THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

2.2.2.2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.1 Testing Drugs 2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.2.5.2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.2.2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.1.1.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.2-Sieves 1.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.1.2.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.1.2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.2.2.4.1.) Desv 177 1.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1. 1.3.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.1.1.Types of Stomata 2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.1.1.2.1.2-Thermometers 1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.

3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3.3.2.2.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.Weights and Measures 5.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3.1-Powder Fineness 2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3.2-Refractive Index 2.1.3.1.3.3.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3 Limit Tests 2.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.3.

Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.P. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. II would be official. Vol. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. the Dangerous Drugs Act. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. Part-I. accordingly. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. II. 1930 and the Poisons Act. In general.I. would be deemed to have been amended vii . is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.). 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). Part-I. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Part-I.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Vol. Vol. II.

Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. Identity. Synonyms . which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. Italics . The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. Purity and Strength . Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. viii .GENERAL NOTICES Title . These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Odour and Taste .The metric system of weights and measures is employed. if any. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. English.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India .Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Mesh Number . Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. Introductory Para .The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs .Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. it is described as having odour. If the odour persists to be discernible. When the term “drop” is used. substances or processes described in Appendix. distribution and method of collection. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. indicated in monograph. Weights and Measures . Hindi. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Part-I and Part-II will be considered official.

volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend.In defining standards. Purity and Strength. Constituents . be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. moisture content. under Description.L. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. which he uses. However. water. Part-I. those of definition of the part and source plants. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement.g. micro-organisms. with one of the four meanings given below. Vol. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. and other animal matter including animal excreta. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. Standards . ether-soluble extractive. even by applying known reference standards. pesticides. total ash. acid-insoluble ash.Under this head.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated.soluble extractive. the expression per cent (%). the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. wherever given.C. is used. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. fungi. pests. Constant Weight . Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. in 100 grammes of product. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. The quantitative tests e.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. However. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. ix . arsenic and heavy metals. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests .The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. according to circumstances.) . mould or other evidence of deterioration. if of equivalent accuracy. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. V. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. statements appearing in the API. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. Percentage of Solutions . The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. and Identity. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. water-soluble ash. sliminess. and show no abnormal odour. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. shall constitute standards.For statutory purpose. alcohol-soluble extractive. colour.

000 parts x . unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. thermometric scale. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. are intended to apply at that temperature.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.56 oC. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. Reagents and Solutions . Temperature . such as fragment of filter papers. Statements of solubilities.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. Percentage of alcohol . fibres. and dust particles.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Solubility . are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Solutions . When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. at a stated temperature.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). all solutions are prepared with purified water.000 parts More than 10.

1M. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. ml. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. mm. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. g. µ. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi .) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. PS.P. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. unless otherwise stated. 0. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. l. 0. IN.1 N. Fam. Part –I and Part-II. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents.I. cm.5 N. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. mg. TS. Kg.

Kash. xii . Guj. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Wd. St. Bk. Sd. Wd. Eng. Wh. Ht.Sansk. Kan. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Tam. Assam. Tel. Fr. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Ori. St. Bk. Tub. Rt. Beng. Rz. Mal. Punj. Rt. Pl. Lf. Mar.

Akarakarabha (Rt. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. an annual. characteristically astringent and pungent. xylem fibres thick-walled. not easily separable.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells.2 . cylindrical. parenchymatous cells. 7-15 cm in length.1. Akravu Akkalakara. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. 53. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. external surface rough. Akarakara Akkaraka. tapering slightly at both ends. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. Asteraceae). more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. thin-walled. elongated. bark upto 3 mm thick. brown. taste. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. slightly aromatic. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. odour. shrivelled. Akallakara. b) Microscopic Root .37-28.8 µ in width. Akalakarabha. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. (Fam. 1. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex.231 µ in 1 . cambium 2-5 layered. vessels pitted. many of which developed as sclerenchyma.

2.2.6. also gives positive tests for inulin. 2. IDENTITY. 2.7. secondary phloem and medullary rays. ray cells thick-walled.Kum¡ry¡sava. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 10 percent. Pittahara. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex.2. 2 . Powder . Appendix 8 percent. bi to tri and multiseriate. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. uniseriate rays very rare.3.Ash coloured. áukrala.Prati¿y¡ya. áv¡sa. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Kaphahara.0. Udararoga. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . running straight. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma.2. secondary phloem. D¢pana. 2.2.5 -1 g. 2. medullary rays numerous. Appendix 2 percent. Appendix 2. V¡jikara. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. secondary phloem and medullary rays. radially elongated. Danta¿£la DOSE . K¡sa. Buddhivardhaka. Aj¢rna.2. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. NaÀ¶¡rtava. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Grdhras¢. Svedakara. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. Appendix 22 percent.4. á£laroga. CONSTITUENTS .length having narrow lumen. áotha.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). of the drug in powder form.

Juglandaceae). thin-walled. (Fam. irregularly corrugated.2. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. Powder . followed by more or less compressed. Sailabhava. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. shows groups of cells of cotyledon.Shows 1-2 layered. Akshoda (Cotldn. broken pieces. taste. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal.Cream coloured. slightly curved. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m.) large deciduous. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. Cotyledon . paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. under this. radially elongated. parenchymatous cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. 3 . indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. collapsed. odour. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. oily sweet. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. not distinct. endosperm mostly single layered. creamish-brown. coriaceous.

Kaphakara.IDENTITY.0 percent.25 g. Appendix Not more than 0. CONSTITUENTS . Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. ViÀ¶ambhi. 4 .5 percent. Appendix Not less than 7.2.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. 2.0 percent. 2. DOSE .KÀata.4.7. Sara. áukral. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2.2.3.10 . B¤´ha¸a. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.Walnut oil and Tannin. Appendix 2. V¤Àya.2. KÀaya.2.6.2. Appendix Not less than 10. 2. Balya. V¡taroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.

Marka¶¡mra -Amada. thin. Kurz. Anbalamu. consisting of tangentially elongated. S. S. parenchymatous. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai.5 m in girth. Anacardiaceae). thin-walled cells. parenchymatous cells. Wild Mango Ambeda. f. Stem Bark. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Ambado. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. tangentially elongated. Amra. Jangli Aam Ambate. mangifera Willd. Mampuiti. deciduous tree.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Jangali Ambo.. a few outer cells exfoliated. and 5 .Bk. a small aromatic. Ambazham. upto 27 m high and 2. non Gamble (Fam. curved. acuminata Roxb.3. external surface smooth. internal surface reddish-yellow. Ambalam. which are thick-walled towards periphery. with reddish-brown contents. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. grey having lenticels. Syn. Ranamba. Amrata (St.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. radially arranged. Amvara -Mampusli. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Ranambo Ambada. laminated. Ambadam Amratakamu. fracture. Amra Indian Hog Plum.

Rucik¤t.C.V. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.87 (blue) and 0.3. 2..L. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . prominent lysogenous cavities are present. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width.KÀata.33.7.2. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.87 (all greyish brown).2. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. KÀaya. CONSTITUENTS .75-14 µ in dia. 2.2.96. stone cells. Ka¸¶hya. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. thick-walled. 2. 2.Light brown. T. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. 6 . 0. shows cork cells.(greyish brown). Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.2.96 (blue). Appendix 2.2.L.4. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. Under U. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Raktapitta. 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.C. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix Not more than 0. V¡tahara.6. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. Pittakara.33.5-10 g. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands.40 and 0. lignified. 0. 0. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. simple. Powder . Not more than 1 per cent.5 per cent.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.2. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. D¡ha DOSE . similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY.

obovate.P. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. 0. stamens 5.4. Kharamaµjar. not distinct. opposite. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. Apamarga (W. sessile. exstipulate. PratyakpuÀpa. dorsifixed. subsessile. hairy. Flower . branched. hypogynous.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. bracteate with two bracteoles.) Amaranthaceae). filament short.3-0. secondary and tertiary roots present. 7 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .1-1. yellowish-brown. erect.5 cm in cut pieces.0. May£raka. actinomorphic. erect. greenish-white. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. membranous. cylindrical. solid. 0. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. (Fam. anther.3 .Simple. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. numerous. a stiff.Cylindrical tap root. bisexual. odour. perianth segments 5. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. slightly ribbed. decussate. rough due to presence of some root scars. hollow when dry. Leaf . Stem . gradually tapering. yellowish-brown.9 m high herb.0. one spine lipped.free. the perianth lobes. contorted or quincuncial. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. wavy margin.0 cm in thickness. opposite. two celled.

elongated. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. parenchymatous cells. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. two medullary bundles. cortical and pith cells.Sub-cylindric. scalariform and pitted. Midrib . having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. on both surfaces. 2-5 celled. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. round at the base. Stem . ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root . small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. followed 8 . vessels simple pitted. epidermis single layered. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. unilocular with single ovule. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. Seed . rectangular. fibres being absent. Fruit . truncate at the apex. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. 3-4 celled stalk. fibres pitted. xylem composed of usual elements. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. capitate. cortex 6-10 layered. syncarpous. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region.Shows crescent-shaped outline. oval to rectangular. tangentially elongated. perianth and bracteoles. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. thin-walled cork cells. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous.Shows a single layered epidermis. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. either separate throughout or found in some cases. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. lignified. thin-walled. style. thin-walled cork cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. spiral.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. single. present in pith. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. stigma. LeafPetiole . thin layers of cambium. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. brown. endospermic.gynoecium bicarpellary. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. composed of parenchymatous cells. vessels annular. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. ovary superior. demarcating the xylem rings.

stomatal index 4.Shows single layered. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent.0 on upper surface. Apac¢. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Gu·apippali.Light yellow. 9 .2. Kaphahara. Udara Roga. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces.4. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. Tikta Sara.7.3. mm. Powder .5-9. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent.6.2. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. palisade ratio 7. 2.0 on lower surface. aseptate fibres. Chedana.2. 2.2. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. vein islet number 7-13 per sq.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. vessels with annular. 9. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. Ka¸·u.2. 2.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. P¡cana. of the drug for decoction. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Medoroga DOSE .0-20. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. thin-walled epidermal cells. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. non-lignified cells. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. Abhay¡ Lava¸a.20-50 g. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Ar¿a.2. slightly elongated in upper. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fragments of elongated. scalariform and pitted thickening.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. Appendix 2. spiral. Medohara. rectangular. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. Lamina . IDENTITY.á£la. V¡maka. 2. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger.0-11.

ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli.5. lightbrown. taste. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. a few showing slit-like pits. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. cylindrical. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. b) Microscopic Root . fibrous. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. very long.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. medullary 10 . bitter. colour. (Fam. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. Aparajita (Rt. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. fracture. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. polygonal. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. a few solitary fibres also present. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. Fabaceae). Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. thin-walled. 1-5 mm in thickness. vessels pitted with oblong.

starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components.3 g. of the drug in powder form.C. V¡tahara.. Appendix per cent.7.79 (both yellow). M£traroga.Yellowish-brown. 2. Appendix per cent. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. Powder . 2. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.rays 1-5 cells wide.C. shows simple and compound starch grains. found in secondary cortex.2. KuÀ¶ha. 2. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. measuring 3-13 µ in dia.2.L.6. Starch. Vra¸a DOSE . Kaphahara.. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. oblong and pitted. áotha.Mi¿raka Sneha.2. phloem and xylem parenchyma. ViÀahara. Pittahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.á£la.3. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Resin.2.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. 11 . 0. Medhya. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. Buddhiprada.V.79 (grey).2. Appendix per cent. Under U.79 (blue). CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 2. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .Tannin.L. 0.54 and 0.4. T. 0. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.1 .

Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. Adrak Injee. Allam. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . tangentially elongated. Ardraka (Rz. oblique branches on upper side. colourless. taste. fracture.5 cm thick. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. 1. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. pieces 5-15 cm long. short with projecting fibres.5-6. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. pungent Rhizome . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. odour. (Fam. radially arranged cells of inner cork. Ale -Adi. reaching up to 90 cm in height. irregularly arranged. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate.Shows a few layered.) Zingiberaceae). Inji Allamu. widely cultivated in India. lakottai. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. each having a depressed scar at its apex. thin-walled. isodiametric.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. buds and roots are removed and washed well. Rhizomes are dug in January-February.6. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. gingery.

83 & 0. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 0. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. 0. 0. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.6. 0.2. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.92 (violet). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 8 per cent.76. phloem. 0. 2. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. Appendix 1 per cent. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. filled with abundant starch grains.2.16. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.69 (light violet).L. 0. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin.16. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. 0. 2. 0. 0. 0. Powder -Light yellow. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. 0.V. 13 . 0. conjoint. walls of oil cells suberised.08. small cells of sieve tube.L. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. oleo-resin cells abundent. vessels 2-5 in number. Under U.l6 (brownish violet). fibrovascular bundles of two types. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. endodermis single layered. reticulate and spiral vessels. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. larger bundles consists of 2. vessels showing reticulate.3.35.C. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.7 vessels.03. composed of xylem.63 & 0.76 (violet) & 0.2. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf.2.69.9 T.dia.2.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. Appendix 2.4.47 (light violet).69 (all light yellow).35. Appendix 5 per cent. 0. 2.63.08 (violet). 0. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. 0. IDENTITY. 0.C.63 (light violet). and sesquiterpene like zingiberene.. 0. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. elongated pits on their walls.2. 2.16 (blue). gingerosol in the oleo-resin. 0.13.69 (grey). free from starch.7. septate fibres with oblique.2.63 (grey) & 0. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.35 (light violet). 0. Appendix 90 per cent. 0. collateral. 2. 0.92 (all yellow). numerous closed.47. Appendix 2 per cent. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.5 per cent.

Ka¸tharoga.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Vibandha. Bhedana.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. Ën¡ha. V¡tahara.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. DOSE . 14 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rocana. Svarya. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. áopha. V ¤Àaya. RukÀa. THERAPEUTIC USES .á£la. H¤dya.

phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. (Fam. upto 3 m in height. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. secondary phloem wide. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. Arimeda (St. exfoliating in irregular scales. characteristic of dry regions. all traversed by medullary rays. parenchyma. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. Velvelam. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous.7. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. odour and taste. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd.5-1 cm thick. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. lignified. not distinct. Pilobaval. rough. hard. Fabaceae). fracture. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. incurved. stone cells and phloem cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. internally light brown to reddish-brown.Bk. Sadabala -Haramibaval. fibres and crystal fibres. square to rectangular cells. with tapering 15 . phloem fibres thin-walled. thinwalled cortical cells. fibrous. consisting of sieve elements.

4. fibres. ViÀajavra¸a.L.0 to 0.n-Hexacosanol. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0.2. Meda¿oÀaka. 0. Meha. KuÀ¶ha.ends. crystal fibres elongated. shows groups of cork cells. Udardapra áamana DOSE .69 (grey) is seen in visible light.2. composed of thin-walled. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . β -Amyrin. 16 . sclereid.3-5 g in powder form.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS .91 (yellow). radially elongated cells.78 and 0. Appendix 14 per cent. 2.6. K¡sa. P¡¸·u.40 g for decoction.39 and a spot at Rf. Powder .2. 0 to 0. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. Dantaroga. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. K¤mi. Appendix 1 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). Appendix 13 per cent. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Reddish-brown. T.7.e. Visarpa. Appendix 2.2. 2. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES .0. 2. Atis¡ra.LC. Mukharoga.áopha. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. β-Sitosterol and Tannin.2.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. 0. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. IDENTITY.39 and a spot at Rf. 2.C. Ka¸·u.91 (both blue).2. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.3. Appendix 11 per cent.

Mathichakke. Neermatti. traversed by phloem rays. Kellemasuthu. Bilimatti. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. Mattimora. Arjuna. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. (Fam. a large deciduous tree. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. companion cells. in the middle and outer phloem region. P¡rtha. bitter and astringent. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. short in inner and laminated in outer part. 0. Torematti Arjuna. recurved.& A. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. flat. Arjuna (St. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu.8. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. curved. taste. fracture.2-1. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. consisting of sieve tubes. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W.) Combretaceae).5 cm thick.Bk. channelled to half quilled. Vellamaruthi. Sajada Arjuna Matti.

4. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa.2. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone..7. round to oval. Vra¸a.6. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. µ Powder . T¤À¡. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. compound of 2-3 components. H¤droga. shows fragments of cork cells. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 20 per cent. round to oval. fibres. 18 . Appendix 25 per cent. elliptical.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. alata). 2. alternating with fibres. Appendix 20 per cent. IDENTITY.2.Medoroga. Appendix 1 per cent.2. uniseriate phloem rays. H¤dya. 2. Vya´ga. Pittahara. Vra¸an¡¿ana.in dia.2. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. KÀatakÀaya. Prameha. Kaphahara. starch grains simple and compound. a few rhomboidal crystals. elliptic.. Arjuna Gh¤ta. measuring 260-600 µ in dia.2.2. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T..3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . present in most of the phloem parenchyma. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Reddish-brown. starch grains. 4-12 cells high.3-6 g.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. Appendix 2. sometimes upto 5 components. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. 2. mostly simple.

Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. 19 . characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. mesocarp a very broad zone. mesocarp and endocarp. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells.5-3 cm long. smooth. nut 2.) Anacardiaceae). obliquely ovoid. Nallajidiginga Baladur.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. dark brown. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified.9. (Fam. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. Fruit . Scramkotati Nallajidi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. drupaceous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. shining with residual receptacle. Bhallataka (Fr. 30-40 layers thick.

2 g. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. P¡cana. ether. very much elongated radial walls. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol..2. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).2.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.5 per cent. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES .7.2. Appendix 2. DOSE . shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.F. innermost prismatic.Ar¿a. KuÀ¶ha.2. Appendix 0. Appendix 5 per cent.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A.4. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. Ën¡ha. chloroform. CONSTITUENTS . Gulma. Note . Snigdha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder . 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid.Dark-brown. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. 2.I..2. Kaphahara. Part-I 20 .1.2. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 2.endocarp consists of two distinct layers.6. IDENTITY. being highly thickened. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Bhedi. Graha¸¢. Appendix 4 per cent. Tikta.3. Chedi. Appendix 11 per cent. V¡tahara. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Krimi. Ka¶u. 2.

Bhringaraja (W. ligule small.10. herbaceous. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. often rooting at nodes. branched. involucral bracts about 8. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. (Fam. Bhangaraiya Garujalu.2. sub-entire. strigosely hirsute. greyish. Leaf . occasionally brownish.Well developed.Herbaceous. Karisalanganni. erect or prostrate. Tekar¡ja. obtuse or acute. ray flowers ligulate. cylindrical. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk.8. Keshavardhana.) herbaceous annual. spreading. strigose with oppressed hairs. Karisalai Guntakalagara. Asteraceae). Knnunni Bhangra. disc flowers 21 . Soppu. not toothed. occasionally rooting at nodes. greenish. Stem . Bhangro Bhangara.P. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.2 . white. Bhringiraja. 2. Kesuriya. 30 . usually oblong. Flower . strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. cylindrical or flat. 1. Bh¤´ga. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. rough due to oppressed white hairs. together on unequal axillary peduncles.. node distinct. sub-acute or acute. scarcely as long as bracts. ovate.2 . M¡rkava. Kesari -Bhangaro.3 cm wide. lanceolate. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . much branched.Solitary or 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. sessile to subsessile.Opposite.5 cm long. Gurugada.50 cm high. upto about 7 mm in dia.

dark brown. fibre tracheids.0. Seed . xylem composed of vessels. xylem ray distinct. hairy and non endospermic. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. simple. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. covered with warty excrescences. with a narrow wing. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. run straight in tangential section. Midrib .25 cm long. traversed by xylem rays. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. epidermis followed by wide cortex.2 . trichomes of two types. consisting of rounded cells. pistil bicarpellary. Leaf- Petiole . ray cells pitted. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. free. 1-5 celled. vessels numerous. uniseriate. externally covered with cuticle. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. fibres and xylem parenchyma. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. b) Microscopic Root .Achenial cypsella. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. corolla often 4 toothed. and with pointed apical cell. epidermis followed by cortex. unilocular with one basal ovule.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. found scattered throughout wood. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. filaments epipetalous. tangentially elongated cells. warty. non-glandular. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both.tubular. one seeded. fibre tracheids. phloem rays broader towards periphery. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities.0.1 cm wide. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. cuneate. covered with striated cuticle. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. 0. pitted. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. in macerated preparation vessels small. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. pappus absent. drum-shaped. stamen 5. brown. rarely slightly oblique.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. ovary inferior. Fruit . with very pointed tips.

more abundant on lower surfaces. xylem fibres with wide lumen. collateral. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. arranged in tangential strands. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells.Dark green. uniseriate. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. Powder . 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. peg-like outgrowth.5. trichomes entire or in pieces. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. Stem . xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. pericyclic fibres distinct. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents.5 -26.shows a dorsi ventral structure. externally covered with cuticle. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. while the section cut at apical region. vascular bundles in a ring.collenehymatous cells on both sides. septa thick-walled. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells.0-22. pointed. warty. 23 . xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. some elongated with simple perforations. secondary cortex composed of large. stomatal index 20. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. Lamina .5 on upper and 23.8 -4. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. wide at the base.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. palisade ratio 3. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. hairs stiff. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. xylem consists of large number of vessels. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. normally biseriate and uniseriate. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. epidermis single layered. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. pointed tips and pitted walls.0 on lower surface. the cork where formed. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. endarch. about 3 celled. middle cells longest. externally covered with cuticle. pitted with spiral thickening.

Ke¿ya. áv¡sa.2. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. V¡tahara.3. Kaphahara. 24 . 2.7. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. Tekar¡ja marica.6. 2. Yak¤droga.2. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta RukÀa. K¤miroga. Tvacya.2.Alkaloids. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. CakÀusya.2. P¡¸·u.2. 2. Ecliptine and Nicotine.3 .6 ml of the drug in juice form. Ras¡yana. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. áirah á£la.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. Dantya. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. ViÀahara.36 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.áotha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 2. 12 . N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. Appendix 2. DOSE . Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila.2. Ëmahara. K¡sa. H ¤droga.IDENTITY.

obovate-oblong. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. branched creamish-yellow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Brahmi. 25 . small.) H. Flower . decussate. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi.Simple. green. Fruit . Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi.Thin. axillary and solitary. about 1-2 mm thick.& K. slightly bitter.B. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 1-2 cm long. a glabrous. slightly bitter. Leaf . Herpestis monnieria (LiM. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. opposite. soft. taste. sessile. Brahmi (W. Valabrahmi. nodes and internodes prominent. found throughout India in wet and damp places.) Wettst. Stem . Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. green or purplish green. succulent. (Fam. Syn.Capsules upto 5 mm long. wiry. small.11.. glabrous. pedicels 6-30 mm long.Small.P. ovoid and glabrous. taste. prostrate or creeping annual herb. Ondelaga.Thin. Scrophulariaceae).

round and oval starch grains.0-14. 2. simple. round to oval. endodermis single layered. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana. Appendix 2.2.7. 2.0 µ in dia. ËyuÀya. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. no distinct midrib present.. Appendix per cent. b) Microscopic 26 . shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. Appendix per cent. Medhya. Praj¡sth¡pana. vascular ring continuous. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. glandular hairs. V¡tahara. Matiprada. ViÀahara.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. glandular hairs sessile.5-9. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Stem .6.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces.2. starch grains simple. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces.Yellowish-brown. Tikta. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. respectively. endodermis single layered.2.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .3.Root . and 8. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. Svarya. pericycle not distinct.2.4. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. cortex having large air cavities.0 x 2. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. 2. Powder . 2.Shows a single layer of epidermis. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings.

Ratnagiri Rasa. 27 . Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE .S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.KuÀ¶ha. áopha. Jvara. Prameha. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡¸·u.1-3 g in powder form. S¡rasvata C£r¸a.

woody. cylindrical. ribbed. thin-walled. upto 1. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. traversed by phloem rays.9 layers of thin-walled.8 m high. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. Papparamulli. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. 1-2. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. varying greatly in shape and size. Solanaceae). (Fam.12.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. Ubhibharingani. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content.. Chichuriti. secondary cortex composed of 5 . Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. b) Microscopic Root . a very prickly. parenchyma and stone cells. short and splintery.5 cm in dia. Putirichunda Dorli. tangentially elongated. Heggulla. oval and tangentially elongated cells. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. Brihati (Rt. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . fracture. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . cork cambium single layered. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. phloem parenchyma much abundant. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. long. much branched perennial under shrub. pale yellowish-brown. Badikateri Kirugullia.15 layers of thin-walled. no distinct odour and taste.

IDENTITY. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.11. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. measuring 5.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent. Appendix Not more than 6.2. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.6.5 -11. P¡cana. V¡tahara. áv¡sa. Appendix 2. 2. 29 .4. 2. DOSE . Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. H¤dya.Cream coloured. vessels with simple pits. tracheids.5 . traversed by xylem rays.2.10-20 g. 2.á£la. xylem rays uni to biseriate. of the drug for decoction. shows groups of thin-walled. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. parenchymatous cells. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Kaphahara. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . cells radially elongated and pitted.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. Agnim¡dya.3. rounded to oval starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. phloem and medullary rays.7. aseptate fibres.2.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.6 µ in diameter. H¤droga.6 µ in diameter.. CONSTITUENTS .2.2. 2. thick-walled. measuring 5. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.2. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. all elements being lignified. Powder . Jvara.

chaba Hunter non Blume. Chavya (St. consisting of round. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. P.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. plenty of simple starch granules present. oval to rectangular. greyish-brown. brownish cells. fleshy climber.. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. Piperaceae). endodermis single layered. P. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab.5-2. taste.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0.0 cm in width. cork cambium not distinct. odour. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. Chavya -Kattumulaku. fracture. b) Microscopic Stem . officinarum DC. Syn. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. fibres and xylem parenchyma. secondary cortex a wide zone. tracheid. a glabrous. cylindrical and somewhat twisted.13. acrid. nodes and internodes distinct. cultivated mainly in Southern India. (Fam. peppery. short. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka.

Pl¢h¡ Roga. round to oval. D¢pana.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. Appendix 2. 2. Appendix 1. Ën¡ha. filled with simple. 2. 31 .Ar¿a.1-2 g. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. 2.2. shows fragments of vessels. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Gulma. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Greyish-brown. IDENTITY. cells thin walled. Appendix 6 per cent. á£lal DOSE . Udara Roga. round to oval starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu.6. of the drug in powder form.Alkaloids. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix 10 per cent. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. RukÀa. Krimi. CONSTITUENTS .pitted and reticulate thickenings.2.2. Recana. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Powder . medullary rays multi seriate.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Glycosides and Steroids.7. Appendix 3 per cent.4.5 per cent.3. P¡cana. starch grains.2. Kaphahara. 2. fibres and simple.

oval. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. beneath this. cotyledons coiled.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. round. LohitapuÀpa.5-0. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. thin walled. parenchymatous cells.Reddish-brown. (Fam. Madalam Danimma Anar. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. oil globules. round to oval. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. Dadima (Sd. containing a few oil globules. Seed . endosperm absent. consisting of oval to polygonal. starch grains present in testa.1-0. wedge-shaped. Powder . simple. 0. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. triangular and rectangular. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. Punicaceae). 0.6 cm long.14. 32 .Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. found growing wild in the warm valley. angular. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. sweetish-sour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada.2 cm wide. Maadalai. taste. shows stone cells.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

globose. an annual.7-2 cm 37 .Light greenish-yellow. quadrangular with four prominent furrows.5 cm wide. long with numerous wiry. taste. 1. crowded in dense.5 cm across. 1. crenate. nodes and internodes distinct.Sessile. more or less pubescent. hairy on upper part.9 m in high. erect. size variable. hairy. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. white. serrate.25 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. scaberulous. Leaf . acute. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country.P. upto 4 mm thick. pungent.Yellowish-green. slightly bitter. smooth. 1-2.2-1.lanceolate. Inflorescence . calyx. zig-zag.Cylindrical. fracture.3-0. slightly curved. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 1-2.16. fibrous. (Fam. Stem . lanceolate.35 cm wide. tubular. subacute. ovate or ovate.5 cm long and 0. taste. glabrous in lower part. fine rootlets. Dronapushpi (W.) Lamiaceae). Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. about 0.6-0. 3-9 cm long. ciliate. stout herb. white. taste. characteristic. about 2-3. corolla. 10 dentate with a villous throat. surface rough. thin. Gumma.

Fruit . smooth. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. parenchymatous cells. vessels and tracheids have simple pits.0. followed by round to oval parenchyma. irregular. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. brown. Seed . bilipped. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. Lamina . cortex consisting of single layered. upper lip about 4 mm long. palisade single layered. lateral lobes small. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. parenchymatous cells. consists of a single layered epidermis.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. Midrib . parenchymatous cells.vascular bundle arc-shaped. nutlets 3 mm smooth. Leaf- Petiole . xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. vessels long with spurs. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements.shows a single layered epidermis. tangentially elongated. tracheids.Schizocarpic carcerule. fibres and xylem parenchyma. thin-walled. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. consisting of barrel shaped. endoderm is single layered. secondary xylem consists of vessels. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. composed of oval to rectangular. thin-walled cells. b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. xylem consists of vessels. oblong. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. thin-walled cells. upto 8 cells high. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. Stem . 4 . present in centre. wooly. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. pith wide consisting of circular to oval.long.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls.7 layered. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. thin-walled 38 . some having simple pits. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. round to angular collenchyma.1 cm wide.tangentially elongated. vascular bundles 4.3 cm long and 0. trigonous.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. tracheids. dark brown. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

Dull yellow.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. pitted and spiral vessels. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.7 on upper surface. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form.3. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. present on both surfaces.6. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. ViÀamajvara DOSE . Lava¸a. Pittakara. Ka¶u Guru.5 on lower surface.2. V¡takara. RukÀa. IDENTITY. aseptate fibres. 2. 39 .2. stomata diacytic. K¡mal¡.2. stomatal index 16. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.6-30. Agnim¡ndya.4. Appendix 2. Glycoside.2.1-3 g of the drug in powder form.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. 2.áotha. Tamaka áv¡sa. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells.6-40. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. CONSTITUENTS . β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.Alkaloid.cells. 16. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa. Powder . 2. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. palisade ratio 7-9. Bhedani.2. a few veins present in this region. 2.7.

Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. glossy.7-10 cm long. covered with thick cuticle. parenchymatous. B¤hatphala. Hastipani. more or less ellipsoid. -Kakur. thin-walled. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. cotyledons two. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. Cucurbitaceae). Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. Karka¶¢. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. parenchymatous cells.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. cultivated in many parts of the country. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic.4 cm wide. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. straight. 0. Hastipani. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. mesophyll cells thinwalled. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. utilissimus Roxb.3-0. Ervaru (Sd. radially elongated to squarish. creamish-yellow. (Fam. Vellarika Kakadi. surface smooth. sweetish oily.17. 40 . an annual creeping herb. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. taste. shows stone cells. rounded and tangentially elongated. C.

0. Kaphakara.Oil & Sugars. RaktadoÀakara.IDENTITY.2.C.51. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.0. CONSTITUENTS .L. THERAPEUTIC USES .91 (blue) under U. Gulma. V¡takara.0.91 and 0.83. T¤À¸¡.2.35. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.3-6 g. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. Appendix 5 per cent.58.7.L. 0.4. Appendix 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0.77. A¿mar¢.58.19.97 (all yellow) . T.2. Raktapitta.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.77. Jvara.5 per cent.2.35.26. 0. Pittahara.3. 0.64. 0. 2. 0.2.6. 0.97 (all grey). Tikta Guru. (366 mm). Rucya.V. 0. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Appendix 10 per cent.83.91 and 0.51. 41 .D¡ha. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.0. 0. 2.19. 2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.26.C.2. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. D¢pana. 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of seeds.64. Appendix 2.

rough and scaly. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. 0. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .3-0. Araceae).5 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. 0.18. 42 . transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.0 cm in diameter and 2.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. a large epiphytic climber.0-3. shiny.Shows more or less loosely arranged. greyish-brown with a dent. Seed . cut surface has a central core. Gajapippali (Fr. odour and taste not disticnt. odour and taste not distinct. b) Microscopic Fruit . surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. thin-walled. Orissa. smooth.Kidney-shaped.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. brownish-grey.4-0. (Fam. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.6 cm long.0-3.4 cm wide.

43 . measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.L.Shows a single layered. Powder . Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.2.65 and 0. 0. Ka¸¶hya.Atis¡ra. Appendix T. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.73 (both light brown) and 0.5 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .Dark brown. oval to polygonal. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C.65. Ka¸ha Roga. 0.C. 2.2. in extract (Phant) form. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .27.2.2-3 g. 2. V¡tahara. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.2. K¤miroga. shows lignified. CONSTITUENTS . 0.65. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. IDENTITY.V. Kaphahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. 2. 0. T.73 and 0. 2. oval to polygonal. Three spots appear at Rf.20. áv¡sa. 0. Malavi¿oÀana.C. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.65.93 (all yellow).2.áiv¡gutik¡. 0.7. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. pitted and with concentric striations.73 and 0. 0.Glucosides viz. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. Stanya.2. Punarnav¡sava. 0. thick-walled.3. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.93 (all blue) are visible.Seed . sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. non-lignified. 0. 2. Sugars & Fixed Oil. thin-walled. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. oval to polygonal.6.27. 2-4 layered. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. DOSE . Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. thick-walled.4. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.L. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.93 (brown). Agnivardhaka.

taste. b) Microscopic Fruit . multilayered.19. black.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. sweetish sour.5-1 cm long. ovoid. radially 44 . Gambhari (Fr. Sr¢par¸¢. (Fam. seed coat thin. 1.4-0. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. surface smooth. K¡¿marya. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric.) unarmed tree. thin-walled. Seed . thin-walled cells.Seed ovate. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. Seed . an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . Verbenaceae). papery.A drupe. fleshy mesocarp. parenchymatous cells. sometimes one seeded. Hannu -Kumbil. cotyledons consisting of single layered. crinkled. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani.5-2. parenchymatous cells. P¢takarohi¸¢.0 cm long. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. two seeded. Shivani. light yellow. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha.6 cm wide. oily. tangentially elongated. 0. 0. taste. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp.

