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The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Vol 2

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Vol 2

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Sections

  • 1. Akarakarabha (Rt.)
  • 2. Akshoda (Cotldn.)
  • 3. Amrata (St.Bk.)
  • 4. Apamarga (W.P.)
  • 5. Aparajita (Rt.)
  • 6. Ardraka (Rz.)
  • 7. Arimeda (St.Bk.)
  • 9. Bhallataka (Fr.)
  • 10. Bhringaraja (W.P.)
  • 11. Brahmi (W.P.)
  • 12. Brihati (Rt.)
  • 13. Chavya (St.)
  • 14. Dadima (Sd.)
  • 15. Daruharidra (St.)
  • 16. Dronapushpi (W.P.)
  • 17. Ervaru (Sd.)
  • 18. Gajapippali (Fr.)
  • 19. Gambhari (Fr.)
  • 20. Gangeru (St.Bk.)
  • 21. Gunja (Rt.)
  • 22. Ikshu (St.)
  • 23. Indravaruni (Rt.)
  • 24. Indravaruni (Lf .)
  • 25. Jambu (Sd.)
  • 26. Jambu (St.Bk.)
  • 27. Jayapala (Sd.)
  • 28. Jayanti (Lf.)
  • 29. Jyotishmati (Sd.)
  • 30. Kadamba (St.Bk.)
  • 31. Kakamachi (W.P.)
  • 32. Kamala (Fl.)
  • 33. Kapittha (Fr. Pulp.)
  • 34. Karamarda (St.Bk.)
  • 35. Karanja (Rt. Bk.)
  • 36. Karanja (Rt.)
  • 37. Karanja (St.Bk.)
  • 38. Karanja (Lf.)
  • 39. Karavallaka (Fresh.Fr.)
  • 40. Katuka (Rz.)
  • 41. Kokilaksha (W.P.)
  • 42. Kokilaksha (Rt.)
  • 43. Kokilaksha (Sd.)
  • 44. Kuzuppa (W.P)
  • 45. Lajjalu (W.P)
  • 46. Madhuka (Fl.)
  • 47. Matshyakshi (W.P.)
  • 48. Methi (Sd.)
  • 49. Mulaka (W.P.)
  • 50. Mulaka (Rt.)
  • 51. Mura (Rt.)
  • 52. Murva (Rt.)
  • 53. Nagakesar (Stmn.)
  • 54. Nili (Lf.)
  • 55. Nili (Rt.)
  • 56. Nimba (Lf.)
  • 57. Nimba (St.Bk)
  • 58. Palasha (St.Bk)
  • 59. Paribhadra (St.Bk)
  • 60. Pippali mula (Stm.)
  • 61. Plaksha (St.Bk)
  • 62. Prasarini (W.P.)
  • 63. Priyala (Sd.)
  • 64. Priyangu (Infl.)
  • 65. Shali (Rt.)
  • 66. Sankha pushpin (W.P.)
  • 67. Saptala (W.P.)
  • 68. Satahva (Fr.)
  • 69. Shigru (Lf.)
  • 70. Sthulaela (Sd.)
  • 71. Tejovati (St.Bk.)
  • 72. Tulasi (W.P.)
  • 73. Tulasi (Lf.)
  • 74. Vacha (Rz.)
  • 75. Vatsanabha (Rt.)
  • 76. Vidari (Tub.Rt.)
  • 77. Yava (Fr.)
  • 78. Yavasaka (W.P.)

THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

2.1.2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.1.1.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.2.1.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.2.5.2.) Desv 177 1.2.1.1 Testing Drugs 2.1.2.2.2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.3.1.2-Sieves 1.2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.Types of Stomata 2.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.1.2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.4.1-Sampling of drugs 2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.2. 1.1-Nessler Cylinder.2.2.2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.2-Thermometers 1.

