THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.1.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.1.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2-Thermometers 1. 1.2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.Types of Stomata 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.2.2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.1.2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1.1 Testing Drugs 2.) Desv 177 1.2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.2.2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.2.2.4.2-Sieves 1.2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.5.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.3.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.1.1.1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.1.1-Sampling of drugs 2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.1.1.2.2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.1.

3 Limit Tests 2.3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.1.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.2.2-Refractive Index 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.3.3.3.2.1-Powder Fineness 2.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .1.Weights and Measures 5.3.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.

P. the Dangerous Drugs Act. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. Part-I. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. II. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. II would be official. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Vol. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). would be deemed to have been amended vii . Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Vol.I. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. accordingly. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. Vol. II. In general.). 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. Part-I.

as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Identity. Odour and Taste . scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. English.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). When the term “drop” is used. distribution and method of collection.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. viii .Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Weights and Measures . This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. Mesh Number . indicated in monograph. Introductory Para . if any. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. Hindi. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. substances or processes described in Appendix.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. Synonyms . Italics . If the odour persists to be discernible. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml).GENERAL NOTICES Title . unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . it is described as having odour.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. Purity and Strength . The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name.

Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. according to circumstances.C. sliminess. moisture content. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. acid-insoluble ash. ether-soluble extractive. pesticides. water. and show no abnormal odour.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1.In defining standards. if of equivalent accuracy. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. ix . even by applying known reference standards. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. Part-I. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement.g. pests. Constituents .L. micro-organisms. Standards . alcohol-soluble extractive. the expression per cent (%). groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. and Identity. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. Percentage of Solutions . mould or other evidence of deterioration.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. arsenic and heavy metals. those of definition of the part and source plants. Purity and Strength. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. and other animal matter including animal excreta. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. Constant Weight .0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. However. water-soluble ash.Under this head.) . statements appearing in the API. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. is used. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. colour. which he uses. under Description.For statutory purpose.soluble extractive. shall constitute standards. in 100 grammes of product. fungi. total ash. V. wherever given.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. The quantitative tests e. However. with one of the four meanings given below. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. Vol.

and dust particles. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.000 parts x . Statements of solubilities.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given.000 parts More than 10. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Solutions . such as fragment of filter papers.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. are intended to apply at that temperature. fibres.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius).56 oC. Percentage of alcohol . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. Solubility . Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Reagents and Solutions . it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Temperature . unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. thermometric scale. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. all solutions are prepared with purified water. at a stated temperature.

) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. cm. TS. Fam.5 N. Kg.I. PS. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. ml. µ. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. 0.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. IN. g. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. 0. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. l. 1M. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. Part –I and Part-II. mg.1 N. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m.P. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. mm. unless otherwise stated.

Assam. Wd. Tam. Rz. Lf. Rt. Ori. Wh. Tub. St. Bk. Mar. Punj. Mal. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Fr. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Beng. Guj.Sansk. Sd. xii . Pl. Ht. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Wd. Rt. Tel. St. Kan. Eng. Bk. Kash.

xylem fibres thick-walled. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. Asteraceae). Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. Akalakarabha. bark upto 3 mm thick. more and wider vessels found towards peripery.1. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. 53. an annual. not easily separable. 1. taste. Akallakara. brown. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro.2 . cylindrical. b) Microscopic Root . tapering slightly at both ends.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. elongated.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Akarakarabha (Rt. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Akravu Akkalakara.231 µ in 1 . a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. vessels pitted. 7-15 cm in length. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. cambium 2-5 layered. parenchymatous cells. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough.8 µ in width. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. Akarakara Akkaraka.37-28. characteristically astringent and pungent. external surface rough. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. odour. (Fam. slightly aromatic. shrivelled. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem.

5 -1 g. Appendix 8 percent.7. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .2. secondary phloem and medullary rays. áotha. ray cells thick-walled. Appendix 2. shows vessels having scalariform thickening.2. Appendix 10 percent. Svedakara. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.2. of the drug in powder form. Powder . Kaphahara. 2. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. á£laroga. secondary phloem.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). 2.0. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. Pittahara. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.2. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. Grdhras¢. D¢pana.Prati¿y¡ya.6. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. radially elongated. IDENTITY.2. secondary phloem and medullary rays.Kum¡ry¡sava. NaÀ¶¡rtava. 2. K¡sa.4.Ash coloured. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Appendix 2 percent. 2 . also gives positive tests for inulin. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. Buddhivardhaka. áukrala.length having narrow lumen. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. V¡jikara. CONSTITUENTS . running straight. Aj¢rna.2.3. áv¡sa. bi to tri and multiseriate. Udararoga. Danta¿£la DOSE . Appendix 22 percent. uniseriate rays very rare. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . medullary rays numerous.

Cream coloured. under this. Sailabhava. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. collapsed. Juglandaceae). parenchymatous cells.Shows 1-2 layered. broken pieces. not distinct.2. Cotyledon . oily sweet. thin-walled. endosperm mostly single layered. odour. radially elongated. followed by more or less compressed. Akshoda (Cotldn. creamish-brown. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. (Fam. Powder . small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. irregularly corrugated. parenchymatous cells. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. taste. coriaceous. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. thin-walled. slightly curved. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m.) large deciduous. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. 3 .

Appendix Not less than 10. 2.2.25 g. Kaphakara.4.2. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¤Àya.IDENTITY. 4 . Appendix Not more than 0.0 percent. B¤´ha¸a. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. 2. CONSTITUENTS .5 percent. Sara.3.Walnut oil and Tannin. DOSE .10 . H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Balya.2.6.7.KÀata. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. KÀaya.2. Appendix Not less than 7. ViÀ¶ambhi.2. 2.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. áukral. V¡taroga.0 percent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.

5 m in girth. non Gamble (Fam. laminated. mangifera Willd. grey having lenticels. a small aromatic. Ranambo Ambada. Syn.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Ambado. Kurz. Jangli Aam Ambate. Ambazham. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. external surface smooth. Stem Bark. deciduous tree. which are thick-walled towards periphery. S. a few outer cells exfoliated. Amra Indian Hog Plum. Ambadam Amratakamu. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. fracture. S. consisting of tangentially elongated. Amrata (St. and 5 . found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. Jangali Ambo. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. thin-walled cells.3.. Ranamba. curved. Wild Mango Ambeda. f. parenchymatous. Mampuiti. Amvara -Mampusli. upto 27 m high and 2.Bk. Anacardiaceae). tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. internal surface reddish-yellow. thin. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. Amra. Anbalamu. with reddish-brown contents. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. acuminata Roxb. radially arranged. Ambalam. parenchymatous cells.

round to oval starch grains measuring 2.2.5-10 g. V¡tahara. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. 2.96. Raktapitta.87 (all greyish brown).also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.40 and 0.C.L. Under U. shows cork cells. Appendix Not more than 0. 2.87 (blue) and 0. T. 0. 0. 6 .2.L. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. thick-walled. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . simple.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.(greyish brown).2.96 (blue). KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. lignified. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.33.7. Not more than 1 per cent.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.33.. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. IDENTITY. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara.5 per cent.C. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.Light brown. of the drug in powder form for decoction.V. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf.KÀata. KÀaya. Pittakara.3. D¡ha DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.2.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. Appendix 2. Rucik¤t. 2.4. 0.6. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. 0. Ka¸¶hya. CONSTITUENTS . stone cells.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. 2. Powder .75-14 µ in dia.

0 cm in thickness. Leaf . bracteate with two bracteoles. hollow when dry. opposite. 7 . wavy margin. opposite. secondary and tertiary roots present. the perianth lobes. membranous.3 .P. subsessile.0. obovate. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. not distinct. stamens 5.5 cm in cut pieces. decussate. gradually tapering. (Fam.Simple.9 m high herb. exstipulate. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure.) Amaranthaceae). PratyakpuÀpa. Flower . yellowish-brown. May£raka. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs.Cylindrical tap root. filament short. numerous. two celled.4. 0.free. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. actinomorphic. erect. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. dorsifixed. greenish-white. perianth segments 5. erect. Kharamaµjar. yellowish-brown.1-1. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .3-0. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. hypogynous. bisexual. one spine lipped. a stiff. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. contorted or quincuncial. Stem . sessile.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. hairy. Apamarga (W. cylindrical. rough due to presence of some root scars. anther. 0. solid. branched.0. slightly ribbed.

cortex 6-10 layered. thin-walled. fibres being absent. ovary superior. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. thin-walled cork cells. 3-4 celled stalk. Seed . pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres.gynoecium bicarpellary. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous.Shows a single layered epidermis.Sub-cylindric. lignified. perianth and bracteoles. on both surfaces. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. b) Microscopic Root . single. present in pith. style. syncarpous. brown. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. unilocular with single ovule. xylem composed of usual elements. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. truncate at the apex. epidermis single layered. Fruit . which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. 2-5 celled. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. thin-walled cork cells. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. cortical and pith cells.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. composed of parenchymatous cells. oval to rectangular. two medullary bundles. vessels annular. capitate. followed 8 . cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. rectangular. tangentially elongated. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. LeafPetiole . either separate throughout or found in some cases. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. fibres pitted. parenchymatous cells. vessels simple pitted. Stem . parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin layers of cambium. endospermic. elongated. round at the base. spiral. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. scalariform and pitted. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. demarcating the xylem rings. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. stigma. Midrib .Shows crescent-shaped outline.

Shows single layered.20-50 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . non-lignified cells. slightly elongated in upper.Light yellow. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.6.á£la. 9 . stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. rectangular. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.2. P¡cana.7. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra.3.5-9. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. 2. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. V¡tahara. scalariform and pitted thickening. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. spiral. vessels with annular.2.0-20. Ar¿a. Udara Roga. 2. 2. V¡maka. Medoroga DOSE .2. palisade ratio 7.0-11. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. mm. Kaphahara. Powder . Medohara.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. aseptate fibres. Gu·apippali.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. 9. Lamina . Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Chedana. of the drug for decoction. Tikta Sara.0 on upper surface. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. IDENTITY. Ka¸·u.4. shows fragments of elongated. stomatal index 4. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.2. Apac¢.0 on lower surface. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. thin-walled epidermal cells. Appendix 2. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.

phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. vessels pitted with oblong. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. lightbrown. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. Fabaceae). a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. bitter. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. very long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. cylindrical.5. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. Aparajita (Rt. fracture. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. colour. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. a few showing slit-like pits. a few solitary fibres also present.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. 1-5 mm in thickness. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. taste. polygonal. (Fam. b) Microscopic Root . medullary 10 .Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. fibrous. thin-walled. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches.

79 (both yellow). Resin. 2.2. 2. KuÀ¶ha. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. ViÀahara. 0. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. Kaphahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. oblong and pitted.79 (grey). Buddhiprada. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.2. of the drug in powder form. shows simple and compound starch grains. 2.7. Powder . Pittahara. Vra¸a DOSE . áotha. Under U. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.Mi¿raka Sneha.54 and 0.2. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. CONSTITUENTS . (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. T. Tikta. 0. V¡tahara.1 . 0.á£la.6.Tannin.3. M£traroga. 2.V..Yellowish-brown.2..3 g.C. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. 0. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. phloem and xylem parenchyma. 11 .L. Medhya.C. Appendix 2. found in secondary cortex.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.L.2. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia.79 (blue). Starch.rays 1-5 cells wide.2.4.

isodiametric. 1.Shows a few layered.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. tangentially elongated. fracture. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. pungent Rhizome . (Fam. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. thin-walled. odour. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. Ardraka (Rz. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. lakottai.) Zingiberaceae). colourless. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. taste. short with projecting fibres. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells.5-6.6. pieces 5-15 cm long.5 cm thick. each having a depressed scar at its apex. Inji Allamu. widely cultivated in India. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. reaching up to 90 cm in height. irregularly arranged. Adrak Injee. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. gingery. buds and roots are removed and washed well. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . oblique branches on upper side. Allam. radially arranged cells of inner cork. Ale -Adi.

polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 0. reticulate and spiral vessels. Appendix 2.3.2. larger bundles consists of 2. 0. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. 0. Powder -Light yellow. greater number occurring in inner cortical region.63 (grey) & 0.2.08 (violet). 2. collateral.35.9 T. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.69. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.2.. vessels showing reticulate. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.69 (all light yellow).2. walls of oil cells suberised. 0. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. conjoint. 0.92 (all yellow). 0. 2. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. Appendix 90 per cent.2.l6 (brownish violet). isodiametric cells of parenchyma.L.03. Appendix 2 per cent.16. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.13. 0. Appendix 1 per cent.16 (blue). 0.16. numerous closed. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. elongated pits on their walls. Under U.2. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. vessels 2-5 in number.2. 0. 0. Appendix 5 per cent.6. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. endodermis single layered. 0. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. CONSTITUENTS . 13 .C.63 & 0.7. 0.69 (grey).dia.63. 0.08.47.47 (light violet).35. 2. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.83 & 0. 0.35 (light violet). filled with abundant starch grains. composed of xylem. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.7 vessels. 2. oleo-resin cells abundent. 0. free from starch. IDENTITY.63 (light violet). 0.5 per cent. 0. 0. small cells of sieve tube.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. fibrovascular bundles of two types. septate fibres with oblique. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. 2.V.92 (violet).C. 0.L.76 (violet) & 0. Appendix 8 per cent. phloem. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.69 (light violet). and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. 0.4.76. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.

Ka¸tharoga. RukÀa. H¤dya. Ën¡ha. Rocana.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Vibandha. DOSE . áopha. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. V¡tahara. Kaphahara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. Svarya. Bhedana.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey.á£la. V ¤Àaya. 14 . THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes.5-1 cm thick. Pilobaval. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. Sadabala -Haramibaval. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. square to rectangular cells. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. incurved. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda.7. Fabaceae). not distinct. thinwalled cortical cells. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. phloem fibres thin-walled. parenchyma. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. fibres and crystal fibres. with tapering 15 .) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. stone cells and phloem cells. Arimeda (St. hard. characteristic of dry regions. all traversed by medullary rays. lignified. consisting of sieve elements. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. odour and taste. fracture. fibrous. (Fam. secondary phloem wide. rough. Velvelam. exfoliating in irregular scales. upto 3 m in height. internally light brown to reddish-brown.Bk. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

ViÀajavra¸a. fibres. Powder .40 g for decoction.78 and 0. 0. 0.2.2.n-Hexacosanol. Appendix 2.39 and a spot at Rf.4.2. shows groups of cork cells. Appendix 14 per cent. composed of thin-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. P¡¸·u. sclereid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.2.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). 2. Appendix 11 per cent. Visarpa.Reddish-brown. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . Udardapra áamana DOSE .L. Appendix 1 per cent.3.0 to 0.3-5 g in powder form. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . crystal fibres elongated. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. 2.2.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. Meda¿oÀaka. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·u.7. 16 . On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.6. Appendix 13 per cent.2.e.0.LC. K¡sa. IDENTITY. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.91 (yellow). 2. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. Dantaroga. β -Amyrin. Atis¡ra. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .69 (grey) is seen in visible light. 0 to 0. 2. radially elongated cells. Meha.91 (both blue). K¤mi. Mukharoga.áopha.39 and a spot at Rf.ends. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. T.C.

inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. curved. in the middle and outer phloem region. taste. Arjuna (St. traversed by phloem rays. Torematti Arjuna. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces.5 cm thick. a large deciduous tree. short in inner and laminated in outer part. fracture. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. Sajada Arjuna Matti. recurved. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. Mattimora. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. Arjuna. 0. Bilimatti. bitter and astringent. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . Neermatti. (Fam. flat. channelled to half quilled. P¡rtha. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu.& A.8. companion cells. Vellamaruthi. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10.2-1. Mathichakke. Kellemasuthu.Bk. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country.) Combretaceae). usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. consisting of sieve tubes. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.

a few rhomboidal crystals..3-6 g. Appendix 1 per cent. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. KÀatakÀaya. elliptic. IDENTITY. shows fragments of cork cells. 2. 2. round to oval.2. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. 4-12 cells high.Reddish-brown. starch grains. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. alata). 2. Vra¸an¡¿ana. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Arjuna Gh¤ta.3. Appendix 25 per cent. round to oval. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a.2. elliptical. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. 18 . uniseriate phloem rays. Kaphahara. H¤dya. mostly simple.4.7.6. alternating with fibres.2. Vya´ga.2. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Prameha. fibres.Medoroga.2. 2.. Appendix 20 per cent. Vra¸a. H¤droga. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form. T¤À¡. µ Powder ..in dia. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate.2. DOSE . having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. compound of 2-3 components. Appendix 20 per cent. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. starch grains simple and compound. sometimes upto 5 components.

30-40 layers thick. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. Nallajidiginga Baladur. smooth. shining with residual receptacle. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. 19 . mesocarp a very broad zone. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. Scramkotati Nallajidi. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. drupaceous.) Anacardiaceae). nut 2. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles.9. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. dark brown. Bhallataka (Fr. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened.5-3 cm long. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. obliquely ovoid. Fruit . mesocarp and endocarp. (Fam.

