THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.1.1.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.) Desv 177 1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.2-Thermometers 1.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.2.2.2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.1.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1.4.5.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.2.2.2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1. 1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.3.1.2.2.2.1.1.2.1-Nessler Cylinder.1 Testing Drugs 2.2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.2-Sieves 1.Types of Stomata 2.1.1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.

Limit Test for Arsenic 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.1.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.2-Refractive Index 2.6-Sulphated Ash 2.Weights and Measures 5.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.1-Powder Fineness 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.3.1.3.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.3.2.3 Limit Tests 2.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.3.2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3.3.

If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). 1930 and the Poisons Act. accordingly. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. Vol. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. II would be official. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.). Vol.I. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. would be deemed to have been amended vii . the Dangerous Drugs Act.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. II.P. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. Part-I. II. In general. Vol. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

If the odour persists to be discernible. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. if any. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. viii . Synonyms . Mesh Number .Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Introductory Para . which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. Purity and Strength . substances or processes described in Appendix.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. indicated in monograph. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. English. Italics . Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg).The metric system of weights and measures is employed. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. When the term “drop” is used. it is described as having odour. Weights and Measures . Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml).Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Odour and Taste . distribution and method of collection.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Hindi.GENERAL NOTICES Title . Identity. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Ayurvedic Formulary of India.

Standards . according to circumstances. statements appearing in the API.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. V. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. pesticides. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. in 100 grammes of product. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. water-soluble ash. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. shall constitute standards. acid-insoluble ash. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. ix . if of equivalent accuracy. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement.g. arsenic and heavy metals.Under this head. moisture content. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method.C. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. and Identity. alcohol-soluble extractive. Constituents . mould or other evidence of deterioration. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . However. Part-I. the expression per cent (%). will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. ether-soluble extractive. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition.) .the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. Purity and Strength.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. colour. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. Vol. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. Percentage of Solutions . Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. pests.For statutory purpose.In defining standards. wherever given. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. fungi.L. even by applying known reference standards. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. total ash. However. sliminess. and other animal matter including animal excreta. water. those of definition of the part and source plants.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. and show no abnormal odour. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. with one of the four meanings given below.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. is used. micro-organisms. Constant Weight . which he uses. The quantitative tests e. under Description.soluble extractive.

The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices.56 oC.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. Statements of solubilities. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. Solubility . are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs.000 parts More than 10. are intended to apply at that temperature.000 parts x .Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. fibres. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Temperature . at a stated temperature. Reagents and Solutions .Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. all solutions are prepared with purified water.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. and dust particles. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. Percentage of alcohol .Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. such as fragment of filter papers. thermometric scale. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Solutions .

1 N.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are.P. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Fam. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes.I. IN. 0. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi .5 N. 1M. Part –I and Part-II. g. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. Kg. mm. PS. ml. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. mg. l. unless otherwise stated. cm. µ. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. TS. 0.

Tel. Tam. Bk. Ori. Lf. Guj. Kan. Sd. Assam. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Beng. Wh. Tub. Punj. Wd. Wd. Ht. Mar. Rt. St. Mal. Fr. Pl.Sansk. Kash. Rz. Rt. Eng. St. xii . Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Bk. Pseudo-bulb Rt.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems.2 . Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. odour. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. b) Microscopic Root . Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. Asteraceae). parenchymatous cells. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. tapering slightly at both ends. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. cylindrical.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC.8 µ in width. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. vessels pitted. shrivelled. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Akarakarabha (Rt. characteristically astringent and pungent.1. elongated. bark upto 3 mm thick. xylem fibres thick-walled. 1. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. external surface rough. (Fam. Akallakara. an annual. tracheids and xylem parenchyma.37-28. Akalakarabha. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. brown. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. taste.231 µ in 1 . more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. 53. thin-walled. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 7-15 cm in length. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. Akarakara Akkaraka. slightly aromatic. cambium 2-5 layered. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. not easily separable. Akravu Akkalakara.

Buddhivardhaka. áotha. Appendix 10 percent.Ash coloured. 2. IDENTITY. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Appendix 2. 2. NaÀ¶¡rtava. áukrala. 2 . medullary rays numerous. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.Kum¡ry¡sava. secondary phloem and medullary rays.2.0. bi to tri and multiseriate. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . PakÀ¡gh¡ta. Appendix 8 percent.length having narrow lumen. Grdhras¢. Appendix 22 percent. secondary phloem. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. ray cells thick-walled. Danta¿£la DOSE . áv¡sa. radially elongated.2.2. á£laroga. uniseriate rays very rare. Appendix 2 percent. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. secondary phloem and medullary rays.7. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. K¡sa. 2. V¡jikara. D¢pana. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.2. CONSTITUENTS .Prati¿y¡ya. Powder . Kaphahara.4.3. Udararoga.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. of the drug in powder form. running straight. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. also gives positive tests for inulin.5 -1 g. Svedakara. Aj¢rna. Pittahara.2.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. shows vessels having scalariform thickening.2.

odour. radially elongated. parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. thin-walled. under this. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. Akshoda (Cotldn. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. (Fam. irregularly corrugated. Powder .Cream coloured. taste. followed by more or less compressed. oily sweet.2. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. creamish-brown.Shows 1-2 layered. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. not distinct. collapsed. coriaceous. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. Sailabhava. thin-walled. 3 . slightly curved. broken pieces.) large deciduous. Cotyledon . Juglandaceae). endosperm mostly single layered. parenchymatous cells. shows groups of cells of cotyledon.

2. DOSE . Appendix Not more than 0. 2.10 . 2. 4 . Appendix Not less than 10. CONSTITUENTS . Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. Kaphakara. KÀaya.2.Walnut oil and Tannin.2. Balya.7. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.2. 2. ViÀ¶ambhi.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.KÀata. B¤´ha¸a. Appendix Not less than 7.0 percent.0 percent. áukral. V¤Àya. V¡taroga.3. 2.5 percent.IDENTITY. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not more than 2 percent.25 g. Sara.4.6.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Stem Bark. parenchymatous cells. S. grey having lenticels.3. Jangli Aam Ambate. tangentially elongated. Amrata (St. a few outer cells exfoliated. Ranamba. consisting of tangentially elongated. Kurz. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. Amvara -Mampusli. Amra. Anbalamu. external surface smooth. fracture. internal surface reddish-yellow.. Marka¶¡mra -Amada.Bk. Ambazham. Ambado. Ranambo Ambada. Syn. curved. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. upto 27 m high and 2. Amra Indian Hog Plum. non Gamble (Fam. and 5 . first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Anacardiaceae). Ambadam Amratakamu.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. S. thin-walled cells.5 m in girth. Mampuiti. which are thick-walled towards periphery. radially arranged. with reddish-brown contents. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. Ambalam. deciduous tree. mangifera Willd. Jangali Ambo. acuminata Roxb. f. thin. a small aromatic. Wild Mango Ambeda. parenchymatous. laminated.

KÀata.6.2.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.2.Light brown. Appendix 2.96 (blue). V¡tahara. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. 0.L. Appendix Not more than 0.. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.5-10 g. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.V. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Under U. 2.2. T. Not more than 1 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf.2.96. simple.87 (blue) and 0. Rucik¤t. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. 0. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. Pittakara.33.L. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. of the drug in powder form for decoction. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. 0. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. Raktapitta. IDENTITY. stone cells. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.C. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. D¡ha DOSE . lignified.87 (all greyish brown). Ka¸¶hya.5 per cent. 2. 2. shows cork cells. 6 . Appendix Not more than 13 per cent.33.4.C.(greyish brown). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.75-14 µ in dia. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.2. KÀaya.3. thick-walled.7.40 and 0. Powder .

0. exstipulate.1-1. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. actinomorphic. bracteate with two bracteoles. perianth segments 5.3 . áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. wavy margin. obovate.5 cm in cut pieces. dorsifixed. sessile. solid. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. 0. numerous. subsessile. contorted or quincuncial.3-0. yellowish-brown. yellowish-brown.) Amaranthaceae).P.9 m high herb. rough due to presence of some root scars. stamens 5. odour. filament short.Simple.0. erect. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. bisexual. Kharamaµjar.free. Flower . the perianth lobes. Leaf . hypogynous.4. hairy. (Fam. secondary and tertiary roots present.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. May£raka. erect. not distinct. gradually tapering. decussate. branched. cylindrical. PratyakpuÀpa. one spine lipped. slightly ribbed. Stem . anther. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . greenish-white. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra.Cylindrical tap root. a stiff. 7 . membranous. opposite. hollow when dry.0. two celled. Apamarga (W. opposite.0 cm in thickness.

Sub-cylindric. syncarpous. capitate. unilocular with single ovule. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. round at the base. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. 3-4 celled stalk. truncate at the apex. parenchymatous cells. fibres pitted.Shows crescent-shaped outline. thin-walled. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. Seed . followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. Stem . brown. cortex 6-10 layered. endospermic. rectangular. cortical and pith cells. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. elongated. either separate throughout or found in some cases. fibres being absent. single.gynoecium bicarpellary. perianth and bracteoles. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. ovary superior. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. thin-walled cork cells. Fruit . spiral. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. thin layers of cambium. xylem composed of usual elements. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. on both surfaces. scalariform and pitted. vessels annular. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. LeafPetiole . small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. followed 8 . pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. epidermis single layered. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. two medullary bundles. style. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. demarcating the xylem rings.Shows a single layered epidermis. oval to rectangular. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. stigma. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. tangentially elongated. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. vessels simple pitted. present in pith. composed of parenchymatous cells. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. Midrib . medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cork cells. b) Microscopic Root . 2-5 celled. lignified.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent.

vessels with annular. stomatal index 4. Powder . Medohara. mm.7. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface.0-11.0 on upper surface. V¡tahara.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger.5-9. Appendix 2. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. non-lignified cells. spiral. palisade ratio 7. Kaphahara.2. of the drug for decoction.á£la. 9.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled.2.0-20. Ar¿a. 2.Shows single layered.20-50 g. Abhay¡ Lava¸a.2.0 on lower surface. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface.Light yellow. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. rectangular.4. 2.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. 2. scalariform and pitted thickening.2. Medoroga DOSE . 9 .2. thin-walled epidermal cells. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. P¡cana. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. aseptate fibres. IDENTITY. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Chedana. shows fragments of elongated.3. Udara Roga. Gu·apippali. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Apac¢. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. slightly elongated in upper. 2. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. V¡maka. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .6. Ka¸·u. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. Lamina . Tikta Sara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.

secondary phloem consists of usual elements. colour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. cylindrical. lightbrown.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres.5. vessels pitted with oblong. (Fam. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. fibrous. medullary 10 . fracture. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. taste. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. polygonal. a few solitary fibres also present. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. Fabaceae). 1-5 mm in thickness. Aparajita (Rt. very long. b) Microscopic Root . distributed in the lower half of the cortex. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. thin-walled. bitter. a few showing slit-like pits.

CONSTITUENTS . 2. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . oblong and pitted. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. 0.á£la.rays 1-5 cells wide. M£traroga. Appendix 2. Vra¸a DOSE . Taraxerol & Taraxerone. Appendix per cent. ViÀahara.V. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. 0. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. Starch. shows simple and compound starch grains.L.79 (grey). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. T. 2. Medhya. Under U.1 . Buddhiprada.Yellowish-brown.2.Tannin.2. Resin. found in secondary cortex.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . measuring 3-13 µ in dia. 0. áotha. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.3..6.54 and 0.2. Tikta. IDENTITY. Pittahara. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Kaphahara. Powder .2. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya.7. 11 .2. KuÀ¶ha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. Appendix per cent. 0. phloem and xylem parenchyma.L..3 g. 2.2. of the drug in powder form.4. V¡tahara.79 (both yellow). vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. 2.C.79 (blue).Mi¿raka Sneha.

5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1.5 cm thick. colourless. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. radially arranged cells of inner cork. short with projecting fibres. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. isodiametric. (Fam. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. odour.6.5-6. Allam. taste. oblique branches on upper side. irregularly arranged. reaching up to 90 cm in height. Ardraka (Rz. gingery. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. tangentially elongated. Ale -Adi. 1. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. Adrak Injee. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra.) Zingiberaceae). fracture. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. buds and roots are removed and washed well. pungent Rhizome . Inji Allamu. each having a depressed scar at its apex. lakottai. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. pieces 5-15 cm long. widely cultivated in India. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. thin-walled.Shows a few layered.

2.76 (violet) & 0. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.35 (light violet). (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. 0. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. filled with abundant starch grains.5 per cent. fibrovascular bundles of two types. 13 . Appendix 5 per cent.69 (grey).92 (all yellow).2. 0. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. 0.9 T. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. 0. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. endodermis single layered. oleo-resin cells abundent. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.C. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.L.47 (light violet). elongated pits on their walls.2. Appendix 8 per cent. 0.16. 0.2.2.08 (violet).2.83 & 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0.35.63 (grey) & 0. 2.63 & 0.47.2. Powder -Light yellow. 0.76. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. Under U. composed of xylem.63 (light violet). parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. larger bundles consists of 2. Appendix 1 per cent.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. 2.69 (light violet).. Appendix 2. vessels showing reticulate. Appendix 2 per cent. 0.dia.92 (violet). 0.2.03.13.35. 0. 0. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. numerous closed.08. walls of oil cells suberised. small cells of sieve tube. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. 0. reticulate and spiral vessels.3.16 (blue).63. 0.L.7 vessels.69. Appendix 90 per cent.6. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.69 (all light yellow). shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.16. phloem. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.C. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.4. free from starch. vessels 2-5 in number.V. 2. 0. septate fibres with oblique. 0. collateral. 2. conjoint. 0.l6 (brownish violet). 0.7.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. DOSE .2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Svarya. Vibandha. RukÀa. V¡tahara. Kaphahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 14 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. V ¤Àaya. THERAPEUTIC USES . Rocana. áopha. H¤dya. Ën¡ha.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. Bhedana. Ka¸tharoga.á£la.

with tapering 15 . found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. lignified. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. thinwalled cortical cells. odour and taste. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. upto 3 m in height. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. Pilobaval. incurved. fibrous. stone cells and phloem cells. consisting of sieve elements. Fabaceae). b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured.Bk. parenchyma.5-1 cm thick. Velvelam. Sadabala -Haramibaval. all traversed by medullary rays. exfoliating in irregular scales. internally light brown to reddish-brown. hard. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres thin-walled. fibres and crystal fibres. not distinct.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. fracture. Arimeda (St. characteristic of dry regions.7. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. rough. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. square to rectangular cells. secondary phloem wide.

fibres. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. 2. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. radially elongated cells. Meda¿oÀaka. sclereid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. composed of thin-walled. P¡¸·u.LC.4.ends.7.2.0 to 0. Ka¸·u. Visarpa. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. KuÀ¶ha. ViÀajavra¸a.2.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Appendix 2.39 and a spot at Rf. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . 0 to 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. Dantaroga.39 and a spot at Rf.91 (both blue).0.2.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. Appendix 13 per cent. 0. shows groups of cork cells. 2.3. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. K¡sa. β -Amyrin.áopha.2.78 and 0.2.40 g for decoction. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.n-Hexacosanol. Udardapra áamana DOSE . Appendix 11 per cent.6. Meha. 2. K¤mi.e.91 (yellow). crystal fibres elongated.C.3-5 g in powder form. Powder . Mukharoga. Appendix 14 per cent. T. 16 . Appendix 1 per cent. IDENTITY. 0.Reddish-brown.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. 2.2. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Atis¡ra.L.

phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.5 cm thick. Arjuna (St. a large deciduous tree. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish.8. Arjuna.2-1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10.& A. recurved. Kellemasuthu. Sajada Arjuna Matti.Bk. Vellamaruthi. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . fracture. Mattimora. P¡rtha. short in inner and laminated in outer part. consisting of sieve tubes. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. curved.) Combretaceae). outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. Mathichakke. taste. companion cells. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. flat. Torematti Arjuna. Neermatti. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. channelled to half quilled. bitter and astringent. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. (Fam. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. in the middle and outer phloem region. traversed by phloem rays. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. Bilimatti. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu.