7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.2.Weights and Measures 5.3.2.3.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.1.6-Sulphated Ash 2.2-Refractive Index 2.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.3.3.3.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.1.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.5-Limit Test for lead 2.3 Limit Tests 2.

the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. II would be official. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. would be deemed to have been amended vii . is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.I. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. Part-I.). Vol.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Part-I. Vol. Vol. In general.P. II. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. the Dangerous Drugs Act. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Part-I. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). accordingly. II. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act.

The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). substances or processes described in Appendix. viii . the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. English. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. When the term “drop” is used. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Identity. Purity and Strength .Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg).The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . Odour and Taste . if any. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. Synonyms .Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour.The metric system of weights and measures is employed.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. Mesh Number .GENERAL NOTICES Title . This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. indicated in monograph. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. If the odour persists to be discernible.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Introductory Para . distribution and method of collection. Weights and Measures .Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. Italics . unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. Hindi. it is described as having odour.

fungi.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. the expression per cent (%). alcohol-soluble extractive. Constant Weight . V. ether-soluble extractive. total ash. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. Purity and Strength. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. water. acid-insoluble ash. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. The quantitative tests e.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. statements appearing in the API. micro-organisms. and show no abnormal odour. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. which he uses. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. if of equivalent accuracy. moisture content. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. with one of the four meanings given below.L. those of definition of the part and source plants.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. ix . will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. Vol. under Description. Standards . and Identity. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. mould or other evidence of deterioration. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead.In defining standards. water-soluble ash. Part-I. and other animal matter including animal excreta. sliminess. pesticides.C. Percentage of Solutions . even by applying known reference standards. wherever given. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. However.Under this head. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. according to circumstances. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance.For statutory purpose.g. Constituents . In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. pests. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. colour.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. However. in 100 grammes of product. arsenic and heavy metals. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given.) .soluble extractive. shall constitute standards. is used.

The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. thermometric scale. Temperature . Percentage of alcohol .000 parts More than 10.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius).All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature.56 oC. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. such as fragment of filter papers. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Solutions . Statements of solubilities. Reagents and Solutions .Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. at a stated temperature. are intended to apply at that temperature.000 parts x . Solubility . all solutions are prepared with purified water. and dust particles. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. fibres.

001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . unless otherwise stated. Fam.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent.I. IN. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. µ. PS. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. 0. l. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. g.1 N. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m.P. mm.5 N. 0. Part –I and Part-II. TS. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. ml. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. cm. Kg. 1M. mg. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India.

Bk.Sansk. Sd. Kan. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Wd. Pl. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Bk. Assam. Kash. Ht. Rz. Tam. xii . St. Tub. Eng. Punj. St. Rt. Ori. Wh. Tel. Wd. Beng. Guj. Fr. Mar. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Lf. Rt. Mal.

more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. parenchymatous cells. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. vessels pitted. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.231 µ in 1 . b) Microscopic Root . Asteraceae). Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. thin-walled. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. cylindrical. taste. an annual.37-28. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. Akarakara Akkaraka. Akravu Akkalakara. xylem fibres thick-walled. characteristically astringent and pungent. Akallakara.2 .1. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. tracheids and xylem parenchyma.8 µ in width. 1. cambium 2-5 layered. Akalakarabha. bark upto 3 mm thick. shrivelled. brown. external surface rough. not easily separable. tapering slightly at both ends. (Fam. 7-15 cm in length. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. elongated. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. 53.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. Akarakarabha (Rt. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. slightly aromatic.

ray cells thick-walled. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex.6. Aj¢rna. D¢pana. IDENTITY. running straight. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. 2. áv¡sa. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. also gives positive tests for inulin.2. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Kaphahara.2. Pittahara. Grdhras¢. 2. V¡jikara. Appendix 2. Udararoga. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.Ash coloured.length having narrow lumen.Prati¿y¡ya. 2.2. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. CONSTITUENTS . bi to tri and multiseriate. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .Kum¡ry¡sava. Appendix 8 percent. medullary rays numerous.4.7. NaÀ¶¡rtava. Danta¿£la DOSE . radially elongated. Appendix 2 percent. Appendix 10 percent. secondary phloem and medullary rays. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. PakÀ¡gh¡ta.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áukrala. secondary phloem.0. of the drug in powder form. 2 . Appendix 22 percent.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. á£laroga.2.2. K¡sa. secondary phloem and medullary rays.5 -1 g. áotha. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. 2. uniseriate rays very rare. Powder .3. Svedakara. Buddhivardhaka.

paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. coriaceous. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. thin-walled. Juglandaceae). not distinct. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. slightly curved. Akshoda (Cotldn. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. odour. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Cotyledon .Shows 1-2 layered. parenchymatous cells. taste. oily sweet. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. 3 . collapsed. broken pieces. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. parenchymatous cells. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots.2. under this. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. radially elongated. shows groups of cells of cotyledon.) large deciduous. (Fam. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. followed by more or less compressed.Cream coloured. endosperm mostly single layered. irregularly corrugated. Powder . Sailabhava. creamish-brown.

10 . V¡taroga. 2.7. Appendix Not more than 0.6.2.2.25 g. CONSTITUENTS . Sara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀ¶ambhi. Kaphakara. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.5 percent. V¤Àya. Appendix 2. 4 . 2. 2.2.2. Appendix Not less than 10. Appendix Not less than 7. áukral.2.Walnut oil and Tannin.0 percent. KÀaya.2. Balya. B¤´ha¸a.KÀata. DOSE . Appendix Not more than 2 percent.0 percent. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.4. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .3.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.IDENTITY.

Amvara -Mampusli. internal surface reddish-yellow. with reddish-brown contents. Jangli Aam Ambate. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. consisting of tangentially elongated.5 m in girth. a few outer cells exfoliated. S. Amra Indian Hog Plum. Amrata (St. non Gamble (Fam. external surface smooth. Anacardiaceae). Mampuiti. upto 27 m high and 2.Bk. a small aromatic. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. f.. Amra. acuminata Roxb. laminated. grey having lenticels. Wild Mango Ambeda. and 5 . Ambalam. fracture. Ambado.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. thin. Ambadam Amratakamu. curved.3. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. which are thick-walled towards periphery. mangifera Willd. Ranamba. S. Ambazham. Stem Bark. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. thin-walled cells. parenchymatous. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. Ranambo Ambada. radially arranged. deciduous tree. Jangali Ambo. parenchymatous cells.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Anbalamu. tangentially elongated. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. Kurz.

0. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.4.96 (blue). Appendix 2. 2.96. shows cork cells. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. D¡ha DOSE .75-14 µ in dia. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. KÀaya.2. Ka¸¶hya. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. V¡tahara.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. of the drug in powder form for decoction..33. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. Under U. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. 0.C.C.V.5-10 g. 2.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Powder .5 per cent. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. Rucik¤t. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. IDENTITY.7. 2. Not more than 1 per cent. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. 0.(greyish brown). thick-walled.87 (all greyish brown).L. CONSTITUENTS . Pittakara.2. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.2.6. 6 .KÀata. Raktapitta.3. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara.L. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width.87 (blue) and 0. simple. lignified. 0.2.Light brown. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent.40 and 0. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. T. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. stone cells.2.33. Appendix Not more than 0.

PratyakpuÀpa. a stiff. slightly ribbed.5 cm in cut pieces. obovate. hypogynous.P. solid. erect. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. hollow when dry. filament short. membranous. yellowish-brown. one spine lipped. opposite. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. decussate. (Fam. gradually tapering. contorted or quincuncial. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs.free. Flower . the perianth lobes. bisexual.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes.9 m high herb. actinomorphic.) Amaranthaceae). stamens 5. anther. numerous. May£raka. odour. 7 . áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita.0. cylindrical.4. opposite. two celled.1-1. perianth segments 5. greenish-white. wavy margin. erect.3 .Cylindrical tap root. sessile. 0. bracteate with two bracteoles. Stem . branched. Leaf . rough due to presence of some root scars. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra.3-0. not distinct. yellowish-brown. secondary and tertiary roots present. Kharamaµjar. subsessile.0 cm in thickness.0.Simple. 0. Apamarga (W. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . exstipulate. dorsifixed. hairy. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn.