2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Part-I 20 . Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. DOSE .4.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. being highly thickened.6. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).I. Krimi. Graha¸¢. Appendix 5 per cent. Note . insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.2. KuÀ¶ha. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. innermost prismatic. ether. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. chloroform. 2.1. Appendix 4 per cent. very much elongated radial walls.5 per cent. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. Appendix 2.2. Appendix 0.. P¡cana.2 g..Ar¿a. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former.2. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Ka¶u.2. 2. IDENTITY. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. Kaphahara. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Bhedi. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. 2.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.F.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Tikta. Snigdha.3. Chedi. Powder .7. Appendix 11 per cent. 2. CONSTITUENTS .Dark-brown. Gulma. V¡tahara. Ën¡ha.

white. Gurugada. erect or prostrate. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. lanceolate. Bhringaraja (W. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. together on unequal axillary peduncles. Flower .5 cm long. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. Tekar¡ja. Bhangro Bhangara. strigose with oppressed hairs.Herbaceous. Kesari -Bhangaro.2 .P. sub-entire. obtuse or acute.Opposite. Keshavardhana.8. greenish. rough due to oppressed white hairs. Leaf . upto about 7 mm in dia. ray flowers ligulate. not toothed. Bhringiraja.10. spreading. sub-acute or acute. herbaceous. 30 . Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk.2 . Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. ovate. Asteraceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. Stem .Solitary or 2. Bh¤´ga. 1. occasionally brownish. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. cylindrical. Kesuriya.2. disc flowers 21 . (Fam.50 cm high. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. often rooting at nodes. much branched. Karisalanganni. occasionally rooting at nodes.) herbaceous annual. 2. node distinct. involucral bracts about 8. greyish.Well developed. cylindrical or flat. sessile to subsessile.3 cm wide. branched. Karisalai Guntakalagara. Soppu. scarcely as long as bracts. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Knnunni Bhangra. usually oblong. M¡rkava. a number of secondary branches arise from main root.. strigosely hirsute. ligule small.

epidermis followed by cortex. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. 0.2 .cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. traversed by xylem rays. covered with striated cuticle. tangentially elongated cells. epidermis followed by wide cortex.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. 1-5 celled. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. ray cells pitted. pitted. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. in macerated preparation vessels small. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. vessels numerous. Seed . stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. xylem composed of vessels. with very pointed tips.25 cm long. covered with warty excrescences. simple. found scattered throughout wood. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . unilocular with one basal ovule. uniseriate. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. trichomes of two types. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. one seeded.tubular. b) Microscopic Root .Achenial cypsella. dark brown. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. Leaf- Petiole . stamen 5. phloem rays broader towards periphery. ovary inferior. rarely slightly oblique. run straight in tangential section. Fruit . pistil bicarpellary. corolla often 4 toothed. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. fibre tracheids. fibres and xylem parenchyma.0. hairy and non endospermic. brown. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls.0. pappus absent. fibre tracheids. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. drum-shaped. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. xylem ray distinct. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. filaments epipetalous. consisting of rounded cells.1 cm wide. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. and with pointed apical cell.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. Midrib . free. cuneate. warty. non-glandular. externally covered with cuticle. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. with a narrow wing. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs.

Stem . xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. more abundant on lower surfaces. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. hairs stiff.5. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. some elongated with simple perforations. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. collateral. secondary cortex composed of large. uniseriate. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. pitted with spiral thickening. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. warty. middle cells longest. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. about 3 celled. externally covered with cuticle. the cork where formed. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells.0-22. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. peg-like outgrowth. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents.collenehymatous cells on both sides. while the section cut at apical region. xylem fibres with wide lumen.5 -26. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. pericyclic fibres distinct. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. palisade ratio 3. vascular bundles in a ring. normally biseriate and uniseriate.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. epidermis single layered. 23 . middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. arranged in tangential strands. endarch.8 -4.5 on upper and 23. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. septa thick-walled. pointed. stomatal index 20. wide at the base. pointed tips and pitted walls. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls.0 on lower surface. Powder . trichomes entire or in pieces. similarly transverse section cut at a basal.shows a dorsi ventral structure. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. externally covered with cuticle. Lamina . section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. xylem consists of large number of vessels. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells.Dark green.

Kaphahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.3. 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana. ViÀahara. 2. DOSE .3 . K¡sa. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. of the drug in powder form for decoction.36 g.6.7. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Dantya. Yak¤droga. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Ëmahara. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.4. Tekar¡ja marica.2. áirah á£la. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. 2.IDENTITY. 12 .2. Tvacya. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.6 ml of the drug in juice form. H ¤droga. CONSTITUENTS .2. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. Tikta RukÀa. P¡¸·u. CakÀusya. K¤miroga. V¡tahara.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. 24 .Alkaloids.áotha. Ke¿ya. áv¡sa. 2.

Flower . decussate. Scrophulariaceae). slightly bitter. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi.) Wettst. green or purplish green.11. wiry. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. small.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢.B. branched creamish-yellow. slightly bitter. pedicels 6-30 mm long. opposite. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi.Thin. taste. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 1-2 cm long. a glabrous.Capsules upto 5 mm long. axillary and solitary. found throughout India in wet and damp places. green. Stem . Brahmi. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu.) H. sessile. Leaf . Fruit . taste. Brahmi (W.Small. soft. about 1-2 mm thick. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. succulent. Syn. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. obovate-oblong. glabrous.Thin. (Fam.Simple. prostrate or creeping annual herb. 25 .& K. small. Ondelaga. nodes and internodes prominent.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Valabrahmi. ovoid and glabrous.P.

0 µ in dia. simple.2. endodermis single layered.2.Shows a single layer of epidermis. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers.7. Appendix per cent. ËyuÀya. Ras¡yana.0-14. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. 2. V¡tahara.3. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. 2. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath.2. 2. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces.6.Root . endodermis single layered. glandular hairs. and 8. b) Microscopic 26 . present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. Svarya. cortex having large air cavities. glandular hairs sessile. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre.5-9. round and oval starch grains. round to oval. starch grains simple.Yellowish-brown. Stem . IDENTITY.4.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. respectively. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Appendix per cent. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Tikta. Medhya. Powder . shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. pericycle not distinct. ViÀahara. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Praj¡sth¡pana.2. no distinct midrib present. 2.. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. vascular ring continuous.0 x 2. Appendix per cent. Matiprada. Appendix 2.

M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . Ratnagiri Rasa. Prameha. THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.KuÀ¶ha. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.1-3 g in powder form. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. áopha. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. 27 . Jvara. P¡¸·u.

parenchyma and stone cells. no distinct odour and taste. Heggulla.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. Brihati (Rt. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. fracture.5 cm in dia. phloem parenchyma much abundant. b) Microscopic Root . pale yellowish-brown. Solanaceae). a number of secondary roots and their branches present. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. short and splintery. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. varying greatly in shape and size. Papparamulli. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. Badikateri Kirugullia. traversed by phloem rays. cylindrical. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region.12.. oval and tangentially elongated cells. a very prickly.8 m high. (Fam. thin-walled. Chichuriti.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars.15 layers of thin-walled.9 layers of thin-walled. 1-2. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. ribbed. tangentially elongated. secondary cortex composed of 5 . much branched perennial under shrub. upto 1. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Ubhibharingani. woody. cork cambium single layered. long. Putirichunda Dorli. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 .

thick-walled. IDENTITY.2. Appendix Not more than 6. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. xylem rays uni to biseriate. all elements being lignified.5 -11.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.6 µ in diameter.10-20 g. measuring 5. 2.2. P¡cana. aseptate fibres. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. áv¡sa. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays.2.Cream coloured. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. 29 . measuring 5.6 µ in diameter.11. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.2. of the drug for decoction. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. 2.3. V¡tahara.. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. 2. traversed by xylem rays.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. H¤droga. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Jvara.á£la.6.7. phloem and medullary rays.5 . Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .2. H¤dya.4.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Agnim¡dya. Kaphahara. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. parenchymatous cells. vessels with simple pits. rounded to oval starch grains.2. tracheids. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. shows groups of thin-walled.5 per cent. cells radially elongated and pitted. DOSE . 2. Appendix 2. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. Powder .

(Fam. acrid. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Chavya (St. Syn. Chavya -Kattumulaku. fleshy climber. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam.13. brownish cells. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. odour. a glabrous.0 cm in width. thin-walled. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. officinarum DC. Piperaceae). taste. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. cork cambium not distinct. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. short.5-2. fracture. chaba Hunter non Blume. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. b) Microscopic Stem . tracheid. secondary cortex a wide zone. greyish-brown. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . oval to rectangular.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. cylindrical and somewhat twisted.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. plenty of simple starch granules present. consisting of round. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. P. peppery. P. cultivated mainly in Southern India. nodes and internodes distinct. fibres and xylem parenchyma. endodermis single layered.

Alkaloids. medullary rays multi seriate.2.4. CONSTITUENTS . Udara Roga.2. Appendix 2. 2. cells thin walled. round to oval.2. starch grains. Ën¡ha.7.5 per cent. 2.2.Greyish-brown.3. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent. fibres needle and spindle-shaped.Ar¿a. IDENTITY. Gulma.1-2 g. filled with simple. shows fragments of vessels. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Krimi. Kaphahara.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡.2. 2. 31 .6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. Appendix 3 per cent. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. THERAPEUTIC USES . fibres and simple. of the drug in powder form. Recana.pitted and reticulate thickenings. Glycosides and Steroids. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 1. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. 2.2. Powder . RukÀa. P¡cana. D¢pana. round to oval starch grains. Pl¢h¡ Roga. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . á£lal DOSE .

parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified.5-0. containing a few oil globules. Seed . Punicaceae). Maadalai.6 cm long.Reddish-brown. endosperm absent.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. triangular and rectangular. round. 0. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. 32 . and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.14. consisting of oval to polygonal. taste. angular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. oval. Dadima (Sd. simple.2 cm wide. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. Powder . thin walled. sweetish-sour.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. starch grains present in testa. cotyledons coiled. parenchymatous cells. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. round to oval. Madalam Danimma Anar. wedge-shaped. found growing wild in the warm valley. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. LohitapuÀpa. outer hills of Himalayas between 900.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. (Fam. oil globules. beneath this. shows stone cells. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. 0.1-0.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

3-0. 1-2. taste. 10 dentate with a villous throat. Inflorescence . about 2-3.P. glabrous in lower part. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. corolla. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. slightly bitter.25 cm long.16.Yellowish-green. serrate. Gumma. (Fam. nodes and internodes distinct. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . globose. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. more or less pubescent. long with numerous wiry. taste. tubular.Light greenish-yellow. crowded in dense. Leaf . ovate or ovate. fine rootlets.5 cm across. erect. surface rough. zig-zag. 1-2.6-0. taste. thin.7-2 cm 37 . smooth. size variable. white.35 cm wide. fibrous. Stem . scaberulous. quadrangular with four prominent furrows.lanceolate. subacute.Sessile. stout herb. 3-9 cm long. acute. an annual. lanceolate. crenate.) Lamiaceae). Dronapushpi (W. fracture. slightly curved. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. ciliate. 1. white. hairy on upper part.5 cm long and 0. upto 4 mm thick.Cylindrical. hairy.9 m in high.2-1. pungent. about 0. characteristic. 1. calyx.5 cm wide.

shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. endoderm is single layered. trigonous. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. consisting of barrel shaped.tangentially elongated. vessels long with spurs. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Fruit .1 cm wide. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. some having simple pits. irregular. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled cells. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. secondary xylem consists of vessels. lateral lobes small. palisade single layered. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled.3 cm long and 0. thin-walled cells. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. thin-walled.vascular bundle arc-shaped. Leaf- Petiole . Seed . bilipped. followed by round to oval parenchyma. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. parenchymatous cells. upto 8 cells high. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. xylem consists of vessels. vascular bundles 4.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular.Schizocarpic carcerule. consists of a single layered epidermis. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root . nutlets 3 mm smooth. brown. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis.0. oblong. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. wooly. cortex consisting of single layered. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. smooth. upper lip about 4 mm long. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Stem .long. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. Midrib . thin-walled 38 . secondary cortex 5-9 layered. present in centre. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. composed of oval to rectangular.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. tracheids. tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. 4 .shows a single layered epidermis. dark brown. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. Lamina . round to angular collenchyma. tracheids.7 layered.

β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.6. Tamaka áv¡sa. Appendix 2. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .áotha. ViÀamajvara DOSE . Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. 2. 2. a few veins present in this region.cells.3.2. K¡sa. Lava¸a. Glycoside. 16.Dull yellow. RukÀa.Alkaloid. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.7. pitted and spiral vessels.4. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. aseptate fibres. IDENTITY. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Agnim¡ndya. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. CONSTITUENTS . Pittakara.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. V¡takara. 39 .7 on upper surface.6-30. stomata diacytic. 2.5 on lower surface. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.2. Bhedani. Powder .2.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. Ka¶u Guru.2.6-40. palisade ratio 7-9.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. present on both surfaces. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. stomatal index 16. K¡mal¡.

taste. Hastipani. C. more or less ellipsoid.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. cotyledons two. Karka¶¢. 0. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. an annual creeping herb. sweetish oily. 0. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. 40 . Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. thin-walled. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. straight. radially elongated to squarish. glossy. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. surface smooth. mesophyll cells thinwalled. Vellarika Kakadi. cultivated in many parts of the country. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. Hastipani. creamish-yellow. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. rounded and tangentially elongated. shows stone cells. (Fam. -Kakur. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. Cucurbitaceae).4 cm wide. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. covered with thick cuticle. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells.17. B¤hatphala.7-10 cm long. parenchymatous. utilissimus Roxb. Ervaru (Sd. parenchymatous cells.3-0.

On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .3. V¡takara.L.97 (all grey).On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.0. 2. 0.83.83.0.19.D¡ha.V.2.2. 0.35. T.C. THERAPEUTIC USES . RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. Appendix 5 per cent.35.58. 0.51.7. 0. 0.Oil & Sugars. A¿mar¢.64.19.91 and 0.4.91 (blue) under U.2.77. T¤À¸¡. Kaphakara. Gulma. 0. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Appendix 10 per cent.64. Appendix 2.97 (all yellow) . 2.3-6 g.91 and 0. 0.6.L. Rucya.26. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.77.2. D¢pana. 0. (366 mm). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Appendix 0.0. 2. 0. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 4 per cent. 41 . 0.IDENTITY.5 per cent. Tikta Guru.26. 0.C. Raktapitta.58. Jvara. 0. 0. 0. Pittahara.2.2. 2. RaktadoÀakara.51. of seeds. 0.

(Fam. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. shiny. rough and scaly.5 cm thick. thin-walled.0-3. odour and taste not disticnt. odour and taste not distinct. Orissa. Araceae).0-3. Gajapippali (Fr.4 cm wide. 42 .0 cm in diameter and 2. cut surface has a central core. smooth. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal.3-0. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.6 cm long. 0. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. Seed . b) Microscopic Fruit . Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . a large epiphytic climber. brownish-grey.18. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a.Shows more or less loosely arranged. greyish-brown with a dent.Kidney-shaped.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. 0.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried.4-0.

Pras¡ri¸i Taila. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.C.27. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. V¡tahara. Agnivardhaka.áiv¡gutik¡.65 and 0.Dark brown. áv¡sa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. Appendix T. Ka¸¶hya.6. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¤miroga. 0. 0. 0.65. oval to polygonal. Three spots appear at Rf. shows lignified. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. oval to polygonal.20.Seed . On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Ka¸ha Roga.27.73 and 0. thin-walled. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.93 (all yellow).3. 0. 0.2. Malavi¿oÀana.2. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. DOSE . 2. pitted and with concentric striations.65. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. Kaphahara. 2-4 layered. IDENTITY. 2. Stanya. oval to polygonal. 0. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.73 (both light brown) and 0.2. 0.73 and 0. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.2. 43 .Atis¡ra. in extract (Phant) form.4. Sugars & Fixed Oil.7.L.V. 2. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. T.5 per cent. Punarnav¡sava. thick-walled. 2. 0.65.Shows a single layered. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. thick-walled.2-3 g. Powder . THERAPEUTIC USES .2.C.L. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. non-lignified.93 (brown).2.Glucosides viz.93 (all blue) are visible.

tangentially elongated. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . 0. parenchymatous cells.4-0. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. seed coat thin. (Fam. ovoid. taste.6 cm wide. cotyledons consisting of single layered. light yellow. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. thin-walled cells. crinkled. papery. surface smooth. Sr¢par¸¢.Seed ovate. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. Verbenaceae).A drupe. fleshy mesocarp. Seed . 1. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Fruit . P¢takarohi¸¢. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. two seeded. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. radially 44 . sweetish sour. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. oily.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. black. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha.5-1 cm long.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed.) unarmed tree. 0.19.5-2. Hannu -Kumbil. parenchymatous cells. Seed . sometimes one seeded. Gambhari (Fr. taste. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. multilayered.0 cm long. Shivani. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. K¡¿marya.

