes and internodes distinct. fibrous. stout herb. slightly curved. Gumma. about 2-3.) Lamiaceae). fracture. corolla. tubular. subacute. 10 dentate with a villous throat. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country.lanceolate.35 cm wide. surface rough. thin. hairy on upper part.5 cm long and 0.Sessile. long with numerous wiry. size variable.Yellowish-green. white.2-1.Cylindrical. lanceolate.

medullary rays 1-2 seriate. thin-walled 38 . palisade single layered. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. secondary cortex 5-9 layered.3 cm long and 0. 4 . tracheids. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. Fruit .long. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. upto 8 cells high. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. cortex consisting of single layered. lateral lobes small. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. irregular.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. nutlets 3 mm smooth. b) Microscopic Root . consisting of 3-5 layers of circular.1 cm wide. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. bilipped. trigonous. vessels long with spurs.0.7 layered. parenchymatous cells. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. present in centre. vascular bundles 4. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. Midrib . thin-walled.vascular bundle arc-shaped. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. Leaf- Petiole . a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis.Schizocarpic carcerule. endoderm is single layered.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. consists of a single layered epidermis. tangentially elongated. secondary xylem consists of vessels. xylem consists of vessels. consisting of barrel shaped. thin-walled cells. Lamina .tangentially elongated. oblong. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. Seed . thin-walled cells. smooth. some having simple pits. Stem . composed of oval to rectangular. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. round to angular collenchyma. wooly. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. dark brown.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. brown. parenchymatous cells. tracheids. fibres and xylem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells.shows a single layered epidermis. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. followed by round to oval parenchyma. upper lip about 4 mm long.

ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Pittakara. 2. Lava¸a. IDENTITY. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. K¡sa. present on both surfaces. 39 . K¡mal¡.Alkaloid. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.6-40. Bhedani. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. 16.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. aseptate fibres. RukÀa. stomatal index 16. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. V¡takara.5 on lower surface.3.2. 2.Dull yellow. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. 2. palisade ratio 7-9.6-30. Powder . a few veins present in this region.2.7 on upper surface. Appendix 2.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. pitted and spiral vessels. Glycoside. Agnim¡ndya. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.cells.2. ViÀamajvara DOSE . Tamaka áv¡sa. stomata diacytic.7. Ka¶u Guru. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4.2.áotha.2.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.6.

-Kakur. 0. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. Karka¶¢. 40 . Ervaru (Sd. utilissimus Roxb. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. Hastipani.4 cm wide. parenchymatous. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. cotyledons two. 0. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. an annual creeping herb. covered with thick cuticle. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. creamish-yellow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. parenchymatous cells.17. B¤hatphala. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. (Fam. glossy.3-0. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. thin-walled. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. taste.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. sweetish oily. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. Hastipani. cultivated in many parts of the country. straight. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. more or less ellipsoid. radially elongated to squarish. Cucurbitaceae). C. rounded and tangentially elongated. Vellarika Kakadi. surface smooth. shows stone cells. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells.7-10 cm long. mesophyll cells thinwalled.

64.2.58. Tikta Guru. 2.91 (blue) under U. Appendix 5 per cent. Rucya. 0. 0.Oil & Sugars. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. Jvara.6. 0. T¤À¸¡. Appendix 2.C.IDENTITY.51. RaktadoÀakara.L. D¢pana.5 per cent. 0. 0.35. 2. Appendix 4 per cent.35. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 41 .77. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. Appendix 10 per cent.0.0. Kaphakara.3-6 g. V¡takara. 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. of seeds. 0. T.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. A¿mar¢.V.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.83.58. 0.2. 2.26.51.2. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. Raktapitta.97 (all grey). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. 0. 0.26.64. Gulma.19.97 (all yellow) .L.77. THERAPEUTIC USES .C. Pittahara. 2.91 and 0. 0. Appendix 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2.91 and 0.4.3. CONSTITUENTS .83.0. 0. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .7.D¡ha. (366 mm).19.

odour and taste not distinct.0-3. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. a large epiphytic climber. shiny. 0. greyish-brown with a dent. Seed . surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.0-3.6 cm long. thin-walled.3-0.Kidney-shaped.4 cm wide. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. odour and taste not disticnt. Araceae). brownish-grey. b) Microscopic Fruit .5 cm thick. cut surface has a central core.4-0. 0.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. rough and scaly. Gajapippali (Fr. smooth.18.0 cm in diameter and 2. Orissa.Shows more or less loosely arranged. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. 42 . Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .

Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. Kaphahara.93 (all yellow). Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. pitted and with concentric striations. T. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. Ka¸¶hya. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. thick-walled. thick-walled.65. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.65.73 and 0.2.65 and 0.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. 43 . in extract (Phant) form.C. 0.5 per cent.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 0.3. áv¡sa. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0.73 and 0. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. Appendix T. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.2.Atis¡ra.73 (both light brown) and 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C.65. oval to polygonal. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. Agnivardhaka. 2.2. Stanya. K¤miroga. DOSE . 2. Three spots appear at Rf.2. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. 0. shows lignified.áiv¡gutik¡. 0.V. oval to polygonal. oval to polygonal. Malavi¿oÀana. IDENTITY.2. Powder . 0. Punarnav¡sava. Ka¸ha Roga. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.93 (all blue) are visible. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.93 (brown). non-lignified. 0. Sugars & Fixed Oil. 0.6. 2.Glucosides viz.27. 2. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. thin-walled.Shows a single layered. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.L. 0.4. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.C.Dark brown.20.Seed .27.7. 2. 0. 2-4 layered.2.2-3 g.

0 cm long. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. Verbenaceae). Seed . oily. light yellow.A drupe.Seed ovate. tangentially elongated. sometimes one seeded. crinkled.19. cotyledons consisting of single layered.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered.5-1 cm long. radially 44 . Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. thin-walled cells. P¢takarohi¸¢. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. (Fam. parenchymatous cells. two seeded. surface smooth. multilayered. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. sweetish sour. black.) unarmed tree. Shivani. Sr¢par¸¢. 1. seed coat thin.4-0.6 cm wide. Gambhari (Fr. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. ovoid. Hannu -Kumbil. taste. 0. taste.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. Seed . K¡¿marya. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. papery.5-2. fleshy mesocarp. 0. b) Microscopic Fruit .

Resin and Saccharine. M£trak¤cchra.Arvind¡sava.elongated epidermal cells. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.98 (yellow) in visible light. 0.2. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. V¡tahara.98 (orange). T. Appendix 2.26. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. Ras¡yana. Rakta Pitta DOSE .03. Tartaric acid. 0.03. Amla. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.98 (all yellow). 0.4 per cent. Under U.2. Medhya.2.18. Alkaloid.98 (all blue). 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.12. of the drug in powder form. H¤droga.. 2. KÀaya. Appendix 0.1-3 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.Butyric acid. 2.2. H¤dya. Powder .52. 2. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Sara. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . oil globules and aleurone grains.L. IDENTITY. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Blackish-brown. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.4.L. 0.V. Appendix 8 per cent. KÀata. shows stone cells.6. 0.2.42.C.7. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.08.94 and 0. 0. 0.22. Appendix 25 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.93 and 0. 0. Pittahara. 0.3. Ke¿ya. Appendix 6 per cent.D¡ha. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. 45 . 0.C. T¤À¸¡. KaÀ¡ya Guru.

(Fam. consisting of 12-20 layered. a few stone cells. external surface smooth. taste. thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. a shrub 0. fracture. mucilaginous.) Aschers & Schwf. Grewia populifolia Vahl.6-1.0 m high. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. rectangular. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Tiliaceae). fibrous.5-5 cm long. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region.. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. parenchymatous cells. channelled. moderately large in size. fibrous. 1. 46 . traversed by wide phloem rays.20. thin-walled. light yellow. arranged in radial groups. elliptical. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . radially arranged cells. Syn.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. oval.Bk.Shows a wide cork. secondary cortex wide. blunt tips and moderately long in size. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. Gangeru (St. consisting of tangentially elongated. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.

7. Amla. 0. 0.2.35 (both light yellow) in visible light.64 (blue). 0. 0.35 (violet). DOSE . T.17 (light violet). 0. 47 . 0. 0. IDENTITY.29 (blue). (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. Tikta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .08.17. 2. 0. 2.68 & 0. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. 2. Appendix per cent.13 (blue).41.35 (dark blue). Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .55 (blue) & 0. 0. 0. 0.2. β-amyrin etc.6. Ka¶u.61.27.08 (blue) 0. 0. Two spots are seen at Rf.88 (light violet).17. 0.). 0.V. Appendix per cent.88 (all yellow). KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara.L. 0.68 (light violet) & 0.48 (violet).35. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. Pittavik¡ra.J¢rak¡di Modaka.2. of the drug in powder form.4.Sugar. 0.2.Light yellow and fibrous. Appendix per cent. 0. Under U.2.55.C. α-amyrin.Powder .L. 2. 0. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2-3 g.Vra¸a. 0.3. Appendix per cent.08 (violet). Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.48.2.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.27 (light violet). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.

(Fam. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. Kundumani Guriginga. composed of 1-2 cells wide. Chonotee Ratti. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. fruits ripen during winter. Fabaceae). exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. Kakananti Rati Kunch. cork cambium. b) Microscopic Root . Chanothee. tangentially elongated cells. Ghungchi Guluganji. light brown. feebly sweetish. smaller than stone cells. becoming mildly bitter. bark thin. some with brownish content. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. thinwalled. soft. most often irregularly curved. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. odourless. pitted walls. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. spreading throughout the plains. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. when distinct. gulagunja -Kunni.21. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. present at short intervals.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. simple or branched. taste. flowering in August-September. cylindrical. Gunja (Rt. Gurivinda Ghongchi. a climber. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. exfoliating in small flakes. slightly corky. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture.

shows fragments of cork. pitted walls. Appendix 10 per cent.Greyish-brown. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Indralupta. Appendix 9 per cent. Mukha¿oÀa. DOSE . mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.1 .2. 2. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.diverging towards periphery.5 -13.75 µ in diameter.6.75 µ in diameter. Appendix 4 per cent. áula. Appendix 2.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. 49 . Tikta á¢ta.2.2. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .3. 2. of the drug in powder form. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. Powder .7. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. xylem vessels with pitted walls. Pittahara. small groups of sclerenchyma.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present.2.5-13. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya.4. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. thin-walled and rectangular. IDENTITY. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. parenchyma thin-walled. 2. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. wood composed of narrow concentric. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region.2. stone cells. 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.3 g. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. vessels of varying sizes with thick. numerous xylem fibres.

conjoint. Poaceae). characteristic. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral.) shrub. Ikshu (St. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. juicy and sweet. scattered throughout the ground tissue. solid. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. taste. cylindrical. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna.22. b) Microscopic Stem . rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. Serdi Ikha. with. closed type of vascular bundles. (Fam. odour. more numerous and closer towards periphery. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. 50 . besides the xylem and phloem elements. lignified. distinct node and internode. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. smooth. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node.

Appendix Not more than 2. ground tissue.Bal¡ Taila. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Appendix 2. Kaphahara. Sara. M£tra KÀaya. shows pieces of epidermis.3.7.2.400 ml in the juice form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.2.Powder light brick red.2.Powder . M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. Pittahara. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¤Àya. THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.4. vessels and sclerenchyma. IDENTITY. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. 2. 51 . DOSE .2.200 .5 per cent.2. 2. 2. V¡tahara.Sucrose.6. Balya.Raktapitta.

Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. tangentially elongated. parenchyma and medullary rays. occurring throughout the country. Havumakke. taste.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. Tuntikai. b) Microscopic Root .2-2. Tumbi Paikamatti.5 cm thick. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. Indravaruni. parenchymatous cells. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. a few filled with dark brown contents.) Cucurbitaceae). Valiya Pekkumatti. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. thin walled. thick-walled. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. Indravarana Gothakakucti. Paythumatti. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. short. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. Indrayan. elongated with pointed ends.5-7. Bitter apple Indravaran. Indravaruni (Rt.23. consisting of vessels. Indrayanalata. 0. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. xylem forms bulk of root. thick walled. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. fibres aseptate. slightly twisted. áatakratulat¡.5 µ in dia. parenchyma and medullary rays. dull yellow. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. lying around vessels. fibres. Indramanoa. composed of sieve elements. fracture. tangentially elongated cork cells. Varithummati. Gav¡kÀ¢. (Fam. an annual or perennial. longitudinal fissures present. cylindrical. intensively bitter. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. pitted. mostly simple or rarely 52 .

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

Brown coloured. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. brownish-black. cuminii Druce. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. b) Microscopic Powder . a large evergreen tree. Jambu (Sd..800 m.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. taste. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. astringent.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Eugenia jambolana Lam. oval. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. 57 . thin-walled. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. coriaceous covering. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. 1 cm long. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. smooth.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. oval or roundish. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval.. E. 1 cm wide.25. rounded starch grains. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. Myrtaceae). Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. Seed .) Skeels Syn. (Fam.