LeafPetiole . fibres being absent. composed of parenchymatous cells.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. 3-4 celled stalk.Sub-cylindric. Fruit . ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. single. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. stigma.gynoecium bicarpellary. thin-walled. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. spiral. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. thin-walled cork cells. xylem composed of usual elements. epidermis single layered. round at the base. Stem . parenchymatous cells. unilocular with single ovule. brown. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. on both surfaces. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. cortex 6-10 layered. fibres pitted. oval to rectangular. thin layers of cambium. style.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. rectangular. syncarpous.Shows crescent-shaped outline. tangentially elongated. vessels simple pitted. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. vessels annular. thin-walled cork cells. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. Seed . medullary rays 1-3 cells wide.Shows a single layered epidermis. capitate. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. scalariform and pitted. two medullary bundles. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. present in pith. lignified. demarcating the xylem rings. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. truncate at the apex. followed 8 . ovary superior. 2-5 celled. Midrib . cortical and pith cells. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. either separate throughout or found in some cases. perianth and bracteoles. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. elongated. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. endospermic. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent.

non-lignified cells.2. Appendix 2. Apac¢. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.6.á£la. Kaphahara. Medoroga DOSE . rectangular. vessels with annular. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled.0 on lower surface. Ka¸·u.2.5-9. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.0 on upper surface. shows fragments of elongated. P¡cana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . vein islet number 7-13 per sq.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.Light yellow. 2. slightly elongated in upper. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. palisade ratio 7. 2. spiral.2. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. mm.3.4. Udara Roga.7. Lamina .Shows single layered. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. of the drug for decoction. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. 9 .0-11.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 9. V¡maka. scalariform and pitted thickening. stomatal index 4. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Ar¿a.2. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. aseptate fibres.20-50 g. Gu·apippali. uniseriate hair with bulbous base.0-20. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Tikta Sara. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. 2. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. 2. Powder . idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. thin-walled epidermal cells. V¡tahara.2. Chedana. Medohara. IDENTITY.2.

Aparajita (Rt. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. lightbrown. fibrous. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. fracture. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. vessels pitted with oblong. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. a few showing slit-like pits. colour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡.5. a few solitary fibres also present. bitter. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. Fabaceae). distributed in the lower half of the cortex. thin-walled. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. 1-5 mm in thickness.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. very long. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. (Fam. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. polygonal. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. medullary 10 . ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. taste. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. b) Microscopic Root . cylindrical.

Medhya.1 . Kaphahara.2. shows simple and compound starch grains. CONSTITUENTS . 2. M£traroga. áotha. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. 0.Tannin. 0. 0.2. ViÀahara. 0.á£la. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form.V. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vra¸a DOSE .54 and 0. Resin.2.6. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components.C.rays 1-5 cells wide. T.79 (both yellow).2.C. Powder . 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2.3 g. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. 2.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. 11 . measuring 3-13 µ in dia.79 (grey).2. Appendix 2. Tikta. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.L. V¡tahara.2.L. found in secondary cortex.3.Mi¿raka Sneha.. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . oblong and pitted. Buddhiprada. Under U. KuÀ¶ha. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.7.Yellowish-brown. Pittahara.79 (blue). xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.. phloem and xylem parenchyma. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Starch.

parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. radially arranged cells of inner cork. oblique branches on upper side. Inji Allamu. pungent Rhizome . 1. isodiametric. reaching up to 90 cm in height. Ardraka (Rz. short with projecting fibres. taste. fracture. Ale -Adi. colourless. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled.) Zingiberaceae). Rhizomes are dug in January-February.5-6. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. (Fam. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . irregularly arranged. thin-walled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces.6. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. widely cultivated in India. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. buds and roots are removed and washed well. each having a depressed scar at its apex.Shows a few layered. pieces 5-15 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. Adrak Injee.5 cm thick. Allam. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. lakottai. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. odour. gingery. tangentially elongated.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1.