2.1-3 g. 0. Appendix 8 per cent. V¡tahara. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.94 and 0. 0.2. 0. Appendix 25 per cent.3. Ras¡yana.C.L. KÀaya.18. T. 2.7.4 per cent. 0. 0.Arvind¡sava.2. Resin and Saccharine. M£trak¤cchra. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.98 (yellow) in visible light.Blackish-brown. 2. Ke¿ya.98 (all yellow). IDENTITY.C. CONSTITUENTS . H¤dya. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Alkaloid. 0.52.22. THERAPEUTIC USES . Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. oil globules and aleurone grains. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. Amla.2.42. Under U.98 (all blue).03. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Rakta Pitta DOSE . Sara. KaÀ¡ya Guru. 0. T¤À¸¡. Powder .2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.V. Medhya. 0.93 and 0. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.26.98 (orange). Tartaric acid.2.12. Appendix 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. of the drug in powder form. 45 . H¤droga. KÀata. 0.L.4.D¡ha. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains.elongated epidermal cells.03. Appendix 6 per cent.2. Pittahara. 0.08.Butyric acid. Appendix 2. 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.6. shows stone cells. 0. 2..

1. Tiliaceae). thick-walled. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. light yellow. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. Syn. (Fam. fibrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. taste. parenchymatous cells. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. channelled. elliptical. blunt tips and moderately long in size. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. moderately large in size. radially arranged cells. Grewia populifolia Vahl. Gangeru (St. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. fibrous.Shows a wide cork. a shrub 0. 46 . oval.5-5 cm long.. arranged in radial groups. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.) Aschers & Schwf. consisting of tangentially elongated.0 m high.Bk. external surface smooth.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. a few stone cells. thin-walled. secondary cortex wide. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of 12-20 layered. rectangular.20. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . fracture.6-1. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. mucilaginous. traversed by wide phloem rays.

of the drug in powder form.2.35 (both light yellow) in visible light.C. Under U.2-3 g. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.).Sugar. 0.08 (violet). 0. 0.6. Appendix 2. DOSE . 2. 2.68 (light violet) & 0.2.17. Amla.88 (light violet).Vra¸a. Appendix per cent. 0.13 (blue).61. Appendix per cent.08. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. 0. 0. 0.55 (blue) & 0.48. 0. 0. 0.17 (light violet).L. 47 . Appendix per cent.V.35 (dark blue). 2. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). Tikta.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. Appendix per cent.35 (violet). T.L. 2.68 & 0. IDENTITY.Light yellow and fibrous. 0. α-amyrin. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . 0. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Powder . 0.27 (light violet). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. 0. Pittavik¡ra. 0.55.48 (violet).2.4.J¢rak¡di Modaka.29 (blue). Two spots are seen at Rf. Ka¶u.2.41. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.88 (all yellow).2.35. 0.3. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.64 (blue). THERAPEUTIC USES .08 (blue) 0. 0.27. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.17. β-amyrin etc.7.

thinwalled. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. a climber. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. Gurivinda Ghongchi. feebly sweetish. tangentially elongated cells. taste. Gunja (Rt. odourless. bark thin. light brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. Fabaceae). cylindrical. flowering in August-September. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. fruits ripen during winter. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. slightly corky. Chanothee. when distinct. smaller than stone cells. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . gulagunja -Kunni. exfoliating in small flakes. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. Ghungchi Guluganji. most often irregularly curved. (Fam. Chonotee Ratti.21.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. cork cambium. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. Kakananti Rati Kunch. b) Microscopic Root . present at short intervals. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. simple or branched. Kundumani Guriginga. composed of 1-2 cells wide. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. pitted walls. soft.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. some with brownish content. becoming mildly bitter. spreading throughout the plains.

THERAPEUTIC USES . pitted walls. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. Pittahara. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. vessels of varying sizes with thick. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. shows fragments of cork. 2. parenchyma thin-walled. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5.4. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin).2.3 g. wood composed of narrow concentric. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches.2.7. DOSE .5 per cent.2. thin-walled and rectangular.75 µ in diameter.6.diverging towards periphery. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. IDENTITY.5-13.Greyish-brown. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder . Appendix 9 per cent. xylem vessels with pitted walls. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.5 -13. Appendix 2.3. 2. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. Appendix 4 per cent. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. 2.75 µ in diameter. numerous xylem fibres. of the drug in powder form. small groups of sclerenchyma. áula. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present.2. Appendix 10 per cent. Mukha¿oÀa. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma.2.1 . mostly containing starch grains of various sizes.Indralupta. stone cells. Appendix 2.2. 49 .N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. 2. Tikta á¢ta. CONSTITUENTS .

lignified. characteristic. (Fam. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. Serdi Ikha. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. taste. Ikshu (St. Poaceae). 50 . besides the xylem and phloem elements. solid. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. odour. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. closed type of vascular bundles. b) Microscopic Stem . rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. scattered throughout the ground tissue. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. conjoint. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. with. cylindrical. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma.) shrub. smooth. more numerous and closer towards periphery. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. juicy and sweet.22. distinct node and internode.

V¤Àya. shows pieces of epidermis.2.400 ml in the juice form.Bal¡ Taila.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 51 .4. DOSE . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.2. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. Appendix Not more than 2.Raktapitta. M£tra KÀaya.Powder light brick red.Sucrose. 2.2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Powder . ground tissue. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. vessels and sclerenchyma.200 . Appendix 2.7. Balya. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. V¡tahara.5 per cent. Sara. IDENTITY.6. 2. 2. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . M£trala Not more than 2 per cent.3. Pittahara.2. 2.

parenchymatous cells. short. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. an annual or perennial. 0. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. parenchyma and medullary rays. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. Indravarana Gothakakucti.) Cucurbitaceae). Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. longitudinal fissures present. taste. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. starch grains oval to round in shape 2.5-7. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. Varithummati. elongated with pointed ends. tangentially elongated. Bitter apple Indravaran. Indravaruni (Rt. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. dull yellow. intensively bitter. tangentially elongated cork cells. Indramanoa. mostly simple or rarely 52 . fracture. Tumbi Paikamatti. Valiya Pekkumatti. occurring throughout the country. fibres. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. áatakratulat¡. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. Garukhiya Kaudatumma.2-2. parenchyma and medullary rays. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. thick walled.23. fibres aseptate. Havumakke.5 µ in dia. Indrayan. composed of sieve elements. Paythumatti. lying around vessels. Gav¡kÀ¢. xylem forms bulk of root. Indravaruni. thin walled. Tuntikai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. cylindrical. consisting of vessels. a few filled with dark brown contents. thick-walled.5 cm thick. pitted.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. slightly twisted. b) Microscopic Root . Indrayanalata. (Fam. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

57 .25. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. coriaceous covering.Brown coloured. 1 cm wide. oval or roundish.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. E. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. astringent.800 m. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Seed . a few schizogenous cavities are also found. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. thin-walled. Jambu (Sd.) Skeels Syn. (Fam. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. b) Microscopic Powder . found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Eugenia jambolana Lam. taste. brownish-black. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. rounded starch grains. a large evergreen tree.. 1 cm long. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. oval. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. smooth. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Myrtaceae). cuminii Druce.

Tannin. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.4. Appendix 2.20.3. 58 .6. of the drug in powder form.2.7. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix per cent. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix per cent.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. 0.30 and 0.L. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. T. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.IDENTITY.30 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. DOSE . 2.Madhumeha. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .95 and 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru. 2. CONSTITUENTS .2.2.3-6 g.95 (all yellow).V. 0.2. Pittahara. 2. ViÀ¶ambhi. 2.Glycoside (Jamboline). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Amla.C. 0. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. Appendix per cent.C.2. three spots appear at Rf.12. 0. Kaphahara.L.30 and 0. Udakameha. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.2.95 (all violet).20.

younger bark mostly channelled. Jamneralae. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. Jambu (St. astringent.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. fibres aseptate. stone cells. Myrtaceae). and reddish brown. Navval Sambu. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. cork cambium not distinct.Bk.. internal surface fibrous. forming a rhytidoma. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu.) Skeels Syn.5 cm thick.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Raja Jambu Merale. and phloem rays. rough. a large evergreen tree.5-2. upper few layers thick.800 m. Jamu. light grey to ash coloured. Eugenia jambolana Lam. fracture. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.26. (Fam. Mahamaram. 0. stratified and reddish-brown. Neralamara -Njaval. E. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. elongated. Jambuda Jomuna. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Jambu. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. Jam Jammu Naaval. oval to angular. cuminii Druce. lower cork thin and colourless. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . short and splintery. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. taste. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells.

K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. reddish-brown content. 2. single or in groups.6.2. 2.10-20 g.3.2.Atis¡ra. Appendix per cent.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Kaphahara. elongated. V¡tala. Stambhaka. round to oval starch grains. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.region. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 60 .7. Pittahara.2. DOSE . measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . IDENTITY.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.4.U¿¢r¡sava. Raktapitta. Appendix 2. aseptate fibres. stone cells. oval to angular. of the drug for decoction. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. round to oval starch grains. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide.Light brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.

enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. Japala. Nervala -Nervalam. filled with brownish content. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. consisting of a large endosperm. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. Jayapala (Sd. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Japal beej. kernel yellowish and oily. b) Microscopic Seed .) small evergreen tree. found throughout tropical India. dull cinnamon-brown. Tinti·¢phala. 61 . covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous.Shows a hard testa.27. ovate. slightly bent at middle. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. 5-7 m high. Neervalam Jepal. no marked odour. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. thin-walled cells. Euphorbiaceae). hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. consisting of an epidermal layer. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. Neervalam. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. slightly quadrangular. (Fam. oblong.

0. Powder . 0.49.2.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. THERAPEUTIC USES .54 and 0. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.84 (all violet). 0. 62 .V. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C.5 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 2. 0.C. 2.34 (grey). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.3. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.63 and 0. IDENTITY.White with black particles of testa.Jvara. 0.6-12 mg. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.L. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.2.84 (brown). 2. 0.L.34. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 3 per cent.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. Appendix 15 per cent.7. of the drug in powder form. 0. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.Fixed oil.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 0.2.54 (yellow). T.39.2.6.10. Vibandha DOSE .2. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.29. Pittahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.2. Udararoga. Appendix 2. Appendix 7 per cent.90 (all yellow). 0. 2. Resins & Phorbol esters.

mucronate to acuminate. 7.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. oblong. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. á£kÀma patra. a quick growing. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. S. entire. short lived shrub. linear. 63 . Atti. pith small. very shortly stalked.) Merr. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. stomata anisocytic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. Karijimangai. jayata Arinintajinamgi. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. (Fam. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. palisade single layered. opposite.shows single layered epidermis.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis .3-0. Lamina . glabrous. Jayanti Jaita. 1. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta.5-15. 0. paripinnate. aegyptiaca Pers.Syn. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Jalugu. 1.3 cm long. polygonal. present on both surfaces.8 cm wide. Jayanti (Lf.7 layered round. Fabaceae). Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound.28. consisting of thin-walled. Arishimajingai.0-3. leaflets 6-16 pairs.5 cm long. having secretory cavities in phloem. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.8-6 m high. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings.. parenchymatous cells. -Semp. Jay¡. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee.

0.2. 0. 0. 0.91 and 0. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. 0.97 (all grey).4. Appendix per cent.48.69.05. palisade cells. shows spongy parenchyma. V¡tahara.05.7.56 (all pink) and 0.2.37.Protein.Dull green.2. 0. in powder form. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.29. 2.97 (yellow). 0.3-6 g. DOSE . 0. 0.11. 0. 64 . IDENTITY. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ras¡yana. 0.29. THERAPEUTIC USES .11.19. ViÀaroga. Appendix 2. 0. Powder . 0.V.3.91 and 0. 2.97 (all yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0. Calcium and Phosphorus. 0. T. 0.C. 0. 2. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.2. 0.25-4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.M£trak¤cchra.Ratnagiri Rasa.05.48. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.19. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. 2.C. 0.56.6.37.L.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.L.2.2. CONSTITUENTS . Galaga¸·a.56. palisade ratio 3.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 0.11. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.29. Appendix per cent. 0. Pittahara. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.19. 0.

light to dark brown.35 mm in breadth. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. taste. bitter.hard.29.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. Gangunge humpu. Gangunge beeja. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. unpleasant. ripe seeds. a large climbing shrub. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2.5-3. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. surface generally smooth and. Jyotishmati (Sd. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. seed without aril also prescent. Seed . odour. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. brownish-orange. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Celastraceae). (Fam. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. collapsed. colour. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari.

thin-walled. dark brown. Kaphahara.82. 0.V. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.V. V¡maka. Appendix 45 per cent.54.7.82 & 0.2. 0. Meddhya 66 . áirovirecanopaga.54. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). Virecaka.94 (yellow).2. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.89 (all yellow).C. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.82.54 (both blue).2.C. stone cells.2.89. Powder . Appendix 9 per cent.L.2. Oil and Tannins. Appendix 6 per cent.L. 0. V¡tahara.4.2.63. 2.89 (both greenish blue). embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. 0.Alkaloids. Tikta Sara. 0. 0.8 IDENTITY.5 per cent. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. 0. Appendix 20 per cent. Under U. 0. 0. (all blue) & 0. 2. Appendix 1.6. 2.Oily.35. 0. D¢pana. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.04. 0. 0.3. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.composed of polygonal. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.35. CONSTITUENTS . UÀ¸a. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.2. 0.20.15. 0.82 (pink) & 0. Appendix 2. 2.94 (yellow) in visible light. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.

Sm¤tidaurbalya. 67 . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. DOSE . Oil : 5-15 drops. ávitra.Seed: 1-2 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V¡tavy¡dh¢.

rectangular cells. 68 b) Microscopic . Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Kadam Kadam. indicus A. Kadamba mara. Kadamba Nipo. Vellaikhadambu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa.Bk. Kadambu Needam. some cells contain chlorophyll. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. a few cells with brown contents. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Kadavala. Syn. Rubiaceae). composed of thin-walled. Kadamba Kadamba. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. taste. elongated cells of phloem rays. internally light reddish to reddish-brown.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Priyka Roghu. Rich. traversed by uni to triseriate. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate..30. (Fam. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. large tree. Vellai Kadambam. A. Kadappai. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. a deciduous. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. bitter. Kadamba (St. Indulam.

6. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.5 . V¡tahara.64. Appendix 3 per cent. fibres.63 (yellowish grey).79 (grey) and 0. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.5:10) shows under U. 0. L C. shows fragments of cork cells.90 (grey). phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.C. 2. Lava¸a. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.03. 0.1. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.79. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).D¡ha. 69 .Brown. 2.4. 0. 2.70 (orange yellow). 0.2.13. of the drug in powder form. Raktapitta.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 0. 0. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.0.2. Appendix 2. 0. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T.3. 0. phloem cells.21.57.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . YonidoÀa. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. 0.2.L.83 and 0.2. Appendix 5 per cent. cells distinct and slightly elongated. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.phloem fibres. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.Alkaloids. DOSE . 0. 2.2. Vra¸aropa¸a.5 per cent. Vra¸a. Steroids. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. CONSTITUENTS .5 g.7. 0. Appendix 9 per cent.31. Powder . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. Appendix 1.