0. Udakameha.4. 0. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.L. KaÀ¡ya Guru. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C.95 and 0. ViÀ¶ambhi.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form.7. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U.V. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. 0. Appendix 2. 0.95 (all yellow).2. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 2.20.30 (blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Tannin. Appendix per cent. 58 . RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.30 and 0. 0. 2. Amla.IDENTITY. Kaphahara.Madhumeha. Appendix per cent. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittahara.Glycoside (Jamboline).6.3-6 g.2.30 and 0. three spots appear at Rf.95 (all violet). 0.C.20. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. DOSE .12. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ellagic acid and Gallic acid.2.2.3. T.2. 2.

lower cork thin and colourless.5 cm thick. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . forming a rhytidoma. short and splintery. a large evergreen tree. oval to angular. Jamu.. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. stone cells. upper few layers thick.800 m. taste.) Skeels Syn. Navval Sambu.Bk. 0.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Jam Jammu Naaval. fibres aseptate. (Fam. younger bark mostly channelled. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Jambu. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. E. Jamneralae. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. Raja Jambu Merale. Mahamaram. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. Myrtaceae). having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. astringent. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. and reddish brown. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Jambu (St. fracture. cuminii Druce.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. internal surface fibrous.26. and phloem rays. stratified and reddish-brown. rough. Neralamara -Njaval. light grey to ash coloured. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks.5-2. cork cambium not distinct. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. elongated. Jambuda Jomuna.

2. 2. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder .Atis¡ra.2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .region.7. Appendix per cent. elongated. Appendix 2.U¿¢r¡sava. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapitta. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide.2. Appendix per cent. oval to angular. V¡tala. single or in groups. round to oval starch grains. round to oval starch grains. Kaphahara. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . stone cells.10-20 g. 2. IDENTITY. reddish-brown content. 2.4.6.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. aseptate fibres.2. Appendix per cent. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. 2.Light brown. Stambhaka. of the drug for decoction. 60 . Pittahara. measuring 5-11µ in diameter.3. Appendix per cent. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.

often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. no marked odour.27. slightly bent at middle. oblong. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo.Shows a hard testa. Japal beej. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Neervalam Jepal. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. Neervalam. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. (Fam. Euphorbiaceae). Jayapala (Sd. Nervala -Nervalam. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. slightly quadrangular. thin-walled cells. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. kernel yellowish and oily. dull cinnamon-brown. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Japala. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity.) small evergreen tree. 61 . consisting of a large endosperm. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. b) Microscopic Seed . kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. found throughout tropical India. ovate. 5-7 m high. consisting of an epidermal layer. filled with brownish content. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. Tinti·¢phala.

Appendix 2. 0. 2. Vibandha DOSE . 0. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.2. Appendix 7 per cent. 0. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.63 and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 2. Appendix 15 per cent.L. 0.39.White with black particles of testa. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder . under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. 0.C. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.2.6. 0.90 (all yellow).34. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. 0.V.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. IDENTITY. 62 .6-12 mg. Appendix 0.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa.L.2.54 (yellow).2.34 (grey).84 (brown).84 (all violet).4. Appendix 3 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .7.29.Fixed oil. Udararoga. CONSTITUENTS . Resins & Phorbol esters.54 and 0. Pittahara. 0. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.5 per cent. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. 0.49. 2. 2.2.Jvara.10. T. of the drug in powder form.

Syn.3-0. paripinnate. Jayanti (Lf. present on both surfaces. S. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis .shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. stomata anisocytic. mucronate to acuminate. á£kÀma patra. Jayanti Jaita. aegyptiaca Pers. Karijimangai. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. linear. Lamina . (Fam.0-3.3 cm long. Atti.28. a quick growing..) Merr. opposite. 7. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta.shows single layered epidermis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. very shortly stalked. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. vascular bundles arranged in a ring.5-15. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. entire. jayata Arinintajinamgi. polygonal. pith small. having secretory cavities in phloem. 63 .8-6 m high. glabrous. parenchymatous cells. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. 1.8 cm wide.7 layered round. leaflets 6-16 pairs. 1. palisade single layered. oblong. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. 0. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. Jalugu. Arishimajingai. consisting of thin-walled. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. short lived shrub. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. Jay¡. Fabaceae).5 cm long. -Semp.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn.

0. V¡tahara.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.6.L.37. 0. DOSE . 0.25-4.M£trak¤cchra.37. Appendix per cent. 0.56. 2.4.3. 0. 0. 0.29. 64 .97 (all yellow).05.2. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .29.2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.91 and 0. 0. 0. Ras¡yana.2. 0. 0. Calcium and Phosphorus. palisade cells. IDENTITY.L. ViÀaroga. THERAPEUTIC USES .19.69. 0.56. Appendix 2. shows spongy parenchyma.19. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.2. 0.V. 0.Protein. CONSTITUENTS . On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. 2.2.29.91 and 0.56 (all pink) and 0. 2. Pittahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.2. Galaga¸·a. palisade ratio 3.97 (all grey). 0.05.97 (yellow). in powder form. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. T.Dull green.48.11. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa.C.05.3-6 g. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.48.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Appendix per cent.7.19.11. 0. 0.11. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Powder . 0.C.Ratnagiri Rasa. 0.

lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal.29. (Fam. brownish-orange. collapsed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. surface generally smooth and. seed without aril also prescent.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. ripe seeds. Jyotishmati (Sd. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. a large climbing shrub.5-3. Celastraceae). followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril.hard. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. Gangunge humpu. Seed . odour. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. taste. bitter. Gangunge beeja.35 mm in breadth. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. light to dark brown. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. colour. unpleasant.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin.

94 (yellow) in visible light. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.L. 0. Tikta Sara. 2.54. Appendix 2.35.C. 0. (all blue) & 0.82 (pink) & 0.89. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.4. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Under U. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.04. 0.54 (both blue). 0. 2. 0. Appendix 45 per cent. 0.Oily. UÀ¸a. áirovirecanopaga. CONSTITUENTS .15.63.V. 0. 2. V¡maka.2. dark brown. 0. V¡tahara.Alkaloids. 0.2. 0.L. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Appendix 6 per cent.89 (all yellow). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2.composed of polygonal. Powder .89 (both greenish blue).2. Meddhya 66 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).82 & 0.V. 2. Appendix 9 per cent.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. Kaphahara. D¢pana.82.54. 0.3. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.2. thin-walled. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.20. 0. Appendix 20 per cent. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.2.35.82.94 (yellow).2.2.7. Appendix 1. 0.8 IDENTITY.6. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Virecaka. 0. stone cells.C. Oil and Tannins.

V¡tavy¡dh¢. THERAPEUTIC USES .Seed: 1-2 g. 67 . DOSE . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. Sm¤tidaurbalya.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Oil : 5-15 drops.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. ávitra.

68 b) Microscopic . taste. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. A. Kadavala. Vellaikhadambu. indicus A. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. some cells contain chlorophyll. Kadamba Kadamba. Kadappai. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Priyka Roghu. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. elongated cells of phloem rays. a deciduous. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. Kadamba mara. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Syn.. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu.30. composed of thin-walled. Rubiaceae). large tree. Kadam Kadam. traversed by uni to triseriate. Rich. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Kadambu Needam. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. (Fam. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Kadamba Nipo. phloem composed of sieve tubes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. rectangular cells. Indulam. a few cells with brown contents.Bk. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. Kadamba (St. bitter. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Vellai Kadambam.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.

0. CONSTITUENTS . T.13. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. 0.6.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).03.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.7.D¡ha. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Steroids.5 per cent. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. 2. 0. cells distinct and slightly elongated. 2. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.3. L C. Appendix 1.31. 2.Brown. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. phloem cells.5 . outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.4. DOSE . 0. shows fragments of cork cells.90 (grey).79 (grey) and 0. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .79.21.64.2. Raktapitta.L. 69 . 0. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. 0. Lava¸a. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Appendix 9 per cent.2.5:10) shows under U. 0. Appendix 2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. Powder . Vra¸aropa¸a.2. of the drug in powder form.63 (yellowish grey).0. Vra¸a.2.1.2. V¡tahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Alkaloids.70 (orange yellow). Graha¸¢mihira Taila.83 and 0. fibres. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. 0.2. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal.phloem fibres. Appendix 5 per cent. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 3 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.5 g.57. YonidoÀa. 0.

ovary globose. calyx 2-3 mm long. Leaf . five lobed. narrowed at both ends. anther 1. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. hairy in lower part. 3-8 flowered cymes. flattened. Manitakkali. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. thin. quite common in cultivated lands. found throughout the country in dry parts.5-8. Pikachia. Flower . externally smooth. green. glabrous. extra-axillary. Stem . 2. yellowish. style cylindric. 1. a herbaceous annual weed. petiolate. slightly woody and branched. ganike. pale brown. obtuse. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali.P. Kakamachi (W. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. peduncles 6-20 mm long. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. sub-umbellate. 30-45 cm high. Manatakkali. corolla 4-8 mm long. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. ovate or oblong. glabrous.5 cm wide. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. pedicels 6-10 mm long.5 mm long. Ganikesopu. sinuate. Ganikegida. glabrous or pubescent.Simple.) Solanaceae). Manaththakkali. 70 . slender. filaments short. hairy at base. bark thin.31. oblong. very slender. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . (Fam. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. toothed or lobed.2-2.Small.25 mm long.Erect. obtuse notched at apex. road sides and gardens.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. white or pale violet. oblong.5 cm long and 2.

central vascular bundle shallow. usually accompanied by fibres. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. vascular bundles-collateral. polygonal cells. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. Midrib . xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. radially elongated cells. composed of thin-walled. starch grains. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. covered with striated cuticle.10 layered in angular parts.5 mm in dia.' oval parenchymatous cells.5-8. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. yellow. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. cambium 2-4 layered. arc71 . xylem rays homogenous. epidermis single layered. endoderrnis single layered. 1. bicollateral. minutely pitted. yellow or black.. filled with starch grains.. covered with thick. compactly arranged. pith large. uniseriate.Fruit . smooth. LeafPetiole . xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre.Shows single layered. tangentially elongated.Discoid.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. Stem . phloem consists of thin-walled. but 4. arcshaped. trichomes similar to those found on petiole.25 µ in dia. oval to round starch grains. trichomes multicellular. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. in small or large patches. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. parenchyma 4-6 layered. uniseriate. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. single or with two or rarely 3 components. embedded in perimedullary zones. slightly elongated. 6mm in dia. smooth shining Seed . secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. cortex of large.5-11 µ in dia. obtuse. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. slightly striated cuticle. measuring 2. phloem rays uniseriate. covered with striated cuticle.. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. internal phloem. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. conjoint and open. uniseriate. measuring 2. covering trichomes. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.A berry. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. rays composed of thin-walled.. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.

06 & 0. epidermis with irregular outline.4.97 (all yellow). Fruit . 72 . Appendix per cent.Alkaloids and Saponins. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. 2. unicellular hairs. stomata anisocytic.34 (both brown) in visible light.Shows thin. single.06. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.V.6. Appendix per cent. T. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. 0.dorsiventral. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Powder . in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.C.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. palisade ratio 2-4.Creamish-green.L.7. Appendix per cent.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. Appendix 2. papery epicarp. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit.06 & 0.11 µ in diameter.2. a few vessels with spiral thickenings. Under U. CONSTITUENTS .2. 2. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis.34 (both pink). measuring 2. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C.2.2.3.5 . On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.2. vein islet number 7-10. 034 and 0.2. Lamina . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. a few broken pieces of pointed. 2. Appendix per cent. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. present beneath palisade parenchyma. IDENTITY. palisade single layered. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. 0. 2.

Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Svarya. Kaphahara. V¡tahara. Netraroga. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. 73 . of the drug in juice form. KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·u. Ras¡yana. H¤dya. THERAPEUTIC USES . Chardi.áotha. Prameha. Tikta Laghu.5 -10 ml. Hikk¡. DOSE . Jvara. Ar¿a.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Pittahara. Sara. Rasar¡ja Rasa. H¤droga.

Kalh¡ra. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Kamala (Fl. 1. black. Tavare. Tavaregedd -Tamara. 3-5 cm long. embedded in a creamy. broken pieces also occur. sepals leaf-like. erect. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Kanwal Kamal. 74 .) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. seed hard. linear 1. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. gynoecium and thalamus. Venthamara. dark brown. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Thamaraipoo. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. carpels many. starchy and large. Kamalam. yellowish-brown. Kamal. fruit an etaerio of achenes. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Sitopala. Aravindan. Padma. Chenthamara. a large. membranous.32. androecium.4-2 cm long. Syn. Paduman. 2-4 cm long.3-2 cm wide. Aravinda. crimp led. corolla. anther. (Fam. Pamposh Tamarai. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Nymphaeaceae). free. 1.5-3 cm wide. elliptic. obtuse. finely veined. extended into clavate appendages. comprising of calyx. crimpled. gynoceium apocarpous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. petals numerous. Sarojam Kaluva. Naidile.

6. Anther . two on either sides. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues.7.2. parenchymatous cells. followed by ground tissue of oval. THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. spore sac contains yellow. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. DOSE . consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle.2. yellow pollen grains.shows four chambered anther. Powder . having smooth exine and intine.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). spherical. Appendix per cent. rectangular. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. vascular bundle single.Dusty brown. 2. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. Sant¡pahara.b) Microscopic Flower Petal .2. IDENTITY.2. of the drug for decoction.2. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. angular. ViÀavik¡ra. 2. 2.Aravind¡sava. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. parenchymatous cell. Appendix 2. Pittahara.2. Tikta. M£tra Virajan¢ya. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ground tissue consisting of polygonal. Appendix per cent.4. . Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara.Raktapitta. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. 2.filament appears circular in outline. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. composed of thin-walled. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.12 -24 g. Appendix per cent. Stamen Filament . shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Visarpa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS .3. columnar. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter.

sharp. slightly triangular and oval. glabrous tree with strong. Pulp. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. Syn. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. stone cells. straight. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. sour. rough.) Swingle.shows irregular. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. a deciduous. F. axillary thorns. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Balada. odour. found in groups. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael.33. found throughout the plains of India. Kavataleal. Rutaceae). numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Belalu. aromatic. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . Powder . shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. reddish brown.Reddish-brown. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Haminamara -Vilar maram. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. often cultivated in many parts of India. semicircular. 76 . triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. parenchymatous cells. Kapittha (Fr. Belada hannu. thin-walled. Bilvara. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. taste. stone cells. hard. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. elephantum Correa (Faro. Siwalik range and forests.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn.