Pittahara. H¤dya. 0.12. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.98 (all yellow). 0.2. Rakta Pitta DOSE .2.98 (all blue).22.03. 0. T¤À¸¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Ke¿ya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Medhya. 0. 0.98 (orange).7.98 (yellow) in visible light. 45 .V. Appendix 8 per cent.2. oil globules and aleurone grains.Butyric acid. H¤droga. Appendix 2. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.26.2.18. Tartaric acid. KÀata. 2. Powder .6.03.C. Appendix 0. T. Sara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. Resin and Saccharine.L. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 25 per cent. Ras¡yana. KÀaya.3.4 per cent. 0. of the drug in powder form. shows stone cells.C. 0. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.4. M£trak¤cchra. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. IDENTITY.D¡ha.1-3 g.93 and 0.2.elongated epidermal cells. Appendix 6 per cent. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. Amla.2.. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. Under U. V¡tahara. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.94 and 0. 2.L. 2.Blackish-brown.Arvind¡sava. Alkaloid. KaÀ¡ya Guru.08. 0. 0.42.52.

a few stone cells.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. light yellow.Shows a wide cork. a shrub 0. secondary cortex wide.. traversed by wide phloem rays. channelled.20. moderately large in size. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.6-1.5-5 cm long. thin-walled. radially arranged cells. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . arranged in radial groups.) Aschers & Schwf. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. blunt tips and moderately long in size. mucilaginous. 46 .0 m high. parenchymatous cells. Syn. consisting of tangentially elongated. external surface smooth. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. rectangular. fibrous. elliptical. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. fibrous. Gangeru (St. fracture. 1.Bk. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. Grewia populifolia Vahl. thick-walled. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. oval. consisting of 12-20 layered. taste. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. Tiliaceae). cellulosic fibres with wide lumen.

0.55 (blue) & 0.68 & 0. 0.2.17. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. Tikta.2-3 g. Pittavik¡ra. 2. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.68 (light violet) & 0.2. 2.Light yellow and fibrous. 0.). 0. 0. T.Powder . Ka¶u.29 (blue).J¢rak¡di Modaka.41.3. of the drug in powder form. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara.L.17 (light violet). 0. 0.L. Appendix 2.2.64 (blue). 0. Two spots are seen at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0. Appendix per cent.7.2. 0.4. Appendix per cent. 0.Vra¸a.2.V. 0. 0.13 (blue). IDENTITY.35 (violet).6.35. 0.35 (dark blue). DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). 0.88 (all yellow). 0.27 (light violet). THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.48. 47 . CONSTITUENTS . Under U. 0.55.C.2.88 (light violet).Sugar.61. 0. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. Appendix per cent.C.08 (violet). 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.08. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. α-amyrin.48 (violet).27.08 (blue) 0.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.17. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Amla. Appendix per cent. β-amyrin etc. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. thinwalled. Gunja (Rt. becoming mildly bitter. Kakananti Rati Kunch. Fabaceae). spreading throughout the plains.21. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. present at short intervals. Chonotee Ratti. composed of 1-2 cells wide. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. simple or branched. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. taste. smaller than stone cells. when distinct. b) Microscopic Root . exfoliating in small flakes. Gurivinda Ghongchi. pitted walls. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. odourless. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. a climber. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. Chanothee. soft. Kundumani Guriginga. most often irregularly curved. cork cambium. gulagunja -Kunni. feebly sweetish. flowering in August-September. Ghungchi Guluganji. tangentially elongated cells. light brown.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. fruits ripen during winter. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. bark thin. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. slightly corky. some with brownish content. cylindrical. (Fam. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured.

áula. 2.2. Tikta á¢ta. CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent. 2. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. small groups of sclerenchyma. Appendix 2. parenchyma thin-walled. Appendix 10 per cent.2. pitted walls. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. 49 . groups of sclerenchymatous cells. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. of the drug in powder form.7. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya.3 g.6.Indralupta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. Appendix 4 per cent. Appendix 2.1 .75 µ in diameter. DOSE .Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin).4. Pittahara. thin-walled and rectangular. stone cells.75 µ in diameter. xylem vessels with pitted walls.5-13. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. numerous xylem fibres. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral.Greyish-brown. shows fragments of cork. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. Appendix 9 per cent. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.2. 2. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. IDENTITY.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .diverging towards periphery.3. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. wood composed of narrow concentric. 2. Mukha¿oÀa.5 -13.2. vessels of varying sizes with thick. Powder .

with.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. solid. scattered throughout the ground tissue. 50 . 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. closed type of vascular bundles. characteristic. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. Poaceae). red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. distinct node and internode. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. b) Microscopic Stem . cylindrical. taste.) shrub. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. odour. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. lignified. smooth. conjoint. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. more numerous and closer towards periphery. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. (Fam. besides the xylem and phloem elements. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu.22. Ikshu (St. Serdi Ikha. juicy and sweet. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre.

ground tissue.7. shows pieces of epidermis.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .400 ml in the juice form. V¤Àya. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa.2. M£tra KÀaya. IDENTITY.4. Pittahara.Powder light brick red.5 per cent. Kaphahara. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. vessels and sclerenchyma. Balya. 2.Bal¡ Taila.Raktapitta. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. V¡tahara. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. 2. DOSE .Powder .2.200 . 51 .2. Appendix Not more than 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. Sara.Sucrose.2.3. 2. 2.

fracture. Havumakke. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡.) Cucurbitaceae). Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. Indrayanalata. Indravaruni (Rt.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. short. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. longitudinal fissures present. b) Microscopic Root . secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. occurring throughout the country.23. elongated with pointed ends. Varithummati. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. consisting of vessels. thin walled. tangentially elongated. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. thick walled. composed of sieve elements. áatakratulat¡. thick-walled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. Indramanoa. 0. Indravarana Gothakakucti. taste. an annual or perennial. cylindrical. tangentially elongated cork cells. pitted. (Fam. Tuntikai. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke.5-7. Paythumatti. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. parenchyma and medullary rays. fibres.2-2. dull yellow. lying around vessels. Tumbi Paikamatti. Bitter apple Indravaran. a few filled with dark brown contents. mostly simple or rarely 52 . slightly twisted.5 cm thick. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. parenchyma and medullary rays.5 µ in dia. fibres aseptate. xylem forms bulk of root. Gav¡kÀ¢. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Indrayan. parenchymatous cells. intensively bitter. Indravaruni. Valiya Pekkumatti.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

astringent. Jambu (Sd. (Fam. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol.. brownish-black.25. 1 cm wide. Eugenia jambolana Lam. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. oval or roundish. oval. cuminii Druce.. thin-walled. E. Seed . a few schizogenous cavities are also found.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. a large evergreen tree.Brown coloured.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. 1 cm long. coriaceous covering. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. rounded starch grains.) Skeels Syn. Myrtaceae).800 m. 57 . b) Microscopic Powder . measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. smooth. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. taste.

T.95 and 0.2. Kaphahara.95 (all violet). CONSTITUENTS .7.4.6.30 and 0.C. 0.2. of the drug in powder form.95 (all yellow). Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 2.V. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.20.L. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. Appendix per cent. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.2. three spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Guru.IDENTITY.3-6 g. DOSE .Glycoside (Jamboline).20.3.Madhumeha. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Udakameha. Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 2.12. ViÀ¶ambhi. Tannin. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.2. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. Amla.C.2. 58 . 0.30 and 0.30 (blue).2.L. 0. 2. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U.

Mahamaram. 0. cuminii Druce.5 cm thick. astringent. E. Neralamara -Njaval. Jambu (St. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. rough. Jambuda Jomuna. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. a large evergreen tree. stone cells. Jamneralae. oval to angular. upper few layers thick. light grey to ash coloured. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces.5-2.) Skeels Syn. Raja Jambu Merale. elongated.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . stratified and reddish-brown. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu.. and reddish brown. internal surface fibrous. Eugenia jambolana Lam. forming a rhytidoma. Jambu.Bk. fibres aseptate. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. younger bark mostly channelled. and phloem rays. Jam Jammu Naaval. lower cork thin and colourless. Jamu. Myrtaceae). external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1.800 m. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Navval Sambu. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. short and splintery. cork cambium not distinct. fracture. taste.26. (Fam.

Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .3. 2. elongated.2.2. Pittahara. of the drug for decoction.10-20 g. reddish-brown content. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. stone cells. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. Stambhaka. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. V¡tala.4. 60 . 2.Light brown. DOSE . round to oval starch grains.6. oval to angular. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.2.U¿¢r¡sava. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . 2. round to oval starch grains. IDENTITY.2.7. Kaphahara. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide.region.2. aseptate fibres.Atis¡ra. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. 2. single or in groups. Raktapitta.2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.

kernel yellowish and oily. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. Japal beej. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. Tinti·¢phala. slightly bent at middle. 5-7 m high. Euphorbiaceae). no marked odour. found throughout tropical India. thin-walled cells. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. b) Microscopic Seed .Shows a hard testa. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Nervala -Nervalam. Neervalam. Japala. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. oblong. Jayapala (Sd. filled with brownish content. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. (Fam. consisting of an epidermal layer. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. 61 . upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. dull cinnamon-brown. consisting of a large endosperm. ovate. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. slightly quadrangular.27. Neervalam Jepal.) small evergreen tree. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated.

Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.34 (grey).84 (all violet).White with black particles of testa. 0. Vibandha DOSE . 2.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa.5 per cent. 0.C. T.34. of the drug in powder form. 0. 0.Jvara.L. Appendix 7 per cent.Fixed oil.54 (yellow). Appendix 3 per cent.10. Appendix 2. Resins & Phorbol esters. 2. (366 nm) three spots at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES .L. 2. IDENTITY.2.2. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.29.84 (brown).2.3. 62 . Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .63 and 0.C. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.2. 0.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Udararoga.2. Powder . under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.6. 2. CONSTITUENTS . 0.6-12 mg.54 and 0. Appendix 15 per cent.39. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. 0.7. 0.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.90 (all yellow). Appendix 0. 0. Pittahara.49.V. 0.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.

-Jayanti -Rajashinganee. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. leaflets 6-16 pairs. parenchymatous cells. 0.shows single layered epidermis. mucronate to acuminate.8 cm wide. 1. having secretory cavities in phloem.28. polygonal. stomata anisocytic. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. á£kÀma patra. Arishimajingai. Jay¡. entire. paripinnate. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. short lived shrub.5-15. oblong. 1. Lamina . jayata Arinintajinamgi. -Semp.) Merr. 63 . Fabaceae). Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. linear. consisting of thin-walled. 7. palisade single layered.3-0. very shortly stalked. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Karijimangai. (Fam. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4.Syn.7 layered round. a quick growing.3 cm long..0-3. opposite. Jalugu. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. pith small. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. present on both surfaces. Atti. glabrous.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. aegyptiaca Pers. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.8-6 m high. Jayanti (Lf. Jayanti Jaita. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis .shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath.5 cm long. S. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢.

Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa.C. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. Ras¡yana.91 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.2. 0. 0. 0. ViÀaroga. Powder .69. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 64 .48. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.97 (all yellow). Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0.37. Pittahara.7.L.29. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY.97 (all grey). Appendix per cent.37. 0. 0. 0.97 (yellow).11.48.Ratnagiri Rasa. 0.29.25-4. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 2. 0.Dull green. 0.2. 0.M£trak¤cchra. 0. Appendix 2. 0. 0. 0.91 and 0. 0. 0.4. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.L. Galaga¸·a. 2. 0.3.11. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.19.19. DOSE . V¡tahara. Appendix per cent.05. Calcium and Phosphorus.2. Appendix per cent.56 (all pink) and 0.2. 2.29.05. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6.19.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. 0.56.V.56. in powder form. palisade ratio 3.C.05. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.3-6 g. palisade cells. shows spongy parenchyma.11. T.2.Protein.

lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. brownish-orange. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. bitter.hard. odour. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. collapsed. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . colour. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. (Fam. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. taste. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. Gangunge humpu. surface generally smooth and. a large climbing shrub. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. Gangunge beeja. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. light to dark brown. ripe seeds.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. Jyotishmati (Sd. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal.29. unpleasant. Celastraceae). Seed . measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. seed without aril also prescent. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.5-3. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces.35 mm in breadth.

dark brown. Appendix 6 per cent.20. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.2. 0.94 (yellow) in visible light. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. 2. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.63. Virecaka. UÀ¸a.2. Oil and Tannins. (all blue) & 0. Powder . 0. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.2. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains.2. Under U.54.35.L.V. V¡maka.35.2. áirovirecanopaga.Oily.82 (pink) & 0.3. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.89 (all yellow). 0. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. 0. Appendix 20 per cent.54.Alkaloids.6.89 (both greenish blue). Meddhya 66 .94 (yellow). Appendix 1. stone cells.15. 0. 2. Appendix 2.4.8 IDENTITY.04. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. 0. Kaphahara.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). Appendix 9 per cent.L.82.V. 2.54 (both blue).composed of polygonal.C. D¢pana.7.82. 2. 2. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. Appendix 45 per cent.89.82 & 0.C. V¡tahara. 0. thin-walled. Tikta Sara.5 per cent. 0.2. 0.

67 .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Oil : 5-15 drops. THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sm¤tidaurbalya.Seed: 1-2 g.V¡tavy¡dh¢. DOSE . ávitra. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.

) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Kadam Kadam. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. indicus A. taste. Kadamba Kadamba. rectangular cells.. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadamba (St. Priyka Roghu. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. Rubiaceae). A. Kadambu Needam. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. a deciduous. Vellaikhadambu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Kadamba Nipo. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips.Bk. Kadappai. Kadamba mara. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Rich. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. large tree. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Syn. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. a few cells with brown contents. elongated cells of phloem rays. traversed by uni to triseriate. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. some cells contain chlorophyll. Indulam. Vellai Kadambam. Kadavala. 68 b) Microscopic . (Fam. composed of thin-walled. bitter.30. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide.

phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. DOSE .2. 2. 0. YonidoÀa. cells distinct and slightly elongated. Vra¸a.5 per cent.4.31.83 and 0.57. CONSTITUENTS . Lava¸a.63 (yellowish grey). outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. 2. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. 0. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1.79. Vra¸aropa¸a. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Steroids. fibres. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.7.79 (grey) and 0.21. 0. 0. Raktapitta. of the drug in powder form. L C. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. 0.5 .C. 0. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.2.Alkaloids.90 (grey). THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 9 per cent.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 69 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. Appendix 3 per cent. 2. Powder . V¡tahara.Brown.2. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. shows fragments of cork cells. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 1.2. phloem cells. 0.13.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5:10) shows under U. 0. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.phloem fibres.64. T. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. 0.0.5 g. Appendix 2.70 (orange yellow).L. 0.D¡ha.2.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.3.6. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. 0.03. 2.

easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. a herbaceous annual weed. obtuse notched at apex.25 mm long. externally smooth. glabrous. found throughout the country in dry parts. 3-8 flowered cymes. sinuate. Kakamachi (W. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . toothed or lobed. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. quite common in cultivated lands. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. obtuse.Simple.P. white or pale violet. Ganikesopu. glabrous. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. hairy at base. sub-umbellate.5 mm long. glabrous or pubescent. flattened.5 cm long and 2. thin. slender. Leaf . 1. Stem . 2.2-2. filaments short. road sides and gardens. ovate or oblong. extra-axillary. petiolate. (Fam. five lobed. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. oblong.Small. 30-45 cm high. bark thin. calyx 2-3 mm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. style cylindric.5 cm wide. Manatakkali. Pikachia. corolla 4-8 mm long. pedicels 6-10 mm long. ganike. yellowish. green. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. 70 .Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. Flower . ovary globose. hairy in lower part. Ganikegida.Erect. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. narrowed at both ends. Manitakkali. very slender.5-8. Manaththakkali. oblong. pale brown.31. slightly woody and branched. anther 1. peduncles 6-20 mm long.) Solanaceae).

Discoid. pith large. single or with two or rarely 3 components.. obtuse. xylem rays homogenous. tangentially elongated. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. but 4. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. covering trichomes.Shows single layered. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. polygonal cells. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. slightly elongated. Stem . some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. vascular bundles-collateral. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. covered with striated cuticle. smooth shining Seed .5-8. cambium 2-4 layered. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.5 mm in dia. composed of thin-walled. radially elongated cells. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. phloem consists of thin-walled. minutely pitted.25 µ in dia. uniseriate.10 layered in angular parts. central vascular bundle shallow. measuring 2. phloem rays uniseriate. smooth. bicollateral. in small or large patches. 1.Fruit . epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. usually accompanied by fibres. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. filled with starch grains.A berry. oval to round starch grains. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. embedded in perimedullary zones. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. endoderrnis single layered.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. rays composed of thin-walled. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. covered with thick. Midrib . conjoint and open. parenchyma 4-6 layered. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. yellow or black.' oval parenchymatous cells. starch grains.. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. LeafPetiole . internal phloem. arcshaped. compactly arranged. uniseriate.. measuring 2. uniseriate. trichomes multicellular. slightly striated cuticle. arc71 . epidermis single layered. yellow.5-11 µ in dia.. covered with striated cuticle. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. 6mm in dia. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. cortex of large.