4-12 cells high. Pittahara.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. H¤dya. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. Appendix 20 per cent. 2. starch grains. Vya´ga. T¤À¡. measuring 5-13 µ in dia.in dia. IDENTITY.Medoroga. elliptical.2.2. Arjuna Gh¤ta.Reddish-brown. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. Vra¸a. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. Prameha. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum.2. a few rhomboidal crystals. Appendix 20 per cent.2. starch grains simple and compound. of the drug in powder form. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. Appendix 25 per cent. Appendix 1 per cent. round to oval. KÀatakÀaya.. 2. 18 .3. µ Powder . 2. alata).4. Appendix 2. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. sometimes upto 5 components. uniseriate phloem rays. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. round to oval. DOSE . H¤droga. alternating with fibres.. fibres. mostly simple.2. 2.7.3-6 g. Vra¸an¡¿ana. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter.6. Kaphahara.. compound of 2-3 components. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . elliptic. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . shows fragments of cork cells. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma.

cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. nut 2. mesocarp and endocarp. 30-40 layers thick. mesocarp a very broad zone. Bhallataka (Fr. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. Fruit . some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. Nallajidiginga Baladur. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. smooth. obliquely ovoid. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Fam.9.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. Scramkotati Nallajidi.5-3 cm long. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. drupaceous. shining with residual receptacle. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. dark brown. 19 . Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai.) Anacardiaceae).

chloroform. Gulma. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Powder . Appendix 0.I. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. IDENTITY.1.7.. 2.2. Graha¸¢.5 per cent. very much elongated radial walls.2. Part-I 20 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ka¶u. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).2. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former.4. Krimi.. KuÀ¶ha. Bhedi. Chedi. ether.2 g. Kaphahara.6. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.Dark-brown.2. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Appendix 5 per cent. being highly thickened. 2.F. Tikta.Ar¿a. Appendix 4 per cent. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡cana. Ën¡ha. 2.2. V¡tahara. Snigdha. Appendix 2.3.2.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Appendix 11 per cent. Note . CONSTITUENTS . 2. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. innermost prismatic. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. of the drug in Ksirapaka form.

Knnunni Bhangra. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. Karisalanganni. Kesuriya. cylindrical or flat. together on unequal axillary peduncles.50 cm high. Bh¤´ga.Solitary or 2. disc flowers 21 . greyish. ovate. usually oblong. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. sub-acute or acute.Well developed. rough due to oppressed white hairs.Herbaceous. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. Tekar¡ja. involucral bracts about 8. Bhringiraja. lanceolate. Stem . occasionally rooting at nodes. obtuse or acute.8. 2. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. branched. Kesari -Bhangaro. sessile to subsessile. scarcely as long as bracts. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. M¡rkava. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Bhangro Bhangara. Gurugada. herbaceous. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. sub-entire. often rooting at nodes.3 cm wide. white. node distinct. Flower .Opposite.P. (Fam. greenish. Soppu. strigosely hirsute. Bhringaraja (W. ray flowers ligulate. 1. Karisalai Guntakalagara. Keshavardhana.. much branched. strigose with oppressed hairs. 30 .10.) herbaceous annual. not toothed. cylindrical. Asteraceae).5 cm long.2 . Leaf . erect or prostrate.2. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. upto about 7 mm in dia.2 . spreading. ligule small. occasionally brownish.

secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. externally covered with cuticle. found scattered throughout wood. unilocular with one basal ovule. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. hairy and non endospermic. covered with striated cuticle. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles.25 cm long. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. covered with warty excrescences. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. Seed . phloem rays broader towards periphery. pistil bicarpellary. fibre tracheids. 0. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side.1 cm wide. one seeded. vessels numerous. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork.0. epidermis followed by cortex. brown.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. cuneate. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. 1-5 celled. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. fibre tracheids. simple. with very pointed tips.0. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. warty. tangentially elongated cells. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. xylem ray distinct.tubular. ovary inferior. traversed by xylem rays. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. rarely slightly oblique. run straight in tangential section. fibres and xylem parenchyma.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. in macerated preparation vessels small. and with pointed apical cell. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. non-glandular. dark brown. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. free. epidermis followed by wide cortex. ray cells pitted. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. xylem composed of vessels. with a narrow wing. filaments epipetalous. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . Midrib . consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. Leaf- Petiole . trichomes of two types. stamen 5. consisting of rounded cells. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. corolla often 4 toothed.Achenial cypsella. b) Microscopic Root . drum-shaped. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. Fruit . uniseriate. pitted. pappus absent.2 .

septa thick-walled. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. pericyclic fibres distinct.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. secondary cortex composed of large. pointed tips and pitted walls. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. vascular bundles in a ring. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. trichomes entire or in pieces. endarch. pitted with spiral thickening.8 -4.collenehymatous cells on both sides. Powder .5. normally biseriate and uniseriate. pointed.Dark green. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. arranged in tangential strands. more abundant on lower surfaces. wide at the base. hairs stiff. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. externally covered with cuticle. Stem . about 3 celled. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. while the section cut at apical region.5 on upper and 23. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. warty. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents.0 on lower surface. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. uniseriate. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. the cork where formed. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. peg-like outgrowth.0-22. collateral. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. Lamina . palisade ratio 3.5 -26. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. xylem fibres with wide lumen. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. stomatal index 20. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. xylem consists of large number of vessels. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. 23 . some elongated with simple perforations. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina.shows a dorsi ventral structure. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. externally covered with cuticle. epidermis single layered. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. middle cells longest.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.4. áv¡sa. K¡sa. K¤miroga. Appendix per cent.7. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. H ¤droga.2. Tekar¡ja marica. 24 . Ecliptine and Nicotine. Yak¤droga.2.3 . 2. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent.IDENTITY.Alkaloids. Ras¡yana. Kaphahara. P¡¸·u. 12 . V¡tahara.2. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Dantya.6 ml of the drug in juice form.36 g. 2. Tvacya. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix 2. 2. ViÀahara. CakÀusya.3.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. Ëmahara.2.áotha. Appendix per cent. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. áirah á£la. DOSE .2.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. CONSTITUENTS .6. Ke¿ya. Tikta RukÀa.

soft. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. opposite. slightly bitter.Thin. 1-2 cm long. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi.Small.& K. green or purplish green. small. Stem ..Thin. prostrate or creeping annual herb. Scrophulariaceae). succulent. taste. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. glabrous.Simple.) H. about 1-2 mm thick.) Wettst. Valabrahmi. wiry. Flower . sessile. 25 . ovoid and glabrous. taste. a glabrous. Syn. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . slightly bitter.P. Brahmi.B.Capsules upto 5 mm long. (Fam. green. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. small.11. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. Ondelaga. found throughout India in wet and damp places. Brahmi (W. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. obovate-oblong. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. decussate. pedicels 6-30 mm long. branched creamish-yellow. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. Leaf .) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Fruit . nodes and internodes prominent. axillary and solitary.

Medhya. Svarya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. glandular hairs. Appendix per cent. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. cortex having large air cavities. no distinct midrib present. endodermis single layered.2.0 µ in dia.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. starch grains simple. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. round and oval starch grains. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Praj¡sth¡pana. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. Appendix 2.4.2..Yellowish-brown. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. 2. respectively. round to oval.0 x 2. b) Microscopic 26 . Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. V¡tahara. 2.Shows a single layer of epidermis. ËyuÀya. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.5-9. 2.7.2.2. pericycle not distinct.2. 2. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. and 8.6. Appendix per cent. simple. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. Tikta. endodermis single layered. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana. Stem . glandular hairs sessile. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Powder .Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. vascular ring continuous.Root .0-14. ViÀahara.2. Matiprada. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. Appendix per cent.3.

27 . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. áopha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ratnagiri Rasa. Prameha. P¡¸·u. THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE .KuÀ¶ha.1-3 g in powder form. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.

oval and tangentially elongated cells.15 layers of thin-walled.5 cm in dia. much branched perennial under shrub. Brihati (Rt. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. a very prickly. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. traversed by phloem rays. Badikateri Kirugullia. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Ubhibharingani. ribbed. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. Papparamulli. upto 1.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. varying greatly in shape and size. long. cylindrical. Solanaceae). b) Microscopic Root . Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. Putirichunda Dorli. no distinct odour and taste. pale yellowish-brown. Chichuriti. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . phloem parenchyma much abundant. a number of secondary roots and their branches present.8 m high. secondary cortex composed of 5 . isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . parenchyma and stone cells. tangentially elongated. Heggulla. 1-2. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. cork cambium single layered. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. fracture.9 layers of thin-walled. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. (Fam. short and splintery.. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani.12. woody.

H¤droga. 2.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent.Cream coloured.á£la. all elements being lignified. áv¡sa.3. vessels with simple pits. 2. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. fibres and xylem parenchyma. shows groups of thin-walled. measuring 5. H¤dya. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. Powder .5 .5 -11. CONSTITUENTS .Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. of the drug for decoction. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. Agnim¡dya.2.5 per cent. measuring 5. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.2. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. 29 . aseptate fibres.11.2.10-20 g. xylem rays uni to biseriate. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. Appendix 2.4.6 µ in diameter. parenchymatous cells. 2. tracheids.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. rounded to oval starch grains.2. IDENTITY. P¡cana. Appendix Not more than 6.. DOSE .7.2. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. Jvara. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. thick-walled. traversed by xylem rays.6 µ in diameter. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. V¡tahara. cells radially elongated and pitted. phloem and medullary rays. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.

cylindrical and somewhat twisted. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. (Fam. fibres and xylem parenchyma. cork cambium not distinct. Chavya (St. plenty of simple starch granules present. fleshy climber. endodermis single layered. nodes and internodes distinct. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. brownish cells. acrid. short. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. a glabrous. Piperaceae).0 cm in width. odour. greyish-brown. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. consisting of round. thin-walled. Chavya -Kattumulaku. b) Microscopic Stem .13. fracture. Syn. P. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. cultivated mainly in Southern India. taste. tracheid. secondary cortex a wide zone.. P.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. chaba Hunter non Blume.5-2. officinarum DC. peppery. oval to rectangular. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles.

5 per cent. starch grains. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. P¡cana. Appendix 3 per cent. Glycosides and Steroids.Greyish-brown. Pl¢h¡ Roga.2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.6.2. á£lal DOSE . 2. Ën¡ha. filled with simple. D¢pana. round to oval. 2. cells thin walled.2. Krimi. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Gulma.Ar¿a.3. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent. of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. Powder . Appendix 1. IDENTITY.1-2 g.4.7.2. 2.2.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2.Alkaloids. medullary rays multi seriate. Recana. Udara Roga.pitted and reticulate thickenings. round to oval starch grains. 31 . 2. fibres and simple. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.2. Kaphahara. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fragments of vessels. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. RukÀa.

angular. found growing wild in the warm valley. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. triangular and rectangular. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. simple. starch grains present in testa. Dadima (Sd. oil globules. oval. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. thin walled. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. containing a few oil globules.1-0. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. endosperm absent. LohitapuÀpa. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. parenchymatous cells. cotyledons coiled. wedge-shaped.6 cm long.14. Punicaceae).2 cm wide. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. Seed .5-0. Madalam Danimma Anar.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. beneath this. shows stone cells. 32 . 0. sweetish-sour. round to oval.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. Maadalai. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada.Reddish-brown.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. 0. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Powder . parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. round. consisting of oval to polygonal. (Fam.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

10 dentate with a villous throat.5 cm wide. Gumma. slightly curved.2-1. upto 4 mm thick. taste. fine rootlets.35 cm wide. Dronapushpi (W. zig-zag.) Lamiaceae). crenate. serrate.6-0.Sessile. pungent. surface rough. ciliate. taste.lanceolate. Inflorescence . white. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. thin.Cylindrical. quadrangular with four prominent furrows.Yellowish-green. 1-2. fracture. ovate or ovate. about 0. acute. an annual.16. characteristic. nodes and internodes distinct. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati.Light greenish-yellow. stout herb. white. fibrous. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts.9 m in high.25 cm long. scaberulous. corolla. about 2-3. 1-2. long with numerous wiry. 1. slightly bitter. size variable. hairy on upper part. lanceolate. smooth. tubular.P. taste. calyx. erect. more or less pubescent. glabrous in lower part. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .7-2 cm 37 . Leaf . (Fam. hairy. globose. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. 3-9 cm long.5 cm across. Stem .5 cm long and 0. crowded in dense. 1. subacute.3-0.

tracheids.tangentially elongated. Fruit . a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. followed by round to oval parenchyma.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. b) Microscopic Root . endoderm is single layered. thin-walled cells. upper lip about 4 mm long. some having simple pits. nutlets 3 mm smooth. oblong. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening.shows a single layered epidermis. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled.3 cm long and 0. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. thin-walled.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. parenchymatous cells. Lamina . cortex consisting of single layered. medullary rays 1-2 seriate.7 layered. consisting of barrel shaped. present in centre. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. 4 . xylem consists of vessels. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. fibres and xylem parenchyma. smooth. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends.0. parenchymatous cells. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tracheids. Seed . vessels long with spurs.long. round to angular collenchyma. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one.Schizocarpic carcerule. 3-4 layers towards upper surface.vascular bundle arc-shaped. irregular.1 cm wide. brown. bilipped. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. consists of a single layered epidermis. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. tangentially elongated. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. composed of oval to rectangular. trigonous. dark brown. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. palisade single layered. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. secondary xylem consists of vessels. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. thin-walled 38 . thin-walled cells. parenchymatous cells. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. upto 8 cells high. Stem . lateral lobes small. wooly. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. Midrib .Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. vascular bundles 4. Leaf- Petiole .

Bhedani. Tamaka áv¡sa. palisade ratio 7-9.2.7 on upper surface. Lava¸a. K¡mal¡. K¡sa. 2.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. ViÀamajvara DOSE .2.2.2. stomatal index 16.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. 2. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.4. Appendix 2. IDENTITY.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. Glycoside. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Pittakara. Agnim¡ndya. Powder . Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. 16. Ka¶u Guru.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. present on both surfaces.6-40.6-30.6. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES .Alkaloid. 39 . Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. stomata diacytic.Dull yellow. aseptate fibres.5 on lower surface. a few veins present in this region. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. 2. RukÀa.cells.7.2. pitted and spiral vessels.2. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells.áotha. V¡takara.

taste. 40 . especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Ervaru (Sd. 0. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells.17. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. glossy. shows stone cells. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. rounded and tangentially elongated.3-0. cotyledons two. cultivated in many parts of the country. C. utilissimus Roxb. (Fam. mesophyll cells thinwalled. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. parenchymatous. sweetish oily. B¤hatphala. 0. creamish-yellow. Hastipani. -Kakur. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. covered with thick cuticle. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. an annual creeping herb. radially elongated to squarish. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains.4 cm wide. surface smooth. Karka¶¢. Cucurbitaceae). Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. Vellarika Kakadi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. parenchymatous cells.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. thin-walled.7-10 cm long. more or less ellipsoid. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. straight. Hastipani.

26.0.35.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.3-6 g. 0.91 (blue) under U.97 (all yellow) .0.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.2. A¿mar¢.64. 0.C.77. Appendix 2.91 and 0. Gulma. 0. Tikta Guru. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0.V.2. D¢pana. 2. 0.L. 0. (366 mm). Appendix 0.D¡ha. 0. 0. V¡takara. 0.77.IDENTITY.83.4. Raktapitta.19.6.C.35.0. Jvara. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .2. Pittahara.51. T.7. Rucya. 2.58. Appendix 10 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. of seeds. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0. T¤À¸¡. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.51. 2. 2. 0.58. 0.19.Oil & Sugars.83. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Kaphakara. 0.97 (all grey).64.26. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L. Appendix 5 per cent. RaktadoÀakara.2. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent.3.2.91 and 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. CONSTITUENTS .2. 41 .

18. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. shiny. Seed . b) Microscopic Fruit . rough and scaly. Orissa.Shows more or less loosely arranged. cut surface has a central core. 0.4-0. 0. greyish-brown with a dent. Gajapippali (Fr. brownish-grey.3-0. Araceae). thin-walled. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. 42 . Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .0 cm in diameter and 2. a large epiphytic climber. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2.0-3.0-3.6 cm long. smooth.4 cm wide. odour and taste not disticnt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a.5 cm thick.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. (Fam. odour and taste not distinct.Kidney-shaped.

2-3 g. thick-walled.65. pitted and with concentric striations. DOSE . 0.2.L.65. 0.93 (all yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0. 2. Appendix T. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.L.93 (brown).65 and 0. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. thick-walled. Stanya. V¡tahara. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.C.73 and 0. 0. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ka¸¶hya.27.Glucosides viz. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. K¤miroga. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.4. IDENTITY. 2. Kaphahara. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. áv¡sa. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U.C.6. thin-walled. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. oval to polygonal. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.73 (both light brown) and 0.2. 0. 2. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.2.Atis¡ra.73 and 0.7.2. 0.Shows a single layered. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.áiv¡gutik¡. CONSTITUENTS .2.Dark brown. 0. shows lignified. T. 0. Malavi¿oÀana. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. oval to polygonal.V. in extract (Phant) form. 2.20. Powder . Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. Ka¸ha Roga. 0. Punarnav¡sava.3. 2-4 layered.Seed . oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. 43 . Agnivardhaka.5 per cent.27. oval to polygonal. Sugars & Fixed Oil. non-lignified. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Three spots appear at Rf.93 (all blue) are visible. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. 2.2. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains.65.

hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel.A drupe.) unarmed tree. b) Microscopic Fruit . Gambhari (Fr. parenchymatous cells. taste. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. thin-walled. tangentially elongated.5-1 cm long. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. 1. Seed . Shivani. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. 0. fleshy mesocarp. thin-walled cells. (Fam. cotyledons consisting of single layered. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani.5-2. seed coat thin. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. two seeded. parenchymatous cells. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. surface smooth.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. Verbenaceae). crinkled.19. P¢takarohi¸¢.4-0. sweetish sour. Hannu -Kumbil. Sr¢par¸¢. light yellow. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. 0. multilayered.0 cm long. sometimes one seeded.Seed ovate. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree.6 cm wide. taste. radially 44 . K¡¿marya. papery. ovoid. Seed . black. oily. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .

Medhya.2.2. T. CONSTITUENTS . M£trak¤cchra. Powder . of the drug in powder form. Tartaric acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. T¤À¸¡.98 (all yellow).2.D¡ha. 0.7.18.03. Alkaloid. 0. KÀaya. 0. 0.98 (orange).2. 0. V¡tahara.4 per cent. Appendix 0.2.L. H¤droga.elongated epidermal cells. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. Appendix 2. 2. IDENTITY.42. 0. Resin and Saccharine.C. 0. 0. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.52. 2.C. shows stone cells. Rakta Pitta DOSE .98 (yellow) in visible light. H¤dya. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.03. THERAPEUTIC USES .3. 2. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. Ras¡yana. 0. Amla. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.26.94 and 0..98 (all blue).Arvind¡sava. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.22. 0.1-3 g. Sara. 45 . 0. Pittahara.08. oil globules and aleurone grains. Ke¿ya. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. KÀata.L.93 and 0. Appendix 6 per cent. Under U.2.Butyric acid. Appendix 25 per cent. Appendix 8 per cent.Blackish-brown. 0.4.12. 2.

a shrub 0. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. arranged in radial groups. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals.0 m high.. elliptical. consisting of tangentially elongated. external surface smooth. thick-walled. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. rectangular. fibrous. 1. a few stone cells. fibrous. Tiliaceae).5-5 cm long. oval. Syn. thin-walled. channelled. consisting of 12-20 layered. parenchymatous cells. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. light yellow.20. 46 .6-1.Bk.Shows a wide cork. mucilaginous. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . radially arranged cells. Grewia populifolia Vahl.) Aschers & Schwf. traversed by wide phloem rays. (Fam. blunt tips and moderately long in size. secondary cortex wide. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. Gangeru (St. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. fracture. moderately large in size. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk.

L. DOSE .41. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. Appendix per cent.27.35 (violet).6. THERAPEUTIC USES . Two spots are seen at Rf.L. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.2-3 g.3.4.Powder .2. 2. 0. β-amyrin etc. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara.35 (dark blue). 0. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10).35. 0.J¢rak¡di Modaka. 47 . On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.64 (blue).V.13 (blue). 0. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Ka¶u. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. IDENTITY.55. 0.7. 0. 2.17 (light violet). 2.27 (light violet).61.29 (blue). Amla. 0.). 0. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. T.68 & 0. Tikta. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. 0.48 (violet). Appendix 2. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.Vra¸a.17. 0. α-amyrin. Pittavik¡ra.88 (all yellow).Sugar. CONSTITUENTS .68 (light violet) & 0.2. 0.2.55 (blue) & 0.88 (light violet). 0.C. 0.2.08. 0.C.48.17. Under U. 0.Light yellow and fibrous.08 (violet). 0. 2.2. 0. 0.08 (blue) 0.2. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.

Gunja (Rt. soft.21. tangentially elongated cells. Ghungchi Guluganji. when distinct. fruits ripen during winter. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. most often irregularly curved. cork cambium. slightly corky. cylindrical. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. taste. Fabaceae). Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. exfoliating in small flakes. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . becoming mildly bitter. Chanothee.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. gulagunja -Kunni. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. present at short intervals. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. smaller than stone cells. Chonotee Ratti. Gurivinda Ghongchi. Kundumani Guriginga. feebly sweetish. some with brownish content. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. odourless. simple or branched. a climber. Kakananti Rati Kunch. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. composed of 1-2 cells wide. pitted walls. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. bark thin. flowering in August-September. light brown. thinwalled. b) Microscopic Root . (Fam. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. spreading throughout the plains. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels.

groups of sclerenchymatous cells. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. wood composed of narrow concentric.5-13. DOSE .5 per cent.Indralupta. 2.5 -13. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. xylem vessels with pitted walls. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. parenchyma thin-walled. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.3 g.7.3. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. Mukha¿oÀa. IDENTITY.2. áula. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. Pittahara.1 . Appendix 2. small groups of sclerenchyma. Appendix 4 per cent.2. shows fragments of cork. CONSTITUENTS .75 µ in diameter.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. Appendix 10 per cent.6. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. Appendix 9 per cent. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.2.2.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. vessels of varying sizes with thick. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form. Tikta á¢ta. 49 . Powder . numerous xylem fibres.75 µ in diameter. 2.diverging towards periphery. 2. stone cells. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5.4. THERAPEUTIC USES . tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. thin-walled and rectangular.Greyish-brown. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes.2. pitted walls. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. 2.

) shrub. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. Poaceae). distinct node and internode. taste. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. Ikshu (St. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. with. (Fam. 50 . lignified. conjoint. b) Microscopic Stem . solid. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. scattered throughout the ground tissue.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. more numerous and closer towards periphery. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. closed type of vascular bundles. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna.22. characteristic. Serdi Ikha. odour. cylindrical. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. juicy and sweet. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. besides the xylem and phloem elements. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. smooth.

2. ground tissue. Pittahara. Kaphahara. M£tra KÀaya. shows pieces of epidermis. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. 2.2. Appendix 2. IDENTITY.2.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. V¡tahara. 51 .3. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. DOSE .2. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent.2.6.Powder light brick red. V¤Àya.Powder .4.Bal¡ Taila. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Balya.Raktapitta. vessels and sclerenchyma. Sara. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Appendix Not more than 2.400 ml in the juice form. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .Sucrose.7.200 .

áatakratulat¡. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. elongated with pointed ends. composed of sieve elements. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. fracture.2-2.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. b) Microscopic Root . Tuntikai. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. taste. parenchyma and medullary rays. thin walled. thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. Havumakke. mostly simple or rarely 52 . a few filled with dark brown contents. Indravarana Gothakakucti. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. tangentially elongated cork cells. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. fibres. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. parenchyma and medullary rays. Paythumatti. (Fam. longitudinal fissures present.) Cucurbitaceae). Gav¡kÀ¢. lying around vessels. tangentially elongated. xylem forms bulk of root. Tumbi Paikamatti. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. Indravaruni.5 µ in dia. 0. Valiya Pekkumatti. occurring throughout the country. cylindrical. pitted. Varithummati. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings.5-7. starch grains oval to round in shape 2.5 cm thick. an annual or perennial. dull yellow. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. intensively bitter. Indrayanalata. consisting of vessels. Indravaruni (Rt. slightly twisted. Indrayan. fibres aseptate. Bitter apple Indravaran. thick walled.23. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. short. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. Indramanoa. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

a few schizogenous cavities are also found. Eugenia jambolana Lam. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. mesophyll composed of isodiametric.800 m. b) Microscopic Powder . Jambu (Sd.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. Myrtaceae). rounded starch grains. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. cuminii Druce. 1 cm long.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. oval or roundish. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam.. a large evergreen tree. coriaceous covering. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. astringent. Seed . 1 cm wide. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval.) Skeels Syn. brownish-black. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured.Brown coloured. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. thin-walled. 57 . found throughout India upto an altitude of 1.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.. E. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. smooth. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. oval. (Fam. taste.25.

Kaphahara. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. Udakameha. Appendix per cent. three spots appear at Rf. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.30 and 0.IDENTITY. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.Glycoside (Jamboline). Appendix 2.7. DOSE . Appendix per cent.3-6 g.Madhumeha.V. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. Amla. 0.95 (all yellow). RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Pittahara. 0. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. ViÀ¶ambhi.C.L.2.L. CONSTITUENTS .30 (blue). 58 .2.2.2. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.4.20. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.3. 2. Appendix per cent.12. 0.30 and 0.95 (all violet). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.2.95 and 0.20. 0. 2.2. Tannin.C.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES .6. 0. of the drug in powder form. 0. T.

lower cork thin and colourless. Raja Jambu Merale. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. Jam Jammu Naaval. elongated. cork cambium not distinct. rough. a large evergreen tree. upper few layers thick. internal surface fibrous. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. younger bark mostly channelled. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. fibres aseptate.5-2. (Fam.800 m. astringent. Jambu (St. stone cells. short and splintery. Mahamaram.) Skeels Syn. fracture. Myrtaceae). Jamneralae.Bk. Jamu. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. and reddish brown. oval to angular. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Jambu. 0. forming a rhytidoma. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Navval Sambu. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Jambuda Jomuna.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. stratified and reddish-brown. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. light grey to ash coloured. and phloem rays. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. taste.5 cm thick.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. cuminii Druce.26. E. Neralamara -Njaval.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.

Atis¡ra. Appendix per cent. reddish-brown content.Light brown. 2.2. Appendix per cent. oval to angular.2.2. aseptate fibres. Appendix per cent. single or in groups. Stambhaka. Kaphahara.2. IDENTITY. round to oval starch grains. Raktapitta.3. 2.6.2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 2. stone cells. Pittahara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.U¿¢r¡sava. 2. Appendix 2.region. elongated. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . 60 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . DOSE . V¡tala. round to oval starch grains. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.10-20 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. of the drug for decoction. measuring 5-11µ in diameter.2.7.

Euphorbiaceae). (Fam. kernel yellowish and oily. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. slightly bent at middle. found throughout tropical India. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. Tinti·¢phala. Japala. ovate. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. 61 . 5-7 m high. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity.Shows a hard testa. Jayapala (Sd. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. Japal beej.) small evergreen tree. thin-walled cells. Nervala -Nervalam. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. slightly quadrangular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Neervalam Jepal. b) Microscopic Seed . Neervalam. consisting of an epidermal layer. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. oblong. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents.27. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. consisting of a large endosperm. dull cinnamon-brown. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. filled with brownish content. no marked odour. Japal -Japolota Nervalam.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Pittahara. IDENTITY. 0. Vibandha DOSE . 2. Appendix 3 per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Resins & Phorbol esters.C.34 (grey).White with black particles of testa. 0.Fixed oil.2. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 2. 0. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.7. 0. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .63 and 0.90 (all yellow).6.6-12 mg. 0. of the drug in powder form. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.29. Powder .2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 62 . Appendix 15 per cent.5 per cent. Appendix 7 per cent.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. Appendix 0.C. T. 0.84 (all violet). Udararoga.39. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.54 (yellow).4.34.84 (brown). 0.49. CONSTITUENTS .L.2.2. 2.54 and 0.L.3. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.Jvara. Appendix 2.10.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.V.2. 0.

28.7 layered round. S. consisting of thin-walled. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. having secretory cavities in phloem. 7. Fabaceae). 1. present on both surfaces. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. polygonal. 63 .. Jalugu.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. -Semp. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. Jay¡. paripinnate. opposite. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . á£kÀma patra. Jayanti (Lf.8 cm wide. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. palisade single layered. Jayanti Jaita. very shortly stalked. Arishimajingai. 1. entire. short lived shrub. Karijimangai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. parenchymatous cells.3 cm long. Atti. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. glabrous.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. (Fam.5-15. 0. oblong. leaflets 6-16 pairs.3-0. aegyptiaca Pers. stomata anisocytic. jayata Arinintajinamgi. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. mucronate to acuminate. linear.) Merr.Syn. Lamina . pith small.0-3.shows single layered epidermis.5 cm long. a quick growing.8-6 m high.

CONSTITUENTS . On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. 0. 0.2. 0.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 2. 0. T. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. 0. Ras¡yana.V.25-4.2. IDENTITY. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. in powder form.2.05.C.L. 0. V¡tahara. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0.97 (yellow). 2.2. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.05.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.29.56.69. Powder .05. Appendix per cent.L. 0.37.56. 0. 0.6.37.3-6 g.48. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. Appendix 2. 0.4. 0. ViÀaroga.97 (all yellow). 0. Appendix per cent.11. 2.97 (all grey).Protein.Ratnagiri Rasa.56 (all pink) and 0. Galaga¸·a.Dull green. DOSE .3.11. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.2.91 and 0. Calcium and Phosphorus. 0. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.29. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. 64 . palisade ratio 3. 0. Pittahara. 0.48. 0. Appendix per cent.M£trak¤cchra. 0.19.19.11.19.29.C. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. palisade cells.91 and 0. shows spongy parenchyma.7.

beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. Gangunge beeja. bitter. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. (Fam. odour. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. taste. collapsed. ripe seeds. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. surface generally smooth and. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. seed without aril also prescent. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic .hard. unpleasant. Seed . brownish-orange. Gangunge humpu. Jyotishmati (Sd.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. Celastraceae). tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd.35 mm in breadth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin.29. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. colour.5-3. a large climbing shrub. light to dark brown. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.

Virecaka.20.35. V¡tahara.54.V. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.3. Oil and Tannins. 0. stone cells. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.composed of polygonal. 2. Tikta Sara.89. 0.82. 0.89 (all yellow). D¢pana.82. Meddhya 66 . V¡maka.2. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C. 0.L.82 & 0.94 (yellow). parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. 2.2.4.L. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Appendix 9 per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.2. 0. 0. Powder . Appendix 1. 0.2.6. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. áirovirecanopaga.8 IDENTITY. (all blue) & 0.C. Kaphahara.54 (both blue). CONSTITUENTS . dark brown.82 (pink) & 0.V. Appendix 6 per cent. 2.2.63. Appendix 20 per cent. 2. 0. Appendix 2.2. Under U. UÀ¸a.5 per cent.2.04.94 (yellow) in visible light. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. thin-walled.Alkaloids. Appendix 45 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.15. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). 0. 0.89 (both greenish blue). under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. 2. 0.35.54.Oily.7.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sm¤tidaurbalya. DOSE .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.V¡tavy¡dh¢. 67 .Seed: 1-2 g. Oil : 5-15 drops. ávitra. THERAPEUTIC USES . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.

(Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Indulam. traversed by uni to triseriate. Kadamba (St. Rich. Vellaikhadambu. Rubiaceae). Kadamba Kadamba. bitter. some cells contain chlorophyll. Kadambu Needam. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. large tree. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. a deciduous. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. a few cells with brown contents. Kadamba mara. elongated cells of phloem rays.30. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc.Bk. Vellai Kadambam. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips.. Kadavala. 68 b) Microscopic . Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. composed of thin-walled. indicus A. Kadam Kadam. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Priyka Roghu. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. A. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. taste. Kadamba Nipo. Syn. rectangular cells. Kadappai.

2. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.2. shows fragments of cork cells. V¡tahara.3.79 (grey) and 0. phloem cells. 69 .70 (orange yellow).V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. Powder .31. YonidoÀa. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.2.63 (yellowish grey). Appendix 1. 0.2.Brown.5 per cent. 0. fibres. Appendix 2. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES .83 and 0.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. DOSE . and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Raktapitta. of the drug in powder form. 0.0.5 .21.79. 0. Appendix 9 per cent.1. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent. Vra¸aropa¸a.L. 0. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). 2. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.5 g. 0. 0. 0.57.6. Vra¸a. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. cells distinct and slightly elongated. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. 0. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.phloem fibres.Alkaloids. 2.2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.4. 0. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.5:10) shows under U.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Steroids.D¡ha.2. 0.64. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. T. L C. CONSTITUENTS .90 (grey).C. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal.13.03.7. 2. Lava¸a.

31.Small. 70 . Ganikesopu. Stem . easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. obtuse. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia.5-8. oblong. Manitakkali. oblong. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. thin.Simple. calyx 2-3 mm long. glabrous or pubescent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. corolla 4-8 mm long. ovary globose. bark thin. Pikachia. sub-umbellate. green. slightly woody and branched.25 mm long. glabrous. five lobed. glabrous. very slender. sinuate. slender. 30-45 cm high. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Manaththakkali. ovate or oblong. found throughout the country in dry parts. 3-8 flowered cymes. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . peduncles 6-20 mm long. anther 1. petiolate. white or pale violet. (Fam.Erect. a herbaceous annual weed.5 cm long and 2. road sides and gardens. flattened. Flower . pale brown. yellowish. narrowed at both ends. Kakamachi (W. 2. 1. externally smooth. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. quite common in cultivated lands. Leaf . pedicels 6-10 mm long. extra-axillary. toothed or lobed. obtuse notched at apex. ganike. Manatakkali. hairy in lower part. style cylindric.2-2. hairy at base. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida.5 cm wide. filaments short.5 mm long.P. Ganikegida.) Solanaceae). Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn.

bicollateral.5-8.. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. trichomes multicellular. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. uniseriate. minutely pitted. yellow or black. covering trichomes.. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. composed of thin-walled.A berry. measuring 2. rays composed of thin-walled. arcshaped.' oval parenchymatous cells. measuring 2. phloem consists of thin-walled. conjoint and open.Fruit . tangentially elongated. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. endoderrnis single layered. oval to round starch grains. LeafPetiole . chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. phloem rays uniseriate. internal phloem.5 mm in dia. starch grains. covered with striated cuticle. in small or large patches. uniseriate. polygonal cells. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. Midrib .10 layered in angular parts. cambium 2-4 layered. compactly arranged. xylem rays homogenous.25 µ in dia. smooth. epidermis single layered. usually accompanied by fibres. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. uniseriate. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. covered with thick. 1. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. smooth shining Seed . vascular bundles-collateral. cortex of large. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. arc71 . parenchyma 4-6 layered. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. filled with starch grains.Discoid. 6mm in dia.Shows single layered.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. Stem . obtuse. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. covered with striated cuticle.5-11 µ in dia. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. pith large. single or with two or rarely 3 components. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. yellow. radially elongated cells. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. but 4.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.. embedded in perimedullary zones. usually purplish-black but sometimes red.. slightly elongated. slightly striated cuticle. central vascular bundle shallow. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres.