V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS . T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.50. 0.2. 2. 6.91 (blue) and 0. Appendix 2. Sangr¡h¢.C. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent.95 (blue). Under U.C. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. Gr¡h¢. 77 .95 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. 0.6.91 (grey) in visible light. 0.7. Appendix per cent. Lekhana. 2. Ripe-T¤À¡.2.91 and 0. of the drug in powder form. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya.06.95 (violet) . Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya. 0. V¡mi. 0. Agnim¡ndya. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. Unripe Pulp: Amla.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.50 (violet).2.2. Appendix per cent.2. 0. 0.37.12.áv¡sa.4.L.14 (sky blue).91 (violet) and 0. Amla. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0.1-3 g. 2. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.L. Hikk¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Pittav¡tahara.12 (brown).2. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. DOSE .Citric acid and Mucilage.37 (brown).3. 0.V. Vra¸an¡¿aka.

a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam . secondary cortex composed of thin-walled.Bk. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. light in weight. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. and compound having 2-3 components. sometimes cultivated.) Apocynaceae). Karamarda (St. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. met throughout India in wild state. flat or slightly curved pieces. fracture. short. simple and compound starch grains. b) Microscopic Powder . rough due to longitudinal striations. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. shows single and groups of stone cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. tubular. measuring 3-7 µ in dia.34. starch grains simple. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. 78 . internal surface grey and smooth.Greyish-brown. external surface brownish-grey. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3.

Appendix per cent.6.3.2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.58 (both light grey).35. Appendix per cent.V.L. 0.L.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.C. 2. Appendix per cent. of the drug for decoction.52 (light sky blue).90 (pink) and 0. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittakara. 79 .Marma Gu¶¢k¡. Appendix 2.2.97 (violet).2.7.C. 0. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.4.IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. DOSE . 2.KuÀthahara. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. 2. 0.2.48 g. T. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.

upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Bk. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. cells.. (Fam. fibrous.35. tangentially elongated cells. Naktam¡la. tangentially elongated. traversed by phloem rays. secondary phloem very wide. external surface rough. Fabaceae).) glabra Vent. 3-11 µ in dia. P. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. very bitter. Nakt¡hv¡.. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. a glabrous tree. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. due to peeling off. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. single cells of varying shape and size. Syn. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Karanja (Rt. taste. fracture. internally.) Merr. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. most of phloem 80 . of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. thin-walled.

of the drug for decoction.5 per cent. Powder -Creamish-yellow. T. Appendix 3.31 (sky blue).Flavones Kanugin. THERAPEUTIC USES . cork cells.80 (light blue).09. mostly straight. 0.08 (greenish blue). shows thin-walled. Appendix 2 per cent.K¤miroga. Prameha. 0.2.6. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C. Yoniroga. 0.C. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf.47. 0. 2.04 (blue). Ka¸·£ghna.7. 0. 0.80 and 0.51. Ëntravidradhi.2. DuÀ¶avra¸a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 81 .2.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.13 (Sky blue). radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. 1-2 seriate.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.37. most of ray cells contain starch grain. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2. 0. consisting of thin-walled. 0.51 (light blue). parenchymatous cells. Pittahara. V¡tahara.2. 0. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. KuÀtha. Ka¸·u.37 (greenish yellow). 2. DOSE . phloem fibres.1-3 g.25 (sky blue).3. IDENTITY.98 (all yellow). KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0. 0. ViÀaghma. 0. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. Appendix 11 per cent.42 (sky blue).L.18. 2.2.47.31.18 (blue) 0.47 (greenish yellow). phloem rays many. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. 0.4. Appendix 17 per cent.V. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 2. Tikta. 0.

taste. Karanja (Rt.. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. irregularly distributed. light in weight. tangentially elongated. reddish-brown or dull brown. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Karaµjaka. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. 1-2 seriate. Nakt¡hv¡. (Fam. bark. Fabaceae). Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes.. internally light yellow. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. consisting of 82 . tangentially elongated cells. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. 3-11 µ in dia. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. bitter. P. fracture. secondary phloem a very wide zone. Syn. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight.) Merr. rounded to oval in shape. thin-walled. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components.36. rough due to the presence of numerous. a glabrous tree. bark does not easily separate from xylem. cells.) Vent.

Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. starch grains. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. of the drug in powder form. rounded to oval in shape. Vra¸a¿odhana.2. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. DOSE .1-2 g.3. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings.2.Karanjin. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. ViÀaghna. tangentially elongated towards outer region. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. consisting of 2-3 components. 2.2.. Tikta. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. shows fibres in singles or groups. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Prameha.4. Powder -Light yellow. Pittahara. Vidradh¢. Appendix 2. more. 83 . 2. Appendix per cent. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. fibres and parenchyma.2. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound.7. K¤miroga.Methylfisetin. tracheids. Appendix per cent. 2. Ka¸·£. Kanugin.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. Yoniroga. CONSTITUENTS . Demethoxy-kanugin. Ëntravidradh¢.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Pongachromene & Tetra-O.6. KuÀ¶ha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays.radially elongated. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. thin-waned cells towards inner region.2.

more or less smooth. a glabrous tree. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. filled with reddish-brown content. P. Karanja (St. fracture. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. thick-walled cells. at some places lenticels also appear.2-1 cm thick. Karanja. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. 84 . Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. phloem parenchyma. fibre small.) glabra Vent. recurved. short and fibrous.Bk. Nakt¡hv¡. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. Syn. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. Karaµjaka.. traversed by medullary rays. phloem fibre and stone cells. arranged in a tangential manner.) Merr. slightly quilled. lenticellate pieces. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Fabaceae). unpleasant. b) Microscopic Bark . bitter. (Fam. odour. taste. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. usually 0. tangentially elongated. composed of rectangular.37. alternating with stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.

medullary rays wavy. IDENTITY. thin-walled and aseptate. Pittahara. Appendix 2. 85 . shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. Appendix 18 per cent. Kaphahara.polygonal. usually 2-4 cells wide. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin.6. KuÀ¶ha.2. Appendix 1. Kanugin. Tikta.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Yoniroga DOSE .DuÀ¶avra¸a. Demethoxy- kanugin.2. Ëntravidradh¢. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . phloem parenchyma and rays cells. ViÀaghma.5 per cent. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 3 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . simple and compound starch grains. oil globules found in secondary phloem only.2. 2. Pongapin. elongated. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate.2. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components.2.3.4.2. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". 2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. K¤miroga. 5Methoxyfurano (2". 2. V¡tahara. Gamatin. CONSTITUENTS . oil globules.1-2 g. Ka¶u. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. Appendix 13 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Vidradh¢. present in secondary cortex. aseptate fibre and stone cells. 3".Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. and rarely.. Prameha. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex.7. starch grains simple. Powder -Yellowish-cream. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. 3" 7 : 8). rounded to oval. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. Ka¸·u. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. 2. Pinnatin.

Kanajo Karuaini. Nakt¡hv¡. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. leaflets 2-3 pairs.5-0.11. petiolule short. Hulagilu -Pungu. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. 86 . arcshaped. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. xylem vessels arranged radially.5 cm long and 3. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Karanja. Unu.8 cm.9-8.3 cm wide. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. 6. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. epidermis single layered. Fabaceae). Ungu. covered with cuticle. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. Dithouri Honge.2 . consistig of tabular cells.) Merr. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. (Fam. Karaµjaka. Pongana Ganuga. 0.) Vent. Syn. cortex consisting of angular. dark green. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. traversed by xylem rays.circular in outline. P. isodiametric. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. vascular bundle single. consisting of xylem and phloem.38. a glabrous tree.. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. Karanja (Lf.

6.5 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. covered with thick cuticle. Appendix 2. stomata anisocytic. 5" . Appendix 3. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . 2. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.2. Ka¶u. 7) -flavone.5-50. consisting of tabular cells.2.6. 2. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.3.2. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.6. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. Kaphahara. palisade two layered.2. mesophyll cells.4. present in lower surface.(4". epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.shows single layered epidermis. 2. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.Mid rib . phloem and pith.5". conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. Appendix 16 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.A new Furanoflavone -3' . cortex consists of round to oval.7. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.2. stomatal index 12. CONSTITUENTS .5) . shows spiral xylem vessels. Powder -Green. Pittavardhaka. vascular bundle. . collateral.5-20. Appendix 11 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. palisade ratio 3. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Tikta. 5". 2. V¡tahara. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".6. K¤imihara.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". Ka¸·ughna.

KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·au. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . 88 . Vra¸a.K¤miroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .J¡ty¡di Taila.For external use only.

2.6. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. oblong. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. Appendix 2.2. usually pointed or beaked. 2. taste. fusiform.7.2. pendulous. (Fam. Appendix 28 per cent. IDENTITY. K¡ravall¢. Varivall¢. Kakiral. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.Fr.25 cm long.6 per cent. Nil Appendix 8. 3 valved at the apex when mature.2. 2.4. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. 2.3. Appendix 6 per cent.39. 2. Kathilla. extremely bitter. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.2. Karavallaka (Fresh. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.5 .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. upto an altitude of 1500 m.5 per cent. Appendix 0.) Cucurbitaceae). light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. surface rough.

16. 0. 0.61 (light sky blue).98 (all blue). DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.23 (red). 90 . 0.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. 0.81 and 0.03.15 ml. 0.L. 0. 0. 0.67 and 0. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.60. K¤miroga.50.V. THERAPEUTIC USES .Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. H¤dya.98 (all yellow).C.C.96 (sky blue). juice of fresh drug. Raktavik¡ra.75.43.98 (red & sky blue). Prameha.34.áv¡sa. Jvara. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. K¡sa. Kaphahara.10 . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. P¡¸·u. 0. K¡mal¡.L.17. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. CONSTITUENTS . KuÀ¶ha. Aruci. D¢pana. 0. V¡tahara. 0.T.46. 0. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. T.

) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. cork cambium 1-2 layered. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. bitter. 5-10 cm long. Katki. kaur Katuka rohini. 0. Kauka. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. Sutiktaka. suberised cells. short. straight or slightly curved. fracture. externally greyish-brown. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. pleasant. Scrophulariaceae). surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles.1 cm in diameter.Thin. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Kaurohi¸¢. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . odour. Rohi¸¢. Katuka rohini Kutki. cortex single layered or absent. short. inner surface black with whitish xylem. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. Tiktarohi¸¢. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars.40. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. fracture. (Fam. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. primary cortex persists 91 . b) Microscopic Rhizome . Katuka (Rz. cylindrical. taste. bitter. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. odour.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. a perennial. Root . Kav¢. taste.2. . pleasant. dusty grey. subcylindrical. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. mostly attached with rhizomes.05-0. Katuku rohini.

consisting of oval to polygonal. tracheids.41. starch grains.104 µ in diameter.10.2.05 (blue). secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. Powder . 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. hypodermis single layered.30 (blue) and 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. thick-walled. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.35 (green). 0.in some cases.17. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. thick-walled cells of endodermis. thick-walled.2. tracheids. simple round to oval. 0.17. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation.L. Appendix per cent.6. abundantly found in all cells.3. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. Appendix per cent. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. 0.84 (all brownish grey). tapering ends. fibres aseptate.62. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. secondary xylem consists of vessels. some cylindrical with taillike. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. cortex 8-14 layered.L. 2.30. 0.V. 92 . 0. measuring 25 . Appendix 2. thick-walled.84 (all yellow).21. cambium 2-4 layered. 0.4. tracheids long. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. secondary phloem poorly developed. 2. parenchyma and fibres.37. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. 2. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.. parenchyma. T.72 and 0. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork.2. vessels have varying shape and size.2.2. 0. lignified. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf.30.C. thick-walled. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 0. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. simple round to oval. 0. IDENTITY. starch grains.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.10.C. 2.05. parenchymatous cells.7. 0.21. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent.41 and 0. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs.Dusty grey.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. D¡ha. Tiktaka Gh¤ta.1 . K¡mal¡.áv¡sa. KuÀ¶ha.3 g. Pittahara. Arocaka.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). THERAPEUTIC USES . D¢pan¢. of the drug in powder form. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. 93 . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya.CONSTITUENTS . Jvara. Bhedin¢. DOSE . ViÀamajvara.