06. IDENTITY. papery epicarp. palisade ratio 2-4. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.34 (both pink). Appendix per cent.C. a few vessels with spiral thickenings. Under U. Appendix per cent. 0. 2.L.2. vein islet number 7-10.97 (all yellow). unicellular hairs. a few broken pieces of pointed. Appendix per cent.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. Appendix per cent.V. 2.2. single.4. epidermis with irregular outline. Fruit . both upper and lower epidermis single layered. 034 and 0.34 (both brown) in visible light. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.06 & 0.3.Creamish-green.7.2.2. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. CONSTITUENTS .dorsiventral. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. Appendix 2. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. T. present beneath palisade parenchyma. Lamina .2. 2. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. stomata anisocytic.Shows thin.5 .2. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. measuring 2.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. 72 .11 µ in diameter.06 & 0.Alkaloids and Saponins. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. palisade single layered. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. Powder . composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. 0.6.

Svarya. THERAPEUTIC USES . V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Jvara. 73 . Ar¿a. Kaphahara. of the drug in juice form. Hikk¡. Pittahara. V¡tahara.5 -10 ml. KuÀ¶ha. Netraroga. Sara.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Chardi. Ka¸·u. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Prameha. DOSE . Tikta Laghu. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. H¤dya. H¤droga. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila.áotha. Ras¡yana.

a large. crimp led.5-3 cm wide. gynoceium apocarpous. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Paduman. (Fam. Aravinda. extended into clavate appendages. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool.. sepals leaf-like. fruit an etaerio of achenes. crimpled.32. corolla. elliptic. black. Sitopala. membranous. gynoecium and thalamus. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Nymphaeaceae).) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. starchy and large. erect. finely veined. Kanwal Kamal. free. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe.4-2 cm long. 1. Pamposh Tamarai. androecium. Chenthamara. broken pieces also occur. Naidile. Tavare. 74 . seed hard. dark brown. Aravindan. yellowish-brown.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. Kamalam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Kamala (Fl. 1. Kamal. Sarojam Kaluva. petals numerous. anther. 3-5 cm long. Syn. obtuse. embedded in a creamy. Venthamara. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. carpels many. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Padma.3-2 cm wide. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. linear 1. 2-4 cm long. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Kalh¡ra. comprising of calyx. Thamaraipoo.

6. yellow pollen grains. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. Sant¡pahara. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. composed of thin-walled.7. M£tra Virajan¢ya. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. ViÀavik¡ra. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . columnar. spherical. ground tissue consisting of polygonal.Dusty brown. Appendix per cent. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. Tikta. of the drug for decoction.2. Pittahara. followed by ground tissue of oval. Stamen Filament . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY.Aravind¡sava. parenchymatous cell.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .Alkaloid (Nelumbine). . Appendix per cent.3. having smooth exine and intine. rectangular. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.12 -24 g. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara.filament appears circular in outline. two on either sides. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.2. angular. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. spore sac contains yellow.2. Anther . T¤Àn¡ D¡ha.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. parenchymatous cells. 2.shows four chambered anther. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. DOSE . Appendix per cent. vascular bundle single. 2. Visarpa.4.Raktapitta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.2. Powder . KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. 2. 2.2.

shows irregular. taste.33. stone cells.Reddish-brown. rough. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. often cultivated in many parts of India. reddish brown. Haminamara -Vilar maram. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. found in groups. sharp. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. 76 . Rutaceae). Kapittha (Fr. Belada hannu. straight.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. axillary thorns. Kavataleal. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. parenchymatous cells. glabrous tree with strong. Siwalik range and forests. Belalu. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. a deciduous. slightly triangular and oval. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Balada. stone cells. Powder . semicircular. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. aromatic. elephantum Correa (Faro. hard. found throughout the plains of India. Bilvara. sour. F. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. with concentric striations and narrow lumen.) Swingle. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Pulp. odour. Syn.

0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf.áv¡sa.91 (blue) and 0.2. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya.C. Unripe Pulp: Amla. Appendix 2.91 and 0. DOSE . Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. 6. CONSTITUENTS . Vra¸an¡¿aka.2. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. 2.IDENTITY. Sangr¡h¢. 0. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. Amla.Citric acid and Mucilage. KaÀ¡ya.2. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.37 (brown).50.12. V¡mi. 0. 77 . Agnim¡ndya. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.91 (grey) in visible light. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.95 (all yellow).2. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. Hikk¡.2.3.6.V.37.14 (sky blue). 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.06. T.L. 0. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent.1-3 g. 0. Gr¡h¢. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.7. Lekhana.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. Appendix per cent. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. of the drug in powder form.95 (blue). V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Ripe-T¤À¡. Appendix per cent.95 (violet) .50 (violet). 0. Pittav¡tahara.C. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Under U.2.91 (violet) and 0.L. Appendix per cent.12 (brown).

starch grains simple. fracture. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. internal surface grey and smooth. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. rough due to longitudinal striations. measuring 3-7 µ in dia.Greyish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled.) Apocynaceae). flat or slightly curved pieces. Karamarda (St. external surface brownish-grey.34. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. shows single and groups of stone cells. 78 . met throughout India in wild state. tubular. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. (Fam .Bk. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. light in weight. b) Microscopic Powder . simple and compound starch grains. and compound having 2-3 components. sometimes cultivated. short. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places.

2. T. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.2. 0.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.48 g. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. DOSE .3. 79 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.90 (pink) and 0. 0.L. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.V.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.2. Pittakara. 2.7.C.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.97 (violet).L. Appendix per cent. 2.6. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.C.58 (both light grey).52 (light sky blue). Appendix per cent.2.35.IDENTITY.KuÀthahara. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.

Fabaceae). upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. cells..) glabra Vent. internally.35. Syn. external surface rough. P. most of phloem 80 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. Karanja (Rt. Bk. Naktam¡la. Nakt¡hv¡. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. single cells of varying shape and size. 3-11 µ in dia. fibrous. a glabrous tree. very bitter. taste. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. secondary phloem very wide. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. due to peeling off. (Fam. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. fracture. thin-walled.) Merr. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. tangentially elongated cells. traversed by phloem rays..

47.80 (light blue). 0. 0.2.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.Flavones Kanugin.L.4.31. 81 . Ka¸·£ghna. 0.31 (sky blue). parenchymatous cells. Yoniroga.3.18. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Ka¸·u.47 (greenish yellow).98 (all yellow). ViÀaghma. Powder -Creamish-yellow. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 1-2 seriate. 2.2.K¤miroga.C. Pittahara. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery.51 (light blue). (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. consisting of thin-walled. Tikta. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. cork cells. Appendix 2. shows thin-walled. 0. Appendix 17 per cent. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.L. DOSE .09. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.80 and 0. T.42 (sky blue).18 (blue) 0. most of ray cells contain starch grain.47.37.2.2.1-3 g. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. of the drug for decoction. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. Ëntravidradhi.7.C.2. phloem rays many. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 11 per cent. 0.37 (greenish yellow). 0. 2. KuÀtha. Appendix 3. phloem fibres. IDENTITY.51. Prameha. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.6. 0.25 (sky blue).04 (blue).08 (greenish blue).V. 0. 2.2. 0.5 per cent. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. Appendix 2 per cent. mostly straight. V¡tahara. DuÀ¶avra¸a.13 (Sky blue).

and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. taste. bitter. internally light yellow. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. cells. light in weight. fracture. tangentially elongated. thin-walled. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. Karanja (Rt. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. (Fam.) Vent.) Merr.. a glabrous tree. irregularly distributed. Nakt¡hv¡. consisting of 82 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. rough due to the presence of numerous.36. secondary phloem a very wide zone. Karaµjaka. tangentially elongated cells. reddish-brown or dull brown. P. bark. bark does not easily separate from xylem. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. 1-2 seriate. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. rounded to oval in shape. Syn. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. Fabaceae). glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. 3-11 µ in dia..

1-2 g. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. Appendix per cent. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. 2. shows fibres in singles or groups. THERAPEUTIC USES . xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled.2. Demethoxy-kanugin. Tikta. fibres and parenchyma.radially elongated. ViÀaghna. Ëntravidradh¢.2. Vra¸a¿odhana. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. tangentially elongated towards outer region. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells.Karanjin. Appendix per cent.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Ka¸·£. more. of the drug in powder form. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. Prameha. Kaphahara.2. Vidradh¢. Pittahara.4.3. K¤miroga. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells.2.Methylfisetin. KuÀ¶ha. IDENTITY. Powder -Light yellow. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. thin-waned cells towards inner region. 83 . starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. consisting of 2-3 components. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Appendix per cent.2. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. 2. starch grains. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. DOSE . tracheids. Appendix per cent.DuÀ¶avra¸a.. Appendix 2. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. Yoniroga. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. V¡tahara. Kanugin.2. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. CONSTITUENTS . rounded to oval in shape.7.

lenticellate pieces.) Merr. fracture. traversed by medullary rays. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Bark . Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. filled with reddish-brown content. thin-walled. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. tangentially elongated. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. (Fam. phloem fibre and stone cells. 84 . Syn. Karanja. bitter. thick-walled cells. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. Nakt¡hv¡. more or less smooth.. fibre small. taste. composed of rectangular. slightly quilled. Fabaceae). short and fibrous. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. unpleasant. usually 0. phloem parenchyma. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. arranged in a tangential manner. odour.Bk.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork.) glabra Vent. at some places lenticels also appear. alternating with stone cells. P. recurved. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. Karaµjaka. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga.37. a glabrous tree.2-1 cm thick. Karanja (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.

aseptate fibre and stone cells. Tikta. K¤miroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. Prameha. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 18 per cent. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. Ka¸·u. Gamatin. IDENTITY. 2. 2. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. Pinnatin.2. Kanugin. ViÀaghma. Kaphahara. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. thin-walled and aseptate. 2. simple and compound starch grains. 3". shows groups of rectangular to polygonal.6. rounded to oval. Pongapin. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. Powder -Yellowish-cream. Vidradh¢. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex.2. Appendix 1. starch grains simple.1-2 g. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. KuÀ¶ha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 5Methoxyfurano (2".2.2. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. Appendix 13 per cent.2. and rarely. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Pittahara. medullary rays wavy. 2. elongated.. oil globules found in secondary phloem only.7.DuÀ¶avra¸a.polygonal. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II.3.4. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Ëntravidradh¢. Ka¶u. Appendix 2.2. 3" 7 : 8).5 per cent.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. Yoniroga DOSE . CONSTITUENTS . phloem parenchyma and rays cells. 85 . Appendix 3 per cent. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. usually 2-4 cells wide. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". Demethoxy- kanugin. oil globules. present in secondary cortex.

8 cm. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. 0. 6. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. Dithouri Honge. Nakt¡hv¡. Karanja (Lf. leaflets 2-3 pairs.38.11. Karaµjaka.5 cm long and 3.9-8. isodiametric. a glabrous tree. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Kanajo Karuaini. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Karanja. Ungu. consistig of tabular cells. epidermis single layered. 86 . Pongana Ganuga. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Hulagilu -Pungu. (Fam. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. cortex consisting of angular. Fabaceae).2 .5-0. covered with cuticle. Unu.circular in outline. arcshaped.) Vent. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.. traversed by xylem rays. P. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Syn. dark green. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Merr. xylem vessels arranged radially. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. vascular bundle single. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. petiolule short.3 cm wide. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. consisting of xylem and phloem.

A new Furanoflavone -3' . 5" . Kaphahara. 7) -flavone. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. V¡tahara. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.6. palisade ratio 3.2.7. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. Tikta. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. present in lower surface. Pittavardhaka. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.3. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. collateral. covered with thick cuticle. 2.5".flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4".5-20. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". Appendix 2.2. Powder -Green.6.2.5) . 2. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. vascular bundle. 2.5-50. K¤imihara. cortex consists of round to oval.4. Appendix 3. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. Ka¶u. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. Appendix 11 per cent. stomatal index 12. consisting of tabular cells.Mid rib . phloem and pith. shows spiral xylem vessels. Appendix 16 per cent.6.shows single layered epidermis.2.6.(4". Appendix 10 per cent. mesophyll cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. . Ka¸·ughna. stomata anisocytic. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. CONSTITUENTS . 5".5 per cent.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.2. palisade two layered. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. 2.

Vra¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES .J¡ty¡di Taila. Ka¸·au.For external use only. DOSE . 88 .K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

K¡ravall¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 .6. 2.Fr.2.2.25 cm long.2. 2. Varivall¢. Appendix 6 per cent. 2. Kathilla. pendulous. (Fam.5 per cent.39.2.6 per cent.4. Nil Appendix 8. usually pointed or beaked. upto an altitude of 1500 m. surface rough. Appendix 28 per cent. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. Kakiral. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. Appendix 2. taste.3. Karavallaka (Fresh.) Cucurbitaceae). ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. IDENTITY. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. 2. Appendix 0. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation.2.7. oblong. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. 3 valved at the apex when mature. fusiform.2. extremely bitter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella.5 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.

C. 0. Prameha.96 (sky blue).60. 0. 0.17.15 ml.81 and 0. V¡tahara. T. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 90 . 0.áv¡sa.V. KuÀ¶ha. 0. K¤miroga.98 (all yellow). 0. 0. juice of fresh drug. D¢pana. 0.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES .10 .C. K¡sa. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.03.75. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. K¡mal¡. Aruci.T. DOSE . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi.16. CONSTITUENTS . 0.50.98 (red & sky blue).98 (all blue). 0.L. 0. Kaphahara.34. H¤dya. Jvara.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides.61 (light sky blue). 0.23 (red).43. P¡¸·u. 0.46.67 and 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. Raktavik¡ra. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.

0. Rohi¸¢.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. Katki. . surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles.Thin. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. pleasant. fracture. cork cambium 1-2 layered. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim.40. primary cortex persists 91 .05-0. fracture. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. externally greyish-brown. short. (Fam. mostly attached with rhizomes. a perennial. Kav¢. inner surface black with whitish xylem. straight or slightly curved. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. subcylindrical. suberised cells. pleasant. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Root . Katuku rohini. b) Microscopic Rhizome . Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . Kaurohi¸¢. Katuka (Rz.1 cm in diameter. Tiktarohi¸¢. taste. bitter. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. odour. odour. cylindrical. Kauka. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Katuka rohini Kutki. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. Scrophulariaceae). Kutki -Hellebore Kadu.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. kaur Katuka rohini. Sutiktaka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. bitter. taste. short.2. cortex single layered or absent. 5-10 cm long. dusty grey.

62. Appendix per cent. some cylindrical with taillike.2.30. 0. thick-walled cells of endodermis.. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. 0. 0. IDENTITY. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf.2. thick-walled. tracheids long.05. 0. simple round to oval. thick-walled. 0. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends.35 (green). Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. 1-2 layers of cork cambium.104 µ in diameter. 0. vessels have varying shape and size. Appendix per cent. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. 0.21.L.41 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Appendix 2. tracheids. thick-walled. starch grains. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. Appendix per cent. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. 0.05 (blue).30. tapering ends. 0. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. parenchymatous cells. 0. 92 . one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. 0. tracheids. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. 2.4. abundantly found in all cells. parenchyma. 2. thick-walled. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. 0.V. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. 2. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered.2.3.72 and 0.30 (blue) and 0. consisting of oval to polygonal. hypodermis single layered. measuring 25 .2.10. Powder .C. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. simple round to oval. secondary phloem poorly developed.21.2.6.2.84 (all brownish grey). light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. fibres aseptate. cortex 8-14 layered.Dusty grey.37.L.17.C. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. 0.41.84 (all yellow). tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. 2. cambium 2-4 layered. parenchyma and fibres. Appendix per cent.10.in some cases.7. secondary xylem consists of vessels. starch grains. 0.17. T. lignified.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¡mal¡. KuÀ¶ha. of the drug in powder form.3 g.áv¡sa. 93 . Bhedin¢. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. DOSE . D¢pan¢. Jvara.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). ViÀamajvara. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES .1 .Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Pittahara. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Arocaka. D¡ha.CONSTITUENTS .