IDENTITY. 2.2.L. 0.2. Powder .3. a few broken pieces of pointed. Appendix per cent. unicellular hairs. 2.2.34 (both pink). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 2.V. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.Creamish-green. 2. Appendix per cent. vein islet number 7-10.2. stomata anisocytic.2.C.6. single. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. epidermis with irregular outline. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. 2.C.L. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.5 . oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.06 & 0. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.11 µ in diameter.34 (both brown) in visible light.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. present beneath palisade parenchyma. Lamina . palisade ratio 2-4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . 0.97 (all yellow).Shows thin.dorsiventral. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. 0. Appendix per cent. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. Fruit .06 & 0. measuring 2. 034 and 0.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Appendix per cent.4.Alkaloids and Saponins. papery epicarp.06. T. palisade single layered. Under U. 72 .2. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present.

áotha. Chardi. Prameha. H¤dya. Pittahara. Ar¿a. Kaphahara. Sara.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. DOSE . Hikk¡. 73 . V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta Laghu. Jvara. H¤droga.5 -10 ml.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Svarya. KuÀ¶ha. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Ka¸·u. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Netraroga. Ras¡yana. of the drug in juice form. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.

Kamal. Kanwal Kamal. linear 1. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Paduman. finely veined. free.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. Tavare. sepals leaf-like.5-3 cm wide. black. gynoceium apocarpous. gynoecium and thalamus. aquatic herb with creeping stem. crimpled. anther. elliptic. 1. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Kamalam. 3-5 cm long. seed hard. crimp led. Nymphaeaceae). Padma. petals numerous. Aravinda. Nelumbium speciosum Willd.32. obtuse. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. Sarojam Kaluva. 1. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2.. comprising of calyx. Aravindan.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. erect. Naidile. Thamaraipoo. 74 . a large. Sitopala. membranous. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Pamposh Tamarai.3-2 cm wide. Chenthamara. embedded in a creamy. starchy and large. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. corolla.4-2 cm long. Kamala (Fl. Syn. Venthamara. androecium. extended into clavate appendages. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. 2-4 cm long. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. carpels many. Kalh¡ra. dark brown. (Fam. yellowish-brown. fruit an etaerio of achenes. broken pieces also occur.

vascular bundle single. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. parenchymatous cell. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. Appendix 2. having smooth exine and intine. of the drug for decoction. 2. two on either sides. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. columnar. Appendix per cent. Anther . IDENTITY. Visarpa. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. composed of thin-walled. 2. Appendix per cent. followed by ground tissue of oval. Appendix per cent.2.2.2.2.3. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES .7. Pittahara. 2. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. . spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. parenchymatous cells. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.filament appears circular in outline.6. Sant¡pahara. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. angular.Dusty brown. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. 2. spore sac contains yellow. Powder . Stamen Filament .12 -24 g.4. yellow pollen grains.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . ViÀavik¡ra. spherical. rectangular. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle.2.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. Tikta.Aravind¡sava.2. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. M£tra Virajan¢ya.shows four chambered anther. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.Alkaloid (Nelumbine).Raktapitta.

semicircular. Powder . glabrous tree with strong. Bilvara. odour. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. Belalu. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. F. found in groups. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. axillary thorns. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. thin-walled. straight.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. parenchymatous cells. Kapittha (Fr. Balada. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Pulp. stone cells.Reddish-brown. sharp. Kavataleal. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. a deciduous. 76 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. taste.shows irregular.33. elephantum Correa (Faro. slightly triangular and oval. found throughout the plains of India. Syn.) Swingle. reddish brown. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . Haminamara -Vilar maram. sour. often cultivated in many parts of India. Siwalik range and forests. aromatic. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. Rutaceae). stone cells. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Belada hannu. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. rough. hard.

(366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf.95 (all yellow). Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.6. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittav¡tahara. 0. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .91 (grey) in visible light.95 (violet) .L.12.1-3 g. 77 . Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. 6. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.2. 0. Lekhana.4. Unripe Pulp: Amla.7.91 (violet) and 0.14 (sky blue). Vra¸an¡¿aka.C. Under U.50.3.áv¡sa.06.IDENTITY.50 (violet).37.Citric acid and Mucilage. 0. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. Hikk¡. 2. V¡mi.L.12 (brown). 0. 0.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .37 (brown). KaÀ¡ya. Ripe-T¤À¡. Gr¡h¢.95 (blue).2. Sangr¡h¢. Agnim¡ndya. 0. 2.91 and 0. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. Appendix per cent.2.2.2. 0. of the drug in powder form. T. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.91 (blue) and 0.C. Amla. CONSTITUENTS .Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. DOSE .V. 2. 2.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. starch grains simple. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. 78 . parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells.34. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. rough due to longitudinal striations. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. b) Microscopic Powder . tubular. simple and compound starch grains. Karamarda (St. (Fam . sometimes cultivated. light in weight. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. flat or slightly curved pieces. external surface brownish-grey. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. fracture. and compound having 2-3 components.Bk.) Apocynaceae). internal surface grey and smooth. met throughout India in wild state. short.Greyish-brown. shows single and groups of stone cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places.

Pittakara. 0.L.2.C.3.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. Appendix per cent.35. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. DOSE . 79 . (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.KuÀthahara.6.4.7.90 (pink) and 0. 0.58 (both light grey).2. of the drug for decoction. Appendix 2. T.L.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 2.52 (light sky blue).2. 0. Appendix per cent. 2.IDENTITY. 2. Appendix per cent.2. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. 0.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.2.V. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.97 (violet).48 g. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

Naktam¡la. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Nakt¡hv¡. thin-walled. tangentially elongated cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka.) Merr. cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. taste. Karanja (Rt. tangentially elongated. (Fam. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. external surface rough. a glabrous tree. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. 3-11 µ in dia. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite..) glabra Vent.. single cells of varying shape and size. traversed by phloem rays. Fabaceae). due to peeling off. Syn. fibrous. P. secondary phloem very wide.35. most of phloem 80 . Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. internally. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. fracture. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. very bitter. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. Bk.

0.42 (sky blue).80 (light blue). V¡tahara. Prameha. Yoniroga. Tikta.47. Powder -Creamish-yellow. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.L.2. CONSTITUENTS .1-3 g.C.08 (greenish blue). shows thin-walled. Appendix 2 per cent. 0. 2. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . similar to those present in secondary cortex.5 per cent.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.51.80 and 0.6. mostly straight.09. Appendix 11 per cent. cork cells. 0. 0. most of ray cells contain starch grain. KuÀtha.Flavones Kanugin.47 (greenish yellow). 0. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.04 (blue). 0. Pittahara.51 (light blue). 2. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. 2. IDENTITY.37 (greenish yellow).18.98 (all yellow). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Ka¸·£ghna.K¤miroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . phloem fibres.31 (sky blue). DOSE .2. ViÀaghma. Appendix 2.7. parenchymatous cells.2.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0. 1-2 seriate. 0. 0.13 (Sky blue).2. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. of the drug for decoction. 2.2. 81 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0.L.4. 0.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.C. 0. Appendix 3. Ka¸·u. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery.V.25 (sky blue). 0. Ëntravidradhi.47. DuÀ¶avra¸a. Appendix 17 per cent.18 (blue) 0.3. 0. T. consisting of thin-walled. phloem rays many.37.31. 0. 0.

fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. a glabrous tree. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu.) Merr. bitter.) Vent. tangentially elongated. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes.. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. rough due to the presence of numerous. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. Karanja (Rt. Karaµjaka. consisting of 82 .36. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. thin-walled. Syn. rounded to oval in shape. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Fabaceae). reddish-brown or dull brown. irregularly distributed. secondary phloem a very wide zone. light in weight. cells. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. (Fam. fracture. taste.. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. 1-2 seriate. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. bark. 3-11 µ in dia. P. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. Nakt¡hv¡. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. internally light yellow. bark does not easily separate from xylem. tangentially elongated cells.

2..6. Appendix 2. 2.2. fibres and parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Ka¸·£. Yoniroga. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. rounded to oval in shape. CONSTITUENTS . more. Ëntravidradh¢.Methylfisetin. 83 . Kaphahara. Vra¸a¿odhana. Pittahara. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. tangentially elongated towards outer region.2. Demethoxy-kanugin. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells.1-2 g. Prameha. V¡tahara. K¤miroga. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Kanugin. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. KuÀ¶ha.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Powder -Light yellow. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. consisting of 2-3 components. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Appendix per cent. 2. DOSE .4. tracheids. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely.radially elongated. of the drug in powder form.2.3. THERAPEUTIC USES .Karanjin. Appendix per cent.2.7. shows fibres in singles or groups. thin-waned cells towards inner region. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. IDENTITY.2. Appendix per cent. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Vidradh¢. ViÀaghna. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. starch grains.2. Appendix per cent. Tikta.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Karanja. unpleasant.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. taste. composed of rectangular. Karaµjaka. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. (Fam. odour. lenticellate pieces. Nakt¡hv¡.) Merr. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu.37. filled with reddish-brown content.. tangentially elongated. 84 . bitter. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga.Bk. Fabaceae).2-1 cm thick. phloem parenchyma. at some places lenticels also appear. P. alternating with stone cells. more or less smooth. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. thick-walled cells. traversed by medullary rays. fibre small. b) Microscopic Bark . parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. recurved. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. phloem fibre and stone cells. usually 0. arranged in a tangential manner. Karanja (St. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. fracture.) glabra Vent. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Syn. a glabrous tree. short and fibrous. slightly quilled.

rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. 3". THERAPEUTIC USES . Kanugin. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. CONSTITUENTS . aseptate fibre and stone cells.2.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Demethoxy- kanugin. elongated. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin.. K¤miroga. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 13 per cent. of the drug in powder form.6.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Ka¸·u. Prameha. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. and rarely.7. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. Tikta. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. Appendix 1.2. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. Pongapin.3. Yoniroga DOSE . oil globules.polygonal. thin-walled and aseptate.2. Vidradh¢. 5Methoxyfurano (2". Appendix 3 per cent. Pinnatin.2.2. Appendix 18 per cent. 2. 2. KuÀ¶ha. Gamatin.5 per cent. medullary rays wavy. Powder -Yellowish-cream. Pittahara. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. IDENTITY. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". Ka¶u.4. Kaphahara. rounded to oval. Appendix 2. 2. starch grains simple. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. simple and compound starch grains.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. present in secondary cortex. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. 85 . measuring 3-14 µ in dia. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀaghma.1-2 g. 3" 7 : 8). a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. usually 2-4 cells wide. 2. Ëntravidradh¢.

) Vent. 6. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. epidermis single layered. vascular bundle single.circular in outline. (Fam. Karanja (Lf. leaflets 2-3 pairs. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. arcshaped. Ungu.2 . Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai.3 cm wide. Dithouri Honge. Karanja. a glabrous tree.11. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. traversed by xylem rays. Karaµjaka. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule .8 cm. cortex consisting of angular.5-0. Unu. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja.9-8. Syn.) Merr. 0. P. isodiametric.5 cm long and 3. xylem vessels arranged radially. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. dark green. Pongana Ganuga.38. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. consisting of xylem and phloem. Fabaceae). covered with cuticle. consistig of tabular cells. Hulagilu -Pungu. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. petiolule short. Nakt¡hv¡. 86 . Kanajo Karuaini..

prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.5 per cent. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. cortex consists of round to oval.6. Appendix 3. 2.5-50.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4".4. palisade two layered.2. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 .6. CONSTITUENTS . 7) -flavone. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. Powder -Green.5) . covered with thick cuticle.2. mesophyll cells.Mid rib .2.A new Furanoflavone -3' . Ka¶u. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Appendix 10 per cent. consisting of tabular cells. Kaphahara. Ka¸·ughna.(4". shows spiral xylem vessels. stomata anisocytic.5". Appendix 16 per cent. present in lower surface.3. collateral. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. Pittavardhaka. palisade ratio 3. 5". vascular bundle.7.2. K¤imihara.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. 5" .shows single layered epidermis. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. stomatal index 12. Tikta.2. . 2. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. Appendix 2. 2. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. 2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.6. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.6. V¡tahara. Appendix 11 per cent.2. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.5-20. phloem and pith. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".

Ka¸·au.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE .For external use only. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a.K¤miroga.J¡ty¡di Taila. KuÀ¶ha. 88 .

Karavallaka (Fresh.4. 3 valved at the apex when mature.2. 2. Appendix 0.2.) Cucurbitaceae). Varivall¢. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. taste.2.2. surface rough.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 .39.Fr. extremely bitter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. 2.2. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. pendulous. Appendix 28 per cent. 2.5 . Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.6. Kakiral. IDENTITY. 2. Appendix 2. (Fam. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.7. Nil Appendix 8. Kathilla.6 per cent.3.5 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. oblong. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.25 cm long. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. fusiform. upto an altitude of 1500 m. usually pointed or beaked. K¡ravall¢.

Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.81 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. T.60.áv¡sa. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. 0.15 ml. Aruci. 0. 0.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.67 and 0. Prameha.61 (light sky blue). D¢pana.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.23 (red). K¡sa.75. 0. 0. 0.50. 0. 0. P¡¸·u. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. K¤miroga.43. 0. Raktavik¡ra.34. DOSE . 0. 0. K¡mal¡. V¡tahara.98 (all yellow).98 (red & sky blue). THERAPEUTIC USES .T. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.C.C. CONSTITUENTS .96 (sky blue). RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .46. Jvara. 90 .10 . 0. Kaphahara. H¤dya.L. 0.16.03. 0.98 (all blue). 0.17.V. juice of fresh drug. KuÀ¶ha.

40. bitter. Kalikutki Katuki Karru.Thin. cork cambium 1-2 layered. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. pleasant. (Fam. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. odour.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. . Scrophulariaceae). Katuku rohini. Katuka (Rz. 5-10 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. pleasant. cortex single layered or absent. Katuka rohini Kutki.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated.1 cm in diameter.2. suberised cells. Kauka. odour. primary cortex persists 91 . more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. taste. a perennial. Kav¢. straight or slightly curved. taste. Sutiktaka. 0. fracture. Katki. Rohi¸¢. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. mostly attached with rhizomes. inner surface black with whitish xylem. cylindrical.05-0. externally greyish-brown. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. short. Tiktarohi¸¢. Root . b) Microscopic Rhizome . fracture. kaur Katuka rohini. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. dusty grey. bitter. Kaurohi¸¢. short. subcylindrical.

62. consisting of oval to polygonal. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres.2.05 (blue).3. secondary xylem consists of vessels. lignified. thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. 0. tracheids. Appendix per cent. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. thick-walled cells of endodermis. 0.Dusty grey. Powder .72 and 0. 2.104 µ in diameter.C. fibres aseptate. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres.C.84 (all yellow).V.37.21. simple round to oval. hypodermis single layered.41 and 0.41. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. simple round to oval. 0. 0.84 (all brownish grey). Appendix per cent. vessels have varying shape and size. starch grains. tracheids. 2. 92 .17..35 (green). mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. Appendix 2.2. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. tracheids long. 0. 0.in some cases. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. thick-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. cortex 8-14 layered. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.10. 0. parenchyma and fibres. T.10.L. thick-walled. IDENTITY. secondary phloem poorly developed. 0. Appendix per cent. 0.30 (blue) and 0. starch grains. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells.4. 0.2.2. 0. 0. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. 0. 0. measuring 25 . On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. parenchyma.17. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. cambium 2-4 layered. 2.2. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends.7. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. Appendix per cent.2. abundantly found in all cells. some cylindrical with taillike.30. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. thick-walled. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. tapering ends.21. 0.L. 0.6. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.30.05. 2.

Sarvajvarahara Lauha. KuÀ¶ha. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. K¡mal¡. 93 . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Bhedin¢.CONSTITUENTS .áv¡sa. DOSE .Glucoside (Picrorhizin). Arocaka. of the drug in powder form. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. ViÀamajvara. Jvara. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . D¢pan¢. Pittahara. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1 . D¡ha.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡.3 g.

Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. lanceolate. Kolavankal ---. Nirchulli. tube 1. stamens 4. calyx 4-partite. all linear-lanceolate.41. abruptly swollen at top. stout. Flower . annual herb. 0.Mostly adventitious. Vayalculli Talikhana. subsessile. fasciculate. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. externally greyish-brown. entire and hairy. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. acute. broader than the other three.Usually unbranched.5 cm long. Kokilaksha (W.P. 1-7 cm long. bracts about 2. common in water logged places throughout the country.3 cm long.6 cm long.5-1 cm wide. second pair 94 . Kalsunda --Golmidi. Kettu. no characteristic odour and taste.Acanthaceae). which are 1. Nirguvireru. Hygrophila spinosa T.Anders (Fam. IkÀuraka. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Greenish-brown. Stem .2 cm long. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. sub-quadrangular.Yellowish-brown. widely 2 lipped. Leaf .6-2 cm long. didynamous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Kolarind. with long white hairs. corolla 3. a spiny. Syn. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. swollen at nodes. no characteristic odour and taste. whitish to brown. Culli. upper sepal 1.

Two celled. scattered throughout the phloem region. having small intercellular spaces. flat or compressed.15 cm wide. radially elongated in xylem region. oblong. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. fibre walls uniformly thickened. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. thin-walled. with a number of large air cavities. rectangular to cubical. compressed. single or in groups of 2-3. peripheral ones larger. ray cells thin-walled. subequal. ray cells thin walled. radially elongated in secondary xylem. vessels with spiral thickenings.0. xylem present in a ring. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. moderately thick-walled. phloem narrow. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. broader towards centre. variable in size. hairy but appearing smooth. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs.Ovate. phloem fibres thick-walled. Fruit . a few thick-walled. anthers two celled. round. light brown. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres.8 cm long. consisting of round to polygonal cells. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region.1 . brownish cells. 0.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. arranged radially. Stem . capsule about 0. b) Microscopic Root . fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. arranged in radial rows. inner cells smaller. vessels angular. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. style filiform. thin-walled cells. Seed .25 cm long and 0. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. radially arranged. cortical cells thin-walled. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. filament quite glabrous. composed of transversely elongate. 4seeded. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. pointed. truncate at the base. involute with a fissure on upper side. pith large. composed of polygonal. linear-oblong. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces.larger. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. glabrous.2-0. endodermis single layered. pubescent. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. stigma simple. polygonal cells. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. 95 . fibres thick-walled.

vein islet number 17-42. composed of thin-walled. unicellular hairs and globules.2. Seed .3. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. palisade.75. 2.Light brown.24-30. oval to hexagonal.78. Tikta Picchila. shows aseptate. palisade ratio 6. thick-walled. Fruit . V¤Àya. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. stomatal index 17.2. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.25-15. covered with thick cuticle.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. sclerenchymatous cells.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface.2.2. elongated fibres. 2. Appendix 2. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. Powder . V¡jikara. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. collenchyma 2-5 layered. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. palisade 1-2 layered. Appendix per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.Shows concavo-convex outline. IDENTITY. 2. Lamina . stomata diacytic.4.6. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. tangentially elongated cells. Rucya. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces.7. . parenchymatous.2. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. 2.LeafMidrib . lignified. thin-walled. Amla. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . Appendix per cent.2. M£trala. parenchymatous cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. Ëmav¡ta áotha. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tarakta. 97 . DOSE .T¤À¸¡.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra).3 -6 g.

Culli --. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. polygonal cells. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Root-Appears circular in outline.Acanthaceae).42. common in water logged places throughout the country. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Kolavulike. no characteristic odour and taste. 98 .) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. IkÀuraka. Nerugobbi. Kokil¡kÀ¢. branches on nodes. thinwalled cells. Syn. consisting of small. stout. the size of these cells. slightly transversely elongated. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Anders (Fam. a spiny. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. Kokilaksha (Rt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. secondary phloem narrow. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. thin-walled. Hygrophila spinosa T. whitish to brownish. annual herb.

THERAPEUTIC USES .2.4. Appendix per cent. 99 . xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. 2.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Powder . Appendix per cent. V¡tahara. angular. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. lignified fibres.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. having spiral thickening.2. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. shows fragments of pitted. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug for decoction.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. scattered throughout the phloem region. M£trala. Appendix per cent. vessels with spiral thickening. ray cells thin-walled. 2. 2. V¡tarakta. Appendix 2.2. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. broader towards centre. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. A¿ma¤¢. 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.2. radially elongated in the xylem region. IDENTITY.Light brown to ash coloured. each group composed of 2-6 cells. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . Tikta Picchila.3 -6 g.3. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.7.2. Amla. Appendix per cent. fibre walls uniformly thickened.Ëmav¡ta áotha.

8 -10. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. shows hairs and oil globules. the 100 . stout. oil globules present in this region. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. Kokilaksha (Sd. Powder . Daruhuladur Darhald. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. parenchymatous cells.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Maradarishina -Maramannal. thinwalled.43. IkÀuraka. flat or compressed. a spiny. hairy but appearing smooth. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. truncate at the base. Syn. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. Anders. b) Microscopic Seed . Maradarishana. common in water logged places throughout the country. white. taste. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Acanthaceae). The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. light yellowish-brown. Hygrophila spinosa T. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. (Fam.Greyish-brown. annual herb. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Swelling Index . embryo composed of oval to polygonal.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.

4. 0.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. 0.31.C. 0.2. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.55 (light blue). Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.L. 2. 2. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. 101 .93 (sky blue). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf.52 and 0. IDENTITY.24 (red). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. Appendix per cent.10 (light brown). including any sticky mucilage. 2.2. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.24 (dark brown).3.2. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. Appendix per cent. 0.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. 0.C.52 (dark brown) and 0.3 -6 g. 0.áotha. of the drug in powder form.An yellow semi-drying oil.2. enzymes like Diastase.6.17.17 (light brown). 0. 0.L. V¡tarakta.41 (light blue). Santarpa¸a. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Pitt¡¿mar¢. 0.38. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .38 (light brown). 0.03 (light brown). Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.76 (sky blue) and 0.2.31 (dark brown).03. 0. Appendix 2.72 (all yellow). Lipase. 0. Add 25 ml of water.72 (dark brown).V. Protease and an Alkaloid. Kaphahara. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.24. T. related to 1 g of seeds. V¤Àya. DOSE . 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T..

Kozhuppa. Loni. odour. Paruppukkeerai. dehiscing above the base. -Baraloniya.4 cm long. rounded and truncate at the apex.4 cm long. petals obovate. Kuzuppa (W. fracture. very delicate and soon falling off. 102 .3 cm long. Doddagoni Soppu. Fruit . branched. Loni -Koricchira.2 cm in diameter.Almost cylindrical.25-0. short.5 cm long.1 to 0.An ovoid capsule. Gho¶ik¡. Lonika. Kulfa. Stem . Peddapavila Kura. short. characteristic. less in number. Loni. oblique. small. an annual succulent. fracture. subtended by an involucre. 0. sepal 0. Flower . 50 cm long. stamens 8-12.A few.Cylindrical. brownish-grey. 0. Moti Luni Khursa.6 cm wide. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Chhotalunia. prostrate herb. ribbed. smooth and greenish-brown. Badanuni. sub-sessile. 0. Ghola -Lonak. Payilikura. surface smooth. at terminal heads. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Leaf . cuneiform. found throughout the country.Simple. Baranunia Garden Purslane. style 5-6 fid. Khurfa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. (Fam.1 to 0. Badi Lona Dudagorai. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Kwfa Pasalai. 0. 3-4 leaves. swollen at the nodes.P) Portulacaceae).44. Pulikkirai. oblong. root hairs abundant in upper region. Kozuppa. bright yellow. Kozhuppu Pappukura. 0. spathulate.3 to 2. secondary roots.35-0.5 cm long and 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Kozuppaccira Kurfah.

06-0. as well as compound.2. Appendix per cent. Stem . thick-walled with wide lumen. pitted and spiral vessels.2.6.2. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening.2.Greyish-brown. 2. 2.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. dark brown.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. oval. phloem. ray cells and pith. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. Appendix per cent. phloem and xylem parenchyma.. LeafMidrib . covered externally with a thick cuticle. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. secondary xylem consists of vessels. arranged in radial rows. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. measuring 6-14 µ . tracheids and parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem composed of vessels. Powder .Wavy in outline. Appendix 2. having simple pits and spiral thickening. solitary or in groups of 2-5.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. pericycle fibre present in patches. simple as well as compound. Appendix per cent. shows groups of oval to polygonal. tracheids.07 cm across. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. Lamina . shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. tracheids and parenchyma.2.2. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. b) Microscopic Root .3. . inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. fragments of cork cells. reniform. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. stomata paracytic type. black. 2. parenchyma abundant. having 2-3 components. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex.4. parenchymatous cells. present in mesophyll cells. 0. oval cells. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. thin-walled. palisade single layered. IDENTITY. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple.7. vessels. 2. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. having intercellular spaces.Seed -Numerous. minute. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres.

(both green).76 (all pinkish red).68 and 0.C. Pittakara.76 and 0.41. Gulma. of the drug in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES .Agnim¡ndya.10. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.C. 0.V. 0. 0. V¡tahara.41.68 (yellow) and 0.L. Under U.61.Protein.L.3 .98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .. T. Ar¿a. 0.10. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0.08. 104 .76 (green) in visible light.52.T. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.52 (both faint green). V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.10. Prameha. 0. 0.6 g. CakÀuÀya.08. 0. Vra¸a DOSE . RukÀa. 0.68. 0. 0.Marma Gu¶ik¡. áotha. Carbohydrates.50. 0.

upto 2.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. obliquely rounded at base. petiolate. 25-50 cm high.3-0. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. covered with long.P) diffused undershrub. (Fam. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. upto 2 cm thick. with secondary and tertiary branches. Stem . odour. 105 . yellowish-green. 0. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. Fabaceae).45. sessile. greyish brown to brown. Var¡kr¡nt¡. varying in length. woody. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. fracture hard.week bristles longitudinally grooved. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn.6-1.Cylindrical. linear lanceolate. external surface light brown. nearly glabrous. Lajamani Chhuimui. tapering. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. taste. bark fibrous. sensitive to touch. distinct. leaflets 10-20 pairs. sparsely prickly. bark fibrous. stipulate. Adamalati Lajaka. alternate. Machikegida. Leaf . found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Lajavanti.Cylindrical. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. 0. acute. Lajauni Muttidasenui. rependant .5 cm in dia. Lajjalu (W. internal cut surface grey.2 cm long. easily separable from wood. hairy pinnae. slightly astringent.4 cm broad.

4-0. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thick-walled. scattered throughout secondary xylem. tangentially elongated cells. ovate oblong. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. dry.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. spreading bristle at sutures. secondary cortex wide. 1-1. phloem fibres single or in groups. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. brown to grey. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. crystal fibres elongated. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre.Flower . filled with reddish-brown contents. simple. 2-3 seriate more common. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. 3-25 chambered.Compressed.3 long. 0. xylem rays radially elongated. 2. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high.6 cm long. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. stamens 4. glabrous. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 106 . thick-walled. fibres single or in groups. 0. a number of lignified. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. 0. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. thick-walled. b) Microscopic Root .3 cm long. much exserted. moderately thick-walled. peduncles prickly. Fruit . fibres of two types. parenchymatous cells. parenchyma. respectively.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. arranged in tangential bands. tangentially elongated to oval. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. calyx very small. straw coloured. ovary sessile. scattered throughout. corolla pink.Lomentum. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. fibres. consisting of large. ovules numerous. starch grains. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. pith consisting of polygonal. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. crystal fibres thick-walled. Seed . in globose head. oval-elliptic. lobes 4.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. rarely multiseriate. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. Stem .Pink. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. radially elongated. phloem rays thick-walled. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia.

Appendix per cent. 0.81 (bluish-pink). cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. parenchymatous cells.69 (all blue) and 0. spongy parenchyma. Appendix per cent. crystal fibres. parenchymatous cells. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.shows epidermis on both surfaces.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. fibres.Leaf- Petiole . mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.L. vascular bundle single. one in each wing.3 components IDENTITY. thin-walled. reticulate. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. 0. 2. Lamina .L. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells.7. shaggy hairs. with 2 .C. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. shaggy hairs.Reddish-brown.4. pericycle same as in petiole. 0. Appendix per cent. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. lignified cells followed by single layered. Midrib . 2. single and compound starch grains.shows single layered epidermis. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.62.3.2. palisade cells non glandular. covered with thin-cuticle.C.35. spongy parenchyma single layered. branched. pitted vessels. palisade single layered. pericycle arranged in a ring. branched. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region.V. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. shows. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. Powder . endocarp of thick-walled.6. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.2. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells Seed . Fruit . Appendix 2. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. 2. T.2. 2.2.

KuÀ¶ha. áv¡sa.áopha.35 and 0.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. 108 . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. Raktapita DOSE . 0.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .10-20 g of the drug for decoction. Kaphahara. D¡ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Atis¡ra. Vra¸a. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS . RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Yoniroga. Ku¶aj¡valeha.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. 0.spots appear at Rf.35 (orange).

basifixed. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. Syn. sweet. taste. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. tabular.) Macbride. Ippa. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. corolla fleshy. Iluppa. Mahua Katiluppai. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9).5-2 cm long.46. and also cultivated. Mahawash tree Mahudo. M. Eppimara -Irippa. ovate lanceolate. latifolia (Roxb. b) Microscopic Corolla . Bassia latifolia Roxb. Androecium . Madhuka.F. Halippe. erect 0. Madhuka (Fl. anther sub-sessile. Sapotaceae) . Kattu Iluppai. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida.Gmel. Hippenara. reddish-brown. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Hippe. a few 109 . Ilippa. short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. epipetalous. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. epipetalous and arranged in two series.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. lanceolate. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. (Fam.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. followed by thin-walled. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26).

brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls.unicellular hairs present on one side. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 2.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.2. Pittakara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. of the drug. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. áramahara.4. shows fragments of epidermal cells. unicellular hairs.7. KÀata. Appendix 5 per cent.áv¡sa.2. Appendix 25 per cent. 2. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. KÀaya.15 g. endothecium composed of radially elongated. pollen grains single or in groups. Appendix 0.Madh£k¡sava.Dark brown. 2. Ah¤dya. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 70 per cent.3. árama DOSE .2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. tapetum not distinct.6. D¡ha. V¡tahara. El¡di Modaka. lignified cells. 110 .2. round. spherical. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent.2. oval shaped.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. T¤À¸¡. 2.2. Balya. IDENTITY.2.10 .

. Amaranthaceae).1-0.Cylindrical. fracture.3-2 cm wide. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. nodes and internodes distinct. 0.47. 2. Br. often rooting at lower nodes. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak.P.. bracteoles 111 . with spreading branches from the base. short. fracture. sessile. cream to grey.Herbaceous. A. linear-oblong. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. Matsy¡duni.3-7.) R. short. A.. weak. Stem . A. Bahli.. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. denticulata R. Br. Gandal¢. no characteristic odour and taste. or elliptic. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . (Fam. no characteristic odour and taste.6 cm diameter. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Matshyakshi (W.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.1. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. white often tinged with pink. obtuse or subacute.5 cm long. triandra Lam.. 0.5-5 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste. A. Flower . yellowish-brown to light-brown. non Link. internodes 0. Leaf . nodiflora R.5 cm wide. Br. Syn.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. repens Gmel.

covered wtith striated cuticle. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. palisade 2-3 layers. no characteristic odour and taste. xylem tissues lignified. pith distinct. secondary cortex narrow. b) Microscopic Root . conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. isodiametic cells. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. single layered. composed of thin-walled. isodiametric. numerous. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. compressed with thickened margins. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. thin-walled. sepals ovate. parenchymatous cells. thin.dorsiventral. consisting of thin-walled cells.Utricle.5-3 mm long. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. capitellate. irregular. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. no characteristic odour and taste.2 cm long. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. ovary obcordate. Lamina . a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Leaf- Midrib . thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. consistig of thin-walled. Fruit . compressed. each consisting of xylem and phloem. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. pith consisting of thin-walled. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. scarious. palisade ratio 3-5. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. Stem . vascular bundles three. collenchymatous cells.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. stomata paracytic. 112 . thin-walled round or oval. parenchymatous cells. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. with are conjoint.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. acute. round or oval. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem.5 mm long. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. round to oval. radially arranged cork cells. ovate. with anomalous secondary growth. present in the centre.1. perianth 2. parenchymatous cells. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. orbicular. open and exarch. shows wavy or undulate. bicollateral. style very short. 1. parenchymatous cells. vascualr bundles radially arranged.