Stem . no characteristic odour and taste. acute. Kolavankal ---. Flower .P. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. which are 1. upper sepal 1. no characteristic odour and taste. 1-7 cm long. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. abruptly swollen at top. common in water logged places throughout the country.6-2 cm long. Kokilaksha (W. externally greyish-brown. calyx 4-partite.5 cm long.Usually unbranched.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees.2 cm long. Kalsunda --Golmidi. swollen at nodes. widely 2 lipped.Greenish-brown. corolla 3. Culli.Anders (Fam. a spiny.3 cm long. entire and hairy.Yellowish-brown. subsessile. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. stamens 4.Acanthaceae). annual herb. Leaf .5-1 cm wide. sub-quadrangular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. IkÀuraka. Vayalculli Talikhana. Kolarind.Mostly adventitious. 0. didynamous. all linear-lanceolate. Hygrophila spinosa T. Syn. Nirchulli. with long white hairs. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. Kettu. bracts about 2. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . fasciculate. whitish to brown. Nirguvireru.6 cm long. stout. broader than the other three. lanceolate.41. tube 1. second pair 94 . coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins.

arranged radially. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. Seed . involute with a fissure on upper side. broader towards centre. capsule about 0. ray cells thin-walled. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. 95 . circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. pubescent. light brown. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. truncate at the base. radially elongated in secondary xylem. radially elongated in xylem region. ray cells thin walled. polygonal cells. pointed. thin-walled cells. 0. filament quite glabrous.15 cm wide. endodermis single layered. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. composed of transversely elongate. flat or compressed. a few thick-walled. thin-walled. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. with a number of large air cavities. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. cortical cells thin-walled. stigma simple. single or in groups of 2-3. fibre walls uniformly thickened. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts.0. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. Fruit . b) Microscopic Root . vessels with spiral thickenings.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. 4seeded. xylem present in a ring. radially arranged. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. style filiform. composed of polygonal. inner cells smaller. round. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. phloem narrow. subequal. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. vessels angular. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. phloem fibres thick-walled. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. consisting of round to polygonal cells. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex.8 cm long. compressed. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. moderately thick-walled. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. oblong. scattered throughout the phloem region. peripheral ones larger.2-0.Ovate.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. rectangular to cubical. anthers two celled. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. variable in size. pith large.1 . hairy but appearing smooth.larger. linear-oblong. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips.25 cm long and 0. having small intercellular spaces. glabrous. arranged in radial rows. where these cells are mostly radially elongated.Two celled. Stem . fibres thick-walled. brownish cells.

palisade. palisade 1-2 layered. lignified.2. Tikta Picchila. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. Seed . palisade ratio 6. Fruit . Amla. collenchyma 2-5 layered. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. Rucya.25-15.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface.75. stomatal index 17. vein islet number 17-42. composed of thin-walled.Shows concavo-convex outline.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells.4.24-30. Appendix per cent.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered.2. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. unicellular hairs and globules.2. parenchymatous. thick-walled.2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. 2. shows aseptate. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.6.LeafMidrib . a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . M£trala. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. . sclerenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¡jikara. thin-walled. oval to hexagonal. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. Powder .78. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.7.2. Lamina . rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. V¤Àya. 2. elongated fibres. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.3.2. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. covered with thick cuticle. stomata diacytic. 2. tangentially elongated cells. 2.Light brown.

3 -6 g.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). V¡tarakta. 97 . Ëmav¡ta áotha.T¤À¸¡. DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES .

thin-walled. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. Kokilaksha (Rt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. common in water logged places throughout the country. whitish to brownish. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. a spiny. no characteristic odour and taste. Kolavulike.Acanthaceae). epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. stout. IkÀuraka. Kokil¡kÀ¢. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. thinwalled cells. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. 98 . most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. Anders (Fam. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. slightly transversely elongated. secondary phloem narrow. Syn. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. annual herb. polygonal cells. Culli --.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Hygrophila spinosa T. the size of these cells. branches on nodes. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex.42. Root-Appears circular in outline. consisting of small. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Nerugobbi.

Light brown to ash coloured.2. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. IDENTITY. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. angular. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara.6.4. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. broader towards centre. vessels with spiral thickening. of the drug for decoction.3.2. ray cells thin-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES . A¿ma¤¢. radially elongated in the xylem region. M£trala. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.7. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. Amla. lignified fibres.2. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. shows fragments of pitted. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent.3 -6 g.2. Tikta Picchila. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. having spiral thickening. Appendix per cent.2. fibre walls uniformly thickened. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . 2. scattered throughout the phloem region. 2.2. 99 .Ëmav¡ta áotha. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. 2. Appendix per cent. each group composed of 2-6 cells. V¡tarakta. Powder .

flat or compressed. Anders. Maradarishana. hairy but appearing smooth.Greyish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. shows hairs and oil globules. IkÀuraka.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. oil globules present in this region. taste. parenchymatous cells. Maradarishina -Maramannal. b) Microscopic Seed .43. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. Daruhuladur Darhald. the 100 .Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Kokilaksha (Sd. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. (Fam. common in water logged places throughout the country. Powder . stout. Acanthaceae). thinwalled. annual herb. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi.8 -10. Hygrophila spinosa T. Swelling Index . truncate at the base. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. Syn. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. white. a spiny. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. light yellowish-brown.

Kaphahara.31. 0.76 (sky blue) and 0.31 (dark brown). 0. 0. enzymes like Diastase. 2.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. Protease and an Alkaloid. V¡tarakta. 101 . 0.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.24 (dark brown). Appendix per cent.2. 0. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .41 (light blue). including any sticky mucilage.2.38 (light brown). DOSE .52 and 0. 0.93 (sky blue). 0. T. V¤Àya. 0.10 (light brown). On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.An yellow semi-drying oil. Pitt¡¿mar¢.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.24. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. Santarpa¸a. 2. Add 25 ml of water. 0.24 (red). IDENTITY. 0. 0.03.03 (light brown).L.52 (dark brown) and 0.38.áotha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.55 (light blue). On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.17 (light brown).V.2.L. 0.. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form.4.72 (all yellow). CONSTITUENTS .3.C. 2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. 0.6.3 -6 g. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.2. related to 1 g of seeds. 0.C. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.2. 0.17.72 (dark brown). Appendix 2. Lipase.

25-0. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. small.2 cm in diameter. Lonika. 0. brownish-grey. branched.A few. Kulfa. found throughout the country.5 cm long. Payilikura. subtended by an involucre. Peddapavila Kura. fracture. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. stamens 8-12.3 to 2.Cylindrical.35-0. Baranunia Garden Purslane. cuneiform. swollen at the nodes. Badi Lona Dudagorai. fracture. Kozhuppa. bright yellow. characteristic. oblique.P) Portulacaceae). Moti Luni Khursa. ribbed. 0. oblong. sepal 0. secondary roots.44. 3-4 leaves.6 cm wide. -Baraloniya. short.4 cm long. 50 cm long.Simple. Flower . root hairs abundant in upper region. Kozhuppu Pappukura. very delicate and soon falling off. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. Badanuni. 0. smooth and greenish-brown. Kozuppa. Loni. petals obovate. Khurfa. spathulate. Leaf .1 to 0. (Fam. Doddagoni Soppu. less in number. 0. short. Ghola -Lonak. Chhotalunia. 102 .1 to 0. Stem . Loni.An ovoid capsule.3 cm long. an annual succulent. rounded and truncate at the apex. at terminal heads. Fruit . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Paruppukkeerai. Kuzuppa (W. style 5-6 fid. Loni -Koricchira. surface smooth. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Gho¶ik¡. odour.4 cm long. sub-sessile. dehiscing above the base. prostrate herb. Common Indian Purslane Luni. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡.Almost cylindrical. Kwfa Pasalai. Pulikkirai.5 cm long and 0.

simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled.07 cm across. reniform. dark brown. oval. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. stomata paracytic type. having 2-3 components. pitted and spiral vessels. Lamina . Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells.2. parenchymatous cells. simple as well as compound. parenchymatous cells. IDENTITY. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. phloem and xylem parenchyma.4. parenchyma abundant. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. arranged in radial rows.Wavy in outline. Appendix 2.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. Powder . vessels. . 2. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.06-0. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled.Seed -Numerous. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. secondary xylem consists of vessels. covered externally with a thick cuticle. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening.2. tracheids and parenchyma.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis.2. as well as compound. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. 0. fragments of cork cells. thick-walled with wide lumen. minute. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. ray cells and pith.6. Appendix per cent.7. phloem. tracheids. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged.2. shows groups of oval to polygonal. oval cells. b) Microscopic Root . having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. Appendix per cent. having intercellular spaces. tracheids and parenchyma. black. measuring 6-14 µ . having simple pits and spiral thickening. 2. present in mesophyll cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. thin-walled.2. solitary or in groups of 2-5. pericycle fibre present in patches.2. 2. secondary xylem composed of vessels. palisade single layered.Greyish-brown. 2. Stem . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent.3.. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. LeafMidrib .

0. 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .68.08. Carbohydrates. of the drug in powder form.52 (both faint green). 0. 0. 104 . Ar¿a.52.41. CakÀuÀya.C.L. 0.6 g.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .L. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .68 and 0. 0. áotha.V. 0.Marma Gu¶ik¡. Gulma.76 and 0. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. V¡tahara.68 (yellow) and 0. Vra¸a DOSE .C.10..08.41. Prameha. (both green).Protein. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.76 (all pinkish red). 0.T.50. 0.61.Agnim¡ndya.10. Pittakara.10. 0. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.3 . T. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Under U.76 (green) in visible light. RukÀa. 0.

easily separable from wood. Var¡kr¡nt¡. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. varying in length. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. bark fibrous. upto 2. bark fibrous. greyish brown to brown.6-1. Machikegida. nearly glabrous. Adamalati Lajaka. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. Lajavanti. stipulate. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. odour. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. 25-50 cm high. Lajjalu (W. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. tapering. external surface light brown. slightly astringent. hairy pinnae. Stem .5 cm in dia.45.3-0.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. yellowish-green. Lajamani Chhuimui. sensitive to touch. distinct. alternate.Cylindrical.P) diffused undershrub. 0. rependant . Lajauni Muttidasenui. (Fam. leaflets 10-20 pairs. woody.4 cm broad.week bristles longitudinally grooved. sessile. 105 . upto 2 cm thick. petiolate.Cylindrical. with secondary and tertiary branches. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. internal cut surface grey. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. linear lanceolate. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country.2 cm long. Fabaceae). fracture hard. obliquely rounded at base. covered with long. Leaf . acute. 0. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sparsely prickly. taste.

secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem rays radially elongated. scattered throughout secondary xylem. calyx very small. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. b) Microscopic Root . glabrous. secondary cortex wide. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. phloem rays thick-walled. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. straw coloured. arranged in tangential bands. thick-walled. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. thick-walled. 1-1.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. tangentially elongated to oval. crystal fibres elongated. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered.3 cm long. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. crystal fibres thick-walled. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. respectively. simple.Lomentum. phloem fibres single or in groups. spreading bristle at sutures. 2-3 seriate more common. radially elongated. fibres single or in groups. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. peduncles prickly. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. oval-elliptic.Pink. in globose head. ovary sessile. consisting of large. 0. brown to grey. starch grains. scattered throughout. 0. filled with reddish-brown contents.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. dry. fibres. ovate oblong. rarely multiseriate. lobes 4. 2. parenchyma.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face.6 cm long. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. fibres of two types. thick-walled. corolla pink. 3-25 chambered. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.4-0. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. Stem . 106 . moderately thick-walled. tangentially elongated cells. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. pith consisting of polygonal.3 long. a number of lignified. much exserted. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. Seed . Fruit . phloem rays uni to multiseriate.Flower . 0. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. ovules numerous. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.Compressed. stamens 4.

yellow or brown parenchymatous cells.shows single layered epidermis.35. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U.2. 2. Lamina . lignified cells followed by single layered. Appendix per cent. pitted vessels. Fruit . measuring 6-25 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Powder .3 components IDENTITY.69 (all blue) and 0. shows.62. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. parenchymatous cells. vascular bundle single. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells.shows epidermis on both surfaces. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. spongy parenchyma. parenchymatous cells Seed .2. spongy parenchyma single layered.2. reticulate. 2. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. with 2 . 2.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma.2. branched.6. palisade single layered. Appendix per cent.7.L. fibres. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled.Leaf- Petiole . Appendix per cent.81 (bluish-pink). single and compound starch grains.2.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . pericycle same as in petiole. Appendix per cent. pericycle arranged in a ring. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. 2. one in each wing. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.C. 0. shaggy hairs. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 2. crystal fibres. covered with thin-cuticle.Reddish-brown. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent.4.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.L. endocarp of thick-walled. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. branched. palisade cells non glandular.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. Midrib .V. 0. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. T. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. embryo straight with short and thick radicle.C.3. shaggy hairs. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally.