Ganikesopu. anther 1. peduncles 6-20 mm long. very slender. pale brown. filaments short.2-2. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Pikachia. Stem . obtuse. Ganikegida. 30-45 cm high.5-8. oblong.5 mm long. style cylindric. sub-umbellate. thin. 70 . green.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. five lobed. petiolate. road sides and gardens. toothed or lobed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi.Erect. Leaf . bark thin.5 cm wide. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida.) Solanaceae). (Fam. hairy in lower part. a herbaceous annual weed. sinuate. flattened. narrowed at both ends. oblong. Flower . ovary globose. calyx 2-3 mm long. Manaththakkali. glabrous. corolla 4-8 mm long. ovate or oblong. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Kakamachi (W. white or pale violet. found throughout the country in dry parts. glabrous.Small. obtuse notched at apex. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. pedicels 6-10 mm long. quite common in cultivated lands. 1. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali.25 mm long. slender. extra-axillary. 2.31. yellowish. glabrous or pubescent. externally smooth. Manatakkali. slightly woody and branched.Simple. ganike. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. Manitakkali. 3-8 flowered cymes. hairy at base.5 cm long and 2.P.

uniseriate. compactly arranged. polygonal cells. covered with striated cuticle.. phloem rays uniseriate. slightly elongated. epidermis single layered. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. cortex of large. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. conjoint and open. smooth shining Seed . embedded in perimedullary zones. Midrib . central vascular bundle shallow. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. filled with starch grains. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. bicollateral. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. arcshaped. usually purplish-black but sometimes red.5 mm in dia. uniseriate. endoderrnis single layered. LeafPetiole . parenchyma 4-6 layered. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows..25 µ in dia. uniseriate. covering trichomes. covered with thick.' oval parenchymatous cells. vascular bundles-collateral. arc71 . thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. radially elongated cells. measuring 2. slightly striated cuticle.Fruit .Discoid. minutely pitted. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. pith large.10 layered in angular parts. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.. phloem consists of thin-walled. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. trichomes multicellular. in small or large patches. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. obtuse. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma.5-8. 1. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. tangentially elongated. starch grains. but 4.5-11 µ in dia. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. yellow or black. oval to round starch grains. measuring 2. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. xylem rays homogenous. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. Stem . most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. yellow. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. rays composed of thin-walled. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. usually accompanied by fibres. single or with two or rarely 3 components. smooth. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.. internal phloem. 6mm in dia. cambium 2-4 layered. composed of thin-walled.Shows single layered.A berry. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. covered with striated cuticle.

stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. 034 and 0. vein islet number 7-10.Creamish-green.11 µ in diameter. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces.2. Appendix per cent.Shows thin. unicellular hairs. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. Fruit . CONSTITUENTS . single. 0.4.2. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.5 .34 (both brown) in visible light. 0.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. epidermis with irregular outline. palisade single layered. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Under U.V. Appendix per cent.L. 2.6.Alkaloids and Saponins. Appendix 2. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. 72 .06. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. Appendix per cent. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.06 & 0.34 (both pink).C. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. 0. IDENTITY. papery epicarp.2.7.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally.06 & 0. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.97 (all yellow). 2. a few broken pieces of pointed. present beneath palisade parenchyma. T.dorsiventral. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle.2. Powder . Lamina . Appendix per cent. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.3. palisade ratio 2-4.2. stomata anisocytic. measuring 2. 2.2. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.L.

DOSE . Jvara. Chardi.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. 73 .áotha. of the drug in juice form. KuÀ¶ha. H¤droga. Ar¿a. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 -10 ml. Netraroga. Hikk¡. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sara. Prameha. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Kaphahara. Ka¸·u. Pittahara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta Laghu. Svarya. H¤dya. Ras¡yana. V¡tahara. Rasar¡ja Rasa.

4-2 cm long. embedded in a creamy. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. yellowish-brown. Syn.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Paduman. gynoecium and thalamus..5-3 cm wide. Aravinda. membranous. starchy and large. broken pieces also occur. Nymphaeaceae). Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. linear 1. crimpled. erect. black. Sarojam Kaluva.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. gynoceium apocarpous. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Pamposh Tamarai. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. seed hard. Naidile. Venthamara. corolla. extended into clavate appendages. 3-5 cm long. 1. (Fam. Tavare. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. finely veined. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Aravindan. crimp led. Padma. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. Chenthamara. petals numerous. Kalh¡ra. a large. obtuse. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. 1. Kamala (Fl. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. elliptic. 74 . Kamal. androecium. 2-4 cm long. dark brown. Kanwal Kamal. free.32. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. sepals leaf-like.3-2 cm wide. Kamalam. carpels many. comprising of calyx. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Sitopala. anther. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Thamaraipoo.

2.4. Appendix per cent. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. two on either sides. 2. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. Tikta. rectangular.7. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. . 2. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.shows four chambered anther. Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. Stamen Filament . having smooth exine and intine. Appendix 2. ViÀavik¡ra.2. composed of thin-walled.12 -24 g.2. followed by ground tissue of oval. parenchymatous cells.Dusty brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. M£tra Virajan¢ya. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. of the drug for decoction. vascular bundle single.2.Raktapitta. Sant¡pahara.6. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. Appendix per cent.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. spherical. spore sac contains yellow. Anther . measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. 2. angular. columnar.3. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues.Aravind¡sava.2. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.2.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). yellow pollen grains. parenchymatous cell. Appendix per cent. Visarpa.filament appears circular in outline. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle.

Bilvara.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. often cultivated in many parts of India.) Swingle. reddish brown. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. aromatic. F. Siwalik range and forests. sharp. straight. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Balada. Haminamara -Vilar maram. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . rough. Belada hannu.shows irregular. Powder . a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. found throughout the plains of India. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. stone cells. Belalu. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Kapittha (Fr. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. 76 . parenchymatous cells. semicircular. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. Rutaceae). thin-walled. sour. Kavataleal. slightly triangular and oval. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. Syn.33. elephantum Correa (Faro. hard. found in groups. Pulp. taste. odour. a deciduous. axillary thorns.Reddish-brown. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. stone cells. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. glabrous tree with strong.

Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. Appendix per cent. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.91 (blue) and 0. 0. of the drug in powder form.C.IDENTITY. 6. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. V¡mi.2. 2.95 (violet) . 2. Agnim¡ndya. 77 . (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. Appendix 2. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. 0. Gr¡h¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.7. Appendix per cent.Citric acid and Mucilage. 0.2.V.37. 2.50 (violet).2. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. DOSE . Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.3. Pittav¡tahara.91 and 0.1-3 g.37 (brown). 0.6. CONSTITUENTS . Vra¸an¡¿aka.L. T.91 (grey) in visible light.áv¡sa.12 (brown). 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Hikk¡.91 (violet) and 0. Lekhana. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.12.95 (blue). 0. Amla.95 (all yellow).06.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 0. 0.14 (sky blue). Under U. 0.50.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.2.2. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. Ripe-T¤À¡. Unripe Pulp: Amla. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. KaÀ¡ya. Sangr¡h¢.C.4.

Bk. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. internal surface grey and smooth.) Apocynaceae). parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. simple and compound starch grains. and compound having 2-3 components. (Fam . Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. short. met throughout India in wild state. sometimes cultivated. shows single and groups of stone cells. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. tubular. b) Microscopic Powder . Karamarda (St. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. starch grains simple. light in weight. measuring 3-7 µ in dia.Greyish-brown. rough due to longitudinal striations.34. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. 78 . flat or slightly curved pieces. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. fracture. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. external surface brownish-grey.

7.6.3. of the drug for decoction.97 (violet). 0. DOSE . 0.C. 2.48 g.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.2. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.90 (pink) and 0. T. 0. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .58 (both light grey). Pittakara. 2.4.2. 2.2. 0.2.V. Appendix 2.52 (light sky blue).2.2.L. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.L.35. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.Marma Gu¶¢k¡.KuÀthahara. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 2.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. 79 .

taste. traversed by phloem rays. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. single cells of varying shape and size.35. external surface rough. very bitter.) Merr. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. Fabaceae). fibrous. due to peeling off. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. internally. P. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. tangentially elongated. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups...) glabra Vent. secondary phloem very wide. thin-walled. (Fam. Syn. Bk. fracture. Nakt¡hv¡. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Karanja (Rt. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. most of phloem 80 . 3-11 µ in dia. a glabrous tree. cells. Naktam¡la. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. tangentially elongated cells. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.

THERAPEUTIC USES .51 (light blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. Prameha.7. Powder -Creamish-yellow. Appendix 3.C.6. phloem fibres. ViÀaghma. 2. similar to those present in secondary cortex. mostly straight. Ëntravidradhi. 2. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. cork cells.25 (sky blue). consisting of thin-walled.51.2.31.80 and 0.5 per cent. KuÀtha.V.1-3 g.L. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. 0. 1-2 seriate. 0.98 (all yellow). Appendix 17 per cent.4. Appendix 2. 0. 0. DOSE . 0. Yoniroga. of the drug for decoction. 2. parenchymatous cells.Flavones Kanugin.47.L.37.80 (light blue).K¤miroga.2. 81 .08 (greenish blue). Tikta. DuÀ¶avra¸a. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0.2.C. Ka¸·u. Appendix 2 per cent.37 (greenish yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.47 (greenish yellow).Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. 0. 0. V¡tahara. 0. Appendix 11 per cent.3.18 (blue) 0.31 (sky blue).2. most of ray cells contain starch grain. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. shows thin-walled. CONSTITUENTS . 0.2.47. IDENTITY. 0.2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.09. 0.13 (Sky blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Pittahara. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. T. 0. Ka¸·£ghna.04 (blue). 0.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. 0. 0.18. 2. 0.42 (sky blue). phloem rays many. 0.

internally light yellow.36. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. rounded to oval in shape. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated cells. Karaµjaka. cells. rough due to the presence of numerous. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. 1-2 seriate. bitter. light in weight. P. a glabrous tree. consisting of 82 . secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. irregularly distributed.. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. tangentially elongated.) Merr.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. fracture. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size.) Vent. Syn. Nakt¡hv¡. bark. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. 3-11 µ in dia. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. (Fam. taste. Fabaceae). Karanja (Rt. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. thin-walled. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. reddish-brown or dull brown. bark does not easily separate from xylem. secondary phloem a very wide zone.

IDENTITY. shows fibres in singles or groups. DOSE . Ka¸·£.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. 83 . xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES . also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. thin-waned cells towards inner region. KuÀ¶ha. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.1-2 g. Prameha. Powder -Light yellow. 2. starch grains.radially elongated. 2. rounded to oval in shape. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Yoniroga. Vra¸a¿odhana. Vidradh¢. tracheids. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. tangentially elongated towards outer region.2. Appendix per cent.Karanjin. 2. Appendix per cent.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. ViÀaghna. Kanugin.6. Tikta. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. Pittahara.4.2.7.2. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. V¡tahara.. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent.2. Ëntravidradh¢. K¤miroga. CONSTITUENTS . stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.DuÀ¶avra¸a. more.2. Demethoxy-kanugin. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form. fibres and parenchyma.2. consisting of 2-3 components. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. 2. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.Methylfisetin. Kaphahara. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

composed of rectangular. P. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. forming a continuous or discontinuous band.. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.Bk. phloem parenchyma. at some places lenticels also appear. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. b) Microscopic Bark . traversed by medullary rays.37.2-1 cm thick. Karanja (St. odour. Nakt¡hv¡. Karaµjaka. fracture. taste. Fabaceae). Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. thick-walled cells. filled with reddish-brown content.) glabra Vent. recurved. phloem fibre and stone cells. short and fibrous.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. slightly quilled. unpleasant. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. parenchymatous cells. usually 0. thin-walled.) Merr. Syn. more or less smooth. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. bitter. (Fam. alternating with stone cells. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Karanja. fibre small. 84 . arranged in a tangential manner. lenticellate pieces. a glabrous tree. tangentially elongated. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled.

Prameha.4. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. usually 2-4 cells wide. Pittahara. thin-walled and aseptate. 2. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 3". Demethoxy- kanugin. 85 . rounded to oval.2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex.DuÀ¶avra¸a. 2. Appendix 2. Vidradh¢.2.2. oil globules. 5Methoxyfurano (2". Tikta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . simple and compound starch grains.polygonal. Appendix 1. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". KuÀ¶ha. Kanugin.2. aseptate fibre and stone cells. 3" 7 : 8). Ëntravidradh¢. Powder -Yellowish-cream. V¡tahara. K¤miroga. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. IDENTITY. Yoniroga DOSE . starch grains simple. Pinnatin. ViÀaghma. medullary rays wavy. Ka¶u. and rarely.3. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. Pongapin. present in secondary cortex. Appendix 18 per cent. elongated. CONSTITUENTS .Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin.7.2. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. 2. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. 2. Appendix 3 per cent. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.1-2 g. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Kaphahara. Appendix 13 per cent. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Gamatin.5 per cent.6. of the drug in powder form. Ka¸·u. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS ..2.

) Merr. xylem vessels arranged radially. Pongana Ganuga. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins.5 cm long and 3.2 . Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Karaµjaka. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Kanajo Karuaini. isodiametric. cortex consisting of angular. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. epidermis single layered.8 cm.. traversed by xylem rays. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. Nakt¡hv¡. Hulagilu -Pungu.circular in outline. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. vascular bundle single. Fabaceae).3 cm wide. Syn.38. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.11. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.9-8. leaflets 2-3 pairs. 6. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . a glabrous tree. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. (Fam. Ungu. consisting of xylem and phloem. petiolule short. Dithouri Honge. arcshaped. 0. Karanja (Lf. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. consistig of tabular cells.5-0. Karanja. P. covered with cuticle.) Vent. dark green. Unu. 86 .

consisting of tabular cells. palisade ratio 3.2. stomata anisocytic. Appendix 10 per cent. 2.2. 5" . stomatal index 12.5-20. 2. CONSTITUENTS . a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.2.6.5".3. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. Ka¶u. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".6.6. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Tikta.7.2. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.5 per cent. Appendix 3.5) .A new Furanoflavone -3' . spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. V¡tahara. present in lower surface.2. Ka¸·ughna.6. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. cortex consists of round to oval. phloem and pith. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Appendix 2. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . Pittavardhaka. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. Kaphahara. 7) -flavone. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. Appendix 11 per cent.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. covered with thick cuticle. shows spiral xylem vessels.shows single layered epidermis. mesophyll cells.4.(4". Powder -Green. vascular bundle. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Appendix 16 per cent. 2.2. 2. 5". thin-walled parenchymatous cells. K¤imihara.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". .Mid rib . collateral.5-50. palisade two layered.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES .K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha.J¡ty¡di Taila. 88 . DOSE . Vra¸a. Ka¸·au.For external use only.

2.4.2. 2. Varivall¢. Appendix 28 per cent. Karavallaka (Fresh.25 cm long.6. (Fam.39.Fr.2. fusiform. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. extremely bitter. taste. Kathilla.6 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . 2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.2. Appendix 6 per cent. Appendix 0. usually pointed or beaked.5 . IDENTITY.7. K¡ravall¢.3. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. Kakiral. Nil Appendix 8. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. pendulous. oblong. Appendix 2. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.5 per cent. upto an altitude of 1500 m. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. 2.2. surface rough. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation.) Cucurbitaceae). Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. 3 valved at the apex when mature.

0.10 . T. 0.60. 0. Raktavik¡ra. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .75. Prameha. Kaphahara. Aruci. KuÀ¶ha. Jvara. 0.34.50. K¡mal¡. 0.46. CONSTITUENTS . 0.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 0.C.43. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. D¢pana. K¤miroga. juice of fresh drug.L.C. P¡¸·u. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.67 and 0. DOSE .98 (all blue). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. H¤dya. 0. 0. K¡sa.03. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. V¡tahara. 0.16.áv¡sa.17.98 (all yellow). 0.15 ml.96 (sky blue). THERAPEUTIC USES .98 (red & sky blue).81 and 0.23 (red). 90 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U.61 (light sky blue).T. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi.V.L. 0.

Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. primary cortex persists 91 . b) Microscopic Rhizome . odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. bitter. a perennial. straight or slightly curved. cortex single layered or absent. . Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. Katuka rohini Kutki. pleasant. subcylindrical. inner surface black with whitish xylem. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. bitter. Tiktarohi¸¢. (Fam.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. fracture. dusty grey. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Katki. Rohi¸¢. fracture. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. Sutiktaka. cylindrical. odour. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. cork cambium 1-2 layered. kaur Katuka rohini.40. externally greyish-brown. Katuku rohini. short. taste.1 cm in diameter. Kaurohi¸¢.05-0. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. Rhizome is cut into small pieces.2. pleasant. Katuka (Rz. Kav¢. short. mostly attached with rhizomes. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . Kauka. 0. taste.Thin. Root . Scrophulariaceae). 5-10 cm long. suberised cells.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick.

30 (blue) and 0. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. 0.41 and 0. 0.84 (all yellow). 2. tapering ends. Appendix per cent.21.Dusty grey. tracheids.35 (green).10. T. 0.10. parenchymatous cells. 0. 2. Appendix 2. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. simple round to oval. 92 . abundantly found in all cells. 2.37. fibres aseptate. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. shows groups of fragments of cork cells.3. Appendix per cent.2.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.17.2.104 µ in diameter. 0.in some cases.2. 0. hypodermis single layered.84 (all brownish grey). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. starch grains. secondary xylem consists of vessels. starch grains. 0. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. 0. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. secondary phloem poorly developed. 0. consisting of oval to polygonal. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. tracheids long.05. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.17. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Appendix per cent. 0.30. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.7.. some cylindrical with taillike.62.C.6. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. Powder .C. parenchyma and fibres.30. Appendix per cent.05 (blue). measuring 25 . secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends.V. 0.L. parenchyma.72 and 0. 0. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs.L.4. 0. lignified. cambium 2-4 layered. thick-walled cells of endodermis. 0. thick-walled. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.2. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation.21. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. vessels have varying shape and size.41. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. cortex 8-14 layered. thick-walled. thick-walled. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. simple round to oval.2. IDENTITY. tracheids. thick-walled. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.

Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta.1 . DOSE . Arocaka. D¢pan¢. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. KuÀ¶ha.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). D¡ha. of the drug in powder form. 93 . Pittahara. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Jvara.3 g. ViÀamajvara. Sarvajvarahara Lauha.áv¡sa. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .CONSTITUENTS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¡mal¡. Bhedin¢.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. THERAPEUTIC USES .