6. larger bundles consists of 2. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.69. 0.2.35.C.2.63 & 0.92 (all yellow). septate fibres with oblique.C. 0.16. 0. Under U.03. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. reticulate and spiral vessels.69 (light violet). 0.2. 0.08. 0. filled with abundant starch grains. 0. Appendix 1 per cent.35 (light violet).2. 0.5 per cent.4. 13 . fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T.16 (blue).L. 0. phloem.2.9 T. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene.83 & 0. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0.63 (grey) & 0.69 (grey). Appendix 5 per cent. free from starch. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. elongated pits on their walls. vessels showing reticulate.V.35. 0.L.69 (all light yellow). 2. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Appendix 2. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.l6 (brownish violet). collateral. walls of oil cells suberised. 2.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.dia.2. IDENTITY.13.63 (light violet). Appendix 2 per cent. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. Appendix 8 per cent. Appendix 90 per cent. 0.08 (violet). greater number occurring in inner cortical region.76 (violet) & 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. 0. oleo-resin cells abundent.47.92 (violet). endodermis single layered. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.7 vessels.16. 0. 2.7.. small cells of sieve tube. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. conjoint. 2. composed of xylem. 0. 2. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. 0. fibrovascular bundles of two types.47 (light violet). vessels 2-5 in number. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.3.63. 0. 0. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. Powder -Light yellow. numerous closed.76.2.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. H¤dya. DOSE . Rocana. THERAPEUTIC USES . Bhedana. Vibandha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. RukÀa. Svarya. Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. 14 . Ka¸tharoga.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. áopha. Ën¡ha. V ¤Àaya. V¡tahara.á£la.

lignified. Sadabala -Haramibaval. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. stone cells and phloem cells. Fabaceae). odour and taste. phloem fibres thin-walled. consisting of sieve elements. secondary phloem wide. incurved. Velvelam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. with tapering 15 .Bk. parenchyma. Arimeda (St. all traversed by medullary rays. fracture. fibres and crystal fibres. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. Pilobaval. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. hard. upto 3 m in height. not distinct. square to rectangular cells. thinwalled cortical cells. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. characteristic of dry regions. internally light brown to reddish-brown. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. (Fam. rough. fibrous.7. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma.5-1 cm thick. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. exfoliating in irregular scales. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country.

0. Appendix 2. Ka¸·u.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. shows groups of cork cells. Dantaroga.39 and a spot at Rf. Visarpa.2. KuÀ¶ha. Meda¿oÀaka.0 to 0.91 (yellow). ViÀajavra¸a. T.n-Hexacosanol. Meha. 16 .6. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. Appendix 14 per cent.39 and a spot at Rf.ends. 2.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. Appendix 1 per cent.LC. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0.2. Powder .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. K¤mi.2.e. 0 to 0. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka.3.2.2. composed of thin-walled. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.3-5 g in powder form. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. β -Amyrin. 0.C. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.Reddish-brown.7. P¡¸·u.91 (both blue). radially elongated cells.4.69 (grey) is seen in visible light.40 g for decoction. Appendix 11 per cent. K¡sa.78 and 0. crystal fibres elongated.L. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Udardapra áamana DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.áopha. sclereid. Atis¡ra. Appendix 13 per cent. fibres. IDENTITY.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). Mukharoga.

5 cm thick. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Mathichakke. fracture. P¡rtha. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. Neermatti.8. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. a large deciduous tree. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. Vellamaruthi. short in inner and laminated in outer part. Bilimatti. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. companion cells. recurved. Torematti Arjuna. traversed by phloem rays. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma.Bk. taste. Arjuna (St. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter.) Combretaceae). curved. in the middle and outer phloem region. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. flat. 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. Arjuna. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. channelled to half quilled. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. bitter and astringent. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone.& A. Kellemasuthu. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey.2-1. Mattimora. (Fam. consisting of sieve tubes. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells.