Vra¸a. CONSTITUENTS .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Atis¡ra. áv¡sa. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. KuÀ¶ha. Yoniroga.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. Ku¶aj¡valeha. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.35 and 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .35 (orange).spots appear at Rf. 0. D¡ha. Kaphahara. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Raktapita DOSE .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a.áopha. 108 . PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.

latifolia (Roxb. basifixed.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. followed by thin-walled. Mahua Katiluppai. Sapotaceae) . Hippenara. sweet.5-2 cm long.Gmel. taste. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. Ilippa. lanceolate. Kattu Iluppai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Mahawash tree Mahudo. reddish-brown. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. short. a few 109 . lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). b) Microscopic Corolla . vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues.46. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. Ippa. anther sub-sessile. corolla fleshy. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. erect 0. Madhuka. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Eppimara -Irippa. Iluppa. tabular. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Syn.F. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. Madhuka (Fl. epipetalous and arranged in two series. and also cultivated. Halippe. epipetalous. Androecium . stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). (Fam.) Macbride. ovate lanceolate. Hippe. M. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua.Petal shows a single layered epidermis.

oval shaped.2.4. KÀaya. Powder .2. Appendix 5 per cent. lignified cells. shows fragments of epidermal cells. Appendix 0.unicellular hairs present on one side.2. 2. KÀata. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. árama DOSE . spherical. T¤À¸¡. Appendix 10 per cent. Pittakara.2.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . round. Appendix 2. El¡di Modaka. Ah¤dya.5 per cent. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.15 g. 2. Appendix 70 per cent.3. 2. 2.2. pollen grains single or in groups.10 .Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. V¡tahara.6. unicellular hairs.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug. 2.áv¡sa. Balya. Appendix 25 per cent. endothecium composed of radially elongated. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.Dark brown. tapetum not distinct. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls.7.2. IDENTITY.Madh£k¡sava. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . áramahara. D¡ha. 110 .

short. 0. Syn... non Link.5-5 cm long. or elliptic.1. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . (Fam. Matsy¡duni.P. weak. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡.. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Leaf .3-7. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. short.5 cm long. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. Bahli. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region.Cylindrical.6 cm diameter. linear-oblong.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. triandra Lam.) R. often rooting at lower nodes. Amaranthaceae). nodiflora R. A. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. with spreading branches from the base. nodes and internodes distinct. 0..47..5 cm wide. Gandal¢. Br. no characteristic odour and taste. bracteoles 111 . sessile. Matshyakshi (W.Herbaceous.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. Br. A. internodes 0. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. no characteristic odour and taste. fracture. 2. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. repens Gmel. fracture. yellowish-brown to light-brown. no characteristic odour and taste. denticulata R. Br. cream to grey. obtuse or subacute. white often tinged with pink.3-2 cm wide. Flower . A.1-0. Stem . A.

compressed. acute. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface.dorsiventral. palisade 2-3 layers. isodiametic cells. orbicular. xylem tissues lignified. pith distinct. radially arranged cork cells. sepals ovate. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Utricle. 1. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Fruit . parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. with are conjoint. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. irregular. perianth 2. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral.1. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. 112 . no characteristic odour and taste. thin-walled round or oval. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. consistig of thin-walled. present in the centre. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. parenchymatous cells. collenchymatous cells. compressed with thickened margins. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. style very short. consisting of thin-walled cells.5 mm long. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. numerous. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. b) Microscopic Root . 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. shows wavy or undulate. vascualr bundles radially arranged. thin. Lamina . each consisting of xylem and phloem.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. capitellate. parenchymatous cells.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. round to oval. covered wtith striated cuticle. stomata paracytic. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. bicollateral. vascular bundles three. thin-walled. open and exarch. round or oval. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. palisade ratio 3-5. Stem .5-3 mm long. secondary cortex narrow. Leaf- Midrib . spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. pith consisting of thin-walled. single layered.2 cm long. ovary obcordate. scarious. parenchymatous cells. no characteristic odour and taste. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. with anomalous secondary growth. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. isodiametric. ovate. parenchymatous cells. composed of thin-walled.

6.3.7. 0.33. 0. 0.4.2. 0.59. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix 2.C. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. 2.44 (all green).Sugar. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. T. 113 . IDENTITY.44. 0.35. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.18.2. 0. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.5 per cent. 0.68 (all red).2.V. 0.16. Tikta. 0. Under U. 0. CONSTITUENTS .KuÀ¶ha. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 3 per cent.2 -3 g. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. 0. Appendix 4.25.16.L. Kaphahara.2. Appendix 19 per cent.2.C. THERAPEUTIC USES .44.2. 0.81. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Powder .94 and 0.L. paracytic stomata. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tahara.96 (all yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf..33 and 0. Appendix 10 per cent. of the drug in powder form.54 and 0. 0.Olive green. Pittavik¡ra. 2.

thin-walled. several layers of thin walled. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. taste. 114 .15-0.) aromatic. (Fam. pleasant. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. b) Microscopic Seed . Fabaceae). very hard. cultivated throughout the country. varying in size. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. odour.2-0. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. covered externally with thick cuticle. parenchymatous cells. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. Methi (Sd. bitter.5 cm long. dull yellow. 30-60 cm tall. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part.walled. 0.35 cm broad.48. annual herb. 0.Seed shows a layer of thick. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. mucilaginous cells. smooth. cells flat at base. columnar palisade.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. THERAPEUTIC USES .6. 2.Graha¸¢. aleurone grains. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form.Alkaloid. IDENTITY.4.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 4 per cent. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.Mustak¡riÀ¶a.2.3. Appendix 5 per cent.2. Prameha. 2. Sapogenins and Mucilage. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.Yellow. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. Appendix 2. Powder .rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. 2. Appendix 0. Jvara.3-6 g.2. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. Rucya.5 per cent. oil globules. Aruci DOSE . Kaphahara. 115 .2.

odour.1-1.P. cylindrical. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5-10 cm long. (Fam. complete 1-2 cm long. taste.7-2.3 cm long. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. petals 1. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. Muli. yellowish-green.0 cm in dia. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. Stem . Flower . cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. variable size and thickness. an annual or biennial bristly herb. having a few longitudinal striations. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. upper most leaves simple. slightly pungent.Slender. Leaf .000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. blade obovate. oblong. sometimes brown red. hollow. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. 0.Flower in long terminal raceme. sub-marginate at the apex. petiole 5-5. pedicel with scattered hairs.) Brassicaceae). bright green. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. Mulaka (W. coarsely toothed. compressed.Root cylindrical.49. seplas 6. not distinct. regular.. lyrate.Lower leaves hairy. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . bisexual.2 cm long.

appears biconvex in outline. erect. cylindrical. style about 4 mm long. present in cortex. two outer smaller and four inner longer. epidermis followed by 6.4 cm thick. traversed by phloem rays. Fruit . secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.dorsiventral. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. 1-2 chambered. parenchymatous cells. one central and two lateral. parenchymatous cells. sometimes flattened. greenish-yellow.Reddish-brown.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. irregularly globose.purple vein. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. occasionally pale purple. endodermis at some places. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. ovary superior. 10-12 ovuled. b) Microscopic Root . round to oval. cork cells. parenchymatous cells. green or brown-purple. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers.Siliqua. epidermis single layered. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. present only on upper side. Seed . 2-4 mm long. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. pith a wide zone of polygonal. Leaf- Petiole . epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle.1. longitudinally sulcatus. taste.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. traversed by xylem rays. present in cortex and phloem. phloem. vascular bundle three in number. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. starch grains simple. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. Lamina . 3-9 cm long and 0. continuous or more or less constricted. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. thin-walled. radially arranged. 117 . round to oval. stamen 6 in two whorls. oily. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. elliptical. covered with thick cuticle. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.8. palisade 2-3 layers. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. Midrib . vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. medullary rays four to many cells wide. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. 2 mm wide.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. single layered. thin-walled. hairs unicellular. Stem . solitary or ingroups. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends.

CONSTITUENTS . parenchymatous cells.40 ml. tangentially elongated.4. covered with a thin-cuticle. Tikta Laghu. reddish-brown.2. shows aseptate fibres. DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.M£lakakÀ¡ra. parenchymatous cells present. Gandhaka Va¶¢. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. Svarya. Gulma. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. straight cuticle. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Appendix per cent.Fruit .Yellowish-green. of columnar cells. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. Seed .2. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Appendix 2.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. P¢nasa. 118 .20 . IDENTITY.3.2. Rucya. 2. Appendix per cent.Agnim¡ndya.6. spiral vessels. of the drug in juice form. Appendix per cent.7. Kaphahara. Ud¡varta.2. Pittahara. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. thin-walled. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Powder .Glucoside. 2.Shows a single layered epidermis. covered with thin. 2. P¡cana. H¤dya.2. 2. thinwalled. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ar¿a.

000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.) annual or biennial bristly herb. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. variable in size. Appendix per cent. 2. Mullangi.3. IDENTITY. rarely sweet. Mulaka. Brassicaceae).2. taste. 2.4. cylindrical. Mulaka (Rt.7. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka.2. (Fam. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. white in colour. Saleya. 119 . 2. having a few lateral fibrous roots. usually 25-40 cm in length. Rakhyasmula Mula. Appendix 2. Moclangi gadde. 2. fusiform.6.50. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. Appendix per cent. Mula Muli Moolangi.2. Appendix per cent.2. Visra.2. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. slightly or strongly pungent.2. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth.

Gulma.49 & 0. P¢nasa.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.09.L. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. Jvara. Vrana.C. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.04. 0.T.69 (all yellow). áv¡sa. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . Svarya. Tikta Laghu. 0. Galaroga. Rucya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.09 (both blue).15-30 ml.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Netraroga. Ar¿a. P¡cana. 0.04. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.LC.Glucoside. H¤dya. T.09 & 0. Kaphahara. 0. Dadru.34. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Ud¡varta DOSE .04 & 0. 0.V. 0. of the drug in the juice form 120 . Pittahara. K¡sa.Agnim¡ndya.

rectangular cells.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. tangentially elongated. (Fam.) DC. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents.4 m tall. a perennial herb. thin-walled cells. Apiaceae ). secondary phloem shows wide zone. Daitya.3 . fibres and parenchyma. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. odour. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. Root . parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.1. traversed by phloem rays. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . colour.Shows 10 . S. tenuifolium Wall. thin-walled cells. slightly bitter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi.42000 m. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige.6 . inner cells thin-walled.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. aromatic.2. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. traversed by xylem rays. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. consisting of tangentially elongated. cambium 2-4 layered. secondary cortex composed of rounded. Gandhakuti. Mura (Rt. taste. 6-12 cm long and 0. Syn.51. dull brown. 0.

2. Appendix 9 per cent.Arvind¡sava.Brown. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. secondary phloem. secondary xylem and medullary rays. distributed throughout secondary cortex.2. Tikta.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). M£rchha.7. Appendix 3. 2. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .3. Sucrose and Mannitol. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. Jvara. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .6.5 per cent. Appendix 17 per cent. parenchymatous cells.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara.2. 122 . shows groups of cork cells. Appendix 2. composed of radially arranged.2. Bhrama. of the drug in powder form. xylem parenchyma. xylem and phloem rays. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . D¡ha.áv¡sa. IDENTITY. short with blunt ends. Ka¶u. Powder . secretory canals numerous.2. CONSTITUENTS . secondary phloem. present in secondary cortex. 2.having spiral thickenings.1-3 g. oil globules and simple starch grains. starch grains simple. secretory canals. round to oval. somewhat oval cells. Appendix 9 per cent. measuring 7-55 µ in dia..2. fibres aseptate.

Shows a cork. a large stout. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. Kallu Shambu. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. some filled with reddish-brown contents. Madhusrava. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. taste. phloem rays 1 123 .5-3 cm thick. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. bark easily separable from wood. Koratige. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. odour. (Fam. indistinct. & Am. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. b) Microscopic Root . slightly bitter. similar to those present in secondary cortex. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. twining shrub. Halukaratige. Murva (Rt. phloem fibres absent. rectangular cells. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. fracture.52.) Asclepiadaceae). available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. Jartor Koratige Hambu. tangentially elongated. resin cells present irregularly in this region.

shows a number of stone cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . starch grains simple. Raktapitta.2. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. Mukha áosa. Powder . fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Medoroga.tracheids. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. Appendix 7 per cent. 2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. tracheids. THERAPEUTIC USES .7. IDENTITY.2. Tikta Guru.2.5 . Appendix 0.2. Ka¸·£. 5. of the drug for decoction. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.3 cells wide. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. measuring 5. fibretracheids. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. H¤droga.2.2. fibres. Appendix 14 per cent. K¤miroga.2-6 g. fibres. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. Appendix 5 per cent. 2. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. composed of vessels. consisting of small tangential. Prameha Mihira Taila. fragments of cork.6.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. DOSE .Light brown. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. 2. Pittahara.4. 2. V¡tahara.. 10-20 g. Meha. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls.5-22 µ dia. Jvara.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. vessels with pitted walls.. T¤Àn¡.Ar¿a. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. 124 . simple and compound starch grains.22 µ in diameter. of the drug in powder form. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent.3. present in parenchymatous tissues.

each stamen 0. an Ke¿ara. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige.5 cm long. coppery or golden brown. Konkan. taste. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. shows elongated cells of filament. Nagchampa.Brown. containing pollen grains. Assam.8 . longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. Powder . fragrant. Nagakesari -Nangaa. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Nagppu.1. slender. exine and intine distinct. (Fam. Veluthapala. Peri. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. astringent. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. filament 0. Guttiferae). often buttressed at the base. Nagachampakam.Anther shows golden-brown. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Bengal. Sachunagkeshara. odour. Nauga. linear. quite brittle. Nagakesar (Stmn. filiform. connective and filament. basifixed. distinct protuberances on walls. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. anther about 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. N¡ga. consisting of thin-walled. Nahar Nageshvara. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. soft to touch. N¡gapuÀpa. 125 . thick-walled. Hem¡. yellowish and thin-walled. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. Pilunagkesar.53. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. parenchymatous cells. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. more or less twisted.0 cm long. b) Microscopic Androecium .9-1. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. connective not visible with naked eye.9 cm long. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Naugaliral.) evergreen tree.

Tikta. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. 2. Vastiroga DOSE .2.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. 126 .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2.7.Raktapitta. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. Kum¡ry¡sava. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. 2. Var¸ya.2.2.1-3 g.IDENTITY.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. áopharoga.3. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.4. of the drug in powder form. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.6. V¡tarakta.

Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.54.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. pith composed of round to oval. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.8 m high. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. leaflet 1-2. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.5 cm long and 0.2. 127 . Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu.1. no characteristic odour and taste. Fabaceae). a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.3-1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡.) shrub. Nili (Lf.2 cm wide. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. (Fam. N¢l¢n¢. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. pale green to greenish-black. 1.