IkÀuraka. second pair 94 .) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. subsessile. with long white hairs. corolla 3. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali.Yellowish-brown. didynamous.Mostly adventitious. Leaf . swollen at nodes. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. bracts about 2. Kolavankal ---.6 cm long. 1-7 cm long. Kettu.Anders (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. tube 1. creamishbrown in cut surfaces.2 cm long.5-1 cm wide. all linear-lanceolate. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara.P. Vayalculli Talikhana.5 cm long.6-2 cm long. which are 1. Syn. Kolarind. Flower . annual herb.Greenish-brown. 0. broader than the other three. entire and hairy. sub-quadrangular.Acanthaceae).3 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste. lanceolate. Hygrophila spinosa T. Kalsunda --Golmidi. Nirguvireru. a spiny. Nirchulli. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. calyx 4-partite. Stem . abruptly swollen at top. no characteristic odour and taste. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . acute.41. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes.Usually unbranched. externally greyish-brown. fasciculate. widely 2 lipped. stout. upper sepal 1. Culli. whitish to brown. Kokilaksha (W. common in water logged places throughout the country. stamens 4.

8 cm long. scattered throughout the phloem region. 95 . when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage.1 . style filiform. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. truncate at the base. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. xylem present in a ring. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. a few thick-walled. round. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. Fruit . medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. linear-oblong. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. radially elongated in secondary xylem. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. Stem . cortical cells thin-walled.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. 0. peripheral ones larger. inner cells smaller. radially arranged. stigma simple. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. involute with a fissure on upper side. b) Microscopic Root . a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. with a number of large air cavities. filament quite glabrous. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. consisting of round to polygonal cells. endodermis single layered. ray cells thin-walled. broader towards centre. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct.0. moderately thick-walled. thin-walled.25 cm long and 0. thin-walled cells. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. fibre walls uniformly thickened. Seed . light brown. flat or compressed. hairy but appearing smooth. vessels with spiral thickenings. compressed.Two celled. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. subequal. arranged in radial rows. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. fibres thick-walled. vessels angular. polygonal cells. phloem narrow. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. having small intercellular spaces.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. composed of transversely elongate.Ovate. oblong. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.2-0. arranged radially. ray cells thin walled. pith large. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. pointed. phloem fibres thick-walled. glabrous. radially elongated in xylem region. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. 4seeded. brownish cells. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. composed of polygonal. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. variable in size. pubescent. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. single or in groups of 2-3. rectangular to cubical. anthers two celled. capsule about 0.15 cm wide.larger. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region.

Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. Seed . lignified. thin-walled. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered.2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. oval to hexagonal.2. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. unicellular hairs and globules. M£trala. Lamina . sclerenchymatous cells. parenchymatous. covered with thick cuticle.75.LeafMidrib .3. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. Appendix per cent. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. stomata diacytic. thick-walled. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Appendix per cent. palisade 1-2 layered. 2.2. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. .Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. V¡jikara.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. shows aseptate.25-15. 2. 2. tangentially elongated cells. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.2. Amla.Shows concavo-convex outline. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. Tikta Picchila. 2.Light brown. V¤Àya. IDENTITY.2. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. Fruit . palisade. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . Powder . Appendix 2.4. vein islet number 17-42.24-30. composed of thin-walled. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells.2.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface.7.6. Rucya. Appendix per cent. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. collenchyma 2-5 layered. palisade ratio 6. stomatal index 17. elongated fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.78. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells.

of the drug in powder form.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra).3 -6 g. Ëmav¡ta áotha. DOSE .T¤À¸¡.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 97 . THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tarakta.

Kokilaksha (Rt. annual herb. a spiny. Kolavulike. Culli --. slightly transversely elongated. secondary phloem narrow. Syn. Hygrophila spinosa T. IkÀuraka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Anders (Fam. common in water logged places throughout the country. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. thin-walled.42.Acanthaceae). whitish to brownish. no characteristic odour and taste. the size of these cells. Root-Appears circular in outline.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. branches on nodes. Nerugobbi. stout. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. polygonal cells. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. Kokil¡kÀ¢. consisting of small. thinwalled cells. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. 98 . secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong.

Appendix per cent. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . 2. Appendix 2. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fragments of pitted. M£trala. Amla. of the drug for decoction. having spiral thickening. fibre walls uniformly thickened.Ëmav¡ta áotha. Tikta Picchila. 99 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ray cells thin-walled. radially elongated in the xylem region. scattered throughout the phloem region.Light brown to ash coloured. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.3 -6 g. 2. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. Appendix per cent. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells.2.2. V¡tahara.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. A¿ma¤¢.7. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region.2. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. Powder .2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. 2.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. angular.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.4. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. broader towards centre. V¡tarakta. 2.2. lignified fibres.3. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. vessels with spiral thickening. IDENTITY. each group composed of 2-6 cells.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .

white. oil globules present in this region. Hygrophila spinosa T.43. common in water logged places throughout the country. Kokilaksha (Sd. Syn. Powder . Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. the 100 . slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Maradarishana.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. light yellowish-brown. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. thinwalled. hairy but appearing smooth. Daruhuladur Darhald. Acanthaceae). Anders. truncate at the base. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. flat or compressed. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. IkÀuraka. a spiny. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.Greyish-brown. parenchymatous cells. taste. Swelling Index . stout. b) Microscopic Seed . Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. (Fam.8 -10.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Maradarishina -Maramannal. annual herb. shows hairs and oil globules.

Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.55 (light blue).2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. 0. T.4. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.2. Protease and an Alkaloid.03. 0.L. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.2. 2. enzymes like Diastase. 0. V¤Àya. IDENTITY.10 (light brown). Pitt¡¿mar¢. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. of the drug in powder form. 0. 0. Lipase.C. Appendix 2.24 (red).internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.52 (dark brown) and 0. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .31 (dark brown).31. 101 .72 (dark brown).L.. DOSE .6.38. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.An yellow semi-drying oil. 0. 0. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. including any sticky mucilage. Appendix per cent. 0.17 (light brown).V. 0.41 (light blue).24. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.2. 0. related to 1 g of seeds.C. Santarpa¸a. 2.03 (light brown). V¡tarakta.3 -6 g. 0. 0.2.76 (sky blue) and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.áotha.52 and 0.72 (all yellow). 0.17.93 (sky blue).3. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. Add 25 ml of water. CONSTITUENTS . Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.24 (dark brown). 2.2. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.38 (light brown).

stamens 8-12.35-0.3 to 2. surface smooth. smooth and greenish-brown. an annual succulent.4 cm long. bright yellow. Loni. Kozuppa. Peddapavila Kura. Moti Luni Khursa. Payilikura. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Ghola -Lonak. Stem . characteristic. -Baraloniya. Chhotalunia. oblong. secondary roots. spathulate. 0. prostrate herb. 50 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡.Almost cylindrical. brownish-grey. Kozhuppu Pappukura. Kulfa. root hairs abundant in upper region. Pulikkirai. petals obovate. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. rounded and truncate at the apex. less in number. (Fam.1 to 0. dehiscing above the base. Lonika. 0.6 cm wide. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Badanuni.A few. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. 0.Simple.An ovoid capsule. Kwfa Pasalai. Gho¶ik¡. branched. sub-sessile. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Paruppukkeerai. short. 102 . Fruit . cuneiform.3 cm long. odour.5 cm long and 0.5 cm long. fracture. 0.44. swollen at the nodes. found throughout the country. Baranunia Garden Purslane. very delicate and soon falling off.2 cm in diameter.Cylindrical. Loni -Koricchira. 0. at terminal heads. 3-4 leaves. subtended by an involucre. Khurfa. oblique.P) Portulacaceae). style 5-6 fid. Loni. Leaf . small.25-0. Flower . sepal 0.4 cm long. Kozhuppa.1 to 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . short. Doddagoni Soppu. Kuzuppa (W. fracture. ribbed. Badi Lona Dudagorai.

tracheids and parenchyma. Appendix per cent. as well as compound. oval. measuring 6-14 µ . Appendix per cent.2. pitted and spiral vessels. oval cells. having intercellular spaces.. Powder . paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. thin-walled. palisade single layered. parenchymatous cells. black.2. ray cells and pith. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. LeafMidrib . inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. simple as well as compound. vessels. tracheids and parenchyma. Lamina . stomata paracytic type. phloem. . 2.4. Stem . secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. 2. shows groups of oval to polygonal.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. phloem and xylem parenchyma.2. tracheids. reniform. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. having simple pits and spiral thickening. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.06-0. Appendix 2.Greyish-brown. secondary xylem consists of vessels. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. solitary or in groups of 2-5. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. thick-walled with wide lumen.2.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells.3.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. covered externally with a thick cuticle. IDENTITY. 0. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. 2. Appendix per cent.6. parenchyma abundant. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. 2. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork.7. pericycle fibre present in patches. parenchymatous cells. fragments of cork cells.2. b) Microscopic Root . dark brown. Appendix per cent. arranged in radial rows.Wavy in outline.07 cm across. minute. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. secondary xylem composed of vessels. measuring 6-14 µ in dia.2. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. having 2-3 components. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled.Seed -Numerous. present in mesophyll cells.

Prameha.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .08.Protein. áotha.6 g. 0.41. CakÀuÀya.10.68 and 0. T. 0.52.T.Agnim¡ndya.76 (all pinkish red).50. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 104 . Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 0. 0. 0.C. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. RukÀa. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. Ar¿a. of the drug in powder form.68. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.C. Carbohydrates. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. Under U.08.52 (both faint green).61. 0.68 (yellow) and 0.41.10. THERAPEUTIC USES .76 (green) in visible light.V. 0.Marma Gu¶ik¡. Pittakara. (both green). V¡tahara.76 and 0..L.L. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Vra¸a DOSE . Gulma.10.3 . 0.

obliquely rounded at base. sparsely prickly. petiolate. alternate.4 cm broad. nearly glabrous.2 cm long. slightly astringent. yellowish-green. distinct.5 cm in dia. greyish brown to brown. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. linear lanceolate. fracture hard. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 25-50 cm high. upto 2. (Fam. Fabaceae).3-0. sensitive to touch.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. acute. covered with long. stipulate. upto 2 cm thick. 0. odour. 105 .6-1. Var¡kr¡nt¡. 0. Stem . bark fibrous. Lajjalu (W. Machikegida. internal cut surface grey. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. woody.Cylindrical. leaflets 10-20 pairs. varying in length. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. sessile. hairy pinnae. tapering.45. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. rependant . bark fibrous. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. taste. with secondary and tertiary branches.week bristles longitudinally grooved. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. Adamalati Lajaka.P) diffused undershrub. Lajamani Chhuimui. Lajavanti. Leaf . external surface light brown. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country.Cylindrical. Lajauni Muttidasenui. easily separable from wood.

Seed . 0. corolla pink. lobes 4. fibres of two types.Lomentum. phloem fibres single or in groups. phloem rays thick-walled. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. fibres. thick-walled. Fruit . radially elongated. tangentially elongated cells. 2-3 seriate more common. a number of lignified. calyx very small. glabrous. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. in globose head. b) Microscopic Root . exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. dry. rarely multiseriate.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. oval-elliptic. much exserted.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. fibres single or in groups.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered.3 cm long. filled with reddish-brown contents. crystal fibres elongated. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. ovate oblong.4-0. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. consisting of large. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. respectively. 3-25 chambered. ovary sessile. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma.Compressed.6 cm long. 1-1. spreading bristle at sutures. straw coloured. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. xylem rays radially elongated. tangentially elongated to oval. scattered throughout. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 106 . pith consisting of polygonal.Flower . Stem . 0. scattered throughout secondary xylem. ovules numerous. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. thick-walled.Pink. crystal fibres thick-walled. brown to grey. moderately thick-walled. starch grains. stamens 4. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings.3 long. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 2. 0. simple. parenchymatous cells. thick-walled. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. peduncles prickly. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. parenchyma. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. arranged in tangential bands. secondary cortex wide. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate.

0. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally.L. one in each wing. spongy parenchyma. pericycle same as in petiole. palisade single layered. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3 components IDENTITY.C. Appendix per cent. 2.2. covered with thin-cuticle. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. shaggy hairs. shows. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells.2. lignified cells followed by single layered. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U.2.C. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Reddish-brown. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. branched.shows epidermis on both surfaces. T. 2. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. Midrib . Appendix per cent. thin-walled. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Lamina . On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .62. 0.6. Powder .4. pitted vessels. 0. 2. Appendix per cent. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells.2. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.3. palisade cells non glandular. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. with 2 . endocarp of thick-walled. pericycle arranged in a ring.V.shows single layered epidermis. spongy parenchyma single layered. 2.35.L. parenchymatous cells Seed .Leaf- Petiole . Appendix 2. single and compound starch grains. parenchymatous cells.81 (bluish-pink). Appendix per cent. shaggy hairs.2. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. vascular bundle single. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. Fruit .2.7. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. reticulate. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. branched. crystal fibres.69 (all blue) and 0. fibres.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.

Atis¡ra. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES .35 (orange). KaÀ¡ya Laghu.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. KuÀ¶ha.áopha. Vra¸a. Raktapita DOSE .spots appear at Rf. 108 . CONSTITUENTS . D¡ha. Yoniroga. Ku¶aj¡valeha.35 and 0.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. 0.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.

taste. Hippenara. a few 109 . Ippa. Madhuka. Androecium . b) Microscopic Corolla . irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. Mahua Katiluppai. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). basifixed. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua.Gmel. Madhuka (Fl. followed by thin-walled. corolla fleshy.) Macbride. Iluppa. Mahawash tree Mahudo.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. (Fam. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. erect 0. Halippe. Syn. sweet. ovate lanceolate.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. epipetalous and arranged in two series. epipetalous. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Ilippa. Eppimara -Irippa. latifolia (Roxb.5-2 cm long. M. reddish-brown. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Kattu Iluppai. lanceolate. anther sub-sessile. tabular. and also cultivated.46. Sapotaceae) . short. Hippe.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida.F.

shows fragments of epidermal cells.2. round. Appendix 25 per cent. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.Madh£k¡sava. 110 .unicellular hairs present on one side. of the drug. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 5 per cent.2. Appendix 70 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. endothecium composed of radially elongated. árama DOSE .áv¡sa. El¡di Modaka. pollen grains single or in groups. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. 2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. Appendix 0. Powder . spherical. Pittakara. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac.2.3. T¤À¸¡. KÀaya. V¡tahara. oval shaped. unicellular hairs. 2.2.6.4. Appendix 2.7.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.10 . 2. Ah¤dya.Dark brown.15 g. lignified cells. tapetum not distinct.2.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. D¡ha. KÀata. IDENTITY. áramahara. Balya.5 per cent.

47. Leaf . triandra Lam. obtuse or subacute.3-7.. sessile. short. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . linear-oblong. yellowish-brown to light-brown. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. fracture. Syn. sometimes reaching 10 cm long.5 cm wide. A. (Fam. 0. internodes 0. non Link. no characteristic odour and taste. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. denticulata R..Herbaceous.Flower in small axillary sessile heads.6 cm diameter. Br. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. no characteristic odour and taste. fracture.5 cm long. A. Matsy¡duni. with spreading branches from the base. 2. weak. or elliptic. repens Gmel. Br. Gandal¢..3-2 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. short.P. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa..5-5 cm long. 0. Stem . cream to grey. Br.) R. no characteristic odour and taste. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. Matshyakshi (W.. nodes and internodes distinct. Amaranthaceae).1-0.1. A. nodiflora R. A. often rooting at lower nodes. Flower . white often tinged with pink. bracteoles 111 . Bahli.Cylindrical.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.

composed of thin-walled. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. perianth 2. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. scarious. irregular. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. orbicular. consistig of thin-walled. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. style very short. numerous. radially arranged cork cells. parenchymatous cells. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. isodiametic cells. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches.Utricle. parenchymatous cells. 1. present in the centre. compressed. Lamina . b) Microscopic Root . single layered. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. consisting of thin-walled cells.5-3 mm long. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. compressed with thickened margins. thin-walled. thin-walled round or oval. Fruit . with anomalous secondary growth. pith consisting of thin-walled. thin. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. secondary cortex narrow.2 cm long. vascular bundles three. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. round or oval. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. acute. palisade ratio 3-5. pith distinct. 112 . thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. no characteristic odour and taste. isodiametric. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. vascualr bundles radially arranged. round to oval.5 mm long. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Stem . bicollateral. parenchymatous cells. palisade 2-3 layers. capitellate. collenchymatous cells. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. ovary obcordate. covered wtith striated cuticle. no characteristic odour and taste. ovate. with are conjoint. shows wavy or undulate.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. stomata paracytic. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. Leaf- Midrib . xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays.1. xylem tissues lignified. each consisting of xylem and phloem. sepals ovate.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.dorsiventral. open and exarch. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces.