2. µ Powder . 2. fibres. 2. IDENTITY. elliptical. mostly simple. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 25 per cent. T¤À¡. Appendix 20 per cent.2. Vya´ga. starch grains simple and compound. Pittahara.Medoroga. Appendix 1 per cent. KÀatakÀaya. 2. H¤droga. of the drug in powder form. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 18 . starch grains. shows fragments of cork cells. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 20 per cent. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. Vra¸a. sometimes upto 5 components. 2. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. DOSE ..4. uniseriate phloem rays.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. elliptic. round to oval. alternating with fibres. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. Vra¸an¡¿ana.2. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T..2. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. compound of 2-3 components. a few rhomboidal crystals.2. Appendix 2. alata).3. H¤dya. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone.6. round to oval. Arjuna Gh¤ta. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa..Reddish-brown. Prameha.7. 4-12 cells high.3-6 g.in dia. Kaphahara.

characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. Scramkotati Nallajidi.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. dark brown. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. Bhallataka (Fr. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. obliquely ovoid. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. Fruit .5-3 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. 19 . Nallajidiginga Baladur. smooth. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. shining with residual receptacle.9. nut 2. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) Anacardiaceae). some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. mesocarp a very broad zone. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. mesocarp and endocarp. (Fam. 30-40 layers thick. drupaceous. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands.

Snigdha. being highly thickened. 2. KuÀ¶ha. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.6. 2.1. Appendix 2. Tikta. Note . Graha¸¢. P¡cana.5 per cent. DOSE . CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 4 per cent. Gulma. Appendix 11 per cent. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance.. innermost prismatic.7.3.2.4.2.2. Part-I 20 .Dark-brown.2. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.F. chloroform. Ka¶u. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. ether. KaÀ¡ya Laghu..A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Appendix 0.2.2 g. Appendix 5 per cent. Ën¡ha. IDENTITY. Chedi.I. Bhedi. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.Ar¿a. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. V¡tahara.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. very much elongated radial walls. Powder . Kaphahara. Krimi. 2.2.

together on unequal axillary peduncles. herbaceous. much branched. occasionally rooting at nodes. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. Asteraceae). Kodigaraju -Kayyonni.2. often rooting at nodes. Tekar¡ja. ray flowers ligulate.5 cm long. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. Bhangro Bhangara. disc flowers 21 .2 . Kesari -Bhangaro. spreading. rough due to oppressed white hairs. Karisalanganni. sub-acute or acute.. Kesuriya. Keshavardhana. Leaf . erect or prostrate. Bhringiraja. involucral bracts about 8. Bhringaraja (W. upto about 7 mm in dia. Stem . sessile to subsessile. strigose with oppressed hairs. usually oblong.Herbaceous.3 cm wide. Gurugada. Bh¤´ga.Well developed.2 . Knnunni Bhangra. 30 . branched. greenish. occasionally brownish.50 cm high. greyish. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m.) herbaceous annual. white. (Fam. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. Soppu. ligule small.Opposite. node distinct. cylindrical. 1. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .10. sub-entire. lanceolate. scarcely as long as bracts. M¡rkava.8. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. obtuse or acute.P. Flower .Solitary or 2. Karisalai Guntakalagara. not toothed. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. ovate. cylindrical or flat. strigosely hirsute. 2. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk.

consisting of rounded cells. covered with striated cuticle. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. simple. and with pointed apical cell. Leaf- Petiole . warty. epidermis followed by wide cortex.0. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. epidermis followed by cortex. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. ovary inferior. fibres and xylem parenchyma. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. unilocular with one basal ovule. trichomes of two types. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . dark brown.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. xylem ray distinct. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. Midrib . traversed by xylem rays. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. rarely slightly oblique.1 cm wide. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse.0. in macerated preparation vessels small. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. corolla often 4 toothed. fibre tracheids.25 cm long. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. with very pointed tips. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. brown.tubular. run straight in tangential section. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. Seed . xylem composed of vessels. hairy and non endospermic. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities.2 . b) Microscopic Root . generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. non-glandular. Fruit . uniseriate. free. found scattered throughout wood. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. 0. tangentially elongated cells. stamen 5. with a narrow wing. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. cuneate. filaments epipetalous. pitted.Achenial cypsella. drum-shaped. covered with warty excrescences. pappus absent. fibre tracheids. externally covered with cuticle. phloem rays broader towards periphery. one seeded. 1-5 celled. vessels numerous. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. ray cells pitted. pistil bicarpellary.