2. Jvara.7.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. of decoction. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . 2. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.50-100 g. K¤imiroga. palisade 2-3 layers. IDENTITY. epidermis. Appendix 2 per cent.Greenish-grey. aseptate fibres. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.2.2. V¡tarakta.2. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . collateral and crescent shaped.2. 128 . Appendix 10 per cent. Pl¢haroga. 2. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . cuticle and hair.6. vascular bundle single. 2. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . cuticle and hair. Udararoga. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . similar as in petiole and midrib. Appendix 7. Ud¡varta. Ke¿ya. V¡tahara. Appendix 25 per cent.Glycoside (Indican). 2. pitted vessels. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. shows groups of mesophyll cells. similar as in petiole. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma..N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.Midrib .shows dorsiventral structure. Appendix 2.Ëmav¡ta. Gulma.3.shows epidermis.. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. K¡sa.4.2. Lamina . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells.

55. slightly bitter. Nili. Olleneeli -Amari. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. odour not distinct. Nila -Neel Avuri. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. rectangular. Nili (Rt. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. 0.5 cm thick. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. taste. woody. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels.8 m high. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. Fabaceae). medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. Neeli Nili. cylindrical. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma.2-1. hard. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. group of fibres. Nila Nili. 1. Gari Nili Kadunili.10 layers of tangentially elongated. Rangapatr¢. (Fam.) shrub. Karunili. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. thin-walled cells. 129 . secondary cortex a narrow zone. Neeligida. Nili Chettu. thin-walled cells. with lenticels. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays.1 -1. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. Nil.. consisting of usual elements. Indian Indigo Gali. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces.

Arvind¡sava. 0. Udararoga. 0. xylem parenchyma and rays. Appendix 4 per cent.58 (blue).. T. 0. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.63. DOSE .80.86 and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.63 (bluish green).oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. 0.C.0. 0. simple and compound starch grains.86 (green) and 0.10. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.V.14.06.91 (blue). Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .14 (blue). 0.Creamish-brown. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.L.6. 0.10.30 (bluish green).L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.4.58. pitted vessels.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. 0.58.33. 0.81 (blue). Appendix 3 per cent. Pl¢h¡roga.75. Powder .27. phloem.14.91 (all yellow).81.27. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. V¡tahara.2. 0. 2. 0. round to oval.2. IDENTITY.48 g. 0.06.50. 0.75. 130 .2. 2. 0. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf.0. V¡tarakta. Appendix 6 per cent. starch grains simple. and 0. 0.7.40. 0. of drug for decoction. Ud¡varta. 0. Ke¿ya. Appendix 0.21. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Recan¢.Gulma. 2..91 (all grey). shows aseptate fibres. K¡sa. 0.40. 0.3.75 (blue). ViÀavik¡ra. Ëmav¡ta. 0. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. 2.40 (blue).2. 0.33. 0. 0.2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0.C. K¤imiroga.47 (blue).86. present in cortex. Appendix 2. 0.7 per cent.50.2. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .63. 0.

indistinct. serrate. Picumarda Mahanim Nim.0-1. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Aryaveppu. Limbado. Nimba (Lf. 131 . crystals also present in phloem region. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Veppu.1 cm thick. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Bakan.Compound.5 cm long and 1.7 cm wide. Nim Vemmu. lanceolate. Nimbam. 7-8. Meliaceae). Oilevevu. 0. rachis 15-25 cm long. Juss Syn. (Fam. Arulundi. exstipulate. Nim.56. opposite. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. alternate. Veppan Vemu. Nimba Nimba. Bakayan. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. slightly yellowish-green. leaflets with oblique base. Kohumba Nim.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. taste. Bevu. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Kahibevu. Limba. Melia azadirachta Linn. odour. acute. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. Bevinama -Veppu. Limado. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Veppa Balantanimba.

2. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. 2. composed of thin walled.2. traversed by a number of veins.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. of the drug in powder form. shows vessels. thin-walled cells. ViÀarogas DOSE .Lamina . fibres.2. Appendix per cent. Vrana. palisade ratio 3.Green. Powder . Netraroga. KuÀ¶ha. K¤miroga. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. Appendix 2. tangentially elongated cells.0-4. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha.Jvara. covered externally with thick cuticle.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. stomatal index 13. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1-3 g. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. 2. V¡tal¡.Triterpenoids and Sterols. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡.2.5 on lower surface and 8.5 on upper surface. IDENTITY.6.5.7. Appendix per cent.0-14.4. Prameha. Appendix per cent. 132 . 2. Appendix per cent. palisade single layered.0-11.2. epidermis on either surface. CONSTITUENTS .shows dorsiventral structure.2. Ëma¿otha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.

Nimba (St. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . woody. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Nimba. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. characteristic. Kadunimb. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Vembu Vemu. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. Oilevevu -Veppu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. considerably thick in older barks. extemal surface rough. Nimb Bevu. fibrous. a moderate sized to fairly large. Bakam Veppai. (Fam. odour. evergreen tree. fissured and rusty-grey. Melia azadirachta Linn. Juss. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Meliaceae).Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. Nimba. Kahibevu. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Syn. Limba Nimba Nim.57. taste. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. fracture. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular.

C. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate.86 (blue).L. 0. Kaphahara. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. secondary cortex absent in most cases. Powder . phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . 0. 2.90 (green). secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.V.C.75-5 µ in diameter. 0.2.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.Reddish-brown. Pittahara. ViÀaghna.7. Appendix 1.2. lignified rectangular to polygonal.5 per cent. T. measuring 2. Appendix 6 per cent. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.20. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. cork cells.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. 2. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium.6. Appendix 2. Appendix 7 per cent.72 (blue). 0.3. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. simple.2.90 (all blue). simple starch grains.L.2. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.45. 0.2. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. having wide lumen and distinct striations. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.measuring 2.outer surface.2. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. stone cells mostly in groups. round with central hilum. 2. starch grains. Appendix 5 per cent.4. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.63 and 0. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.

Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.D¡ha. K¤miroga. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Jvara. Ka¸·u.2-4 g. of the drug in powder form. Decoction should be used externally.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 135 .Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Vra¸a DOSE . Rakta Pitta. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Prameha.. KuÀ¶ha.

exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. 12 . Paras Moduga. Khakhapado Dhak. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. taste.5 . Chettu Dhak. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. Muttala -Plasu. Plas. rectangular. moderately thick-walled. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. Khakharo. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. dark-brown. except in very arid parts.15 m high with irregular branches. Muttuga.2 cm thick usually peels off. Palasha (St. often in groups. Dhak. 5-10 or more layered.Bk) Fabaceae). cork cells.1 cm thick. Modugu. rectangular 136 . 0. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. Tesu Muttug. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. internal surface rough. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. exposing light brown surface. pale brown. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. Camata. dark brown. slightly astringent. greyish to pale brown.58. fracture.) Kuntze (Fam. Tesu Purasu. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. curved. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. having brown colour. Palash. thin-walled. tanniniferous cells. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. rhytidoma 0.

(366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. 0.50 cells in height.cells followed by a zone of 2 .V. 0. Appendix 12 per cent.. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .Reddish-brown.4. 0. phloem fibres.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.75 µ in dia.4 layers of sclereids.L. 2. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. 0. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. 7 .10.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . crystal fibres. 2. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. dark brown coloured cells.2.6. sclereids mostly in groups. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. companion cells. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.L. 2. Appendix 14 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . measuring 2. traversed by phloem rays.18.67 (all yellow).48.13. phloem parenchyma. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.48 and 0.10.65 (all blue)..2.48 and 0. 0.C.3. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder .75 . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.10. Appendix 1. Appendix 2. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.2.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. 137 . T.3 components.C. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.2. thin-walled cork cells.67 (all violet).5 per cent. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.7. 0. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. straight.12 cells wide.

of the drug in powder form for decoction. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila.Ar¿a. K¤miroga. DOSE . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . 138 . Vra¸a. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya.5-10 g.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Gulma. Graha¸¢. S¡raka . KaÀ¡ya Sara. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Tikta. Agnid¢paka. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka.

distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India.0 cm thick. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. Pangara Hongar. tangentially elongated to squarish. stone 139 .Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. radially arranged and thin-walled. yellowish to cream coloured. inner bark fibrous. quick growing tree. Mulmurumgai Badisa. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. smooth. parenchymatous cells. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . exfoliating in narrow strips.59.Bk) Fabaceae). Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. secondary cortex consists of large.5-2. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. medium sized. (Fam. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Paribhadra (St.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES ..Alkaloids. V¡taroga DOSE . 148 . V¤Àya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. Volatile Oil. of drug in powder form.2-4 g. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .CONSTITUENTS . Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.V¡tarakta. Balak¤t.

followed by remnants of disorganised. thick-walled. Piyar. Priyalam.3-0. Satdhan -Charal. (Farn. Priyala (Sd. pitted.) Anacardiaceae). Shalichokha Piyal. linear.4-0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. creamish-brown. large. Chowl. micropyle superior. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. Syn. Korka. sclerenchymatous cells. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. 0. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. collapsed cells of integument. sweetish-oily. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. occurring mostly in groups.5 cm wide. mottled with darker brown lines. odour. 0.6 cm long. latifolia Roxb. hilum present at the apex of round edge. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. b) Microscopic Seed . epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. funicle stout. pleasant. taste. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer.63. B.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. which are of various size. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. Saraparuppu Sara.

On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. 150 . 0.2. Oil and Starch.5-5. Appendix 7 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .27.7.94 (blue). Bhagnas¡dhaka. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells.A creamish-brown paste.L.5-5.2. V¤Àya.2.3. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.27.2. T.54. IDENTITY. 0.measuring 2. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.98 (all yellow).94 and 0.08.2. 0. Sara.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.P£gakha¸·a. 0.20 g. áukrakara.Albuminoids. Pittahara. procambium bundles. 0. BrÆha¸a.98 (all violet). 2. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.91. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.6.72 and 0. Priy¡la Taila. and oil globules. Kaphakara. H¤dya. Powder .84. shows numerous mesophyll cells. 0. KÀaya. 0. 2.72.type.72.4.D¡ha. and sclerenchymatous cells. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Appendix 0. 2.0 µ in dia.10 . 0.0 µ in dia. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. KÀata.C. DOSE . Raktapitta. 0.5 per cent.54. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .V.94 and 0.L. Balya.08. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .91. of the drug in powder form.C. V¡tahara. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. 0.

found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. calyx. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. equal in size. thin-walled.5 . long. hairy.Shows more or less wavy outline. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. stamens 4.64. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢.3 mm in dia. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. anther ovate. and abundant in Bengal plains. 2.5-7. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .0. style. stigma minutely capitate. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. Priyangu (Infl. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. epipetalous. peduncle cylindrical. (Fam.5 cm across. Flower .Cymose.4 m high shrub. basifixed. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. b) Microscopic Peduncle . brown. 1. an erect. ovary 2-4 celled.) Verbenaceae).2. brown. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. tubular. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. filament very long. parenchymatous cells. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 .5 cm long. densely clothed with wooly hairs. densely hairy. 1. corolla.2. 4 lobbed spreading. bell-shaped. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu.

Sved¡dhikya. spiral vessels. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Kanaka Taila. 2. Daurgandhyahara.2. 2. fibres aseptate.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. 152 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. IDENTITY. Terpenes. Phenolic compound. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening.4. V¡tahara. aseptate fibres.2. M£travirajan¢ya. CONSTITUENTS .1-3 g.7. N¢lik¡dya Taila. Pras¡dana. Appendix per cent. Pakv¡tis¡ra. groups of thin-walled. Resin and Saponin. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. Rakta. xylem consists of usual elements.2.6. Ku´kum¡di Taila.Glycosides.2. 2. Jvara. Rakta-Pitta. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour.2.2. Sandh¡n¢ya. Appendix per cent. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. THERAPEUTIC USES .D¡ha.Brown.fibres. 2. DOSE .3. (Mukharoga). KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. elliptical. El¡di C£r¸a. Vra¸aropa¸a. Powder . of the drug in powder form.

Dhanarmul. Biyyamu Chaval. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Paddy Shalichokha. Dhana Bhatto. Damgara. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. thick-walled. soft. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. sclerenchymatous cells. composed of thick-walled.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Akki -Ari. b) Microscopic Root . sclerenchymatous cells. Corava. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Nellu.) cultivated throughout India. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Shali (Rt. Dh¡nya. thin. Chawl. (Fam. Nivara -Chaval. Nellu Tandulamul. cylindrical. exodermis 1-2 layered. Bhata. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Coke Chaval.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Cala. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. both consisting of round to oval. cortex differentiated into three zones. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Dhana. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Odalu. pitted vessels and 153 .65. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces.Greyish-cream. Sali. smooth. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Nelver Dhanyamu. Jhona Arishi. Vr¢hi. Bhatta.05-0. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. an annual herb. Powder . Poaceae). Dhan Rice.

Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Var¸ak¤t.2. KaÀ¡ya Guru. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Balya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Appendix per cent.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. 154 .50 g. of the drug for decoction. Appendix 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. Appendix per cent.2.7. Pittahara. 2. BrÆha¸a. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . CakÀuÀya.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Laghu.4.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. 2. M£trala. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent.StanyakÀaya. H¤dya.2. Svarya. Kaphahara. 2.3. Appendix per cent.2. Rucya.

perennial herb with a woody root stock.5 cm broad. spreading. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu.Slender. Sankhapuspi. corolla shortly discoid. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. linear-lanceolate. hairy. yellowish-brown to light brown. 1-5 cm long. Leaf . 0. about 0. found throughout the country. Stem . Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. a prostrate.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. Kakkanangudi. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Flower . acute.1-0.66. free. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. linear-lanceolate. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. Shankhapushpi.4 cm thick. alternate with the petals. 155 . Karakhuratt.1-0.) Convolvulaceae). ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots.White or pinkish. sparsely hairy. light green.P. sepals narrowly.5-2 cm long and 0. cylindrical.Usually branched. inserted deep in the corolla tube. Sankha pushpin (W. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. sub-erect. hairy on both surfaces. cylindrical. stamen 5. epipetalous. light green. Shankhavela.Shortly petiolate. ovary superior and bicarpellary.