Yellowish-brown.P.Mostly adventitious. Kalsunda --Golmidi. subsessile. annual herb. entire and hairy. second pair 94 . Kokilaksha (W. with long white hairs. Nirchulli. corolla 3. bracts about 2. whitish to brown. Vayalculli Talikhana. Stem . usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node.2 cm long. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . widely 2 lipped. Flower .6-2 cm long.Greenish-brown. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins.5-1 cm wide. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali.Usually unbranched. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. Kolarind. a spiny.41.3 cm long. all linear-lanceolate. Kettu. lanceolate. Nirguvireru. Leaf . sub-quadrangular.Acanthaceae). no characteristic odour and taste. fasciculate.Anders (Fam. Culli. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. stamens 4. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. broader than the other three. which are 1. IkÀuraka.6 cm long. 1-7 cm long.5 cm long. upper sepal 1. no characteristic odour and taste. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. didynamous. externally greyish-brown. tube 1.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. Syn. calyx 4-partite. abruptly swollen at top. stout. swollen at nodes. 0. acute. Hygrophila spinosa T. Kolavankal ---. common in water logged places throughout the country.

pith large. light brown. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. rectangular to cubical.2-0. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. 95 . fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. phloem narrow. 0. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. having small intercellular spaces. pointed. linear-oblong. fibre walls uniformly thickened. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. arranged radially. arranged in radial rows. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles.larger. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces.Ovate.Two celled. thin-walled cells. glabrous. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. pubescent. single or in groups of 2-3. radially elongated in secondary xylem. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. a few thick-walled. filament quite glabrous. endodermis single layered. broader towards centre. secondary xylem forms continuous ring.1 . secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. oblong. brownish cells. round. radially elongated in xylem region. Fruit . isolated cells found scattered in this zone. Stem . fibres thick-walled. with a number of large air cavities. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. stigma simple. compressed. truncate at the base. Seed . parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. xylem present in a ring. capsule about 0. phloem fibres thick-walled. composed of transversely elongate. involute with a fissure on upper side. subequal. 4seeded. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. flat or compressed. anthers two celled. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. hairy but appearing smooth.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. moderately thick-walled. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. vessels angular. ray cells thin walled. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. polygonal cells. radially arranged.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. consisting of round to polygonal cells. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular.0.25 cm long and 0. scattered throughout the phloem region. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. peripheral ones larger. ray cells thin-walled.15 cm wide. composed of polygonal. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. inner cells smaller.8 cm long. thin-walled. variable in size. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. style filiform. vessels with spiral thickenings. b) Microscopic Root . cortical cells thin-walled.

palisade 1-2 layered. palisade ratio 6.75. Amla. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. 2. 2. Appendix per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. IDENTITY.3. stomata diacytic.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¡jikara. Appendix per cent. Fruit . Appendix per cent. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . vein islet number 17-42.25-15.78. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent.Shows concavo-convex outline.2.LeafMidrib .2. Seed . tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. tangentially elongated cells. palisade. 2. Powder . thin-walled. covered with thick cuticle.2. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.2. stomatal index 17. shows aseptate.Light brown. oval to hexagonal. unicellular hairs and globules. Appendix per cent. Lamina . parenchymatous. 2. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. collenchyma 2-5 layered. Rucya. M£trala.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2. thick-walled. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening.7. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces.2.4.24-30. composed of thin-walled. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.6. V¤Àya. lignified.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. . elongated fibres. Tikta Picchila. parenchymatous cells. sclerenchymatous cells.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .T¤À¸¡. 97 . Ëmav¡ta áotha.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra).3 -6 g. of the drug in powder form. V¡tarakta.

IkÀuraka. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. annual herb. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. Kokilaksha (Rt. secondary phloem narrow. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. a spiny. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Kokil¡kÀ¢. slightly transversely elongated. Anders (Fam. Kolavulike. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Syn. thin-walled. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. whitish to brownish. consisting of small. thinwalled cells.Acanthaceae). Culli --. no characteristic odour and taste. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. stout. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. branches on nodes. common in water logged places throughout the country. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. Nerugobbi. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. 98 . inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. the size of these cells.42. Root-Appears circular in outline.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. Hygrophila spinosa T. polygonal cells.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. 99 . ray cells thin-walled. having spiral thickening.3 -6 g. Appendix per cent. 2.Light brown to ash coloured. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. 2.3. 2. lignified fibres.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. vessels with spiral thickening. radially elongated in the xylem region. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows.6. Tikta Picchila. of the drug for decoction. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. Appendix per cent. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. M£trala. broader towards centre. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.2. Appendix per cent. fibre walls uniformly thickened.Ëmav¡ta áotha.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2.2.2. V¡tahara.2. Amla. shows fragments of pitted. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. each group composed of 2-6 cells. scattered throughout the phloem region. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres.7. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. 2. V¡tarakta.4. angular. Appendix 2.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Powder . THERAPEUTIC USES . A¿ma¤¢.

Maradarishana. hairy but appearing smooth. parenchymatous cells. Swelling Index . annual herb. Maradarishina -Maramannal. oil globules present in this region. the 100 . Powder . embryo composed of oval to polygonal. common in water logged places throughout the country. Kokilaksha (Sd. Daruhuladur Darhald.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. (Fam.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage.43. Anders. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. b) Microscopic Seed . The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm.Greyish-brown. shows hairs and oil globules. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder.8 -10. a spiny. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. IkÀuraka. flat or compressed. thinwalled. light yellowish-brown. Acanthaceae). Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. Hygrophila spinosa T. truncate at the base. stout. taste. Syn. white. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide.

L. Add 25 ml of water. CONSTITUENTS .. 0.An yellow semi-drying oil. 0.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.17 (light brown). Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.2.72 (all yellow). Appendix per cent. Santarpa¸a.03. 2.41 (light blue).31. 101 .2.4. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.31 (dark brown).2.C. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.24. 2.93 (sky blue). 0.3. 0.6.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.L. Pitt¡¿mar¢.24 (dark brown). 0. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. IDENTITY.03 (light brown). 0. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . related to 1 g of seeds.52 (dark brown) and 0. including any sticky mucilage.38. enzymes like Diastase.V.2. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. Protease and an Alkaloid. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. V¤Àya. 0. Appendix per cent.17. 0. 0. 0. 0.72 (dark brown).internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.55 (light blue). Lipase.3 -6 g. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.24 (red).52 and 0. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. DOSE .áotha.76 (sky blue) and 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.C.38 (light brown). 0.10 (light brown). 0. T. 0. V¡tarakta. Kaphahara. 0.

found throughout the country. style 5-6 fid. bright yellow.6 cm wide. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Common Indian Purslane Luni.44. characteristic. surface smooth. Khurfa. Loni. Leaf . Fruit . at terminal heads.3 cm long. stamens 8-12. Doddagoni Soppu.5 cm long.4 cm long. Paruppukkeerai. (Fam. Kozuppa. prostrate herb. less in number. brownish-grey. rounded and truncate at the apex. an annual succulent. Payilikura. Badi Lona Dudagorai. Gho¶ik¡. odour. Ghola -Lonak. ribbed. Lonika. smooth and greenish-brown. Baranunia Garden Purslane. 0. swollen at the nodes. root hairs abundant in upper region. very delicate and soon falling off.Cylindrical. 0.3 to 2. branched. short.2 cm in diameter. 0. small. dehiscing above the base.1 to 0.1 to 0. cuneiform. Moti Luni Khursa. oblique. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Kozhuppa. petals obovate. Peddapavila Kura. Kozhuppu Pappukura. sepal 0. Badanuni. Pulikkirai.Almost cylindrical.4 cm long. subtended by an involucre.An ovoid capsule. Stem . short. Loni -Koricchira. 50 cm long. secondary roots. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡.5 cm long and 0.25-0.35-0. Kuzuppa (W. Flower . Kulfa. sub-sessile. 3-4 leaves. 0. oblong.Simple. spathulate. -Baraloniya. Loni. fracture. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas.A few. fracture. Chhotalunia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 0.P) Portulacaceae). Kwfa Pasalai. 102 .

shows groups of oval to polygonal. having 2-3 components. b) Microscopic Root .Seed -Numerous.07 cm across. tracheids. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. oval. measuring 6-14 µ . Appendix 2.7. Appendix per cent. tracheids and parenchyma. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. vessels. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. parenchyma abundant.6.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. 2. Appendix per cent. present in mesophyll cells. reniform. having intercellular spaces. fragments of cork cells. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled.4.2. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. . 0.Wavy in outline. ray cells and pith. palisade single layered. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. Powder . pericycle fibre present in patches. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. tracheids and parenchyma. 2.2. thin-walled. secondary xylem consists of vessels. as well as compound. oval cells.Shows 5-15 layers of cork.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. phloem and xylem parenchyma. solitary or in groups of 2-5. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged.2. 2. Stem . secondary xylem composed of vessels. arranged in radial rows.2. LeafMidrib . secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia.Greyish-brown.3. minute.06-0. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. simple as well as compound. having simple pits and spiral thickening. parenchymatous cells. stomata paracytic type. IDENTITY. thick-walled with wide lumen. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. black. dark brown. phloem. Appendix per cent. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. covered externally with a thick cuticle. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. pitted and spiral vessels. Appendix per cent. Lamina .2.. with reddish-brown content in a few cells.2. 2.

V. 0.76 (all pinkish red). 0.61.L.52. 0. CakÀuÀya.Marma Gu¶ik¡.68 and 0.L. Ar¿a. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. Pittakara. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. RukÀa.52 (both faint green).08.08. of the drug in powder form. (both green).C.76 (green) in visible light.Agnim¡ndya.Protein. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.3 .6 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .10.10. 0. 0.41.. V¡tahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.68 (yellow) and 0. 0. Carbohydrates. Vra¸a DOSE . 104 . 0. 0.76 and 0.C. 0. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 0.41.50. 0. 0.68.T. 0. Prameha. 0. Gulma. áotha. 0. T. Under U.10.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .

2 cm long.3-0. 105 . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . greyish brown to brown. tapering. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. upto 2 cm thick. 0. sessile. Var¡kr¡nt¡. odour. Lajavanti. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. obliquely rounded at base. external surface light brown. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. distinct. rependant . bark fibrous. Leaf .45. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. fracture hard. stipulate. Machikegida. Fabaceae). easily separable from wood. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. sparsely prickly. Lajamani Chhuimui.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. acute.week bristles longitudinally grooved. with secondary and tertiary branches. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. internal cut surface grey. linear lanceolate. hairy pinnae. Adamalati Lajaka. bark fibrous. nearly glabrous.Cylindrical. Lajjalu (W. varying in length. 25-50 cm high.P) diffused undershrub. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. alternate. upto 2.5 cm in dia. taste. petiolate. sensitive to touch. Stem .4 cm broad. 0. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. slightly astringent. covered with long. leaflets 10-20 pairs.6-1. Lajauni Muttidasenui.Cylindrical. woody. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. (Fam. yellowish-green.

crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. ovary sessile.Pink. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. respectively. calyx very small.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered.4-0. much exserted. 2-3 seriate more common.3 long. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. 2. xylem rays radially elongated. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. stamens 4. filled with reddish-brown contents. b) Microscopic Root . xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. phloem fibres single or in groups.Lomentum. fibres of two types. scattered throughout.6 cm long. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. in globose head. consisting of large. thick-walled. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. tangentially elongated to oval. starch grains. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. thick-walled. 0. ovules numerous.Compressed. phloem rays thick-walled. a number of lignified. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. brown to grey. tangentially elongated cells. simple.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. peduncles prickly. lobes 4. fibres single or in groups. parenchymatous cells. thick-walled.Flower . tracheids pitted with pointed ends. 0. crystal fibres elongated. straw coloured. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. 0. ovate oblong. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. fibres. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. Seed . secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. arranged in tangential bands. scattered throughout secondary xylem. rarely multiseriate. 106 . secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. Fruit . glabrous. 1-1. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. crystal fibres thick-walled.3 cm long. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. pith consisting of polygonal. dry. moderately thick-walled. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. oval-elliptic. corolla pink. 3-25 chambered. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. spreading bristle at sutures. secondary cortex wide. parenchyma.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. Stem . radially elongated.

vascular bundle single. endocarp of thick-walled. shaggy hairs. spongy parenchyma single layered. 2. Lamina . lignified cells followed by single layered.62. spongy parenchyma. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. Appendix 2. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally.2.3 components IDENTITY. parenchymatous cells. 0. Appendix per cent. crystal fibres. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. pericycle arranged in a ring.2. parenchymatous cells.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. 2.6. Midrib . a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.L. shaggy hairs. 0.35. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. with 2 .Leaf- Petiole .C. T.2.L. parenchymatous cells Seed . 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. branched. Appendix per cent. 0.4. Appendix per cent. shows. Appendix per cent. measuring 6-25 µ in dia.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. reticulate. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf.2. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. palisade cells non glandular. 2. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.V. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.shows single layered epidermis. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region.7.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent.81 (bluish-pink).3. branched. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. embryo straight with short and thick radicle.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. pericycle same as in petiole. one in each wing. Fruit . pitted vessels.Reddish-brown.shows epidermis on both surfaces. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.69 (all blue) and 0. fibres. thin-walled. single and compound starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. 2. palisade single layered. Powder .2. covered with thin-cuticle. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .

PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. Raktapita DOSE . CONSTITUENTS .áopha.35 and 0. Ku¶aj¡valeha.spots appear at Rf. Atis¡ra. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. áv¡sa. 108 . RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. THERAPEUTIC USES .35 (orange). D¡ha. 0. 0. Yoniroga.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Vra¸a.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. Kaphahara. KuÀ¶ha. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KaÀ¡ya Laghu.

lanceolate. Ilippa. M. corolla fleshy. erect 0. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. Madhuka.F. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. (Fam.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers.Gmel.) Macbride. Androecium . Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Mahawash tree Mahudo. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Hippe. followed by thin-walled. Madhuka (Fl. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. ovate lanceolate.5-2 cm long. a few 109 . Halippe. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Hippenara. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. epipetalous. Sapotaceae) . Mahua Katiluppai. b) Microscopic Corolla . latifolia (Roxb. short. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). reddish-brown. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9).) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. basifixed.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. Syn. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. and also cultivated. anther sub-sessile. sweet. Eppimara -Irippa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. tabular.46. Iluppa. Kattu Iluppai. Ippa. taste. epipetalous and arranged in two series.

pollen grains single or in groups.unicellular hairs present on one side. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. Appendix 25 per cent. áramahara.Madh£k¡sava. IDENTITY. shows fragments of epidermal cells.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent. unicellular hairs. árama DOSE .4.15 g.2. KÀaya. Ah¤dya.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. Appendix 70 per cent. V¡tahara. tapetum not distinct. 2. Balya. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent.Dark brown. of the drug.2. oval shaped. KÀata. Pittakara.áv¡sa. lignified cells. 110 . 2.2. T¤À¸¡. Appendix 2. 2. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. spherical. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . endothecium composed of radially elongated. 2.2. El¡di Modaka. round. D¡ha.10 .2.6. Powder .3. Appendix 0. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac.

Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa.5 cm wide. short. nodiflora R. triandra Lam..5-5 cm long. A. fracture. no characteristic odour and taste. internodes 0. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. Br. A. cream to grey.) R..5 cm long. non Link. A. 0.6 cm diameter. 0. 2. Syn. sessile. no characteristic odour and taste. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. (Fam.P. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. Stem . no characteristic odour and taste.Cylindrical.. Gandal¢. Br..Flower in small axillary sessile heads. often rooting at lower nodes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Flower . weak.1.3-2 cm wide. Leaf . or elliptic. with spreading branches from the base. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. Amaranthaceae).47. yellowish-brown to light-brown. nodes and internodes distinct. white often tinged with pink. A.1-0. repens Gmel.3-7. obtuse or subacute. Br.. short. bracteoles 111 . linear-oblong. Matsy¡duni. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. denticulata R. fracture.Herbaceous.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. Bahli. Matshyakshi (W.

consisting of thin-walled cells.2 cm long.5 mm long.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. shows wavy or undulate. thin-walled.5-3 mm long. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. 112 . parenchymatous cells. single layered. acute. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. secondary cortex narrow.Utricle. irregular. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. radially arranged cork cells. perianth 2. compressed. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. vascualr bundles radially arranged. palisade ratio 3-5. with anomalous secondary growth. round to oval. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. scarious. pith distinct. each consisting of xylem and phloem. style very short. round or oval. isodiametic cells. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root .1. orbicular.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. consistig of thin-walled. compressed with thickened margins. collenchymatous cells. present in the centre. Fruit . numerous. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. capitellate. xylem tissues lignified. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. thin-walled round or oval. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. parenchymatous cells. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. sepals ovate. no characteristic odour and taste. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. isodiametric.dorsiventral. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. vascular bundles three. 1.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. ovary obcordate. with are conjoint. thin. Leaf- Midrib . no characteristic odour and taste. pith consisting of thin-walled. bicollateral. covered wtith striated cuticle. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. Lamina . anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. ovate. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. parenchymatous cells. open and exarch. stomata paracytic. Stem . stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. palisade 2-3 layers. composed of thin-walled. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round.

5 per cent.2 -3 g. 0. of the drug in powder form. Under U. 2. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view.44. CONSTITUENTS .2.16. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . Tikta.V. Kaphahara. 0. 0.2.44 (all green).. T. 0.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.6.C.C. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.25. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 2.4.Powder . 0.16. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .33 and 0. 2.2. 0. Pittavik¡ra. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.L.81.44.35. 0.L. IDENTITY. 2. Appendix 4. 0. 0.54 and 0.18. Appendix 10 per cent. 0. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.Olive green. 0. V¡tahara. Appendix 2.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.33. 0. paracytic stomata. 0. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.59. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.96 (all yellow).94 and 0. 113 . Appendix 3 per cent.Sugar.7. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.2. Appendix 19 per cent.68 (all red).

cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. bitter. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. very hard. 114 . Fabaceae). 0. smooth. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. several layers of thin walled. pleasant.48. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. Methi (Sd.35 cm broad. cultivated throughout the country. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated.2-0. annual herb.walled. varying in size. covered externally with thick cuticle. taste. 0. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. b) Microscopic Seed . mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex.5 cm long.) aromatic. (Fam. dull yellow. 30-60 cm tall. odour.Seed shows a layer of thick. mucilaginous cells. cells flat at base. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. columnar palisade. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side.15-0.