.L. 0. Pittavik¡ra. Appendix 19 per cent.35. 113 .16.44. Kaphahara.C. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 10 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.68 (all red). T. 0.5 per cent.18. Under U.2. 2. IDENTITY.Sugar. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.C. 0. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . CONSTITUENTS .96 (all yellow).2 -3 g.3. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.Powder . wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view.4.16. 0.25. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. THERAPEUTIC USES .59. 0.44 (all green). paracytic stomata. 0.44.33 and 0. 0.KuÀ¶ha. 0.2.94 and 0. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6.81.7. V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.54 and 0. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 2. 0. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 4.L. 2.2. 0. Appendix 2.2. Tikta.V. 0.Olive green.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.33. 0. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2.

cultivated throughout the country. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. cells flat at base. (Fam.2-0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe.48. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. 0. 0. several layers of thin walled. taste. dull yellow. parenchymatous cells. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. covered externally with thick cuticle. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water.) aromatic. odour. b) Microscopic Seed . varying in size. thin-walled. bitter. Methi (Sd. pleasant. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. smooth.15-0. very hard. annual herb. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated.Seed shows a layer of thick. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. 30-60 cm tall. mucilaginous cells. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. 114 . Fabaceae).walled. columnar palisade.5 cm long.35 cm broad.

of the drug in powder form. Jvara. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. aleurone grains. Appendix 0. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent.Alkaloid. Sapogenins and Mucilage. Rucya.2. oil globules. Appendix 5 per cent. Kaphahara.Yellow. 2. Aruci DOSE .6. CONSTITUENTS . 2. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.2.2. Appendix 4 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder .3-6 g.2.5 per cent. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. 115 .3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 2.4. Prameha. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.Graha¸¢.

Rakhyasmula Mulaka. bright green. pedicel with scattered hairs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula.. taste.Lower leaves hairy. having a few longitudinal striations. variable size and thickness. compressed.Slender. Muli.5-10 cm long. Flower . petals 1. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. slightly pungent.2 cm long. 0.3 cm long. hollow. cylindrical. an annual or biennial bristly herb. oblong. complete 1-2 cm long.Flower in long terminal raceme. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . petiole 5-5.Root cylindrical. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . coarsely toothed. yellowish-green. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.0 cm in dia. odour. (Fam.) Brassicaceae). smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. not distinct.7-2.1-1. blade obovate. lyrate. Stem . Leaf . regular. upper most leaves simple. sometimes brown red. bisexual. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Mulaka (W. sub-marginate at the apex.49.P. seplas 6.

epidermis single layered. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. Leaf- Petiole .4 cm thick. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. vascular bundle three in number. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. traversed by phloem rays. taste. ovary superior. Stem . round to oval. occasionally pale purple. 117 . 2 mm wide. phloem.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. cork cells. medullary rays four to many cells wide. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. Fruit . parenchymatous cells. pith a wide zone of polygonal.Siliqua. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components.8. present in cortex and phloem. thin-walled. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces.appears biconvex in outline. solitary or ingroups. erect. epidermis followed by 6. continuous or more or less constricted. irregularly globose. 10-12 ovuled. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. radially arranged. stamen 6 in two whorls. one central and two lateral. covered with thick cuticle. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. 3-9 cm long and 0. green or brown-purple. Midrib . secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. Lamina . parenchymatous cells.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. b) Microscopic Root . pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. oily. Seed . secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. 1-2 chambered.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. greenish-yellow. thin-walled. round to oval. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. traversed by xylem rays.Reddish-brown. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. single layered. style about 4 mm long. sometimes flattened. cylindrical. 2-4 mm long. endodermis at some places.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. palisade 2-3 layers. present in cortex. longitudinally sulcatus.1. hairs unicellular.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.dorsiventral. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. elliptical. present only on upper side.purple vein. parenchymatous cells. two outer smaller and four inner longer. starch grains simple. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups.

Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells.Yellowish-green. Gandhaka Va¶¢.Fruit . measuring 3-14 µ diameter. of the drug in juice form.6.7. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated.2. Rucya.4. Ud¡varta.40 ml. shows aseptate fibres. Gulma. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Shows a single layered epidermis. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Powder . Seed .2. H¤dya. P¢nasa. IDENTITY. parenchymatous cells.2. straight cuticle. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. of columnar cells.2. thinwalled. Appendix per cent. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. covered with thin.2. 2. Kaphahara. parenchymatous cells present. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. reddish-brown. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Appendix per cent. Ar¿a. spiral vessels.M£lakakÀ¡ra.Glucoside. Appendix 2. P¡cana. 2.3. Svarya. 118 . DOSE . Appendix per cent. tangentially elongated. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded.20 . CONSTITUENTS . Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. covered with a thin-cuticle. thin-walled. 2.Agnim¡ndya. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta Laghu.

3.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. 2. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth.2. Mulaka (Rt. Saleya. Brassicaceae).2. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. Mula Muli Moolangi. Mullangi. Appendix per cent. Visra. 2. cylindrical. usually 25-40 cm in length.6. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. variable in size. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. IDENTITY. white in colour. 119 .2. Moclangi gadde.50. (Fam.4.2.7. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. 2. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.2. fusiform. Mulaka. 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. Rakhyasmula Mula. rarely sweet.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Appendix per cent.2. taste. slightly or strongly pungent. Appendix 2.

Agnim¡ndya.34. 0. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil.09. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.T. Ud¡varta DOSE .69 (all yellow). M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa. Jvara. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. Vrana. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H¤dya. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.L.Glucoside. 0.49 & 0. Svarya.04 & 0. 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Rucya. Netraroga.04. of the drug in the juice form 120 .47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . áv¡sa.09 (both blue).15-30 ml. 0.V. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. P¢nasa. Tikta Laghu.LC. Pittahara.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. P¡cana. Ar¿a. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Galaroga. Kaphahara. Dadru.04.09 & 0. Gulma.C. T.

fibres and parenchyma. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. secondary cortex composed of rounded.3 . (Fam.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. inner cells thin-walled. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . rectangular cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. 6-12 cm long and 0. consisting of tangentially elongated.4 m tall.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. 0. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.Shows 10 . tangentially elongated.51. traversed by xylem rays. Syn. colour. aromatic. a perennial herb. thin-walled cells. Apiaceae ). thin-walled cells. taste.42000 m. odour.) DC. tenuifolium Wall.1. slightly bitter. Mura (Rt. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. Gandhakuti. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. S. cambium 2-4 layered. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. traversed by phloem rays. Root . secondary phloem shows wide zone.6 .2. Daitya. dull brown.

áv¡sa.having spiral thickenings. composed of radially arranged.6. distributed throughout secondary cortex.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Bhrama. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. xylem and phloem rays. Appendix 2. 2. somewhat oval cells. 2.7. Powder .1-3 g.2. 122 . Appendix 17 per cent. 2.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin).3. present in secondary cortex. IDENTITY. Appendix 3. M£rchha. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . round to oval. secretory canals. Tikta. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide.Arvind¡sava.2. of the drug in powder form. shows groups of cork cells.2. starch grains simple. parenchymatous cells. Sucrose and Mannitol. 2.Brown.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .2.5 per cent. secretory canals numerous. secondary phloem. CONSTITUENTS . round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 9 per cent. short with blunt ends. D¡ha. secondary xylem and medullary rays. fibres aseptate. oil globules and simple starch grains. Jvara. Ka¶u. secondary phloem. Appendix 9 per cent.2. xylem parenchyma.. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. measuring 7-55 µ in dia.

stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size.Shows a cork. phloem rays 1 123 . b) Microscopic Root . taste. phloem fibres absent. some filled with reddish-brown contents. indistinct. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. Madhusrava. Murva (Rt. fracture. a large stout. Halukaratige. rectangular cells.5-3 cm thick. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. twining shrub. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva.) Asclepiadaceae). growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood.52. & Am. bark easily separable from wood. odour. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. tangentially elongated. (Fam. Jartor Koratige Hambu. slightly bitter. Kallu Shambu. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. similar to those present in secondary cortex. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. Koratige. resin cells present irregularly in this region. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0.

compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. composed of vessels. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. Jvara. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.7. fibres.2-6 g. Appendix 14 per cent.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls.2. Mukha áosa. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. consisting of small tangential.5 per cent. 2. Appendix 7 per cent. 5. Appendix 5 per cent. IDENTITY.22 µ in diameter.3 cells wide. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3.. present in parenchymatous tissues. measuring 5. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . vary in shape and size with borderd pits. of the drug in powder form.5-22 µ dia. tracheids. fibres. Tikta Guru.6. simple and compound starch grains. shows a number of stone cells..2. fragments of cork. Pittahara.Light brown. T¤Àn¡. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Appendix 2. 2. of the drug for decoction. Meha.5 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . fibretracheids. 2. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains.4.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. starch grains simple. Appendix 0. Raktapitta.2. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. 2. 124 . xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. Medoroga. Prameha Mihira Taila.2. 10-20 g. Powder . in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. vessels with pitted walls. Ka¸·£. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.tracheids.Ar¿a. H¤droga. V¡tahara. DOSE .2. K¤miroga.

Peri. yellowish and thin-walled. basifixed. Nagakesari -Nangaa. exine and intine distinct. fragrant. thick-walled.5 cm long. distinct protuberances on walls. shows elongated cells of filament.53. linear. anther about 0. astringent. soft to touch. Nagppu. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. parenchymatous cells.8 . Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. Pilunagkesar. connective and filament. slender. consisting of thin-walled. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. filiform. Bengal. Powder . Nahar Nageshvara. 125 . more or less twisted. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. each stamen 0. (Fam.0 cm long. Nagachampakam. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. Naugaliral. Nagchampa. connective not visible with naked eye. N¡gapuÀpa. Hem¡. often buttressed at the base. containing pollen grains. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara.9 cm long. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Veluthapala. filament 0. Konkan. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards.Anther shows golden-brown. Sachunagkeshara. N¡ga.) evergreen tree. Assam.Brown. an Ke¿ara.1. taste. Guttiferae). Nauga. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Nagakesar (Stmn. coppery or golden brown. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. odour.9-1. b) Microscopic Androecium . many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. quite brittle.

4. 126 . V¡tarakta.2.2.2.3. 2.2. CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara.2. 2.1-3 g. Appendix 2. Tikta. Appendix per cent.2.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. 2. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. Var¸ya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara.Raktapitta.IDENTITY. Vastiroga DOSE . N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. Kum¡ry¡sava. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent.Essential oil and Oleo-resin.7. áopharoga. 2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.

8 m high. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. (Fam. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. leaflet 1-2. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.3-1. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. 1. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. Fabaceae). found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. pale green to greenish-black. Nili (Lf. pith composed of round to oval.1. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. no characteristic odour and taste. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole .appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.54.) shrub.2 cm wide.2.5 cm long and 0. 127 . Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. N¢l¢n¢.

Midrib . Ud¡varta.50-100 g. palisade 2-3 layers.5 per cent. aseptate fibres. similar as in petiole and midrib. IDENTITY. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.shows dorsiventral structure. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells..N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. K¡sa. epidermis. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. Ke¿ya.2. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. 2. Gulma. cuticle and hair.4. 2.2. 2.Ëmav¡ta. 2.2. Lamina .shows epidermis. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . collateral and crescent shaped.6. similar as in petiole. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 2. 128 . both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. pitted vessels. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tarakta. of decoction.2. Jvara. Appendix 25 per cent. Udararoga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pl¢haroga. Appendix 7. shows groups of mesophyll cells. cuticle and hair. CONSTITUENTS . K¤imiroga.2.3.. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . V¡tahara.7. vascular bundle single.Glycoside (Indican). Appendix 2 per cent.Greenish-grey.

thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. woody. taste. cylindrical. odour not distinct. Nila Nili.8 m high. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. secondary cortex a narrow zone.10 layers of tangentially elongated.2-1. consisting of usual elements. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. 129 . rectangular. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. Nili Chettu. 1.55. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. hard. Olleneeli -Amari. Nila -Neel Avuri. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. with lenticels. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. 0. (Fam. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. slightly bitter. Nili (Rt. wood occupies bulk parts of the root.5 cm thick. thin-walled cells. Neeli Nili. Indian Indigo Gali. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels.1 -1. Karunili. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma..) shrub. Rangapatr¢. thin-walled cells. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. group of fibres. Nil. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Fabaceae). phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. Neeligida. Gari Nili Kadunili. Nili. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.

measuring 3-11 µ in dia.33. V¡tarakta. CONSTITUENTS . K¤imiroga. Appendix 6 per cent. 2.14.10. 0.86 and 0.2. Appendix 0. round to oval. 0. 0.C. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0. DOSE . 2.7 per cent. Ke¿ya. simple and compound starch grains.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.2. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 2. 0.50. 0. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.Creamish-brown.48 g. Ud¡varta.40.2. 0.21.75 (blue). present in cortex.47 (blue).V. 2. 0. phloem. Udararoga.91 (all yellow).3.58.06. 2. 0. 0.. T.40 (blue).63 (bluish green). 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.91 (blue). 0.75. 0.L.4.33. pitted vessels. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. IDENTITY. 0. shows aseptate fibres. 0.63. 0. 130 .86. 0.75. 0.2. xylem parenchyma and rays.0.2. 0.Arvind¡sava. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.Gulma. Appendix 3 per cent.58.27. 0.14. 0. ViÀavik¡ra.81. 0. Pl¢h¡roga.6..86 (green) and 0. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .58 (blue).7.2.10. 0. 0. Recan¢. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.63. 0.50.C. 0. 0. 0.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tahara.0.80. 0.91 (all grey). and 0. 0.81 (blue).14 (blue). 0.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. Ëmav¡ta. Powder . On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.27. K¡sa. starch grains simple.30 (bluish green). of drug for decoction.06.40. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Aryaveppu. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Kahibevu. Kohumba Nim. Limbado. Meliaceae). exstipulate. Nimba Nimba. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Nimba (Lf. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. odour. Juss Syn. Veppa Balantanimba. alternate. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Bevu. indistinct. Arulundi. Oilevevu. Nim. (Fam. slightly yellowish-green. acute. Veppu. Bevinama -Veppu. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Melia azadirachta Linn. lanceolate. Nim Vemmu.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Bakayan. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. serrate. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba.0-1. Bakan.Compound. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. crystals also present in phloem region. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. taste.1 cm thick. Limado. Nimbam. Veppan Vemu. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree.5 cm long and 1. 7-8. Limba. 131 . rachis 15-25 cm long.56.7 cm wide. 0. opposite. leaflets with oblique base.

Lamina . 2.Triterpenoids and Sterols. covered externally with thick cuticle. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. epidermis on either surface. Prameha.5 on lower surface and 8.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. fibres. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . palisade single layered. 2. traversed by a number of veins. shows vessels. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction.2. 2.0-4.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.3.2. CONSTITUENTS . anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. 132 . Vrana. thin-walled cells.4. ViÀarogas DOSE .Jvara. Appendix 2.5 on upper surface. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. 2.5. Appendix per cent. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. Netraroga.6. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.Green.7.2.shows dorsiventral structure. tangentially elongated cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . stomatal index 13. K¤miroga. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.0-11. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. V¡tal¡.2. Appendix per cent. palisade ratio 3.1-3 g. IDENTITY. Powder . of the drug in powder form.0-14.2. KuÀ¶ha. Ëma¿otha. composed of thin walled.

Juss. Vembu Vemu. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Melia azadirachta Linn. Limba Nimba Nim. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. (Fam. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Bakam Veppai. odour. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Aruveppu Balantanimba.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents.57. considerably thick in older barks. Nimba. Syn. Nimba. a moderate sized to fairly large. Kahibevu. extemal surface rough. Meliaceae). evergreen tree. Kadunimb. taste. Nimba (St. fibrous. characteristic. fracture. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. Oilevevu -Veppu. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. Nimb Bevu. fissured and rusty-grey. woody. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 .

ViÀaghna.L. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.measuring 2. cork cells. having wide lumen and distinct striations. lignified rectangular to polygonal. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.86 (blue). 0. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. starch grains. T.72 (blue). a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem.2.4. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 6 per cent. Pittahara. CONSTITUENTS .L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. 2.90 (all blue).2.63 and 0. IDENTITY.C. Appendix 5 per cent.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. measuring 2.outer surface.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 1. 0.C.2. Appendix 7 per cent. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.20. 2. and 0. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.5 per cent. Powder . 0. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.V. secondary cortex absent in most cases. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 2. stone cells mostly in groups. simple. Appendix 2. round with central hilum.7. Kaphahara.45. 0. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends.6. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.75-5 µ in diameter.2. 2. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna.Reddish-brown.3. simple starch grains. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .90 (green). within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.2.

Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. 135 . Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Ka¸·u.. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form.2-4 g. Prameha. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Jvara.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.D¡ha. Decoction should be used externally. Vra¸a DOSE . Rakta Pitta.

often in groups. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. Chettu Dhak. Muttala -Plasu. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. curved.) Kuntze (Fam. Tesu Purasu. except in very arid parts. rhytidoma 0.15 m high with irregular branches.58. fracture. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. rectangular 136 . sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. Camata.2 cm thick usually peels off. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Modugu. 0. having brown colour. cork cells. 12 . rectangular. Tesu Muttug. taste. pale brown. Palasha (St. Khakhapado Dhak. dark brown. Palash. exposing light brown surface. dark-brown. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. Khakharo. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. greyish to pale brown. Paras Moduga. slightly astringent. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. Plas.5 .Bk) Fabaceae). secondary cortex and phloem tissue. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. 5-10 or more layered. Muttuga. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. thin-walled. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. Dhak. moderately thick-walled.1 cm thick. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. tanniniferous cells. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. internal surface rough.