8 µ in dia. Powder . rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. secretory cells present in this region. starch grains solitary or in groups. Stem . elongated. measuring 3 . b) Microscopic Root . cortex differentiated in two zones. 13. pale brown pericarp. fibres and tracheids. both having round to oval. thin. xylem consisting of usual elements. palisade ratio 6-9. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.Capsule. 156 .appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. vascular bundle bicollateral. mm. xylem consists of vessels.. Seed . present in cortex. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. endoderrnis single layered. mm. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. simple and composed of 2-3 components. thick-walled cells. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. present on both surfaces. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. tanniniferous. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. Lamina . stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. phloem composed of sieve elements.Appears nearly circular in outline.. minutely puberulous. palisade two layered. round to oval in shape. simple and compound starch grains. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. unicellular hairs. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. hairs unicellular. at places unicellular hairs present. covered with thick cuticle. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated.Brown. . lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells.Light yellowish-green. fibres and parenchyma. elliptical.0.8-17.walled cells. phloem. epidermis single layered.Fruit .shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. xylem rays and parenchyma. oblong globose with coriaceous. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. LeafMidrib . covered with thick cuticle. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres.Shows single layered epidermis. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. phloem a narrow zone.

2. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent.7. Br¡hma. Agastyahar¢tak¢. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.3. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. Clitoria ternatea Linn.4.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.2. Ras¡yana.IDENTITY.2.2. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Kaphahara. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . Ras¡yana. Ras¡yana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. ËyuÀya.2. Tikta.3-8 g.M¡nasaroga. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Medhya. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.2. Pittahara. Appendix per cent.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. Appendix per cent. Apasm¡ra DOSE . 2. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.2. 2. Appendix per cent.

free to the base. 0. short. smooth.Small. pale brown.7-7 cm long. 4-5 cm long. Flower . subacute. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. Leaf . 0. 158 . Carmas¡hv¡. shortly 2-fid at the apex. annual herb. Chagulputputi Satala. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .8 cm wide.Capsule. lobes short. ovate. style. 20-40 cm high. a much branched. (Fam. 2. Joyachi.Involucre broadly campanulate. Saptala (W.5-2 mm thick. greenish-yellow.67. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. odour and taste not distinct. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. lanceolate or linear oblong. trilocular. solitary. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. sessile. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni.P. odour and taste indistinct. Siju. filament pubescent. ribbed. horned.2-0. Bilikalli.celled with or without attached pedicel. fracture. Fruit . gland semilunate. gradually tapering. sub-sessile. cylindrical. linear. having a few secondary roots.) Euphorbiaceae). 3-4 mm in dia.1. 1 mm long.5 mm across at the mouth. ciliolate. 3. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. lignified cells with wide lumen. thick-walled lignified. fibres. vessels having simple pits. elliptical. rounded at the base. some rounded. centre occupied by a pith. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. grooved at one side. fibres and tracheids. rectangular. secondary xylem composed of vessels. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. consisting of thick-walled. mature root shows thin walled cork. rounded to oval. all elements thick-walled and lignified. parenchymatous cells. striated cuticle. parenchymatous cells. all elements. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. tracheids and medullary rays. Leaf- Midrib . epidermis single layered. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. fibres elongated and aseptate. rounded to oval. stone cells oval to elongated. elliptical. with wide lumen present in this region. palisade single layered present on both sides. composed of sieve elements. traversed by numerous xylem rays. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. filled with yellowish-brown content.3 mm long. secondary phloem narrow. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. tangentially elongated cells. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled.25 µ in diameter. covered externally with thick.Young root shows exfoliated. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled.75 µ in dia. solitary or in groups. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. fibres and vessels having simple pits. b) Microscopic Root . Stem .6 layers of oval. circular to oval.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. starch grains simple. rarely a few oil globules also present. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs.Seed . secondary cortex consists of 4. flattended. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. 2. measuring 5. 159 . parenchymatous cells. leprous tuberculate testa. secondary xylem consists of vessels. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. tangentially elongated elliptical.5-19. endodermis not distinct. found scattered in phloem region. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region.shows slightly convex outline. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. thickwalled and lignified. single layered epidermis. simple.

0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.L.6.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Appendix per cent. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. IDENTITY.2.04 and 0. 2. T.C. elliptical.C.04. Gulma.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). Visarpa. rounded to oval starch grains. Appendix 2. Pittahara.2. stone cells thick-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES . oval to elongated. 2. simple. RaktadoÀahara. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. 0.4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. lignified with wide lumen. Appendix per cent.2. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.67.V. and 0. Appendix per cent.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. of the drug for decoction. Mi¿raka Sneha.Ën¡ha. shows vessels with simple pits. Udararoga. CONSTITUENTS .50 g.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. aseptate fibres.2.Light yellow.46 (brown) and 0.57 (all yellow). KaÀ¡ya Laghu. DOSE . 160 .46.87 (violet).7.0. 2. Ud¡vartta. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. 2.Powder . V¡tal¡. Appendix per cent. Vibandha.2.3.

Shepa.68. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. mesocarp. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. b) Microscopic Fruit . dark brown. parenchymatous. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. Sulpha. var. akin to caraway. glabrous. dorsal 161 . 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. odour. graveolens DC.. Syn. a tall.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. Apiaceae). graveolens Benth. Shulupa.. sowa Roxb. filiform and incospicuous. graveolens Linn. and a warm. glabrous. A. yellowish membranous wings. slightly raised. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits.. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. P. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. ex Flem. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. 4 mm long. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. often stalk attached. vittae. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. A. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. slightly sharp taste. Satahva (Fr.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. (Fam. brown. mericarps usually separate and free.

á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 162 . Kaphahara. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent.68 (all yellow).7. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Atis¡ra. Appendix 15 per cent. each costae with vascular strands.2.L. Appendix 14 per cent.2. Appendix 3 per cent. 2.2. Appendix 1.Essential Oil.6. carpophore split. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Netra Roga DOSE . passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. shows spiral vessels. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .59 and 0.costae three.L. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara. Jvara. CONSTITUENTS . 0. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form.59 (blue) and 0.10 T.3-6 g. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.5 per cent. cellulosic.4. 2.2.37 (pink) 0.68 (violet).3.2. Vra¸a.á£la. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. 2.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.Brown.C. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.C. Appendix 4 per cent.2. 2. Powder .

available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. pith and phloem parenchyma. Munga. and articulated at the base. Segata pana. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. a small or medium sized tree. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. Muringa Elai Sevaga. parenchymatous cells. consisting of pericyclic fibres. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. thickened. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Rachis .Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Shigru (Lf. elliptic. slender. parenchymatous cells. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. commonly cultivated throughout the country. (Fam. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. oval to elliptical. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Shewgachi pane Sajana.69. Tishnagandha. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. palisade single layered. Mungna Neegge. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Mocaka -Sajina. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Moringaceae). Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Segata.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. pericycle forming a broken ring. leaflet 1.2-2 cm long and 0. AkÀ¢va. entire. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Bahala.5-1 cm wide. Muringa. Sajna. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. thin walled. Syn. Leaflet . vascular bundle collateral. Sekato.) Gaertn. central region 163 b) Microscopic . ovate or obovate. Nugge ele -Murinna. odour and taste not distinct. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers.

38. áukra N¡¿aka.2.0. 0. (all green). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. 2. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. Protein.Carbohydrate. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. Pittahara. 0.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.7. palisade ratio 6-11. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.C. 0.26. 0. 0. 0.20.46 (both blue). 0. 2.69 (yellow).05. Appendix per cent. T.2.82 (yellow) and 0. 2. Medohara.L. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. 0.94 (violet). IDENTITY. 0. 0. 0. K¤mihara. vein islets number 50-65.3. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.59 (blue). Under U.occupied by a crescent-shaped. 0. B ¤Æhana.05. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. 2. 0. 0.53 (yellow).46 (all red) & 0.L.2.V. 0. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.94 (blue).2. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. 0.46 (green).46 (dark green) & 0.6. 0. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. Appendix per cent. 0.36.52 (green). 0. V¡tahara. stomata anornocytic. palisade cells. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. spiral vessels.26. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.2. 0.36 (green). 0.94 (yellow) in visible light.05.69 (blue) and 0.26 (all green). RukÀa.30 (pink). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Powder -Greyish-green.18.C. 0.87 (blue). present on both surface but more on lower sur face. Appendix per cent.18. Appendix 2. Sirovirecaka 164 .36 (yellowish green).

10 . Vidradhi. K¤miroga. 165 . DOSE .20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pl¢haroga. ViÀatinduka Taila.áopha. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Medoroga. Gulma. Galaga¸·a.Ratnagiri Rasa.

(Fam. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. sclerenchymatous. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Beraelam.. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. perisperm consists of polygonal. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.4 cm long.70. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. parenchymatous cells. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. thin-walled. Sthulaela (Sd. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. 0.) Zingiberaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. membraneous aril. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. thin walled. spicy pungent. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. perispenn encloses the 166 . brown to dark brown.3 cm wide. taste. aromatic.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. T¤À¸¡. THERAPEUTIC USES .áv¡sa.5 -1 g.3. oil globules.2. Appendix 1. RukÀa.10 CONSTITUENTS . Mukha¿odhaka.Light brown.(Seed). Chardi.5 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.0. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. K¡sa. thin-walled. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H¤ll¡sa. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. simple. Appendix 5 per cent. 2. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. Note .2. polygonal. perisperm cells. Tikta Laghu.endosperm and embryo. rounded to oval. parenchymatous cells.S¡rivady¡sava. 2. Ka¸·u.7. shows fragments of testa. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta.2.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. Appendix 2.4.2. V¡tahara. IDENTITY.2. (Seed). rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Kaphahara. Rocaka.6. thin-walled.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). both composed of polygonal. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. 167 . Appendix 14 per cent. Mukharoga. rich in protein. 2. of the drug in powder form.2. Powder . Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. DOSE .

thick-walled cells. fracture.) Roxb. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. aromatic pungent. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam.0. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. Thumbooni. stem and branches. parenchymatous cells. Tumburudra. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval.Bk. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. lignified. rather deeply furrowed. aromatic. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region.71. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. external surface pale brown. Tumbura.1-0. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. brownish. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. (Fam. phloem fibres thickwalled. armed with long. Syn. light yellow to pale brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. Tejovati (St.2 cm thick. internal surface smooth. Jimmi. thin-walled. Rutaceae). sharp prickles. Z. short. odour. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . taste. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. stone cells found in 168 .

A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high.2. áv¡sa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.5 per cent. round and oval measuring 2. a Volatile Oil and Resin. Kaphahara.7. Powder . 2. IDENTITY. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. 169 . Appendix 8. stone cells. aseptate fibres.Aruci. Appendix 1.2. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa).4. Ëmav¡ta.75 . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Hikk¡. Rucya.5 per cent. K¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES .75 µ in diameter.6. Appendix 2.2. CONSTITUENTS .2.Yellowish-brown. shows fragments of cork cells. 2.3.10-20 g. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.75 µ in diameter. oil globules and starch grains. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Medhya.2. DOSE . measuring 2.13. 2. starch grains round and oval.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. P¡cana. Appendix 12 per cent.13. Appendix 13 per cent. of the drug for decoction. 2. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. Mukharoga.75 .

lower lip 170 . Stem .60 cm high. elliptic oblong. found throughout the country. wiry. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .6 . pubescent on both sides. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. Tulasi (W. blackish-brown externally and pale. shortly apiculate. soft. Leaf . sub quadrangular.Purplish or crimson coloured. pedicels longer than calyx. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi.2. herbaceous. entire or serrate. fracture. aromatic.2 cm wide. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi.5-5 cm long 1.3. pubescent. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. fibrous in bark and short in xylem.P.) an erect.Erect. slender. about 1. 30 . Flower . taste. (Fam.5-3 cm long hairy. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. internally cream. branched. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. coloured. hairy.72. hairy. Lamiaceae). odour faintly aromatic. much branched. violet internally. branched. odour. Shree Tulasi. petiole thin. characteristic. woody. Thulasi.Thin. small in close whorls. externally purplish-brown to black. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. K¤À¸atulas¢. obtuse or acute. annual herb.

multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells.Rounded to oval.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. pungent.shows somewhat cordate outline. round to oval polygonal. rectangular. elongated. Seed . trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. b) Microscopic Root . glandular trichomes short. no odour. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. 171 .Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. vessels pitted. odour. odour. pungent. occasionally a few cells collapsed. phloem consists of sieve elements. parenchymatous cells. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus.1 cm long.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. thin-walled. pitted with pointed ends. vessels pitted. long. pubescent. slightly compressed. each with one seed. thin-walled. Midrib . thin-walled. aromatic. veined calyx. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. fibre tracheides. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. tracheids. slightly notched at the base. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. filled with brown content. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. taste. enclosed in an enlarged. taste. Leaf- Petiole . covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. in groups and rarely in singles. three vascular bundles situated centrally. fibres with pointed ends. slightly mucilaginous. found scattered in phloem. middle one larger than other two. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. Fruit . centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. phloem consisting of sieve elements. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular.A group of 4 nutlets. 0. aromatic. measuring 22-27 in dia. lateral two short and central two largest. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. corolla about 4 mm long. taste. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled.epidermis. nearly smooth. parenchymatous cells. fibres and parenchyma. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. xylem consists of vessels. Stem . tracheids fibres and parenchyma. xylem surrounded by phloem. brown. mucilaginous when soaked in water.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. pungent. membranous.

of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). On cooling spray. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. Durgandhihara 172 .3. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. thin walled fibres.C. Appendix 4 per cent. parenchymatous cells. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . oil globules.5 per cent. a few containing reddish brown contents.4. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. palisade ratio 3. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.7. vein islet number 31 .2.2. rounded to oval. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. Appendix 1. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. H¤dya. Rf.15 . Tikta.1.35. Kaphahara. in thoroughly vanillin . fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. IDENTITY.2. Pittavardhin¢. value 0. CONSTITUENTS . 2. 2.8.Greenish: shows thin-walled.L. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.2.C. Appendix 10 per cent.6. RukÀa. Rucya. 2.Essential Oil.minutes Under observation.2. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . values of eugenol and caryophyllence. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.7. V¡tahara.Lamina .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. Appendix 8 per cent. Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. Powder . T.16 on lower surface. Record Rf.L. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.