Sapogenins and Mucilage.2. 115 . THERAPEUTIC USES . oil globules. 2. Kaphahara. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.Graha¸¢. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.Alkaloid. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. Powder . Appendix 0. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. IDENTITY. Rucya. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. Prameha.2.2.Mustak¡riÀ¶a.5 per cent. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . aleurone grains. 2.2.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. Aruci DOSE .3-6 g.4.6. of the drug in powder form.Yellow. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix 2. 2. Jvara. CONSTITUENTS .3.2.

Slender.Flower in long terminal raceme. (Fam. yellowish-green.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. petals 1.. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. coarsely toothed. slightly pungent. compressed. cylindrical. Muli.P.5-10 cm long. lyrate. having a few longitudinal striations. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. sometimes brown red.1-1. hollow. bisexual.49. seplas 6. Mulaka (W. Leaf . white or lilac with yellow or 116 . cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. regular. Stem . not distinct. 0. Flower .Lower leaves hairy. sub-marginate at the apex. blade obovate. oblong.3 cm long. upper most leaves simple.) Brassicaceae). variable size and thickness.7-2. bright green. petiole 5-5. an annual or biennial bristly herb.Root cylindrical. taste. complete 1-2 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula.2 cm long. odour. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. pedicel with scattered hairs. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally.0 cm in dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .

4 cm thick. continuous or more or less constricted.Siliqua.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. taste.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. longitudinally sulcatus. Stem . 117 . present in cortex. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. Seed . 1-2 chambered. parenchymatous cells. pith a wide zone of polygonal. b) Microscopic Root . secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. round to oval. two outer smaller and four inner longer.appears biconvex in outline. elliptical.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. Lamina . one central and two lateral. 2-4 mm long.purple vein. vascular bundle three in number. thin-walled. epidermis followed by 6. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. green or brown-purple. cylindrical.dorsiventral. irregularly globose. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. sometimes flattened. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. solitary or ingroups.1. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. traversed by xylem rays. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle.8. round to oval. epidermis single layered.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. oily. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. present in cortex and phloem. stamen 6 in two whorls. greenish-yellow. Midrib . medullary rays four to many cells wide. endodermis at some places. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. covered with thick cuticle. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. 2 mm wide. style about 4 mm long. Leaf- Petiole . erect. ovary superior. thin-walled. single layered. 3-9 cm long and 0. present only on upper side. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. 10-12 ovuled. radially arranged. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. Fruit . palisade 2-3 layers. parenchymatous cells. occasionally pale purple. cork cells. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. phloem. traversed by phloem rays.Reddish-brown. hairs unicellular. starch grains simple.

2. tangentially elongated.40 ml.4. thinwalled. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. shows aseptate fibres.Agnim¡ndya.2. parenchymatous cells.20 .2. 2. Rucya. Gulma. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. covered with thin. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal.Yellowish-green.6. H¤dya. P¡cana. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed.Shows a single layered epidermis. thin-walled.7. parenchymatous cells present. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. 118 . Seed .M£lakakÀ¡ra. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Ar¿a. Powder . Svarya. covered with a thin-cuticle. spiral vessels. measuring 3-14 µ diameter.2. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. straight cuticle. Kaphahara.3. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS .Fruit . of the drug in juice form. 2.2. Appendix per cent. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. DOSE .Glucoside. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded.2. P¢nasa. Tikta Laghu. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Pittahara. Appendix 2. reddish-brown. Gandhaka Va¶¢. Appendix per cent.2. Ud¡varta. of columnar cells. Appendix per cent.

usually 25-40 cm in length. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Mula Muli Moolangi. variable in size.3. 119 . Appendix per cent.2.50. 2.) annual or biennial bristly herb. 2. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Visra. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent.2. Rakhyasmula Mula. slightly or strongly pungent.4. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. (Fam.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. IDENTITY. Mullangi.2. cylindrical. Moclangi gadde. 2. taste. Appendix per cent. Mulaka (Rt. white in colour.2.6. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. rarely sweet. Brassicaceae). Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. fusiform. Saleya. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka.2. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.2. Appendix 2. Mulaka. Appendix per cent.7. Appendix per cent.

04 & 0. Vrana. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. P¢nasa. K¡sa.04. Pittahara.09 (both blue). Tikta Laghu. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. Netraroga.LC. áv¡sa.L.69 (all yellow). P¡cana. 0.Agnim¡ndya. 0. 0. Svarya. 0.T. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Ud¡varta DOSE .Glucoside. H¤dya. 0.C.09 & 0. Rucya.V. of the drug in the juice form 120 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Gulma.09. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.15-30 ml.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .34. Ar¿a.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Galaroga. Jvara. T. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara.49 & 0. 0. Dadru. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.04.

inner cells thin-walled. odour. consisting of tangentially elongated. (Fam. secondary cortex composed of rounded. S.6 . vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . dull brown. tenuifolium Wall. Syn. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.42000 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. secondary phloem shows wide zone. a perennial herb. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. aromatic. Mura (Rt.Shows 10 . fibres and parenchyma. cambium 2-4 layered. thin-walled cells. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. Daitya. traversed by phloem rays.3 .51. traversed by xylem rays. colour. tangentially elongated. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 .2. thin-walled cells. slightly bitter. rectangular cells. 6-12 cm long and 0. taste. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars.) DC. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. 0. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Apiaceae ).25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. Gandhakuti.4 m tall.1. Root .

secondary phloem.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. xylem and phloem rays.2. shows groups of cork cells. Appendix 2. secretory canals. Bhrama.3. short with blunt ends. fibres aseptate. CONSTITUENTS . round to oval. D¡ha. somewhat oval cells. distributed throughout secondary cortex. 122 .Arvind¡sava. xylem parenchyma.having spiral thickenings.6. Appendix 9 per cent. Appendix 17 per cent. 2. Jvara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.1-3 g. Appendix 3.2. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. Ka¶u.7. secondary xylem and medullary rays. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. Powder . secretory canals numerous. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Brown. Tikta.2.2. IDENTITY. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . of the drug in powder form. 2.2. oil globules and simple starch grains. composed of radially arranged. M£rchha.. parenchymatous cells. 2. Sucrose and Mannitol.5 per cent. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. Appendix 9 per cent. secondary phloem. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. starch grains simple.áv¡sa. present in secondary cortex.

secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. (Fam. similar to those present in secondary cortex. twining shrub. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. rectangular cells. some filled with reddish-brown contents. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells.Shows a cork. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. bark easily separable from wood. slightly bitter. b) Microscopic Root . externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. odour.) Asclepiadaceae). stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size.52. fracture. tangentially elongated. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. a large stout. Murva (Rt. Koratige. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. indistinct. phloem rays 1 123 . Madhusrava.5-3 cm thick. & Am. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. Kallu Shambu. taste. phloem fibres absent. Halukaratige. resin cells present irregularly in this region. Jartor Koratige Hambu. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells.

2.7. Mukha áosa. DOSE . 5. Tikta Guru. present in parenchymatous tissues. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. Medoroga. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. Meha. measuring 5. fragments of cork. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. 2. of the drug in powder form.6. of the drug for decoction.Ar¿a. composed of vessels. Appendix 0. starch grains simple.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. IDENTITY. Ka¸·£. Appendix 14 per cent. Appendix 7 per cent.5 per cent. K¤miroga. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. Prameha Mihira Taila.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. vessels with pitted walls.3. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma.2. T¤Àn¡.2. 2.. consisting of small tangential.2.5 .3 cells wide.2. Appendix 2. 10-20 g. fibres. 2. tracheids. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Pittahara. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. shows a number of stone cells. V¡tahara.5-22 µ dia. Raktapitta. elliptical to spherical with central hilum.22 µ in diameter. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS ..2. 124 .4. Appendix 5 per cent. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. H¤droga.Light brown. Powder . fibretracheids.2-6 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. fibres. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components.tracheids. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. simple and compound starch grains.

parenchymatous cells. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. linear. connective and filament.8 . distinct protuberances on walls. b) Microscopic Androecium .0 cm long. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Nagachampakam.9-1. more or less twisted. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. Konkan. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar.9 cm long. thick-walled. consisting of thin-walled. Nahar Nageshvara. Pilunagkesar. soft to touch. an Ke¿ara. Naugaliral. coppery or golden brown. Hem¡. Bengal. Veluthapala. Guttiferae).) evergreen tree. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. shows elongated cells of filament. Nauga. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. connective not visible with naked eye. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. Nagakesari -Nangaa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige.Anther shows golden-brown. odour. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. (Fam. 125 . Nagppu. often buttressed at the base. astringent. Powder .53. N¡ga. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. fragrant. Nagakesar (Stmn. Sachunagkeshara. filiform. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. quite brittle. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. each stamen 0. Nagchampa. exine and intine distinct. taste. containing pollen grains.5 cm long. N¡gapuÀpa. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. slender. basifixed. filament 0. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. yellowish and thin-walled. anther about 0. Assam.1. Peri.Brown.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.4. Tikta. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. 2.7.2.3. 2. Kum¡ry¡sava. THERAPEUTIC USES .6.1-3 g.2. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. Appendix 2. áopharoga. 2.2. Appendix per cent. Var¸ya. V¡tarakta.Essential oil and Oleo-resin.Raktapitta. 126 . N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2. Vastiroga DOSE .Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. 2. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.2.

8 m high.54.2. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. leaflet 1-2. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. 127 . epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.3-1. N¢l¢n¢.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. pith composed of round to oval. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (Fam. 1.) shrub. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. pale green to greenish-black. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. Fabaceae). Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.2 cm wide.1.5 cm long and 0. Nili (Lf. no characteristic odour and taste. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu.

palisade 2-3 layers.. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .2. 2. CONSTITUENTS . both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Pl¢haroga. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. cuticle and hair.shows dorsiventral structure. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.3. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .Glycoside (Indican). Ud¡varta. aseptate fibres. 128 . Lamina . Jvara. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered.5 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. Appendix 2 per cent.Midrib . similar as in petiole and midrib.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.2.50-100 g. Udararoga.shows epidermis. 2.2. Appendix 2. Gulma. collateral and crescent shaped. shows groups of mesophyll cells. K¡sa. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Greenish-grey.Ëmav¡ta.4. V¡tahara.2. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. cuticle and hair. V¡tarakta. 2. similar as in petiole. of decoction.. epidermis. IDENTITY. K¤imiroga. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. pitted vessels.6. Ke¿ya.. Appendix 7. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. vascular bundle single.2.7. Appendix 25 per cent.

Nil. Nili (Rt. Gari Nili Kadunili. woody.. Neeli Nili.55.1 -1. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. with lenticels. slightly bitter. Fabaceae). vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. Nili. secondary cortex a narrow zone. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. rectangular.8 m high. cylindrical. consisting of usual elements. taste. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Karunili. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Olleneeli -Amari. 0. consisting of rectangular to polygonal.5 cm thick. Nili Chettu. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. Rangapatr¢.) shrub. Neeligida.10 layers of tangentially elongated. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. Nila -Neel Avuri.2-1. 129 . Nila Nili. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. odour not distinct. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. hard. group of fibres. (Fam. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. Indian Indigo Gali. thin-walled cells. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. 1. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. thin-walled cells.

0. ViÀavik¡ra. 0. 0. simple and compound starch grains. present in cortex. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Pl¢h¡roga. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0.06. 0.L.21. 0. 0.0. Recan¢. V¡tarakta.4. phloem.10. 0.7. 2.27. of drug for decoction. 0. DOSE .Gulma.80. 0.50.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.40.Arvind¡sava. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .91 (all grey).2.06. T. 2. 130 . Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.91 (blue). starch grains simple. Appendix 3 per cent.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. 0.75 (blue).86 and 0.86.63 (bluish green).14 (blue). Ke¿ya. pitted vessels. K¡sa. 0.14.58.33.3.91 (all yellow). 0. 0. Appendix 6 per cent. 2.V.Creamish-brown. 0. 0..27. 0.63.30 (bluish green). xylem parenchyma and rays.81. 0. Ud¡varta. 0. 0.33. 0.75.2.47 (blue).7 per cent. 0. 2. Ëmav¡ta.2. CONSTITUENTS . K¤imiroga.86 (green) and 0. Appendix 2.81 (blue).6.50. 0.C. 0.58 (blue). 0.58. Udararoga. Appendix 0. 0.10.2.40. 0.63.C. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.0.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tahara.. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. round to oval.48 g. 0. 0.40 (blue).2.14. 0. shows aseptate fibres. and 0. 0. IDENTITY.L. Appendix 4 per cent.75.

Kahibevu. Melia azadirachta Linn. 0. serrate. Limba. Oilevevu. exstipulate. Limbado. indistinct. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. taste. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches.56. Veppu. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Juss Syn.7 cm wide. crystals also present in phloem region. opposite.5 cm long and 1. leaflets with oblique base. Kohumba Nim. Bevinama -Veppu. odour. Veppan Vemu. Bakayan. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves .Compound.0-1. Meliaceae). below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. lanceolate. slightly yellowish-green. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. 131 . stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Aryaveppu. Limado. rachis 15-25 cm long. Bevu. Nimba (Lf. Nimbam.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Nimba Nimba. (Fam. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Arulundi. Nim. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Nim Vemmu. acute. Veppa Balantanimba. Bakan. alternate.1 cm thick. 7-8. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m.

132 . tangentially elongated cells. CONSTITUENTS . Prameha. composed of thin walled.6. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only.1-3 g. Appendix 2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. thin-walled cells. Appendix per cent. Netraroga. of the drug in powder form. K¤miroga. ViÀarogas DOSE . Powder .Jvara. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. palisade ratio 3. shows vessels.3. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. palisade single layered.Triterpenoids and Sterols.5 on lower surface and 8.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.7.2. Ëma¿otha.2. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction.shows dorsiventral structure.5 on upper surface.0-11.5. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2. stomatal index 13. epidermis on either surface. KuÀ¶ha. covered externally with thick cuticle.2. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.Lamina . Vrana. fibres. traversed by a number of veins.0-4. 2.0-14. 2. IDENTITY.2.Green. V¡tal¡. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. 2.

Nimba. considerably thick in older barks. (Fam. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. odour. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Nimba (St. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Bakam Veppai. Limba Nimba Nim. Kahibevu. Melia azadirachta Linn. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Nimb Bevu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Juss. taste. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. evergreen tree. fracture.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Oilevevu -Veppu. a moderate sized to fairly large. Syn. Nimba. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Meliaceae). fibrous. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present.57. characteristic. Aruveppu Balantanimba. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. fissured and rusty-grey. woody. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Kadunimb. extemal surface rough. Vembu Vemu.

On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS .C.90 (all blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. secondary cortex absent in most cases.measuring 2. Appendix 6 per cent. starch grains. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .86 (blue). 2. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate.3.63 and 0.2.2.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. T.45. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. Appendix 5 per cent.2. 2. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium.6. 0. IDENTITY. 0. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. lignified rectangular to polygonal. 2. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Appendix 7 per cent. and 0.Reddish-brown. ViÀaghna. measuring 2.75-5 µ in diameter.2. having wide lumen and distinct striations.outer surface.2. Kaphahara. Appendix 1. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.90 (green). (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.4. round with central hilum.5 per cent. cork cells.V. Appendix 2. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. 0. 0. simple.L. simple starch grains.C.20. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. stone cells mostly in groups. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. Pittahara.7. Powder .72 (blue).L. 2.

Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a DOSE . of the drug in powder form. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. 135 . Decoction should be used externally. Jvara.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .D¡ha. Rakta Pitta.2-4 g.. KuÀ¶ha. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Ka¸·u. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Prameha. K¤miroga.

pale brown. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. Camata. Palasha (St. Palash. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. 5-10 or more layered. Khakhapado Dhak. slightly astringent. Muttala -Plasu. moderately thick-walled.5 . exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. greyish to pale brown.15 m high with irregular branches. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. thin-walled. dark brown. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. Plas. Tesu Purasu. taste. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. exposing light brown surface. Paras Moduga.Bk) Fabaceae). secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline.2 cm thick usually peels off. often in groups. tanniniferous cells. 12 . rectangular. except in very arid parts.1 cm thick. curved. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. rectangular 136 . Khakharo.58. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. dark-brown. fracture. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. Muttuga. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. rhytidoma 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka.) Kuntze (Fam. having brown colour. cork cells. internal surface rough. Modugu. Chettu Dhak. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. 0. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. Tesu Muttug. Dhak.

in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4 layers of sclereids.48 and 0.4.67 (all violet). numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.cells followed by a zone of 2 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends. 0. 0. 2.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.48 and 0.3 components. Appendix 2.50 cells in height. thin-walled cork cells. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.3. T. phloem parenchyma. measuring 2. 2.6. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 1.65 (all blue). Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 12 per cent.10. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . companion cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. 0.10.18. Powder .75 µ in dia.13. 7 . crystal fibres.2. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.2. 137 . straight. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.5 per cent. dark brown coloured cells.L.67 (all yellow).48.2. 2.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. 0. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly.10.Reddish-brown. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . Appendix 14 per cent.C. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.V.75 .12 cells wide. 0.L. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. sclereids mostly in groups.. traversed by phloem rays. phloem fibres.2. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 0.. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.C.2. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.7. 0. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . 0.2.

Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Ar¿a. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Agnid¢paka.5-10 g.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vra¸a. DOSE . Tikta. 138 . Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. K¤miroga. Graha¸¢. KaÀ¡ya Sara.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. S¡raka . Gulma. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES .

yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. quick growing tree. parenchymatous cells. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed.5-2. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0.Bk) Fabaceae). Mulmurumgai Badisa. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. Pangara Hongar. radially arranged and thin-walled. yellowish to cream coloured. tangentially elongated to squarish. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. smooth. (Fam.0 cm thick. exfoliating in narrow strips. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . medium sized. secondary cortex consists of large. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. inner bark fibrous. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey.59. Paribhadra (St. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. stone 139 .

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. V¡taroga DOSE ..Alkaloids. Balak¤t.. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.2-4 g. of drug in powder form.V¡tarakta.CONSTITUENTS .Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. V¤Àya. 148 . Volatile Oil. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . pleasant. funicle stout. hilum present at the apex of round edge. latifolia Roxb. 0.5 cm wide. Shalichokha Piyal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. sweetish-oily. sclerenchymatous cells.4-0. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. taste. odour. mottled with darker brown lines. which are of various size.63. pitted. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. collapsed cells of integument. Priyalam.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. Chowl.3-0. followed by remnants of disorganised. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur.6 cm long. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. Piyar. Priyala (Sd. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Korka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. large. linear. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. thick-walled.) Anacardiaceae). an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. B. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. b) Microscopic Seed . Syn. Satdhan -Charal. creamish-brown. occurring mostly in groups. 0. Saraparuppu Sara. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. micropyle superior. (Farn.

98 (all yellow). Bhagnas¡dhaka.2. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. KÀata. 2.6.A creamish-brown paste. V¡tahara.10 . 0.7.0 µ in dia. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. procambium bundles. V¤Àya. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf.27. DOSE . 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. Priy¡la Taila. Appendix 7 per cent.08. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. BrÆha¸a.98 (all violet). KÀaya.V. and oil globules. CONSTITUENTS . 150 . 0.D¡ha.type. 0. 2. 0.C. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. T.2.L. Oil and Starch. Kaphakara.2. Sara.08.2.20 g.2. 2. Raktapitta.C.L.5 per cent.72.94 (blue). and sclerenchymatous cells. 0. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. 0. áukrakara. 2.91. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. of the drug in powder form. 0.measuring 2. H¤dya.54. THERAPEUTIC USES .4.54. Appendix 10 per cent. shows numerous mesophyll cells.P£gakha¸·a. 0. Pittahara.5-5.3. Appendix 0.94 and 0.27. Powder .84. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.5-5. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. 0. IDENTITY. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.91. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2.72.Albuminoids.0 µ in dia. 0. Balya.72 and 0.94 and 0. 0.

basifixed. 2. equal in size. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. style. ovary 2-4 celled. epipetalous. densely hairy. filament very long. 1. peduncle cylindrical.3 mm in dia.) Verbenaceae). stamens 4. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. calyx. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. stigma minutely capitate. brown.4 m high shrub. tubular. corolla. Priyangu (Infl. densely clothed with wooly hairs.64. thin-walled. hairy. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . 4 lobbed spreading. (Fam. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu.5-7.2. an erect. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. long. bell-shaped. 1.5 cm across. brown.0.2. b) Microscopic Peduncle . anther ovate. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam.Cymose. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢.Shows more or less wavy outline. and abundant in Bengal plains.5 .5 cm long. Flower . a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. parenchymatous cells.

DOSE .Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. 2.2. (Mukharoga). Resin and Saponin. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya.3.Glycosides. Vra¸aropa¸a. Appendix per cent.7. xylem consists of usual elements. fibres aseptate. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Appendix per cent. N¢lik¡dya Taila.1-3 g. 2. of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara. elliptical. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Powder . Jvara.2. IDENTITY. Ku´kum¡di Taila. Terpenes. CONSTITUENTS .6. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pras¡dana. Sved¡dhikya. spiral vessels.2. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs.2. Phenolic compound. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M£travirajan¢ya.2. Rakta. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. 2. 152 . groups of thin-walled.D¡ha.4.Brown. Rakta-Pitta. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Pakv¡tis¡ra.2. 2. Daurgandhyahara. Sandh¡n¢ya. El¡di C£r¸a.fibres. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Kanaka Taila. aseptate fibres. Appendix 2.

1 cm thick with a few rootlets.) cultivated throughout India. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Coke Chaval. sclerenchymatous cells. Odalu. Nelver Dhanyamu. exodermis 1-2 layered. soft. b) Microscopic Root .Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. sclerenchymatous cells. cortex differentiated into three zones. thick-walled. pitted vessels and 153 . Nellu. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Jhona Arishi. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Corava. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. composed of thick-walled. Damgara. Nivara -Chaval. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Cala. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Biyyamu Chaval. Shali (Rt. Dh¡nya. Nellu Tandulamul. both consisting of round to oval. Paddy Shalichokha. Bhatta. an annual herb.65. cylindrical. Akki -Ari. Vr¢hi.05-0. Bhata. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Chawl. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. smooth. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. thin.Greyish-cream. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Poaceae). Dhanarmul. Powder . Dhana. (Fam. Sali. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Dhan Rice. Dhana Bhatto.

2. Var¸ak¤t. BrÆha¸a.7.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . 2. Svarya.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. of the drug for decoction. CakÀuÀya. H¤dya. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. V¡tahara. Laghu. 154 . M£trala. 2.2.StanyakÀaya.50 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Balya.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Rucya. Kaphahara.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . KaÀ¡ya Guru. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Appendix 2.2. 2.2.4.2. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent.

) Convolvulaceae).Shortly petiolate. perennial herb with a woody root stock. cylindrical. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots.5 cm broad.5-2 cm long and 0.White or pinkish. alternate with the petals. cylindrical. Flower . about 0.P. found throughout the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. sepals narrowly. Sankhapuspi. free. Shankhapushpi. epipetalous. acute. sparsely hairy.4 cm thick.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. Shankhavela. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Kakkanangudi. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. spreading. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. 0. corolla shortly discoid. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. sub-erect.1-0. linear-lanceolate. linear-lanceolate. 0. inserted deep in the corolla tube. hairy on both surfaces. a prostrate. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam.1-0. Leaf . light green. light green.Usually branched.Slender. hairy. ovary superior and bicarpellary. Karakhuratt.66. stamen 5. Stem . áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. yellowish-brown to light brown. 1-5 cm long. Sankha pushpin (W. 155 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .

secretory cells present in this region. xylem consisting of usual elements. simple and composed of 2-3 components. Stem . medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length.0. Powder . oblong globose with coriaceous.. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. xylem consists of vessels. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered.Fruit . mm. present in cortex. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. present on both surfaces. starch grains solitary or in groups.Light yellowish-green. palisade ratio 6-9. epidermis single layered. phloem composed of sieve elements. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. 13. measuring 3 . vascular bundle bicollateral.. cortex differentiated in two zones. round to oval in shape. simple and compound starch grains. pale brown pericarp. phloem. endoderrnis single layered. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. fibres and parenchyma. LeafMidrib .Brown. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. fibres and tracheids. b) Microscopic Root . stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.walled cells. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. both having round to oval.Capsule. xylem rays and parenchyma. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. thin.8-17. at places unicellular hairs present. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. palisade two layered.Shows single layered epidermis. Seed . and in upper surface 202-238 per sq.8 µ in dia. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. thick-walled cells. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. hairs unicellular. covered with thick cuticle. tanniniferous. phloem a narrow zone. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. minutely puberulous. mm. elliptical. covered with thick cuticle. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. Lamina . 156 . pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. unicellular hairs. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. vein islet number 21-25 per sq.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. elongated. .Appears nearly circular in outline. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.

Appendix per cent. Br¡hma. 2.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Appendix per cent.3. 2. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Ras¡yana.2. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.2. Kaphahara.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent.M¡nasaroga. ËyuÀya.4.IDENTITY. Clitoria ternatea Linn.6. Appendix per cent. Tikta. Pittahara. Appendix 2.3-8 g.2. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . Ras¡yana. Apasm¡ra DOSE .7. Agastyahar¢tak¢. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Ras¡yana. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.2. 2.2. Medhya. 2.

found throughout India in the plains and low hills. 3. odour and taste indistinct. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . gland semilunate. 1 mm long. 3-4 mm in dia. annual herb. having a few secondary roots. a much branched. short. style. ovate. Joyachi.Small. Fruit .5-2 mm thick.7-7 cm long. subacute. linear. horned. Leaf . 0. 158 .5 mm across at the mouth. solitary. Saptala (W. sub-sessile. ribbed. gradually tapering. free to the base. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate.P. sessile. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. Chagulputputi Satala.Capsule. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. Siju. cylindrical. lobes short. Carmas¡hv¡.8 cm wide.Involucre broadly campanulate. 0. shortly 2-fid at the apex. pale brown. filament pubescent. ciliolate. greenish-yellow. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. Bilikalli. odour and taste not distinct. smooth.) Euphorbiaceae). trilocular. 20-40 cm high.2-0. Flower . fracture. 2.1. lanceolate or linear oblong. 4-5 cm long.67.celled with or without attached pedicel. (Fam.

Leaf- Midrib . a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. all elements thick-walled and lignified. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. epidermis single layered. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. found scattered in phloem region. fibres and tracheids. simple. thickwalled and lignified. filled with yellowish-brown content. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. covered externally with thick.Seed . parenchymatous cells.5-19. fibres and vessels having simple pits.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled.Young root shows exfoliated. grooved at one side. with wide lumen present in this region. elliptical. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated cells. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. tangentially elongated elliptical.shows slightly convex outline. stone cells oval to elongated. starch grains simple. 2. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. 159 . rounded at the base. composed of sieve elements. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. secondary xylem composed of vessels. elliptical. parenchymatous cells. circular to oval.6 layers of oval. rounded to oval.3 mm long. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. secondary phloem narrow. traversed by numerous xylem rays. secondary cortex consists of 4. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. striated cuticle. leprous tuberculate testa. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. flattended. endodermis not distinct. mature root shows thin walled cork. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. measuring 5. vessels having simple pits. lignified cells with wide lumen. b) Microscopic Root . fibres elongated and aseptate. secondary xylem consists of vessels. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. tracheids and medullary rays. fibres. solitary or in groups. rectangular. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. palisade single layered present on both sides. thick-walled lignified. centre occupied by a pith. consisting of thick-walled. single layered epidermis.25 µ in diameter.75 µ in dia. rounded to oval. Stem . all elements. some rounded. rarely a few oil globules also present.

160 .C. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. shows vessels with simple pits.C.2.L.46 (brown) and 0.87 (violet). oval to elongated. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. RukÀa. Appendix per cent.Powder .L.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). aseptate fibres. DOSE .Light yellow. Vibandha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.2. T. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V.57 (all yellow). 2.4. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. 2. and 0. Appendix per cent. Visarpa. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. 0. simple. of the drug for decoction. Mi¿raka Sneha.46.Ën¡ha.04.50 g.2. Gulma. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. Appendix 2. 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. elliptical. 2. RaktadoÀahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.04 and 0.2. 0. stone cells thick-walled. V¡tal¡.2. rounded to oval starch grains.0.2.3. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.6. Udararoga.67. CONSTITUENTS . lignified with wide lumen. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .7. Ud¡vartta. IDENTITY.

slightly sharp taste. dorsal 161 ..) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. graveolens Benth. Satahva (Fr. yellowish membranous wings. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva.68. mesocarp. Sulpha.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. Shulupa. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits.. graveolens Linn. mericarps usually separate and free. often stalk attached. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. akin to caraway. and a warm. sowa Roxb.. P. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. dark brown. A. vittae. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. parenchymatous. A. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. Apiaceae). Shepa. odour. (Fam. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. Syn. filiform and incospicuous. a tall. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. graveolens DC. ex Flem. 4 mm long. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. brown. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. glabrous. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. slightly raised. var. b) Microscopic Fruit . glabrous. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil.

Appendix 1. CONSTITUENTS . Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Vra¸a.4. Appendix 14 per cent. 2. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.68 (violet).59 and 0.6. 2. cellulosic.59 (blue) and 0. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. Jvara. 2.10 T.37 (pink) 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. Appendix 15 per cent.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Appendix 3 per cent. 162 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent.68 (all yellow). N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. Powder . passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels.2. V¡tahara.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.2. IDENTITY.L. Appendix 2.3.C.Brown. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. of the drug in powder form. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. 0.L. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.5 per cent.Essential Oil.2. 2. shows spiral vessels. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Netra Roga DOSE .7. 2. each costae with vascular strands. carpophore split.3-6 g.á£la.costae three. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara.C. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.2.2. Atis¡ra. Appendix 4 per cent.2.

entire. consisting of pericyclic fibres. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Rachis . Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. Sekato. Moringaceae). followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. Muringa Elai Sevaga. parenchymatous cells. Syn. ovate or obovate. (Fam. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. commonly cultivated throughout the country.Rachis shows single layered epidermis.5-1 cm wide. pericycle forming a broken ring. Muringa. vascular bundle collateral.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Segata. central region 163 b) Microscopic . and articulated at the base. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Bahala. Tishnagandha. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. leaflet 1. odour and taste not distinct. Nugge ele -Murinna. Shigru (Lf. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Mungna Neegge. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound.) Gaertn. Shewgachi pane Sajana. Munga. Mocaka -Sajina. oval to elliptical. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. thin walled. slender. a small or medium sized tree. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers.2-2 cm long and 0. Segata pana. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Sajna. AkÀ¢va. palisade single layered. Leaflet . cortex consisting of 5-10 layered.69. pith and phloem parenchyma. elliptic. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. thickened. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡.

0.69 (yellow). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. áukra N¡¿aka. 0.6. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. K¤mihara. 0. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.46 (both blue).2.59 (blue). 0. spiral vessels. 0. 0. 0.94 (yellow) in visible light. Under U. Appendix per cent. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.26. 0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya.26 (all green).2. present on both surface but more on lower sur face.C. 0.82 (yellow) and 0. Medohara. 0. Protein.C.2. Appendix per cent.2. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.05. 0.L. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.52 (green).26. palisade cells.94 (blue). RukÀa. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. 0.69 (blue) and 0. Appendix 2. 0.3. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.46 (all red) & 0.87 (blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.occupied by a crescent-shaped. (all green). 0. 0. IDENTITY. 0.46 (dark green) & 0.18. stomata anornocytic. vein islets number 50-65. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 2.36 (yellowish green).46 (green). 2. 2.05.36 (green). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. 0. 0.20.7.0.Carbohydrate. 0. 0.53 (yellow). 0. Appendix per cent. B ¤Æhana. V¡tahara.2. 2.V. palisade ratio 6-11.30 (pink). Appendix per cent. Powder -Greyish-green.18. 0.4. T.94 (violet).2. Pittahara.L. Sirovirecaka 164 . CONSTITUENTS . unicellular hairs with blunt tip.36.38.05.

20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.áopha. Medoroga. Pl¢haroga. ViÀatinduka Taila. 165 .Ratnagiri Rasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¤miroga.10 . Vidradhi. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Gulma. Galaga¸·a. DOSE .

aromatic. perisperm consists of polygonal. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. (Fam. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. spicy pungent. perispenn encloses the 166 . testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed.3 cm wide. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki.) Zingiberaceae). brown to dark brown. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. thin walled. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. taste. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. odour. thin-walled. Beraelam. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. membraneous aril.70. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. Sthulaela (Sd. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb.. sclerenchymatous.4 cm long.