V. Appendix 2. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. 0. Appendix 14 per cent.Reddish-brown. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.10. 0. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.10. 137 .L.10.6. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. 2.5 per cent. 0. thin-walled cork cells. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.2.2.cells followed by a zone of 2 . measuring 2. 0.4 layers of sclereids. Powder . CONSTITUENTS .4.67 (all yellow).3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Appendix 12 per cent. 7 .2..67 (all violet). secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. straight. 0. starch grains simple and compound with 2 .75 µ in dia. 2.. 0. 2.13.48. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. companion cells. T.3 components.2. crystal fibres. sclereids mostly in groups.50 cells in height.3.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.L.48 and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. phloem parenchyma.2.75 . in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. traversed by phloem rays.C.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.7. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .48 and 0.2. phloem fibres. 0.65 (all blue).18. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 1. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. dark brown coloured cells.12 cells wide. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.

Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Tikta.5-10 g.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. DOSE . KaÀ¡ya Sara.Ar¿a. K¤miroga. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Gulma. Vra¸a. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Graha¸¢. 138 . S¡raka . Agnid¢paka. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai.59. radially arranged and thin-walled. quick growing tree. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. stone 139 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam.5-2. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. inner bark fibrous. smooth.0 cm thick. tangentially elongated to squarish. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. Pangara Hongar. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. (Fam. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. secondary cortex consists of large. Paribhadra (St. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Mulmurumgai Badisa.Bk) Fabaceae). medium sized. exfoliating in narrow strips. yellowish to cream coloured. parenchymatous cells.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. 148 .V¡tarakta.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¤Àya..2-4 g. Balak¤t. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡taroga DOSE . Volatile Oil.CONSTITUENTS .Alkaloids. of drug in powder form.

epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . funicle stout. b) Microscopic Seed . Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi.5 cm wide. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. occurring mostly in groups. Piyar. followed by remnants of disorganised. odour. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. (Farn. sclerenchymatous cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. 0. Priyala (Sd. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng.3-0. taste. mottled with darker brown lines. hilum present at the apex of round edge. collapsed cells of integument. micropyle superior.63.6 cm long. Korka. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. Syn. latifolia Roxb. pleasant. which are of various size. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. thick-walled. creamish-brown. Shalichokha Piyal. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. linear. Chowl. Priyalam. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. Satdhan -Charal. B. sweetish-oily. Saraparuppu Sara. 0.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka.4-0. pitted. large.) Anacardiaceae). found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests.

2. 0. Oil and Starch. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.2.D¡ha. V¤Àya. T.27. shows numerous mesophyll cells. Appendix 0. Powder .2.0 µ in dia.2.08.10 . Appendix 7 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Sara. Bhagnas¡dhaka. and oil globules.2.54. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. Balya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.98 (all violet).4. BrÆha¸a.72 and 0.98 (all yellow). Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. 0. IDENTITY.5 per cent.91. Kaphakara.0 µ in dia. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 0. 2.20 g.72. Appendix 10 per cent.P£gakha¸·a. and sclerenchymatous cells. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells.27.7.L.94 (blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.72. procambium bundles. 0.Albuminoids.L. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. Pittahara. 0. DOSE . 0.2.94 and 0. áukrakara.6. 150 . of the drug in powder form. Priy¡la Taila.91. V¡tahara. KÀata.84.type.94 and 0.V. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. 0.5-5. 0. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .A creamish-brown paste. 0.2. 2. Raktapitta. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.5-5. 0. 0.C.08. 2. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.3. Appendix 2. KÀaya. H¤dya. 0.measuring 2.54.

peduncle cylindrical. densely hairy. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. brown. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.Shows more or less wavy outline.3 mm in dia.) Verbenaceae).5 cm across. epipetalous. and abundant in Bengal plains. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs.5-7. long. (Fam. stigma minutely capitate. anther ovate. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. Flower . bell-shaped. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. stamens 4. hairy. corolla. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . Priyangu (Infl. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .5 cm long. 1. parenchymatous cells.0.Cymose.5 . Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. 1.64. tubular. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. densely clothed with wooly hairs.2. calyx. brown. ovary 2-4 celled. 2.4 m high shrub. style. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. filament very long. an erect. basifixed.2. equal in size. 4 lobbed spreading. b) Microscopic Peduncle . thin-walled.

7. elliptical. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour.2. aseptate fibres. (Mukharoga). Phenolic compound. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. 2. Resin and Saponin.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.4.1-3 g. Powder . Vra¸aropa¸a. Daurgandhyahara.6. V¡tahara. M£travirajan¢ya. 152 .2. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. groups of thin-walled. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. xylem consists of usual elements.2.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡.Brown.fibres. of the drug in powder form. 2. Kanaka Taila. Sved¡dhikya. Ku´kum¡di Taila. fibres aseptate. 2. Rakta.2. N¢lik¡dya Taila. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Pakv¡tis¡ra. Appendix 2.D¡ha. 2. Sandh¡n¢ya. El¡di C£r¸a. Pras¡dana. DOSE . Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.3. Rakta-Pitta. IDENTITY.Glycosides. Terpenes. Appendix per cent. Jvara. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . spiral vessels.

an annual herb. pitted vessels and 153 . Odalu. Nellu. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. (Fam. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Nellu Tandulamul. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. cylindrical. Biyyamu Chaval. Nivara -Chaval. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Powder . both consisting of round to oval. Paddy Shalichokha. composed of thick-walled. Nelver Dhanyamu. thin. Poaceae).) cultivated throughout India. Bhata. Sali. Dh¡nya. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Jhona Arishi. Chawl. b) Microscopic Root . Dhana. Dhan Rice. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. soft. Dhana Bhatto. Damgara. Akki -Ari. cortex differentiated into three zones. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Coke Chaval. sclerenchymatous cells.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled.Greyish-cream. Cala. Vr¢hi. Shali (Rt. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Bhatta. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Corava.65.05-0. sclerenchymatous cells. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Dhanarmul. thick-walled. exodermis 1-2 layered. smooth. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs.

Kaphahara.2. Var¸ak¤t. Svarya.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. CakÀuÀya. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Balya. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. of the drug for decoction. Pittahara. Laghu. 2. 2.2. H¤dya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .4. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 2.7.StanyakÀaya. Baddh¡lpavarcasa.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 154 . M£trala. V¡tahara. Rucya. IDENTITY. KaÀ¡ya Guru.2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .50 g. BrÆha¸a.2. Appendix per cent.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.3.

corolla shortly discoid. perennial herb with a woody root stock. 155 . spreading. linear-lanceolate. sub-erect. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots.Shortly petiolate.66. light green.4 cm thick.5-2 cm long and 0.P.1-0. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. about 0. stamen 5. a prostrate. Shankhapushpi. 1-5 cm long. light green. linear-lanceolate. yellowish-brown to light brown. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. alternate with the petals. 0. found throughout the country. cylindrical. Leaf . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. cylindrical. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Slender. inserted deep in the corolla tube. epipetalous. ovary superior and bicarpellary.Usually branched. Kakkanangudi. Karakhuratt.) Convolvulaceae). Sankhapuspi. hairy. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. sparsely hairy. Flower . acute. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu.5 cm broad. Sankha pushpin (W.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. Stem .1-0. sepals narrowly. free. hairy on both surfaces. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Shankhavela. 0. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis.White or pinkish.

parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. xylem consisting of usual elements. epidermis single layered. simple and compound starch grains. pale brown pericarp. both having round to oval. fibres and parenchyma. elongated.Fruit .appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. mm. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. . spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. cortex differentiated in two zones. palisade two layered.walled cells. present on both surfaces. elliptical. at places unicellular hairs present. hairs unicellular. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. measuring 3 . palisade ratio 6-9. xylem consists of vessels. simple and composed of 2-3 components. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. thick-walled cells. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin.. Seed . thin. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated.8 µ in dia. covered with thick cuticle. oblong globose with coriaceous. minutely puberulous. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. vascular bundle bicollateral. present in cortex. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248.Brown. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. phloem composed of sieve elements.Light yellowish-green. b) Microscopic Root . starch grains solitary or in groups. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. fibres and tracheids. tanniniferous.. secretory cells present in this region. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. mm. Lamina .Shows single layered epidermis. 13. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. round to oval in shape. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. LeafMidrib . cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits.Capsule. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. Powder . 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. 156 . and in upper surface 202-238 per sq.8-17. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. endoderrnis single layered. unicellular hairs. covered with thick cuticle.Appears nearly circular in outline. phloem. phloem a narrow zone.0. Stem . vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. xylem rays and parenchyma.

2. 2.2.7.IDENTITY. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Pittahara. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.4. 2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 2. Agastyahar¢tak¢. Appendix per cent. 2. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES .2.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.2. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.3. Br¡hma.3-8 g. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara.2. Medhya. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Tikta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .M¡nasaroga. Appendix 2.6.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. ËyuÀya. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ras¡yana.

0. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali.Capsule.5-2 mm thick. Chagulputputi Satala. free to the base.) Euphorbiaceae).67.Small. odour and taste indistinct. 20-40 cm high. lanceolate or linear oblong. shortly 2-fid at the apex.Involucre broadly campanulate. gland semilunate.2-0. 0. Fruit . 3-4 mm in dia. 4-5 cm long. lobes short. Saptala (W. ovate. sessile. Carmas¡hv¡. greenish-yellow. Flower . Siju. horned. subacute. short.8 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. Bilikalli. Joyachi.7-7 cm long. Leaf . having a few secondary roots. fracture. 2.celled with or without attached pedicel. ciliolate. 1 mm long. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. linear. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. sub-sessile. odour and taste not distinct. ribbed.1. (Fam. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. a much branched. style.5 mm across at the mouth. 3. 158 . trilocular. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. filament pubescent. gradually tapering. annual herb. smooth.P. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . cylindrical. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. pale brown. solitary. found throughout India in the plains and low hills.

groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. with wide lumen present in this region.75 µ in dia. secondary xylem composed of vessels. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. tangentially elongated cells. composed of sieve elements. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. palisade single layered present on both sides. circular to oval.Young root shows exfoliated. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. found scattered in phloem region. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled.25 µ in diameter. simple. striated cuticle. all elements.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. filled with yellowish-brown content. parenchymatous cells. Stem . secondary cortex consists of 4.Seed . elliptical.5-19.6 layers of oval. centre occupied by a pith. elliptical. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. secondary phloem narrow. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. tangentially elongated elliptical. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. stone cells oval to elongated. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. flattended. single layered epidermis. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. consisting of thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. leprous tuberculate testa. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. mature root shows thin walled cork. Leaf- Midrib . fibres elongated and aseptate. rounded to oval. some rounded. rounded to oval. epidermis single layered. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. lignified cells with wide lumen. fibres. starch grains simple. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma.shows slightly convex outline. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. solitary or in groups. parenchymatous cells. 159 . rounded at the base. secondary xylem consists of vessels. vessels having simple pits. rarely a few oil globules also present. measuring 5. thickwalled and lignified. b) Microscopic Root . rectangular.3 mm long. grooved at one side. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. fibres and tracheids. all elements thick-walled and lignified. tracheids and medullary rays. thick-walled lignified. traversed by numerous xylem rays. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. covered externally with thick. endodermis not distinct. fibres and vessels having simple pits. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. 2.

2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.87 (violet).3. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.V.2. Appendix per cent. stone cells thick-walled.50 g. 0. Vibandha. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. RaktadoÀahara.67.Ën¡ha. Gulma. T. elliptical. oval to elongated. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. 2.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). Appendix per cent. 160 .Powder . simple. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. rounded to oval starch grains. IDENTITY.L.C.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. and 0. Pittahara. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf.C. Appendix 2. 2. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. Mi¿raka Sneha.4. Udararoga. of the drug for decoction.7.04.2. lignified with wide lumen.46 (brown) and 0.L.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. DOSE .46. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. 0.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.04 and 0. aseptate fibres. V¡tal¡.Light yellow.57 (all yellow). shows vessels with simple pits.0. Ud¡vartta. RukÀa. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. Visarpa.

Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. A. var. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. mesocarp. graveolens Linn. Shulupa. mericarps usually separate and free. dark brown. Peucedanum sowa Roxb.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. akin to caraway. Apiaceae). dorsal 161 . b) Microscopic Fruit . extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. yellowish membranous wings. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. 4 mm long. graveolens DC. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya.. Shepa. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. (Fam. filiform and incospicuous. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. brown. slightly sharp taste. A. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. often stalk attached. graveolens Benth. ex Flem. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. odour. Syn.. Sulpha. a tall. parenchymatous. sowa Roxb. slightly raised.68. and a warm. glabrous. glabrous. P.. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. Satahva (Fr. vittae.

68 (all yellow). Powder .2.6. Jvara. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.costae three. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. V¡tahara. Vra¸a. Appendix 3 per cent. cellulosic. Appendix 15 per cent. shows spiral vessels. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.C. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 2. Netra Roga DOSE .Essential Oil. 2.10 T. Kaphahara.C. CONSTITUENTS .2.37 (pink) 0.á£la. Appendix 14 per cent.2. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.3-6 g.4. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.59 (blue) and 0.5 per cent. 162 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent.2. 2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Atis¡ra. each costae with vascular strands.68 (violet).Brown. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. 0.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 2. 0. Appendix 1. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a.59 and 0. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. of the drug in powder form.7. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.2. 2. 2. Appendix 4 per cent.3. carpophore split.L.

Segata. Shewgachi pane Sajana. parenchymatous cells. Bahala. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. oval to elliptical. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. pericycle forming a broken ring. Tishnagandha.5-1 cm wide. elliptic. Muringa. odour and taste not distinct. Nugge ele -Murinna. commonly cultivated throughout the country. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. thickened.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Sajna. Rachis . parenchymatous cells. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex.) Gaertn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. palisade single layered. a small or medium sized tree. Muringa Elai Sevaga.69. Syn. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. pith and phloem parenchyma. (Fam. Moringaceae).Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Mocaka -Sajina. Mungna Neegge. Leaflet . Shigru (Lf. and articulated at the base. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaflet 1. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. Segata pana. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. slender. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. entire. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. AkÀ¢va. Sekato. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. vascular bundle collateral. thin walled. central region 163 b) Microscopic . ovate or obovate. found wild in sub Himalayan tract.2-2 cm long and 0. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Munga.

0.2. vein islets number 50-65.0. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.87 (blue).26. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. spiral vessels. 0.94 (violet).05. Appendix per cent. 0. Protein. 2. Appendix per cent.94 (yellow) in visible light. 0.18.C. V¡tahara.69 (blue) and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.69 (yellow).occupied by a crescent-shaped. IDENTITY.46 (both blue). Sirovirecaka 164 . 0.2. K¤mihara. present on both surface but more on lower sur face.Carbohydrate. Medohara.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.46 (all red) & 0.53 (yellow). 0. B ¤Æhana. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. 2. áukra N¡¿aka. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.6. Appendix 2. 0. (all green). 0. CONSTITUENTS .18. 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.82 (yellow) and 0.52 (green).36 (green).30 (pink). 2. 0.26. 0. Powder -Greyish-green.05.2. Appendix per cent. 0.V. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.2. Appendix per cent.26 (all green). 0. palisade ratio 6-11.38. Carotene and Ascorbic acid.7. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. 0. stomata anornocytic.2. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. RukÀa.05.46 (dark green) & 0.46 (green). 0. palisade cells.20. 0. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. Under U.2. T. 0. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya.36 (yellowish green). Pittahara.36.94 (blue).L. 0.3.4. 2.59 (blue). 0.

Vidradhi.Ratnagiri Rasa.10 . ViÀatinduka Taila. 165 . Gulma. Galaga¸·a. Medoroga.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Pl¢haroga.áopha. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE .

radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. Sthulaela (Sd. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. (Fam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. thin walled. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho.. thin-walled. brown to dark brown. odour. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. parenchymatous cells.) Zingiberaceae). aromatic. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. perispenn encloses the 166 . perisperm consists of polygonal. Beraelam. taste. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. membraneous aril.4 cm long.70. sclerenchymatous. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3 cm wide. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. 0. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. spicy pungent. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb.