Under U. Appendix 2.25. 0. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . 2.2.. CONSTITUENTS .2.Sugar.44.2. 0.2 -3 g.6.5 per cent.44. 2.81. 0.3. 0.44 (all green). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. T.7. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Kaphahara. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. 0.96 (all yellow).L.KuÀ¶ha. of the drug in powder form.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. 0. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.Powder .C. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.L. Tikta.C.33 and 0.59. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. IDENTITY. Appendix 4. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 0. 0.94 and 0.V.54 and 0. 0.Olive green. paracytic stomata. 113 .4.2.35. 2. Pittavik¡ra. 0.68 (all red). On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.33.18. Appendix 10 per cent.16. 0. 0. Appendix 19 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent.2.16. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.

Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. very hard.walled. smooth. 0. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. mucilaginous cells. cells flat at base. varying in size. pleasant. columnar palisade. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings.48. dull yellow. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. (Fam. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. cultivated throughout the country. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side.15-0. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex.35 cm broad. Fabaceae). taste. bitter. 30-60 cm tall.Seed shows a layer of thick.) aromatic. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. thin-walled. odour. Methi (Sd. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. covered externally with thick cuticle.2-0. annual herb. several layers of thin walled. parenchymatous cells. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. b) Microscopic Seed . 0.5 cm long. 114 .

Appendix 4 per cent. 2. CONSTITUENTS .4.2. aleurone grains.2.Mustak¡riÀ¶a.Yellow. 2.2. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. Rucya. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent.Graha¸¢. Aruci DOSE . Prameha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. THERAPEUTIC USES . 115 . oil globules. IDENTITY.Alkaloid.2. Appendix 0.6.3.5 per cent. Jvara. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. Appendix 5 per cent. Sapogenins and Mucilage. 2. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3-6 g. Kaphahara.2. Powder . of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll.

compressed.49.Slender. (Fam. sub-marginate at the apex. Flower . regular. Muli. oblong. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. hollow. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. not distinct.5-10 cm long. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. bisexual. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. blade obovate. coarsely toothed. sometimes brown red.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. upper most leaves simple. Mulaka (W. bright green. variable size and thickness.1-1. pedicel with scattered hairs.3 cm long. Leaf .Flower in long terminal raceme. petiole 5-5.7-2. yellowish-green.P. taste.0 cm in dia. an annual or biennial bristly herb. cylindrical. Stem . light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. 0. petals 1. slightly pungent.Root cylindrical. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . odour.. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. lyrate.Lower leaves hairy. having a few longitudinal striations.2 cm long. seplas 6. complete 1-2 cm long.) Brassicaceae).

tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. irregularly globose.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. Midrib . erect. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. one central and two lateral. Seed .Reddish-brown. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. b) Microscopic Root . surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. Lamina . in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. style about 4 mm long. thin-walled. present in cortex and phloem. traversed by xylem rays. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. continuous or more or less constricted. green or brown-purple.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. starch grains simple. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. 117 . 3-9 cm long and 0.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. hairs unicellular. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. 2-4 mm long. pith a wide zone of polygonal. phloem. traversed by phloem rays. present only on upper side. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. present in cortex.purple vein. parenchymatous cells. Fruit .8. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. Stem .appears biconvex in outline. round to oval. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. sometimes flattened. elliptical. parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. taste. stamen 6 in two whorls.1. occasionally pale purple. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. two outer smaller and four inner longer. parenchymatous cells. ovary superior. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. Leaf- Petiole . round to oval. medullary rays four to many cells wide. 2 mm wide. endodermis at some places. 1-2 chambered. palisade 2-3 layers. greenish-yellow. covered with thick cuticle. 10-12 ovuled. epidermis followed by 6.dorsiventral. oily.4 cm thick. thin-walled. solitary or ingroups. cylindrical. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. epidermis single layered. single layered. radially arranged.Siliqua. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. cork cells. vascular bundle three in number. longitudinally sulcatus.

beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. Svarya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.3. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ar¿a. Pittahara. of columnar cells. Gulma.7.M£lakakÀ¡ra. spiral vessels. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. Appendix per cent. covered with thin.6. Tikta Laghu. Gandhaka Va¶¢. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Appendix per cent. Rucya. 2.2. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. shows aseptate fibres. straight cuticle. Seed . P¢nasa.Glucoside.2.4. thinwalled. 118 . 2. covered with a thin-cuticle. CONSTITUENTS . tangentially elongated.2.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells.40 ml. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. 2. P¡cana. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. H¤dya. parenchymatous cells. of the drug in juice form. measuring 3-14 µ diameter.Fruit .2. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. DOSE . thin-walled. Ud¡varta. Appendix 2. Kaphahara. reddish-brown.20 . Powder . Appendix per cent. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . parenchymatous cells present.Yellowish-green.Shows a single layered epidermis.2. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded.Agnim¡ndya.2.

Mulaka (Rt. IDENTITY. taste.2.2. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.2. 2. Moclangi gadde. Brassicaceae).6. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Mula Muli Moolangi. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. slightly or strongly pungent.4.2. Appendix per cent.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. 2. Mulaka. variable in size. white in colour. (Fam. Visra. Mullangi. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent. fusiform. rarely sweet. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. cylindrical. Rakhyasmula Mula. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. 119 .3. 2. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. usually 25-40 cm in length. Saleya.) annual or biennial bristly herb.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent.2. Appendix 2.50.7. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.

Svarya. Jvara.49 & 0. of the drug in the juice form 120 . M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .09.04 & 0. 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Ud¡varta DOSE . Rucya. Kaphahara.09 & 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. 0.C.V. 0.15-30 ml. K¡sa.T.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Dadru.04. P¡cana. T.LC.Agnim¡ndya. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. 0. Tikta Laghu. Gulma.09 (both blue). áv¡sa.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. P¢nasa. Ar¿a.04.34.Glucoside. H¤dya.69 (all yellow). Galaroga. Netraroga. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vrana. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. 0.L. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Pittahara.

thin-walled cells. cambium 2-4 layered.) DC. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma.2. Root . inner cells thin-walled. 6-12 cm long and 0. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. secondary cortex composed of rounded. odour.4 m tall. Mura (Rt. Apiaceae ). aromatic. Syn.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. a perennial herb. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. secondary phloem shows wide zone. thin-walled cells. colour.42000 m. S. slightly bitter. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . Daitya. tangentially elongated. Gandhakuti.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths.51.6 . consisting of tangentially elongated. rectangular cells. tenuifolium Wall. (Fam. fibres and parenchyma. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . 0. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars.1. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. dull brown. traversed by xylem rays.3 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi.Shows 10 . taste. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. traversed by phloem rays. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC.

present in secondary cortex. Ka¶u. Appendix 9 per cent.3. xylem and phloem rays.6.2. secondary phloem. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .1-3 g.having spiral thickenings. Sucrose and Mannitol. 122 . round to oval.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin).2. 2. CONSTITUENTS . secondary phloem.2.áv¡sa. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents.. Appendix 3. composed of radially arranged.2. 2. 2.2. Bhrama. short with blunt ends. shows groups of cork cells. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter.Arvind¡sava. fibres aseptate.7. D¡ha. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form.Brown. M£rchha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .2. oil globules and simple starch grains. somewhat oval cells. Appendix 2. Appendix 9 per cent. xylem parenchyma. 2. secondary xylem and medullary rays. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara.4. Jvara. Appendix 17 per cent. parenchymatous cells. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. IDENTITY.5 per cent. Tikta. distributed throughout secondary cortex. secretory canals numerous. starch grains simple. secretory canals.

similar to those present in secondary cortex. (Fam. tangentially elongated. a large stout. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. phloem fibres absent. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. indistinct. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Halukaratige. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical.Shows a cork. resin cells present irregularly in this region. & Am. some filled with reddish-brown contents. fracture. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. Jartor Koratige Hambu. odour. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. Madhusrava.52. phloem rays 1 123 . externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. slightly bitter. bark easily separable from wood.) Asclepiadaceae). Koratige. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. twining shrub.5-3 cm thick. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. taste. rectangular cells. b) Microscopic Root . Murva (Rt. Kallu Shambu.

of the drug for decoction.4.Light brown. Appendix 0. Jvara.tracheids. H¤droga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. K¤miroga. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. Raktapitta. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. T¤Àn¡.2.2. 5.3.5 . measuring 5. 10-20 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .7. Mukha áosa. Ka¸·£. of the drug in powder form.6. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. 2.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Tikta Guru.5-22 µ dia. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. shows a number of stone cells. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure.2-6 g. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening.2. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. Appendix 7 per cent.. Pittahara. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue.22 µ in diameter. fragments of cork. fibres. 2. Powder .Ar¿a. V¡tahara. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. fibretracheids. composed of vessels. 124 . tracheids.3 cells wide. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. consisting of small tangential.2. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. Medoroga. present in parenchymatous tissues. Appendix 5 per cent. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. 2. DOSE . starch grains simple.5 per cent..Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 14 per cent. IDENTITY. Prameha Mihira Taila. vessels with pitted walls. fibres. 2. Appendix 2. Meha. simple and compound starch grains. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. Nagchampa. exine and intine distinct.) evergreen tree. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Hem¡. Veluthapala. Nagppu.0 cm long. filament 0. Peri. Nagakesar (Stmn.9 cm long. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Bengal. Pilunagkesar. (Fam. filiform. often buttressed at the base. Nagachampakam. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. containing pollen grains. Nauga. odour. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Konkan. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk.8 .5 cm long. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. more or less twisted.Anther shows golden-brown. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. Nagakesari -Nangaa. consisting of thin-walled. fragrant.1. b) Microscopic Androecium . Assam. basifixed.9-1. Naugaliral. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn.Brown. coppery or golden brown. soft to touch. yellowish and thin-walled. distinct protuberances on walls. taste. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. connective not visible with naked eye. Guttiferae). Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. quite brittle. N¡gapuÀpa. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. 125 .53. shows elongated cells of filament. anther about 0. Sachunagkeshara. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. Nahar Nageshvara. N¡ga. each stamen 0. an Ke¿ara. astringent. parenchymatous cells. Powder . linear. thick-walled. slender. connective and filament.

6. 2.1-3 g. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 2. Tikta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .IDENTITY.2. Appendix per cent. Var¸ya. 2. Vastiroga DOSE .2.2. 2. V¡tarakta. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. CONSTITUENTS .Essential oil and Oleo-resin. Kaphahara.3.4. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. 126 . 2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. Appendix per cent. áopharoga.2.7. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. Appendix per cent. Kum¡ry¡sava.Raktapitta. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.2.

pith composed of round to oval. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. Nili (Lf.5 cm long and 0.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region.54. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole .) shrub. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. 1. (Fam.1. no characteristic odour and taste.2 cm wide. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. N¢l¢n¢. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.8 m high. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. leaflet 1-2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. pale green to greenish-black.2. 127 . epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. Fabaceae).3-1.

. similar as in petiole.shows epidermis.. pitted vessels. IDENTITY. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.2. Ud¡varta. V¡tahara.2. 2. Pl¢haroga. Appendix 2 per cent. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 10 per cent. of decoction. similar as in petiole and midrib.2.7. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. vascular bundle single. K¡sa.. Appendix 25 per cent. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. Udararoga.50-100 g. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 7.2.Glycoside (Indican).2. 128 . Ke¿ya.Ëmav¡ta. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . palisade 2-3 layers. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .4.2. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.Greenish-grey.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.3. CONSTITUENTS . 2.Midrib . cuticle and hair. Lamina . Gulma.5 per cent. Appendix 2.6. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. aseptate fibres. K¤imiroga. shows groups of mesophyll cells. Jvara. 2. V¡tarakta. epidermis. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .shows dorsiventral structure. collateral and crescent shaped. 2. cuticle and hair.

Nili (Rt.2-1. consisting of usual elements. Gari Nili Kadunili. secondary cortex a narrow zone.. Olleneeli -Amari. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. thin-walled cells. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. Neeligida. with lenticels. Neeli Nili. (Fam. woody.5 cm thick. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. hard. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. taste. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Nila -Neel Avuri. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Indian Indigo Gali. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. 129 . Rangapatr¢. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. group of fibres. odour not distinct. thin-walled cells. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. Nili Chettu. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Nil. slightly bitter. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels.8 m high. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. Fabaceae). prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. Nila Nili.55.10 layers of tangentially elongated. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. 0. Karunili. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. Nili. 1. rectangular. cylindrical.1 -1.) shrub.

86 and 0.06.81 (blue). 0. Appendix 3 per cent.Creamish-brown. DOSE . 0.2.81.14. T.91 (all grey). 0.06.10.75 (blue). shows aseptate fibres. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .2. round to oval. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C. Ud¡varta. Appendix 2. Ke¿ya.86. 2. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.63 (bluish green).2. ViÀavik¡ra. xylem parenchyma and rays. K¡sa.Arvind¡sava.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.7 per cent.58 (blue). 0.3. 0. Ëmav¡ta.50.58. 2.30 (bluish green). and 0.Gulma. simple and compound starch grains. 0. Pl¢h¡roga.4. 0.L. 0. V¡tarakta.2. 0.7. 130 .L. 0.C.2. 0.50.63.21. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.14 (blue).10.91 (all yellow).86 (green) and 0.0. 0. IDENTITY. starch grains simple. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. V¡tahara. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. CONSTITUENTS .91 (blue). 0. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 4 per cent.75.33. Appendix 6 per cent. 0.33.40.27..0.V. Powder .. phloem. Appendix 0. 0. 0.58.75.2. pitted vessels.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. 0. 0. 0. Udararoga.48 g. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf.47 (blue).80.14. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. 0. 2. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0.63.27. Recan¢. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. 0. 0. K¤imiroga. 0.40 (blue). 2. present in cortex.6. 0. 0.40. 0. 0. of drug for decoction. 0.

Oilevevu. Veppan Vemu. 131 . taste. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Kohumba Nim. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba.56. indistinct.1 cm thick. Bakayan. Nim. opposite. Bakan. Veppu. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. rachis 15-25 cm long. Limado. Arulundi. Juss Syn. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Veppa Balantanimba. Nimba (Lf. slightly yellowish-green.7 cm wide. 7-8. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Bevu.Compound. lanceolate. Nimbam. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Bevinama -Veppu. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. odour.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Melia azadirachta Linn. exstipulate. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. crystals also present in phloem region. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Meliaceae). below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. alternate. acute.0-1. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. 0. Limbado. Nim Vemmu. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Nimba Nimba. Aryaveppu. Limba. Kahibevu. serrate.5 cm long and 1. (Fam. leaflets with oblique base. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. of the drug in powder form. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta.Triterpenoids and Sterols. Appendix 2. covered externally with thick cuticle. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. stomatal index 13.4.2.Lamina . KuÀ¶ha. Prameha. Appendix per cent. tangentially elongated cells. palisade single layered.2.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. shows vessels. 2.3.6.7. Netraroga.0-4. composed of thin walled. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 132 .1-3 g. palisade ratio 3.2. Vrana.5. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.2.5 on upper surface. Ëma¿otha.2. fibres. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction.shows dorsiventral structure. thin-walled cells. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡.Green. 2. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. V¡tal¡. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. IDENTITY.5 on lower surface and 8. Appendix per cent.0-11.0-14. Powder . fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. epidermis on either surface. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. ViÀarogas DOSE . traversed by a number of veins. K¤miroga.Jvara.

considerably thick in older barks. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. fibrous. Kahibevu. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. evergreen tree. taste. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Nimba. Syn. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Nimb Bevu. characteristic. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. woody. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. Kadunimb. (Fam. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A.57. Limba Nimba Nim. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Bakam Veppai. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Vembu Vemu. fissured and rusty-grey. Nimba (St. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Meliaceae). each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Juss. a moderate sized to fairly large. odour. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Melia azadirachta Linn. fracture. Nimba. extemal surface rough. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Oilevevu -Veppu.

2. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium.20.7. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Appendix 2. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. Powder . most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 7 per cent. 0. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.2. lignified rectangular to polygonal.75-5 µ in diameter.Reddish-brown.V. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. CONSTITUENTS .measuring 2. secondary cortex absent in most cases.6. Appendix 6 per cent. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. stone cells mostly in groups.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. 0.2. 2. Appendix 5 per cent.L.90 (all blue). a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.C. measuring 2. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.45. cork cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent.2. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . having wide lumen and distinct striations.outer surface. 2.63 and 0. starch grains.2. simple starch grains.L. and 0.4. IDENTITY.86 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.3. 2. simple. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. T.90 (green).C.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. 0. 0. ViÀaghna. Appendix 1. Pittahara.2. round with central hilum.72 (blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. Kaphahara.

Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .. Ka¸·u. KuÀ¶ha. Decoction should be used externally. of the drug in powder form. Vra¸a DOSE . Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.D¡ha. Rakta Pitta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. K¤miroga. Jvara.2-4 g. Prameha. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. 135 . Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.

Paras Moduga. Camata. moderately thick-walled. internal surface rough. dark brown. Chettu Dhak.5 . sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. Tesu Muttug. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. pale brown. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. Muttuga. Palasha (St. curved. dark-brown. 12 . fracture. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. tanniniferous cells. slightly astringent. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. exposing light brown surface. 0. having brown colour. rectangular 136 . Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures.Bk) Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. Plas. Khakhapado Dhak. greyish to pale brown. Modugu. 5-10 or more layered. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. Muttala -Plasu. rectangular. often in groups.58. Khakharo.) Kuntze (Fam. cork cells. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. Dhak. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. thin-walled.2 cm thick usually peels off. Palash. Tesu Purasu. rhytidoma 0.15 m high with irregular branches. except in very arid parts. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. taste.1 cm thick. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part.