2. Appendix 1.2. Appendix 4 per cent. rich in protein.2. Rocaka. IDENTITY. Mukharoga. 2. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. (Seed). both composed of polygonal. oil globules. RukÀa.2. DOSE . 167 . M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). K¡sa. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . thin-walled. Powder . Mukha¿odhaka.3.(Seed). of the drug in powder form. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.5 -1 g. 2. Chardi. perisperm cells.áv¡sa. Appendix 5 per cent. simple. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. parenchymatous cells. shows fragments of testa. rounded to oval.2. Tikta Laghu.Light brown. H¤ll¡sa. thin-walled. V¡tahara.5 per cent.6. polygonal. Kaphahara.S¡rivady¡sava.4. Ka¸·u. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.2. Appendix 14 per cent. Note . 2.2.7. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.10 CONSTITUENTS .Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. T¤À¸¡. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.0.endosperm and embryo. Appendix 2.

external surface pale brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam.71. internal surface smooth. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high.Bk. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. short. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Thumbooni. Rutaceae). channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. sharp prickles. aromatic pungent. odour. rather deeply furrowed. Z. taste. light yellow to pale brown.) Roxb. Jimmi. stem and branches. Tumbura. fracture. phloem fibres thickwalled. Tumburudra. Tejovati (St. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. armed with long. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. brownish. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. thin-walled. aromatic. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. lignified. thick-walled cells. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. Syn.2 cm thick. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky.0. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. (Fam. Tejovanti -Thumboonal.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places.1-0. stone cells found in 168 .

shows fragments of cork cells. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high.5 per cent. Powder .10-20 g.6. Kaphahara. Rucya. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. oil globules and starch grains. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. stone cells.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.Aruci. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug for decoction. 2.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. Appendix 8. DOSE . round and oval measuring 2.7. Mukharoga.13. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. áv¡sa.2.75 µ in diameter.3.13.2. Appendix 2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .75 µ in diameter.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.2. K¡sa. P¡cana. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. Appendix 13 per cent. a Volatile Oil and Resin. Appendix 1. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). THERAPEUTIC USES . Ëmav¡ta.75 .2. Medhya. Hikk¡. IDENTITY.5 per cent.Yellowish-brown.75 . 169 . measuring 2. starch grains round and oval. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.2. 2.2. Appendix 12 per cent.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. aseptate fibres.

internally cream. elliptic oblong. herbaceous. odour. blackish-brown externally and pale. small in close whorls. pubescent on both sides. much branched.72. Tulasi (W. entire or serrate. hairy. hairy. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular.3.5-3 cm long hairy.P. slender. branched. odour faintly aromatic. lower lip 170 . Shree Tulasi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. K¤À¸atulas¢.6 . pedicels longer than calyx. externally purplish-brown to black. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn.2.60 cm high. pubescent. fracture. Stem . 30 . aromatic.Purplish or crimson coloured. soft. characteristic. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi.2 cm wide.Erect. woody. obtuse or acute. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. about 1. petiole thin. Thulasi. sub quadrangular. violet internally. Lamiaceae). coloured. fibrous in bark and short in xylem.) an erect.5-5 cm long 1.Thin. annual herb. taste. wiry. branched. Leaf . (Fam. shortly apiculate. found throughout the country. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Flower .

aromatic. vessels pitted.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex.A group of 4 nutlets. slightly notched at the base. xylem surrounded by phloem. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. no odour. 0. rectangular. thin-walled. slightly compressed. pungent. taste. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. veined calyx. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. each with one seed. Stem . consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. enclosed in an enlarged. Midrib . in groups and rarely in singles. middle one larger than other two.1 cm long.epidermis. pungent. brown. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. elongated. aromatic. phloem consisting of sieve elements. thin-walled.Rounded to oval. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. filled with brown content.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. glandular trichomes short. parenchymatous cells. pitted with pointed ends. membranous. nearly smooth. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. Fruit .rarely slightly reflexed at tip. round to oval polygonal. thin-walled. taste. phloem consists of sieve elements. three vascular bundles situated centrally. fibre tracheides. odour. pubescent. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled.shows somewhat cordate outline. 171 . slightly mucilaginous. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. fibres and parenchyma. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. taste. long. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. tracheids. vessels pitted. occasionally a few cells collapsed. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. b) Microscopic Root . thin-walled. Leaf- Petiole . fibres with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. pungent. measuring 22-27 in dia. odour. corolla about 4 mm long. lateral two short and central two largest. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. found scattered in phloem. mucilaginous when soaked in water. xylem consists of vessels. Seed .Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. parenchymatous cells.

fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.8.16 on lower surface. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. CONSTITUENTS . 2. vein islet number 31 . parenchymatous cells. Record Rf. values of eugenol and caryophyllence.6. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. Powder .3.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole.2. in thoroughly vanillin . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. Appendix 4 per cent. 2.1. V¡tahara. thin walled fibres. Appendix 2. Durgandhihara 172 .35. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. Kaphahara. slightly raised above the level of epidermis.2. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.Lamina .7. Appendix 8 per cent.Essential Oil. RukÀa. value 0.15 . After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. IDENTITY. oil globules.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . rounded to oval. Rucya.7. palisade ratio 3. H¤dya.C.L. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. On cooling spray. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. Appendix 1. T. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10).minutes Under observation.2.Greenish: shows thin-walled.5 per cent. Tikta. 2.C. a few containing reddish brown contents.4.L. Pittavardhin¢. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.2. Rf.

áv¡sa. K¤miroga. Chardi. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). Hikk¡. K¡sa. 173 . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. Netraroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .1-3 ml of the drug in juice form.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa.A¿mar¢. KuÀ¶ha. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE .

1. measuring 22-27 µ dia. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. three vascular bundles situated centrally. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. K¤À¸atulas¢. taste. characteristic. Holy Basil Tulasi. glandular trichomes short. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. middle one larger than the other two. pubescent on both surfaces. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. entire or serrate. much branched annual herb. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. elliptic-oblong. odour. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. Lamiaceae). upper epidermis.5-3 cm long. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi.73.6-3. enclosed in a cuticular bladder.. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil.) 30-60 cm high.2 cm wide. (Fam. LeafPetiole . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. and 2-8 celled. thin. hairy. aromatic. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. an erect. obtuse or acute. consisting of xylem and phloem.shows cordate outline. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2.5-5 cm long. found throughout the country. covering trichomes multicellular. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. petiole 1. balloon-shaped head. petiolate. 174 b) Microscopic . Tulasi (Lf.

0. Nerol and Camphene etc. 0.C. Under U.85 & 0. 0. vein islet number 31-33. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.04.2. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. 0.L.12 (light green).88 and 0. 0. 0.Midrib . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.Light-green.98 (blue).54.45 (violet). less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. 0. 0. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.2.75 (violet). 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.93 (both light green). 175 ..12. Lamina .epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. Caryophyllene.54 (blue). stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. 2.83.8.93 (violet) and 0.75. shows fragments of polygonal. 0. 0.V.2.epidermis.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. 0. palisade ratio 3. anomocytic and diacytic stomata. 0. palisade and spongy parenchyma. 2. Appendix per cent. 2.6. 0.33.85 (blue). trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.2.93 (pink) & 0.C. 0.2.04. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.30.21. 0. 0.08 (both green).03 (dark green). 0.98 (blue).45.12 (light violet). 0.2. 0. 2. Appendix per cent.08.4.04.08 (violet). (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. 0. 0. IDENTITY.L. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0. 0.21. 0. 0. 0.33. Powder .). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 2.7.33 (both green) 0. Appendix per cent.83 (all pink) 0. 0.45. T.33 (violet).21 (brown). 0.3. CONSTITUENTS .45 (yellowish green). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.93 (all0 yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.83 (blue).

M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Tikta.Aruci. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Prati¿y¡ya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. 176 . K¤miroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. Pittahara.2-3 g. RukÀa. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Hikk¡. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. K¡sa. Kaphahara. áv¡sa. V¡tahara. KuÀ¶ha. H¤dya.

(Fam. Araceae). Rhizome . cells towards periphery. smaller. Gora-bach Baje. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight.74. odour. Ugr¡. buff coloured intemally. upper side marked with alternately arranged. thin-walled cells of various sizes. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. enclosing large air spaces. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. short. somewhat collenchymatous. and 0. Vekhandas -Varch.Shows single layered epidermis. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. Vacha (Rz. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. fracture. Ghodavaca Vasambu. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. aromatic.5 cm thick. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. large. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. pungent and bitter. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. triangular. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. broadly. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. Ghodvach Bach. taste. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present.5-1.) semiaquatic herb.

2. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. 2.Buff coloured. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.2. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. Eugenol and Asarone).L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.2. Starch and Tannin. Appendix per cent.region.2. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. spherical.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.3.Yellowish-cream b. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.7.6.10 T.14 (violet) and 0.L. 0. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. reticulate. Methanol-Yellowish green iv.2.. Powder .2. Appendix per cent. Chloroform-Light green iii. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. 178 .4. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Extracts in i.C. Petroleum ether-No change ii. shows fibres.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. 2. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. stele composed of round. present in cortex and ground tissue. 2. endodermis distinct. Powder as such: .C.2. starch grains simple.2.

M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Unm¡da. S¡rasvata. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Ëdhm¡na.á£la. Medhya.2 g. Vibandha. Kaphahara. Apasm¡ra. K¡sa. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila.Vac¡di Taila. 179 . S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta Laghu. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. 1. áv¡sa. V¡tahara. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. C£r¸a. K¤mihara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. THERAPEUTIC USES .60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Kar¸a Sr¡va. DOSE . Ka¸¶hya.

Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. small portions of stem sometimes attached. odour indistinct. without or with a few intercellular spaces. ovoid. dark brown to blackish-brown. 2-4. Naabhi Bachnak. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Teliya Bish Basanalli. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end.1. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Vatsanabha (Rt. rough due to root scars. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. occasionally separated due to breakage. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. Ranunculaceae). fracture. Beesh. poisonous. tapering downwards to a point.8 cm thick.4 . suberised. Sth¡varaviÀa. 0. parenchymatous cells. plant is an erect. Mahura. Vatsanabha. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. Bachhnaag.5 cm. thin-walled. Meethabisha. cartilaginous. roots are generally collected late in September. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . papillose on outside. perennial herb. taste. Nabhi. Basanaag Bisa. Vatsanabhi. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Vatsanabhi.) (Fam. conical. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Mithatelia Vasanaavi.75. rarely 5 cm long. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. Mithalelia. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf.

0. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .56. Appendix 5. often forming 'V' shaped ring. S £tasekhara Rasa. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa.20. CONSTITUENTS .39. T. Appendix 2 per cent. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. xylem exarch.4.C.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. RukÀa. 0. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. some scattered. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.3.2. Appendix 2.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. 0. 2. inner bark parenchymatous. present in cortical cells. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. IDENTITY.2. 2. 2.96 (both orange). xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. Appendix 8 per cent. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex.6.C. containing a few groups of phloem strands. a few aseptate fibres. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. Anandabhairava Rasa.2.74 and 0.2. occupying more than half the radius.10. cambium having 6 10 angles. Laghu. 2. 0. Powder . and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. Viyav¡yi.2. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia.39 and 0. shows vessels.5 per cent. Appendix 24 per cent. 0. Sv®dala.L. UÀ¸a.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.endodermis. Trid°Àahara. consisting of round to oval cells.2. ÙikÀ¸a. metaxylem vessels met in centre.Light grey.7.

V¡taroga. Jvar¡tis¡ra. V¡takaphajvara. 182 . Sannip¡ta. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.15 .THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . Kanharoga.30 mgs of the drug in powder form.

Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . cut surface creamish-brown. sweetish. thin-walled cells. smooth except for protuberances at some places. Nelagumbala. stone cells moderately thick-walled. Bhoikolu. usually does not break. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. Bhonykoru. thinwalled. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. taste. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m.76. but pliable. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers.Rt. Fabaceae). Eagio. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Gumadi belli. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Vid¡rik¡.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. Bhumikusmanda. (Fam. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Nelagumbula. starchy and somewhat porous. outer surface reddish-brown. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. Bhuikumra Vidari. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Vidari (Tub.

75 µ in dia. having central hilum and striations. a few latex duct also present. lignified with narrow lumen. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara. somewhat round. IDENTITY. 2.2. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). Var¸ya.3. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Angmarda.Buff coloured. DOSE .2.. 2.5 per cent. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.and pits. Appendix 24 per cent. phloem fibres much elongated. 2. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. present in all parenchymatous cells.2. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.2. Appendix 2. Raktapitta.7.13.3-6 g. 2. 184 .5 . Daurbalya.6. distributed throughout this region. and also rarely in stone cells. Appendix 4. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. measuring 5. J¢van¢ya.Marma Gu¶ik¡. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. radially elongated cells. Pittahara. áoÀa. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. M£trala. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. angular to oval. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 17 per cent.Gluconic and Malic acids.75 µ in dia.D¡ha. Balya.5 . Stanyada. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. highly thickened.13. Svarya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.4. Ras¡yana.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 4 per cent. Powder . fragments of cork. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.2. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements.

spongy parenchymatous cells. 50-100 cm high. polygortal inner epidermal cells. seed coat appears as a colourless line. taste.2-0. thick-walled. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. erect herb. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. cultivated chiefly in North India. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. Jav Barley Cheno. (Fam.3 cm wide. sativum Pers. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn.77. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. an annual. sweetish-acrid. smooth. round to oval wavy walled cells. oblong. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular.) Poaceae). pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. about 1 cm long and 0. Yava (Fr. pale-greenish-yellow. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . odour. followed by 2-3 layers. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. sclerenchymatous fibres. square or quadrilateral. elliptic. H. not distinct. followed by more or less.

0. 0.24.2. 2.2. Proteins (Albumin. Vitexin etc. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. simple starch grains. Svarya.2. Sthairyakara.L.22.5 per cent.6. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.53. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. 2. 2. 0. Pur¢Àak ¤t. 0. 0. 0.4.68. Fats. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.22. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Lekhana. Powder .68. 0.10. starch grains simple. V¡tak¤t. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7 T. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Orientoside.44. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.Starch.56. Kaphahara. Sugars. 0.16.2. Appendix 5. V¤Àya. Appendix 4 per cent.92 (all grey).C.31.2. 0.31. and the rest starch layers.83 and 0.14.narrow lumens. Appendix 2.3. Medahara.83 (all violet) and 0.2. Orientin.36.V. 0. 0. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. IDENTITY.31. 0. Appendix 2. 0.L.5 per cent. Appendix 1. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. endosperm divided into two zones. 0.C. 0.45.92 (yellow).72 (all pink.5 per cent.65 & 0. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 0. round to oval. 0.5 2.10. Pittahara. 0. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. Globulin. 0. Var¸ya 186 . M£trahara. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. sclerenchymatous fibres.2. 2. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.) CONSTITUENTS . On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.Creamish-white.06.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Dh¡nvantara Taila. Urustambha.200 g. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Gandharvahasta Taila. K¡sa. El¡dya Modaka. Tvagroga DOSE . 187 . Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. THERAPEUTIC USES . Medoroga.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. T¤À¸¡. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.100 . Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Prameha. P¢nasa. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. of the drug. Kanharoga.áv¡sa.

Leaf . elliptical.1-1 cm thick. opposite. filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary cortex almost 188 . oblong. Desv. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated.8 cm long. a small thorny shrub. Y¡sa. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. (Fam. 0. Stem .) Fabaceae). ballidurabi. cork cambium single layered. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. Punjab. gradually tapering. glabrous. slightly rough at basal region with slender. sharp axillary spines upto 3. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. dark brown. alternate. 20-30 cm long and 0. extipulate.5-0. radially arranged cork cells. fracture. Yavasaka (W. branched. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). glabrous. Neladangara.Simple. nearly 0. terete. mucronate obtuse. Duralabha -Venkatithura. no taste and odour. stipules green.7 cm broad.P. short. secondary and tertiary root absent. striate.5-1 cm long.Cylindrical. Javasa. drooping. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri.78.Well developed. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida.2-1 cm thick. hard.

xylem situated above phlome. parenchyma and fibres.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. 3-45 cells long. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. angular. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. tanniniferous cells.5-14.Greenish-brown. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. phloem composed of sieve elements. tracheids. 5.75 µ in dia. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. rounded to oval. hypodermis 2-3 layered. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays.75 µ in diameter. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. hypodermis 1-2 layered. tracheids. Midrib . Leaf- Petiole . medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. elongated. thin-walled. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. vascular bundle collateral. parenchymatous cells. a few with thick wall and simple pits. xylem fibres.14. pith composed of a few thin-walled. starch grains simple. parenchymatous cells. covered externally with thick cuticle.absent. epidermis single layered. pitted vessels. xylem consists of vessels. present throughout the region. filled with tannin. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. thin-walled. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. phloem composed of sieve elements. tangentially elongated cells. Stem . fibres. Powder .5. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. Lamina . shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. some cells filled with tannin. covered with cuticle. xylem consists of vessels.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. tracheids and fibres. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region.appears biconvex in outline. simple. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. 189 . rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.appears circular in outline. filled with tannin.

Appendix 13. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. Appendix 10 per cent.5 per cent.5 per cent.4.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.7. Appendix 2. Invert Sugars).20 . Raktapitta. CONSTITUENTS .50 g. 2.Chardi.3.2. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Tikta. Appendix 2.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2.Sugars (Melizitose. Jvara. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. V¡tarakta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 190 . Sucrose. 2. T¤À¸¡. Kaphahara.6. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Visarpa DOSE . Appendix 2 per cent. D¢pana. Arimed¡di Taila.2. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2.2.IDENTITY.2.

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