1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). KuÀ¶ha. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Hikk¡. 173 . Chardi. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . K¤miroga. áv¡sa.A¿mar¢. Netraroga. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa.

LeafPetiole . oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. pubescent on both surfaces. odour. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. 1. glandular trichomes short. obtuse or acute. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. K¤À¸atulas¢. and 2-8 celled. characteristic. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. Lamiaceae). upper epidermis.6-3. aromatic. 174 b) Microscopic . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. measuring 22-27 µ dia. Tulasi (Lf. petiole 1. balloon-shaped head. elliptic-oblong. Holy Basil Tulasi. middle one larger than the other two. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. three vascular bundles situated centrally. (Fam. thin. entire or serrate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. consisting of xylem and phloem. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. covering trichomes multicellular. petiolate.5-5 cm long.73. an erect.) 30-60 cm high.2 cm wide.5-3 cm long. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. found throughout the country. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. taste.shows cordate outline.. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. much branched annual herb. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. hairy. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells.

33 (violet). 0.Light-green. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. shows fragments of polygonal.04. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. 0.04. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.2.83. 0.33 (both green) 0.83 (all pink) 0. 0. 0.C.2.04. 0. 0. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.93 (pink) & 0. 0. 2.54. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. IDENTITY.85 & 0.88 and 0. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent.45. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.epidermis.7.45.12. 0. 0. Powder . 175 .C.33. 0. Appendix 2.08 (violet).epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. 0.). Under U. palisade ratio 3. 0. 0.8. 0. Appendix per cent.93 (both light green). 0.45 (yellowish green)..21.2.30.2. 0.98 (blue). 0. 0. Appendix per cent. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.2.93 (violet) and 0.12 (light green).4.08 (both green).6.Midrib .45 (violet). 0. 0.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.83 (blue).L.54 (blue).12 (light violet). vein islet number 31-33.3.V.21. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. Nerol and Camphene etc. Lamina .2.75.93 (all0 yellow). 2. palisade and spongy parenchyma. 0.03 (dark green). 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. Appendix per cent.33. Caryophyllene. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. 0. 0.08.75 (violet).98 (blue). T.85 (blue).L. 0. 2.21 (brown).

Pittahara. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2-3 g. K¤miroga.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. of the drug in powder form. KuÀ¶ha. H¤dya. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . RukÀa. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa.Aruci. áv¡sa. Prati¿y¡ya.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. Hikk¡. V¡tahara. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. Tikta. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . 176 . K¡sa.

Shows single layered epidermis. Vekhandas -Varch. and 0. (Fam. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. broadly. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . cortex composed of spherical to oblong. fracture. pungent and bitter. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. short. upper side marked with alternately arranged. large. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. Araceae). lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. Vacha (Rz. taste. Ugr¡. buff coloured intemally. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. triangular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡.5 cm thick.74. Rhizome . Gora-bach Baje. Ghodvach Bach. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. aromatic. odour. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. somewhat collenchymatous. enclosing large air spaces. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome.5-1. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. thin-walled cells of various sizes. Ghodavaca Vasambu. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. smaller.) semiaquatic herb. cells towards periphery.

endodermis distinct. Petroleum ether-No change ii. 2.. CONSTITUENTS .6.C.C. starch grains simple. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. spherical. 0.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. Benzene-No change IDENTITY.3. 2.10 T. 178 .2.Yellowish-cream b. 2. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. Eugenol and Asarone). Powder as such: .7. Appendix per cent.14 (violet) and 0.L. shows fibres. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Powder . stele composed of round.2. Starch and Tannin. present in cortex and ground tissue. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. reticulate.2. 2.L. Appendix 2. Extracts in i. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. Chloroform-Light green iii.4.region.2.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Appendix per cent.2.Buff coloured. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. 2. Appendix per cent.2.

of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Tikta Laghu. Unm¡da. S¡rasvata. áv¡sa. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. K¤mihara. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. DOSE . Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Vibandha. C£r¸a.2 g. K¡sa. Apasm¡ra. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Vac¡di Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Ëdhm¡na. 179 . Kar¸a Sr¡va. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢.á£la. 1. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Ka¸¶hya. Medhya.

Sth¡varaviÀa. roots are generally collected late in September. Vatsanabhi. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. Beesh. 2-4. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. small portions of stem sometimes attached. suberised.5 cm. perennial herb. occasionally separated due to breakage. Vatsanabha (Rt. Naabhi Bachnak. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. conical. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. without or with a few intercellular spaces. Nabhi. fracture. Basanaag Bisa. rarely 5 cm long. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. poisonous. Ranunculaceae). tapering downwards to a point. dark brown to blackish-brown. Teliya Bish Basanalli.8 cm thick. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. plant is an erect. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. rough due to root scars. taste. Vatsanabhi. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. papillose on outside. Bachhnaag. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Vatsanabha. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . odour indistinct. ovoid.) (Fam. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. Mahura. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. cartilaginous. thin-walled. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. 0.1. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. Mithalelia.75. parenchymatous cells.4 . Meethabisha.

Appendix 5. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. Powder . 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. 0. Laghu. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. S £tasekhara Rasa. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. containing a few groups of phloem strands.C. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.20.10. present in cortical cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 2. a few aseptate fibres.2. ÙikÀ¸a. UÀ¸a.2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.endodermis. cambium having 6 10 angles.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .96 (both orange). 0.56. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. RukÀa. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. consisting of round to oval cells. Anandabhairava Rasa.4.39.2. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. 0. 0. Appendix 2 per cent. inner bark parenchymatous.3.2. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. some scattered. 2. Appendix 24 per cent. Appendix 8 per cent.2. IDENTITY.2.C. xylem exarch.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. T. 2. Trid°Àahara.5 per cent. 2.L. Viyav¡yi.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. occupying more than half the radius.7.6. shows vessels. 0. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre.39 and 0. Sv®dala. often forming 'V' shaped ring. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex.Light grey.74 and 0. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. metaxylem vessels met in centre.

V¡takaphajvara.30 mgs of the drug in powder form.15 .THERAPEUTIC USES . Sannip¡ta. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.V¡taroga. DOSE . Kanharoga. Jvar¡tis¡ra. 182 .

b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Vidari (Tub. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Nelagumbula.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Bhoikolu. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. -Mudakku Bhuikohala.76. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. usually does not break. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. but pliable.Rt. sweetish. Bhumikusmanda. Eagio. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. outer surface reddish-brown.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. Fabaceae). thin-walled cells. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. thinwalled. stone cells moderately thick-walled. cut surface creamish-brown. Gumadi belli. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. Bhuikumra Vidari. (Fam. taste. smooth except for protuberances at some places. starchy and somewhat porous. Bhonykoru. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Nelagumbala. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Vid¡rik¡.

. CONSTITUENTS . plenty of starch grains mostly simple.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form.13.5 . angular to oval. Balya.5 . a few latex duct also present. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. somewhat round.7.13.3. having central hilum and striations. Var¸ya. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. fragments of cork. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. Appendix 4 per cent. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. 2.4. phloem fibres much elongated. Ras¡yana.2. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.D¡ha. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements.2. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. measuring 5.2. Svarya. Powder . Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. 2.Gluconic and Malic acids. radially elongated cells.2. Angmarda.2. Stanyada. M£trala. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). áoÀa. 184 . Appendix 4. Raktapitta. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. distributed throughout this region. 2. J¢van¢ya. present in all parenchymatous cells.5 per cent. Appendix 24 per cent.75 µ in dia. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.3-6 g. and also rarely in stone cells. lignified with narrow lumen.Buff coloured. Pittahara. DOSE .75 µ in dia. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. highly thickened. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening.Marma Gu¶ik¡. Daurbalya. Appendix 17 per cent. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.and pits. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.

pale-greenish-yellow. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. seed coat appears as a colourless line. thick-walled. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. Jav Barley Cheno. sweetish-acrid. cultivated chiefly in North India. not distinct. sclerenchymatous fibres.2-0.) Poaceae). followed by more or less. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. (Fam. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. H. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. round to oval wavy walled cells. smooth. followed by 2-3 layers. sativum Pers. an annual. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja.3 cm wide. elliptic. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. erect herb. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. oblong.77. Yava (Fr. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. spongy parenchymatous cells. Syn. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . 50-100 cm high. polygortal inner epidermal cells. square or quadrilateral. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. taste. odour. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. about 1 cm long and 0. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau.

0.2.31. 0. 0. Vitexin etc. Powder . V¤Àya. 0.2.92 (yellow). On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. Fats. Appendix 5. 0.14. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.) CONSTITUENTS . Proteins (Albumin. V¡tak¤t.2.31.5 per cent.C.5 2. endosperm divided into two zones.Creamish-white. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.5 per cent.06.83 (all violet) and 0. 0. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.24. Globulin. Orientoside. M£trahara.31. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.L. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.68.22. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.72 (all pink. simple starch grains. 0. Lekhana.22. Appendix 2. 0. 0. 0.44. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. Appendix 1.narrow lumens. 2.56.5 per cent. IDENTITY. sclerenchymatous fibres.83 and 0. 0. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. Svarya. 0. starch grains simple.L.16.Starch.10. Appendix 2.36.2.65 & 0. Pittahara. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.2. round to oval. 0. 2.4. Orientin. and the rest starch layers. 0. 0. Sugars.2.92 (all grey).V.2. 2. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.53. 2. Medahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Sthairyakara.10. 0.68. 0.6. Var¸ya 186 . Pur¢Àak ¤t. 0.7 T. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Kaphahara. 0.45.

K¡sa. Kanharoga. Medoroga. Prameha. Urustambha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. P¢nasa. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Gandharvahasta Taila.200 g. 187 .100 . T¤À¸¡.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .áv¡sa. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. El¡dya Modaka. Dh¡nvantara Taila. Tvagroga DOSE . of the drug. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.

5-0. cork cambium single layered. mucronate obtuse. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Desv. Neladangara. branched.8 cm long.1-1 cm thick.78. 0. hard. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Punjab. radially arranged cork cells. opposite. slightly rough at basal region with slender. Stem . sharp axillary spines upto 3. a small thorny shrub. glabrous.Cylindrical.Simple. gradually tapering.2-1 cm thick. 0. secondary cortex almost 188 . no taste and odour. short. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Yavasaka (W. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. terete.Well developed. alternate. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida.P. extipulate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. elliptical. Leaf .) Fabaceae).5-1 cm long. Y¡sa. striate. 20-30 cm long and 0. ballidurabi. glabrous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . oblong.7 cm broad. fracture. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. drooping. Javasa. (Fam. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. nearly 0. stipules green. dark brown. filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary and tertiary root absent.

paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. xylem situated above phlome. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. a few with thick wall and simple pits. 5. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. epidermis single layered. vascular bundle collateral. round and oval starch grains measuring 5.appears biconvex in outline. 3-45 cells long. pericycle present in form of fibre groups.Greenish-brown. hypodermis 2-3 layered. tracheids. phloem composed of sieve elements. rounded to oval. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. covered with cuticle.14. elongated. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. starch grains simple. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. Leaf- Petiole . thin-walled. hypodermis 1-2 layered. covered externally with thick cuticle.appears circular in outline. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. filled with tannin. tangentially elongated cells. parenchyma and fibres. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits.5.75 µ in dia. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. parenchymatous cells. Stem . phloem composed of sieve elements. Lamina . medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. angular. simple. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. filled with tannin.absent. parenchymatous cells. tracheids and fibres. Midrib .75 µ in diameter. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. tanniniferous cells. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region.5-14. xylem consists of vessels. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. thin-walled. xylem consists of vessels.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. Powder . 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. fibres. xylem fibres. some cells filled with tannin. pith composed of a few thin-walled. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. present throughout the region. 189 . mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. pitted vessels. tracheids.

Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. 190 . Sucrose. Raktapitta.6.5 per cent. of the drug in powder form for decoction. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 2.2.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. K¡sa. 2.5 per cent.20 .2.IDENTITY. Kaphahara. Appendix 2. Invert Sugars). Arimed¡di Taila. V¡tarakta. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Sugars (Melizitose. 2.2. 2. Visarpa DOSE .Chardi. Appendix 13. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . D¢pana. Jvara.7. T¤À¸¡.4.2.50 g. Tikta. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. CONSTITUENTS . Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2 per cent.

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