10. 0. crystal fibres.48 and 0. Appendix 10 per cent.C.67 (all violet). in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.13. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly.. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem. 137 . phloem parenchyma. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .75 . 0.7. Appendix 14 per cent.Reddish-brown. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6.V. T. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. starch grains simple and compound with 2 .48. Powder . On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.2.48 and 0. straight. 2. 0. 2.67 (all yellow). sclereids mostly in groups. measuring 2.50 cells in height. phloem rays multiseriate 4 .65 (all blue). dark brown coloured cells.cells followed by a zone of 2 .10.L. 7 . 0. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.2.3. 0.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Appendix 2. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.2.2.10. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.18.4 layers of sclereids. thin-walled cork cells.75 µ in dia. 0. CONSTITUENTS .. 0. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. traversed by phloem rays. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.12 cells wide. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.5 per cent.2. 0.C.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. Appendix 1. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.3 components. 2. phloem fibres.L. Appendix 12 per cent.4. 2. companion cells.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.

Agnid¢paka. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. K¤miroga.5-10 g. 138 . DOSE . Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Graha¸¢. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. S¡raka .Ar¿a. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Vra¸a.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Gulma. of the drug in powder form for decoction. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta. KaÀ¡ya Sara.

smooth. exfoliating in narrow strips. stone 139 . radially arranged and thin-walled. secondary cortex consists of large.59. Mulmurumgai Badisa. quick growing tree. Paribhadra (St. Pangara Hongar. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal.5-2. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed.0 cm thick. inner bark fibrous. (Fam. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada.Bk) Fabaceae). medium sized. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. yellowish to cream coloured. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. tangentially elongated to squarish. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. parenchymatous cells.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

Alkaloids. 148 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. of drug in powder form.. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Volatile Oil.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. V¡taroga DOSE .. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .2-4 g. V¤Àya.CONSTITUENTS .V¡tarakta. Balak¤t.

mottled with darker brown lines. Priyalam. b) Microscopic Seed . odour. Priyala (Sd.4-0. pleasant. which are of various size.3-0. sclerenchymatous cells. linear. occurring mostly in groups. collapsed cells of integument. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. pitted. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. creamish-brown. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. Korka. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. large. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. funicle stout. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. sweetish-oily. thick-walled. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. B. Saraparuppu Sara.6 cm long.63.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. hilum present at the apex of round edge. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 .5 cm wide. (Farn. micropyle superior. taste.) Anacardiaceae). found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. Shalichokha Piyal. Piyar. 0. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. latifolia Roxb. Syn. Satdhan -Charal. followed by remnants of disorganised. Chowl. 0.

On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.08.08. KÀata.L.72 and 0.94 (blue). and oil globules.5 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.type.L.10 .94 and 0. shows numerous mesophyll cells.V.84.72. Bhagnas¡dhaka.2. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Priy¡la Taila. Appendix 7 per cent. Oil and Starch. 0.5-5. V¡tahara. Sara.7. Raktapitta.2. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. 0. Kaphakara. Appendix 10 per cent. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf.2. 0. 0. Appendix 0. 150 .P£gakha¸·a.98 (all yellow).D¡ha. CONSTITUENTS . 0.91.5-5.27.54. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. 0. BrÆha¸a. H¤dya.C.94 and 0. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C.72. and sclerenchymatous cells.A creamish-brown paste. KÀaya.91. áukrakara. 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.3. 0. T. 2. 2. of the drug in powder form.measuring 2. 0. DOSE .27. IDENTITY.98 (all violet).0 µ in dia.2.Albuminoids.20 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0. 2.54. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. 2. 0. V¤Àya.0 µ in dia. Pittahara.2. Balya. Powder . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.6. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.4. procambium bundles.

densely hairy. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. 4 lobbed spreading. tubular. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. calyx. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. an erect. equal in size.) Verbenaceae). thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. filament very long. epipetalous. 1. basifixed.5 cm long. anther ovate.0. stamens 4. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. densely clothed with wooly hairs.5 cm across.5-7. peduncle cylindrical. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. brown. ovary 2-4 celled. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. stigma minutely capitate. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. 2. and abundant in Bengal plains. corolla. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . Priyangu (Infl. b) Microscopic Peduncle . (Fam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . 1. hairy.5 . epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. long.3 mm in dia. style.Shows more or less wavy outline.2. bell-shaped.4 m high shrub. Flower .2.64.Cymose. brown.

oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Ku´kum¡di Taila. 2.Brown. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Rakta-Pitta. Powder . Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. of the drug in powder form. Terpenes. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY.4. CONSTITUENTS . Phenolic compound. groups of thin-walled.2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. N¢lik¡dya Taila. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. Resin and Saponin. Daurgandhyahara. DOSE . 2. Jvara. spiral vessels.3.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Appendix per cent. 2. M£travirajan¢ya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent.2.2. Pakv¡tis¡ra.2. (Mukharoga).6. Rakta. Sved¡dhikya. Kanaka Taila. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya.Glycosides. fibres aseptate.7. THERAPEUTIC USES .D¡ha. 2. El¡di C£r¸a. xylem consists of usual elements. 152 . elliptical. aseptate fibres.1-3 g.fibres. Vra¸aropa¸a. Pras¡dana. Appendix 2.2. Sandh¡n¢ya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Corava.65. Nellu Tandulamul. Poaceae).1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Dhana. Jhona Arishi. both consisting of round to oval. Akki -Ari. thick-walled. Dhan Rice.Greyish-cream. Nivara -Chaval. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Dhana Bhatto.) cultivated throughout India. Dh¡nya. Sali. sclerenchymatous cells. Vr¢hi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn.05-0. thin. an annual herb. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. cylindrical. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Nelver Dhanyamu. smooth. Paddy Shalichokha. Biyyamu Chaval. cortex differentiated into three zones. Bhatta. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Nellu. exodermis 1-2 layered. sclerenchymatous cells. Cala. Chawl. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Damgara. Odalu. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Shali (Rt. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Coke Chaval. pitted vessels and 153 . composed of thick-walled. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. (Fam. middle zone consisting of radially elongated.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root . soft. Dhanarmul. Powder . Bhata.

2. Kaphahara.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Laghu. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Svarya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .StanyakÀaya. Var¸ak¤t.2. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .3. 154 . Appendix per cent.50 g. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . M£trala. Balya. CakÀuÀya. BrÆha¸a. 2.2. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Appendix 2.4.7. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Rucya.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of the drug for decoction.2. 2.2.2. H¤dya.

Shankhapushpi.) Convolvulaceae).4 cm thick.Slender. yellowish-brown to light brown.66. inserted deep in the corolla tube. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. cylindrical. Flower . 0. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. about 0. Sankhahuli Kakattam. cylindrical. Karakhuratt.1-0. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis.P.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. corolla shortly discoid. free.5 cm broad. Sankha pushpin (W. sub-erect. Leaf . spreading. Stem . ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots.Shortly petiolate. found throughout the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡.5-2 cm long and 0. 155 .White or pinkish. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. 1-5 cm long. perennial herb with a woody root stock. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . acute. sparsely hairy.Usually branched. linear-lanceolate. light green. a prostrate. hairy on both surfaces. 0.1-0. ovary superior and bicarpellary. Sankhapuspi. epipetalous. Shankhavela. light green. stamen 5. alternate with the petals. sepals narrowly. Kakkanangudi. hairy. linear-lanceolate. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.

Lamina . . strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. xylem consists of vessels. measuring 3-8 µ in dia.Light yellowish-green. starch grains solitary or in groups. cortex differentiated in two zones. measuring 3 .8-17. minutely puberulous. covered with thick cuticle. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. palisade ratio 6-9. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. thick-walled cells. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. covered with thick cuticle. phloem a narrow zone. xylem consisting of usual elements. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. fibres and parenchyma. elliptical. Powder . shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits.. palisade two layered. b) Microscopic Root . tanniniferous.0. Stem . pale brown pericarp. mm. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. unicellular hairs. at places unicellular hairs present. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.Capsule. present in cortex. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. endoderrnis single layered. both having round to oval.Brown. phloem.Fruit . simple and compound starch grains.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. LeafMidrib .walled cells. present on both surfaces. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. 156 . thin. elongated. Seed . stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. hairs unicellular. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. fibres and tracheids. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. round to oval in shape.8 µ in dia. secretory cells present in this region. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. oblong globose with coriaceous.Appears nearly circular in outline. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. simple and composed of 2-3 components. mm.Shows single layered epidermis. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. xylem rays and parenchyma. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells.. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. 13. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. epidermis single layered. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. phloem composed of sieve elements. vascular bundle bicollateral.

2.6. Pittahara.2.3-8 g. Apasm¡ra DOSE .2.2. ËyuÀya. Tikta. Br¡hma. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ras¡yana.3. 2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Medhya.4.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Agastyahar¢tak¢. Appendix 2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.2. Kaphahara. Ras¡yana.7. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Ras¡yana. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. 2. Appendix per cent. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES .M¡nasaroga. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. 2. Appendix per cent. Clitoria ternatea Linn. 2.IDENTITY. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.

20-40 cm high. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni.5-2 mm thick. sub-sessile. Carmas¡hv¡.8 cm wide. ciliolate.Small. Flower . 4-5 cm long. 158 . CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. lobes short. (Fam.67. solitary. gradually tapering. gland semilunate. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. greenish-yellow. Siju. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. ribbed.5 mm across at the mouth. sessile. Joyachi.7-7 cm long.P. odour and taste not distinct. short. free to the base. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. 2. subacute.Involucre broadly campanulate.celled with or without attached pedicel. 0. having a few secondary roots. a much branched. 3. 3-4 mm in dia. trilocular. odour and taste indistinct. Leaf . Chagulputputi Satala. smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. lanceolate or linear oblong. 1 mm long.1. ovate. pale brown. Saptala (W. 0. Bilikalli. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Fruit .) Euphorbiaceae). Saptala Kangi Tillakada. linear.2-0.Capsule. annual herb. horned. style. shortly 2-fid at the apex. filament pubescent. cylindrical. fracture.

mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. stone cells oval to elongated. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem consists of vessels. fibres and vessels having simple pits. filled with yellowish-brown content. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. parenchymatous cells.Seed . Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. consisting of thick-walled. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. covered externally with thick. fibres.75 µ in dia.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled.5-19. Leaf- Midrib . a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. rectangular. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. all elements thick-walled and lignified. some rounded. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. solitary or in groups. parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated cells. rounded at the base. b) Microscopic Root . secondary xylem composed of vessels. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. composed of sieve elements. starch grains simple. centre occupied by a pith. flattended. striated cuticle. rounded to oval. traversed by numerous xylem rays. grooved at one side. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex consists of 4. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. epidermis single layered. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. 2.25 µ in diameter. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. Stem . fibres and tracheids. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. leprous tuberculate testa. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. endodermis not distinct. tracheids and medullary rays. tangentially elongated elliptical. vessels having simple pits. elliptical. with wide lumen present in this region. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. simple. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. circular to oval. all elements. mature root shows thin walled cork. 159 . thickwalled and lignified. elliptical. rounded to oval.shows slightly convex outline. secondary phloem narrow.3 mm long. fibres elongated and aseptate. lignified cells with wide lumen. measuring 5.6 layers of oval. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. found scattered in phloem region. palisade single layered present on both sides. single layered epidermis. thick-walled lignified. rarely a few oil globules also present.Young root shows exfoliated. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Ud¡vartta.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. oval to elongated. Visarpa. rounded to oval starch grains. 2.57 (all yellow). elliptical. of the drug for decoction. lignified with wide lumen.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. IDENTITY. aseptate fibres. Gulma. Mi¿raka Sneha. 2.2. simple. Pittahara.L. stone cells thick-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tal¡. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. RukÀa.50 g. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2.2.L.Ën¡ha. 2. CONSTITUENTS .0. Appendix per cent. Vibandha. RaktadoÀahara.04 and 0. 0.2.46.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. and 0.C. 160 . Appendix per cent.87 (violet). 0.V. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Appendix per cent.C. Udararoga.3.Powder . shows vessels with simple pits.7.46 (brown) and 0. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. 0. Appendix per cent.Light yellow.04.2. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf.4. T.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).6. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.67. DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara.

var. P. filiform and incospicuous. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. Shepa. 2 lateral prolonged into thin.68. b) Microscopic Fruit . graveolens Benth. and a warm. sowa Roxb.. mesocarp. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. parenchymatous. brown. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. Satahva (Fr. mericarps usually separate and free. odour. (Fam..) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. graveolens DC. akin to caraway. A. Sulpha. yellowish membranous wings. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. Shulupa. Apiaceae). traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. glabrous. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. A.. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. 4 mm long. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. vittae. glabrous. graveolens Linn. slightly sharp taste. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. a tall. Syn. dark brown. ex Flem. dorsal 161 . often stalk attached. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. slightly raised.

Appendix 1.C. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. 2. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.7. 2. Appendix 15 per cent.2. 0. 2. cellulosic.C. Jvara.L.10 T. Kaphahara.Essential Oil.68 (all yellow). of the drug in powder form.á£la. 2. Appendix 3 per cent.59 and 0.2.2. V¡tahara.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.L.68 (violet).2.3. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. Atis¡ra. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. shows spiral vessels. Appendix 2.37 (pink) 0. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 14 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. each costae with vascular strands.2. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.costae three. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Netra Roga DOSE . On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.3-6 g. 2.6. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Brown. 0. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. IDENTITY. carpophore split. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .2.4.5 per cent. 162 .59 (blue) and 0.2. CONSTITUENTS . Powder . Vra¸a.

Shigru (Lf. Rachis . ovate or obovate. Syn. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. thickened. oval to elliptical. Sekato. a small or medium sized tree. Moringaceae). smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. Muringa Elai Sevaga. slender. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. elliptic.5-1 cm wide. pericycle forming a broken ring.2-2 cm long and 0. Tishnagandha. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. and articulated at the base. (Fam. vascular bundle collateral. entire. leaflet 1. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Mungna Neegge.69. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Bahala. Leaflet . found wild in sub Himalayan tract. AkÀ¢va. pith and phloem parenchyma. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Shewgachi pane Sajana. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. Segata pana. odour and taste not distinct. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Munga. Muringa. Nugge ele -Murinna. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. parenchymatous cells. commonly cultivated throughout the country. central region 163 b) Microscopic . thin walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.) Gaertn. palisade single layered. parenchymatous cells. Sajna.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Mocaka -Sajina. Segata. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis.

stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. vein islets number 50-65.38. 0. B ¤Æhana. 2. 0. (all green). palisade ratio 6-11. 0.69 (yellow). 2.46 (all red) & 0. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. spiral vessels.82 (yellow) and 0.Carbohydrate.L. 0.94 (blue).2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.94 (yellow) in visible light.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf.3. RukÀa. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. V¡tahara. 2. 0. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. 2.occupied by a crescent-shaped.59 (blue). Appendix per cent. IDENTITY.7.46 (green).2. Appendix per cent.46 (dark green) & 0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya.2. 0.20. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.05. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0. 0. K¤mihara. 0.87 (blue).94 (violet). 0. 0. Appendix per cent.C.6. 0.36. 0. Carotene and Ascorbic acid.4.2. 0. 0. Protein. Sirovirecaka 164 .18. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.53 (yellow).L.26. 0.69 (blue) and 0. CONSTITUENTS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.V.36 (green).18. Medohara.0. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. Appendix per cent. 0.2. 0. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. stomata anornocytic.36 (yellowish green). T. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.30 (pink).05. 0. Under U. present on both surface but more on lower sur face.26. 0.C. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.05. áukra N¡¿aka. 0. Pittahara.26 (all green).52 (green). palisade cells. Powder -Greyish-green. 0.46 (both blue).

Medoroga.Ratnagiri Rasa. DOSE . ViÀatinduka Taila. 165 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Gulma. Galaga¸·a.10 .20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Vidradhi. Pl¢haroga. K¤miroga.áopha.