Appendix 4 per cent. 2. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. H¤ll¡sa. Powder .6.3. Appendix 1.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. K¡sa. DOSE .2. T¤À¸¡. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. simple. Appendix 14 per cent. Mukharoga. V¡tahara. Note . 2. Ka¸·u. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.7. Mukha¿odhaka. 2. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.4.(Seed).2. thin-walled. (Seed). THERAPEUTIC USES . both composed of polygonal. shows fragments of testa. oil globules. of the drug in powder form. perisperm cells. Appendix 5 per cent. 167 .2.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole).5 -1 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. rich in protein. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. thin-walled. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. RukÀa.áv¡sa.10 CONSTITUENTS . rounded to oval. Rocaka. Tikta Laghu.0.Light brown. IDENTITY. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. Appendix 2. 2.2. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.endosperm and embryo. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. polygonal. Kaphahara. Chardi.5 per cent.S¡rivady¡sava. 2.

small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. brownish. Z. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. phloem fibres thickwalled. Tumburudra. external surface pale brown. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. Tumbura. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Tejovati (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. (Fam. parenchymatous cells. Syn. rather deeply furrowed.2 cm thick. fracture. light yellow to pale brown. internal surface smooth. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. Thumbooni. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. armed with long. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. lignified.) Roxb.71.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. stone cells found in 168 . short. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. thin-walled. aromatic pungent. odour. Rutaceae). thick-walled cells. Jimmi.Bk. aromatic.1-0. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri.0. stem and branches. taste. sharp prickles.

Aruci.Yellowish-brown. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). P¡cana.3. Powder . Ëmav¡ta.75 . Mukharoga. of the drug for decoction.7. Appendix 8. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. a Volatile Oil and Resin. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. áv¡sa. round and oval measuring 2.2.6. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. Kaphahara.2. aseptate fibres. starch grains round and oval.75 . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. 2. oil globules and starch grains.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent. Hikk¡.75 µ in diameter. DOSE .13. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. 2.5 per cent.13. shows fragments of cork cells. Rucya. 169 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 13 per cent.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Appendix 1.10-20 g.2. Appendix 12 per cent. 2. stone cells.75 µ in diameter.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. measuring 2. K¡sa. 2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.4.2. Medhya. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. IDENTITY.

Thulasi. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. violet internally. herbaceous. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. aromatic. petiole thin. found throughout the country. woody. branched. obtuse or acute. Shree Tulasi.Erect. Tulasi (W. pubescent. odour. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi.P. characteristic. annual herb. Lamiaceae). pedicels longer than calyx. hairy. Leaf . soft. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. sub quadrangular. Stem .2 cm wide. about 1.5-3 cm long hairy. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡.3.2.Purplish or crimson coloured.72.60 cm high. taste. odour faintly aromatic. Flower . coloured. wiry. entire or serrate.5-5 cm long 1. lower lip 170 . branched. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. shortly apiculate. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn.) an erect. small in close whorls. (Fam. pubescent on both sides. elliptic oblong. hairy. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. internally cream. externally purplish-brown to black.6 . Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. slender.Thin. much branched. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. 30 . K¤À¸atulas¢. fracture. blackish-brown externally and pale.

rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. parenchymatous cells. round to oval polygonal. fibres and parenchyma.A group of 4 nutlets. 0. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. fibres with pointed ends. pitted with pointed ends. pungent. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. mucilaginous when soaked in water. elongated. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. filled with brown content. Leaf- Petiole . thin-walled. slightly compressed. b) Microscopic Root . pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. pubescent. fibre tracheides. taste. xylem surrounded by phloem. Stem . thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. Fruit . odour. Midrib . 171 . thin-walled. pungent.Rounded to oval. occasionally a few cells collapsed. corolla about 4 mm long. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. slightly mucilaginous. long. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. thin-walled. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels.1 cm long. membranous. parenchymatous cells. phloem consisting of sieve elements. no odour.shows somewhat cordate outline. middle one larger than other two. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. aromatic. enclosed in an enlarged. vessels pitted. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. nearly smooth. measuring 22-27 in dia.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth.epidermis. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. pungent. taste. taste. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. slightly notched at the base. tracheids. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. xylem consists of vessels. odour. Seed . phloem consists of sieve elements. rectangular. aromatic. brown. in groups and rarely in singles. three vascular bundles situated centrally. glandular trichomes short. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. lateral two short and central two largest. veined calyx.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. each with one seed. vessels pitted. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. found scattered in phloem.

Appendix 1. value 0. Appendix 2.Lamina .2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. oil globules. Durgandhihara 172 . Rf.C.2.1.7. T.Greenish: shows thin-walled.minutes Under observation. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.C. a few containing reddish brown contents. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.15 . CONSTITUENTS . simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components.2. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.35. Pittavardhin¢. RukÀa.4. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. thin walled fibres. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . H¤dya.L. Appendix 4 per cent. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.6. Kaphahara. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .Essential Oil. Record Rf. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. IDENTITY.5 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. 2. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. rounded to oval. 2. Appendix 8 per cent. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. V¡tahara. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. Tikta.7. Powder . palisade ratio 3.3. parenchymatous cells. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.16 on lower surface. 2. On cooling spray. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.2. vein islet number 31 . Rucya.L.2. in thoroughly vanillin .8. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.

áv¡sa. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). Hikk¡. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Netraroga.A¿mar¢. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. K¡sa. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha. Chardi. 173 .1-3 ml of the drug in juice form.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

thin. rarely slightly reflexed at tip.73. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. an erect. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. taste. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2.5-3 cm long. 1. much branched annual herb. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. consisting of xylem and phloem.5-5 cm long. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. balloon-shaped head. Holy Basil Tulasi. and 2-8 celled. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. entire or serrate. found throughout the country.6-3. petiole 1. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. upper epidermis..shows cordate outline. measuring 22-27 µ dia. pubescent on both surfaces.) 30-60 cm high. aromatic. petiolate. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn.2 cm wide. glandular trichomes short. odour. hairy. elliptic-oblong. 174 b) Microscopic . consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. three vascular bundles situated centrally. (Fam. LeafPetiole . enclosed in a cuticular bladder. middle one larger than the other two. obtuse or acute. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. Tulasi (Lf. covering trichomes multicellular. Lamiaceae). Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. K¤À¸atulas¢. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. characteristic.

30. Powder .85 (blue).. Appendix per cent.12 (light green).93 (violet) and 0.33. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.L.3.33. 0.04. 0.08 (both green). 2. 0.8.C. palisade ratio 3. Appendix per cent. 0. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.75. IDENTITY. 0.L. 175 . 0.V.93 (all0 yellow). stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.2.03 (dark green). 0.98 (blue). 0.04.93 (both light green). 0. 0. vein islet number 31-33. 0.83 (all pink) 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.epidermis.12 (light violet).6. 0. T.54.45. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.2. anomocytic and diacytic stomata. 0.33 (violet). 0.85 & 0. 0.83. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Appendix per cent. 0.2.21 (brown). 0.2.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. 0.88 and 0. Lamina . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.45 (violet). 2.).45. Under U. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.C. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.21.7. Nerol and Camphene etc. 0.83 (blue).98 (blue).4. 0.12.04. CONSTITUENTS .Midrib . Caryophyllene.08. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.33 (both green) 0.93 (pink) & 0. 2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0. Appendix 2. 0.2.Light-green. shows fragments of polygonal.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.21. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. 0.2.54 (blue).08 (violet). 0. 0. 0. palisade and spongy parenchyma.45 (yellowish green). 0.75 (violet).

K¡sa. Tikta. Hikk¡. 176 . Pittahara. KuÀ¶ha. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . K¤miroga. V¡tahara. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa.Aruci. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa.2-3 g. áv¡sa. Prati¿y¡ya. H¤dya. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. RukÀa. Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form.

74. odour. large. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . taste. and 0. Ugr¡. Vekhandas -Varch. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. fracture. aromatic. upper side marked with alternately arranged. Gora-bach Baje. Rhizome . rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. (Fam. enclosing large air spaces. Vacha (Rz. pungent and bitter. Ghodvach Bach. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. smaller. buff coloured intemally. Araceae). broadly. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome.5-1. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents.5 cm thick. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. triangular. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes.Shows single layered epidermis. somewhat collenchymatous. thin-walled cells of various sizes. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. Ghodavaca Vasambu.) semiaquatic herb. short. cells towards periphery.

2.region.4. reticulate. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. endodermis distinct.3. Eugenol and Asarone).Buff coloured. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. 178 . Starch and Tannin.6. Petroleum ether-No change ii. Chloroform-Light green iii. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.2. Powder as such: .2. Powder .Yellowish-cream b. present in cortex and ground tissue. 2.L. Appendix per cent. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a..2. starch grains simple. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. shows fibres.2.2. Extracts in i. Appendix 2. spherical. CONSTITUENTS . 2.2. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. Appendix per cent. 2.14 (violet) and 0. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside).C. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. 0.10 T.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. stele composed of round. Appendix per cent.7.2.C.L.

2 g.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Medhya. Vibandha. áv¡sa. Unm¡da. V¡tahara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kar¸a Sr¡va. K¡sa.Vac¡di Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Ëdhm¡na. S¡rasvata. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. K¤mihara.á£la. Kaphahara. C£r¸a. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. 179 . Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Ka¸¶hya. 1. Apasm¡ra. Tikta Laghu. Sm¤ti daurbalya.

in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. without or with a few intercellular spaces. cartilaginous. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . thin-walled. rough due to root scars.) (Fam. Basanaag Bisa. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Bachhnaag. Vatsanabhi. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Vatsanabhi. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Vatsanabha.4 . taste.5 cm. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. perennial herb. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely.8 cm thick. papillose on outside. small portions of stem sometimes attached. Sth¡varaviÀa. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. ovoid. 0. tapering downwards to a point. rarely 5 cm long. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. poisonous. 2-4. suberised. fracture.1. Nabhi. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. Mahura. Ranunculaceae). odour indistinct. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Teliya Bish Basanalli. conical. dark brown to blackish-brown. plant is an erect. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. occasionally separated due to breakage. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. parenchymatous cells.75. Vatsanabha (Rt. roots are generally collected late in September. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. Beesh. Meethabisha. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Naabhi Bachnak. Mithalelia.

2.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. cambium having 6 10 angles. 2. Appendix 8 per cent. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.2.Light grey.C.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. occupying more than half the radius.2.56. ÙikÀ¸a.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. metaxylem vessels met in centre. Appendix 5. UÀ¸a. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.5 per cent. consisting of round to oval cells.7. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Laghu. Trid°Àahara. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. 0. 0. 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. Powder . Appendix 24 per cent. 2. xylem exarch. Viyav¡yi. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. present in cortical cells. T.20. a few aseptate fibres.10.39. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. 0.74 and 0. S £tasekhara Rasa. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions.4.96 (both orange).3. shows vessels.endodermis. IDENTITY. Sv®dala. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .2. Anandabhairava Rasa. 0.2. containing a few groups of phloem strands. Appendix 2 per cent. Appendix 2. 2. some scattered. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre.6.2. often forming 'V' shaped ring.C. inner bark parenchymatous. RukÀa. 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L.39 and 0.

V¡takaphajvara.THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvar¡tis¡ra. 182 .V¡taroga. DOSE . Kanharoga.15 . Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Sannip¡ta.

Nelagumbala. usually does not break. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size.76.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Bhumikusmanda. Eagio. Bhuikumra Vidari. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. (Fam. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. outer surface reddish-brown. Bhoikolu. starchy and somewhat porous. thinwalled. Fabaceae). -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. thin-walled cells.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. cut surface creamish-brown. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Vidari (Tub. Bhonykoru. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. Gumadi belli. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. but pliable. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. smooth except for protuberances at some places. sweetish.Rt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. stone cells moderately thick-walled. Nelagumbula. taste. Vid¡rik¡.

áoÀa. V¡tahara.2.and pits. 2. lignified with narrow lumen. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. Daurbalya.Marma Gu¶ik¡.75 µ in dia. fragments of cork. and also rarely in stone cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Var¸ya. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.3-6 g. Appendix 24 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. Pittahara. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a..13. having central hilum and striations.7. Stanyada. Ras¡yana. Appendix 4.6. of the drug in powder form. J¢van¢ya.2. Raktapitta. DOSE . Powder .Gluconic and Malic acids. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. 184 . present in all parenchymatous cells. 2. phloem fibres much elongated.5 . xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled.2.3. Manmath¡bhra Rasa.4.75 µ in dia. 2. M£trala. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). CONSTITUENTS . a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. Svarya. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.D¡ha. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. angular to oval. highly thickened. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.5 . Balya.5 per cent. radially elongated cells.2. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. Appendix 2. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta.2.13. Angmarda. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. 2. a few latex duct also present. distributed throughout this region. somewhat round. Appendix 17 per cent. measuring 5. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.Buff coloured.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. round to oval wavy walled cells. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. pale-greenish-yellow. oblong. cultivated chiefly in North India. smooth. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. erect herb. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. followed by 2-3 layers. spongy parenchymatous cells. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular.2-0. not distinct. taste. Jav Barley Cheno. Syn.77. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. thick-walled. about 1 cm long and 0. (Fam. sclerenchymatous fibres. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs.) Poaceae). polygortal inner epidermal cells. 50-100 cm high. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. seed coat appears as a colourless line. sweetish-acrid. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. an annual. Yava (Fr. elliptic. sativum Pers. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. H. square or quadrilateral. odour.3 cm wide. followed by more or less. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka.

24. Vitexin etc. round to oval. V¤Àya.C.4. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.2.31. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.83 and 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.83 (all violet) and 0.36.2.Creamish-white. Pittahara. V¡tak¤t. 0.65 & 0. M£trahara.narrow lumens.68. 0.22.2.56. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.5 2. starch grains simple. 0.3.) CONSTITUENTS . 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Kaphahara. Appendix 1. Appendix 4 per cent.5 per cent. 0. 0.7 T.06. 0.2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. Medahara. Sugars. 0. 0.C. Fats. 0. Proteins (Albumin. 2.5 per cent. Appendix 2. Var¸ya 186 . 0. and the rest starch layers.2.V. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. Lekhana. 0. 0. 0. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. 0. Svarya.68.22.L.31. sclerenchymatous fibres. Orientoside. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. endosperm divided into two zones.72 (all pink. Orientin. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.16.45. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.53.44. Sthairyakara. 2. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. 2.10. 0.92 (all grey). 0.6.2. 0.14. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. Appendix 5.Starch. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. 0. Pur¢Àak ¤t.L. Powder . Globulin. 2.10. IDENTITY. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.31.92 (yellow).5 per cent. simple starch grains.

Prameha. of the drug. Sarsap¡di Pralepa.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana.áv¡sa.100 . K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. K¡sa.200 g. Kanharoga. THERAPEUTIC USES . T¤À¸¡. El¡dya Modaka. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Dh¡nvantara Taila. 187 . Medoroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Gandharvahasta Taila. Urustambha. P¢nasa. Tvagroga DOSE .

yellowish-green to yellowish-brown.Simple. sharp axillary spines upto 3.) Fabaceae). (Fam. opposite. Stem . Javasa. Yavasaka (W. radially arranged cork cells. Neladangara. Punjab.7 cm broad. hard. Y¡sa. dark brown. glabrous. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. cork cambium single layered. ballidurabi.5-0. a small thorny shrub. glabrous. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb).1-1 cm thick. oblong. filled with reddish-brown contents. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. short.5-1 cm long. secondary cortex almost 188 . drooping.78.Cylindrical. 0. slightly rough at basal region with slender. Desv. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. 20-30 cm long and 0. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. Duralabha -Venkatithura.8 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . mucronate obtuse.P. extipulate. no taste and odour. stipules green. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. nearly 0. alternate. striate. terete. branched. secondary and tertiary root absent. gradually tapering. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. Leaf .Well developed. elliptical.2-1 cm thick. fracture.

Greenish-brown. 5. Lamina . some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. starch grains simple. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. tracheids and fibres. epidermis single layered. tracheids. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. hypodermis 2-3 layered. parenchyma and fibres. rounded to oval. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region.epidermis consisting of single layered cells.appears biconvex in outline. Stem . phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.5. parenchymatous cells. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle.75 µ in dia. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. 189 . rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. vascular bundle collateral. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. covered with cuticle. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. xylem consists of vessels. tracheids. fibres. filled with tannin. pith composed of a few thin-walled. 3-45 cells long. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. phloem composed of sieve elements. hypodermis 1-2 layered. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. phloem composed of sieve elements. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. thin-walled. angular. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends.absent.14. elongated. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. covered externally with thick cuticle. tanniniferous cells. xylem situated above phlome. pitted vessels. present throughout the region. Midrib . a few with thick wall and simple pits. some cells filled with tannin. filled with tannin.appears circular in outline. xylem fibres.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. tangentially elongated cells. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. Powder . consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. simple.75 µ in diameter. Leaf- Petiole . thin-walled. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin.5-14. xylem consists of vessels. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide.

2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 190 .2.2. Arimed¡di Taila.2. Kaphahara. Appendix 2 per cent.2. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Chardi. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.4. 2. Appendix 2. Tikta. 2. Visarpa DOSE . CONSTITUENTS . Jvara.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. Appendix 10 per cent.2. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent. Sucrose. T¤À¸¡. Appendix 13. V¡tarakta.7.50 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent. Raktapitta. Appendix 2. 2.Sugars (Melizitose. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.IDENTITY. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. D¢pana.6.20 . of the drug in powder form for decoction. Invert Sugars). K¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES .3.

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