4 cm long. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. sclerenchymatous. thin-walled. thin walled. (Fam. taste. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam.70. perispenn encloses the 166 . Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb.) Zingiberaceae). 0.. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. brown to dark brown. spicy pungent. perisperm consists of polygonal. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Sthulaela (Sd. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. aromatic. Beraelam. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. membraneous aril.3 cm wide. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. odour. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present.

shows fragments of testa.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). parenchymatous cells. Rocaka. thin-walled. Appendix 5 per cent. 2.2. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. 2. 2. oil globules. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . polygonal.2. Tikta Laghu. Appendix 14 per cent.0.Light brown. 167 . starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. of the drug in powder form. RukÀa. Mukharoga.endosperm and embryo. Ka¸·u. Appendix 1. V¡tahara. Chardi. IDENTITY.5 -1 g. 2. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. Karp£r¡dy¡rka.2.S¡rivady¡sava. 2. DOSE . Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .3.7.4. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. (Seed). K¡sa. Powder . Appendix 4 per cent. Mukha¿odhaka. both composed of polygonal.5 per cent.2. simple.2. Note .áv¡sa. H¤ll¡sa.6. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. T¤À¸¡. perisperm cells. Kaphahara. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. rich in protein.2.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.(Seed).2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.10 CONSTITUENTS . rounded to oval.

sharp prickles. short. aromatic pungent. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval.2 cm thick. thin-walled. aromatic. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. Rutaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala.) Roxb.1-0. thick-walled cells. Jimmi. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. stem and branches.Bk. stone cells found in 168 . lignified. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels.71.0. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. phloem fibres thickwalled. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. brownish. Z. Tumburudra. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. rather deeply furrowed. parenchymatous cells. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. Syn. light yellow to pale brown. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. (Fam. Tejovati (St. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. internal surface smooth. armed with long. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. Tumbura. odour.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. external surface pale brown. Thumbooni. taste. fracture. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high.

6. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. of the drug for decoction.2. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). Kaphahara. stone cells. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.3. áv¡sa. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.13. Appendix 1.5 per cent.2.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .75 µ in diameter. Hikk¡. 2.10-20 g.Aruci.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Mukharoga.75 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.5 per cent.Yellowish-brown. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 169 . CONSTITUENTS .13. starch grains round and oval.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. Ëmav¡ta. measuring 2. aseptate fibres. IDENTITY. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. a Volatile Oil and Resin. DOSE . Powder . 2. Rucya.75 µ in diameter.2. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Medhya. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .75 . shows fragments of cork cells.4. Appendix 13 per cent. 2. Appendix 12 per cent. oil globules and starch grains.2.7.2. Appendix 8. K¡sa. round and oval measuring 2. P¡cana.

externally purplish-brown to black. wiry. violet internally. Lamiaceae). characteristic. woody. petiole thin. pubescent. annual herb. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Thulasi. shortly apiculate. blackish-brown externally and pale. pedicels longer than calyx. much branched. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. Tulasi (W. Shree Tulasi. 30 . Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. herbaceous. soft. small in close whorls.72. about 1. entire or serrate. obtuse or acute. slender. hairy.5-3 cm long hairy. coloured. Flower . (Fam. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. odour faintly aromatic. lower lip 170 .2. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. aromatic. odour. taste.Purplish or crimson coloured.) an erect. elliptic oblong.P. Leaf . branched. sub quadrangular.3. K¤À¸atulas¢. hairy. pubescent on both sides.6 .60 cm high.5-5 cm long 1. branched. Stem . upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. internally cream. bracts about 3 mm long and broad.Thin. found throughout the country. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. fracture.2 cm wide. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Erect.

elongated.shows somewhat cordate outline. long. taste. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. fibres and parenchyma.Rounded to oval. pungent. phloem consists of sieve elements. taste. aromatic. pungent. slightly notched at the base. slightly mucilaginous. odour. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. Seed . fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. no odour. brown. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. nearly smooth. filled with brown content. thin-walled. pungent.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. thin-walled. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root . lateral two short and central two largest. slightly compressed. membranous. pubescent. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. aromatic. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. occasionally a few cells collapsed. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. fibre tracheides. Stem . corolla about 4 mm long. round to oval polygonal. taste. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. enclosed in an enlarged. xylem consists of vessels. each with one seed. glandular trichomes short.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. middle one larger than other two. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. measuring 22-27 in dia. fibres with pointed ends.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. Leaf- Petiole . vessels pitted. Fruit . thin-walled. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. pitted with pointed ends. tracheids. veined calyx.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. 0. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. three vascular bundles situated centrally.1 cm long. parenchymatous cells. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. 171 . odour. mucilaginous when soaked in water. phloem consisting of sieve elements. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. parenchymatous cells. Midrib . found scattered in phloem. rectangular. xylem surrounded by phloem.epidermis. vessels pitted. thin-walled.A group of 4 nutlets. in groups and rarely in singles. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively.

simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. H¤dya.Lamina . caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.4.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole.2.Essential Oil.minutes Under observation.L. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.7.C. thin walled fibres. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. Rf. Kaphahara. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. Tikta.6.35. Appendix 1.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .8. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. Appendix 4 per cent.2.3. rounded to oval. Rucya. Durgandhihara 172 . values of eugenol and caryophyllence. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. vein islet number 31 .5 per cent.2.7.1. in thoroughly vanillin . unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings.2. Appendix 8 per cent. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. IDENTITY. Appendix 10 per cent.L. V¡tahara. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .15 . 2. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.16 on lower surface.2. parenchymatous cells. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. Powder .2.C. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. T. CONSTITUENTS . On cooling spray. 2. palisade ratio 3. value 0. 2. RukÀa. 2. Record Rf. oil globules. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Pittavardhin¢. a few containing reddish brown contents.Greenish: shows thin-walled.

K¤miroga. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. Netraroga. K¡sa. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . Chardi.A¿mar¢. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed).1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. 173 . M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . áv¡sa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. Hikk¡.

sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. 1. aromatic. obtuse or acute. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. glandular trichomes short. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. entire or serrate. balloon-shaped head. and 2-8 celled. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. covering trichomes multicellular. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi.6-3. thin. taste. petiolate. Holy Basil Tulasi. consisting of xylem and phloem. characteristic.. (Fam. hairy. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. elliptic-oblong. an erect. upper epidermis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. much branched annual herb. Tulasi (Lf.shows cordate outline. K¤À¸atulas¢. three vascular bundles situated centrally. LeafPetiole .5-3 cm long. enclosed in a cuticular bladder.2 cm wide. found throughout the country.5-5 cm long. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. 174 b) Microscopic . petiole 1. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. measuring 22-27 µ dia.) 30-60 cm high.73. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. middle one larger than the other two. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. Lamiaceae). uniseriate 1-8 celled long. pubescent on both surfaces. odour.

75 (violet).6. 2.12.45 (yellowish green).04.83.93 (all0 yellow). IDENTITY. 0. T. Appendix per cent.2.08 (both green). 0.21 (brown). Under U..2. 0. 0. 2. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.93 (both light green). 0. CONSTITUENTS .45. 0.2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. 0.33 (violet).epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.epidermis.98 (blue). 0.12 (light green). 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. 0.54. vein islet number 31-33. 0. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.45 (violet).C. shows fragments of polygonal. 0.93 (pink) & 0.2. 0. Caryophyllene.). 2.33.8. 2. palisade ratio 3.04.2. 175 . 0.83 (all pink) 0. 0.12 (light violet).21.75.83 (blue). Nerol and Camphene etc.V.45.03 (dark green).98 (blue). 0.54 (blue). 0. 0. 0. Powder .2. palisade and spongy parenchyma. Appendix per cent. 0.85 (blue).L. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0.85 & 0.88 and 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. 0. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.C.7.30. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.04. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.93 (violet) and 0.Midrib .Light-green.3.4. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. Lamina . 0.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.08 (violet).21.33 (both green) 0. 0.33. 0.08. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. 0. Appendix 2. 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.L. 0.

Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. Prati¿y¡ya.2-3 g. V¡tahara. 176 .Aruci. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. K¤miroga. áv¡sa. K¡sa. Tikta. Hikk¡. KuÀ¶ha. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . H¤dya.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pittahara.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. RukÀa. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. of the drug in powder form.

cortex composed of spherical to oblong. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. buff coloured intemally. broadly. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . Ghodavaca Vasambu.Shows single layered epidermis. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. enclosing large air spaces. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. large. triangular. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. somewhat collenchymatous. taste. aromatic. Vekhandas -Varch. smaller. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. cells towards periphery. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. Araceae). and 0.5 cm thick. Rhizome . sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. odour. Ugr¡. (Fam. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. Ghodvach Bach. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present.5-1.) semiaquatic herb. pungent and bitter. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. Vacha (Rz. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long.74. upper side marked with alternately arranged. thin-walled cells of various sizes. fracture. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. Gora-bach Baje. short.

2. 0. stele composed of round.Buff coloured.2.4. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.2. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. reticulate.3.6. spherical.2.7. Powder as such: .region. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.2. Petroleum ether-No change ii. Powder ..L. 2. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix 2. endodermis distinct. Eugenol and Asarone).2. Appendix per cent. 2. shows fibres. Extracts in i.14 (violet) and 0. 178 .Yellowish-cream b. Starch and Tannin. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.L.2. starch grains simple. CONSTITUENTS . annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol.C.10 T. Chloroform-Light green iii. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). Methanol-Yellowish green iv.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. 2. present in cortex and ground tissue.C. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. 2.

S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Tikta Laghu. S¡rasvata. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Vibandha. 179 . C£r¸a. K¡sa. Kar¸a Sr¡va. Apasm¡ra. áv¡sa.Vac¡di Taila. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Khadir¡di Va¶¢. DOSE . Unm¡da. Medhya. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. V¡tahara. K¤mihara. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Ka¸¶hya. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. 1. Ëdhm¡na.á£la. Sm¤ti daurbalya.2 g.

ViÀa Vajran¡ga. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. Mithalelia.) (Fam. dark brown to blackish-brown. plant is an erect. Mahura. rough due to root scars. suberised. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Vatsanabhi.1. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. Bachhnaag. thin-walled. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. rarely 5 cm long. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Ranunculaceae). tapering downwards to a point. small portions of stem sometimes attached. cartilaginous. Nabhi. Meethabisha. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. parenchymatous cells. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. ovoid. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . Sth¡varaviÀa.75. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Vatsanabha (Rt. 2-4.5 cm. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Beesh.8 cm thick. Vatsanabhi.4 . perennial herb. Naabhi Bachnak. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. without or with a few intercellular spaces. 0. occasionally separated due to breakage. taste. poisonous. fracture. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. roots are generally collected late in September. Teliya Bish Basanalli. odour indistinct. Vatsanabha. Basanaag Bisa. papillose on outside. conical. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired.

enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C.20. consisting of round to oval cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. 0. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. Trid°Àahara.3.96 (both orange).L. RukÀa. 2. Appendix 5. 2. Viyav¡yi.2. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sv®dala. 0.2.74 and 0. Anandabhairava Rasa.5 per cent. Appendix 8 per cent.39 and 0. UÀ¸a. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. 2. 0. often forming 'V' shaped ring. Laghu. Appendix 2 per cent. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. shows vessels.Light grey. T. S £tasekhara Rasa. containing a few groups of phloem strands. metaxylem vessels met in centre. Appendix 24 per cent. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. cambium having 6 10 angles. occupying more than half the radius.2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.7. ÙikÀ¸a.2.56.39. some scattered. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. inner bark parenchymatous. 0.6.10. Powder . IDENTITY. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. 0. 2. xylem exarch. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. a few aseptate fibres. CONSTITUENTS . and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. present in cortical cells. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.endodermis.C. Appendix 2.4.L. 0. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre.2.

Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.30 mgs of the drug in powder form. V¡takaphajvara. 182 . Kanharoga.V¡taroga. Jvar¡tis¡ra.THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . Sannip¡ta.15 .

76.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. taste. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Vidari (Tub. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. thinwalled. smooth except for protuberances at some places. but pliable. usually does not break. Nelagumbula. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. Fabaceae). Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. Bhumikusmanda. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Bhoikolu. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. (Fam. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. outer surface reddish-brown.Rt. stone cells moderately thick-walled. cut surface creamish-brown. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. Bhuikumra Vidari. Gumadi belli. Eagio. sweetish. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. Bhonykoru. Vid¡rik¡. starchy and somewhat porous. thin-walled cells. Nelagumbala.

sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.2. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. measuring 5.3-6 g. somewhat round. V¡tahara. Appendix 17 per cent. Svarya. 2.2. Powder . Stanyada. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. J¢van¢ya. Appendix 24 per cent. 2. distributed throughout this region. Raktapitta. 184 . secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.75 µ in dia. M£trala.2. 2..5 .7. phloem fibres much elongated. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta.Buff coloured. Appendix 4 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Marma Gu¶ik¡. highly thickened. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.13.and pits. present in all parenchymatous cells. a few latex duct also present.2.2.75 µ in dia. having central hilum and striations. Balya. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). plenty of starch grains mostly simple. IDENTITY. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . angular to oval.13.5 per cent. radially elongated cells. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.D¡ha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. and also rarely in stone cells. Var¸ya. Appendix 2.Gluconic and Malic acids.5 . Pittahara.2.6. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 4. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. lignified with narrow lumen. Angmarda. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.4. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. áoÀa. Ras¡yana. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Daurbalya. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. fragments of cork.

Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped.3 cm wide. Yava (Fr. 50-100 cm high. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. sweetish-acrid. thick-walled. followed by more or less. erect herb. odour. sclerenchymatous fibres. Syn. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. polygortal inner epidermal cells. seed coat appears as a colourless line. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. (Fam. followed by 2-3 layers. round to oval wavy walled cells. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea.2-0. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. oblong. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. an annual. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. smooth. sativum Pers. elliptic. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau.) Poaceae). square or quadrilateral. pale-greenish-yellow.77. about 1 cm long and 0. spongy parenchymatous cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. H. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . taste. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. Jav Barley Cheno. not distinct. cultivated chiefly in North India.

22.10.2. 0.31. Lekhana.83 (all violet) and 0. starch grains simple.56.2.06.5 per cent.5 2. Powder . Orientin. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. 0. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.65 & 0.C. Pittahara. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. endosperm divided into two zones.2.24. 0. 0.72 (all pink.53.5 per cent.2. Kaphahara. Proteins (Albumin. Appendix 1.2.22.92 (yellow). scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.narrow lumens.V. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. 0. 0.2. Appendix 5. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. 2.L.5 per cent. 2.4. 2.3. Sthairyakara. simple starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Sugars.C. Appendix 2.6. 2. 0.31. round to oval. Medahara.31.14.16. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.L. 0. 0.44. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. M£trahara. Var¸ya 186 .7 T.10. sclerenchymatous fibres. 0. Vitexin etc. and the rest starch layers. 0. 0.83 and 0. Svarya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.68.) CONSTITUENTS . Pur¢Àak ¤t. 0. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 0. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. V¤Àya.Creamish-white. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. 0. Orientoside.45. Globulin. Fats. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. V¡tak¤t.2.68. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.92 (all grey). 0. 0. 0.Starch.36.

áv¡sa. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.100 . Urustambha. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Kanharoga. 187 . Tvagroga DOSE . of the drug. P¢nasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡sa. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Gandharvahasta Taila.200 g. Medoroga. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Dh¡nvantara Taila. Prameha. El¡dya Modaka.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. T¤À¸¡. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sarsap¡di Pralepa.

sharp axillary spines upto 3. drooping. 0. short. no taste and odour. Punjab. alternate. radially arranged cork cells.2-1 cm thick. opposite.Simple. branched. Stem . Leaf .) Fabaceae). Yavasaka (W. secondary cortex almost 188 . Duralabha -Venkatithura. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. Neladangara.5-1 cm long. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root .7 cm broad. filled with reddish-brown contents. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. a small thorny shrub. hard. oblong. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. (Fam. secondary and tertiary root absent. gradually tapering. dark brown.1-1 cm thick.8 cm long. nearly 0. 0. glabrous.5-0. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Desv.P. terete. extipulate. mucronate obtuse. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. fracture.Cylindrical. striate. Javasa.Well developed.78. stipules green. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. glabrous. slightly rough at basal region with slender. elliptical. cork cambium single layered. Y¡sa. 20-30 cm long and 0. ballidurabi.

parenchyma and fibres. simple.absent.14. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays.5. Powder . ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. 5. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. tracheids. thin-walled. pith composed of a few thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. xylem fibres. hypodermis 1-2 layered. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. epidermis single layered. xylem consists of vessels. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. covered with cuticle. 189 . phloem composed of sieve elements.appears biconvex in outline. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. angular. Leaf- Petiole . some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. filled with tannin.5-14. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.Greenish-brown. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. phloem composed of sieve elements.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. starch grains simple. xylem situated above phlome.75 µ in diameter. xylem consists of vessels. covered externally with thick cuticle. elongated. a few with thick wall and simple pits. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. tanniniferous cells. tangentially elongated cells. fibres.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. rounded to oval. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. thin-walled. tracheids. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. filled with tannin. present throughout the region. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata.appears circular in outline. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. some cells filled with tannin. hypodermis 2-3 layered. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. Stem . pitted vessels. Midrib .75 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells. 3-45 cells long. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. Lamina . vascular bundle collateral. tracheids and fibres. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands.

Sugars (Melizitose. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Sucrose. 2.Chardi. Raktapitta. Kaphahara. Jvara.7. 2. T¤À¸¡. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .50 g. Appendix 2 per cent.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. Appendix 13.5 per cent. Invert Sugars). 2.3. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. 190 . Visarpa DOSE .4.2. V¡tarakta.IDENTITY. K¡sa. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 2.2.20 . Arimed¡di Taila.2.6.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. D¢pana. 2. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Tikta. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .

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