stomatal index 20. secondary cortex composed of large. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. arranged in tangential strands. Stem . followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. middle cells longest. 23 . epidermis single layered. the cork where formed. endarch. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. palisade ratio 3. externally covered with cuticle. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. collateral. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. septa thick-walled. while the section cut at apical region. more abundant on lower surfaces.Dark green. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. pointed tips and pitted walls. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. warty.5 on upper and 23. some elongated with simple perforations. uniseriate. vascular bundles in a ring.0-22. pointed. peg-like outgrowth. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. Powder . Lamina . a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. pericyclic fibres distinct. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem.shows a dorsi ventral structure. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis.0 on lower surface. externally covered with cuticle. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. xylem consists of large number of vessels. about 3 celled. similarly transverse section cut at a basal.8 -4.5. pitted with spiral thickening. wide at the base. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface.collenehymatous cells on both sides. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. hairs stiff. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. xylem fibres with wide lumen. normally biseriate and uniseriate.5 -26. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. trichomes entire or in pieces. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate.

Alkaloids.36 g. ViÀahara. 2. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. of the drug in powder form for decoction. K¤miroga. DOSE . P¡¸·u. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. Appendix 2.6 ml of the drug in juice form. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. 2. Appendix per cent.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áv¡sa.2. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS .4.3. V¡tahara. 2. áirah á£la.2. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. 24 . CakÀusya.3 .7.2. Ke¿ya. Ras¡yana. Tekar¡ja marica. Tikta RukÀa.2. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ëmahara.áotha. K¡sa. 2. H ¤droga. Yak¤droga.2.2. Dantya. Appendix per cent. 12 . Tvacya.

. branched creamish-yellow. succulent.) Wettst.11.Thin. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi.P. found throughout India in wet and damp places.) H. Valabrahmi. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. sessile. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. slightly bitter. Stem . Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. (Fam. green. axillary and solitary. taste. a glabrous. 25 . 1-2 cm long.& K.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Brahmi (W.Thin. Syn. ovoid and glabrous. glabrous. Leaf . small. about 1-2 mm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Fruit . Flower . obovate-oblong.Small.Capsules upto 5 mm long. soft. Ondelaga. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . slightly bitter. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. small. Herpestis monnieria (LiM.Simple. Scrophulariaceae). green or purplish green. decussate. prostrate or creeping annual herb.B. taste. nodes and internodes prominent. opposite. wiry. pedicels 6-30 mm long. Brahmi.

composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Appendix per cent.Shows a single layer of epidermis.7. round and oval starch grains. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. 2. 2. and 8. Medhya. b) Microscopic 26 . vascular ring continuous.Root . glandular hairs.6.0 x 2. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. round to oval.Yellowish-brown. Appendix 2. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.5-9. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. pericycle not distinct. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. cortex having large air cavities. IDENTITY. 2.. starch grains simple. Svarya.0-14. endodermis single layered. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. Praj¡sth¡pana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2.2. simple.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix per cent.2.2. ViÀahara.4. Tikta. no distinct midrib present. glandular hairs sessile. Ras¡yana. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.3. Stem . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. ËyuÀya. respectively. Matiprada.0 µ in dia. 2. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. V¡tahara. endodermis single layered. Appendix per cent.2.2. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. Powder . Appendix per cent.

S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Jvara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. áopha. Ratnagiri Rasa.1-3 g in powder form. Prameha. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . P¡¸·u. 27 .KuÀ¶ha. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE .

Badikateri Kirugullia. upto 1. Solanaceae).15 layers of thin-walled. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina.8 m high.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn.. traversed by phloem rays. ribbed. parenchyma and stone cells. cork cambium single layered. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. 1-2. pale yellowish-brown. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 .Shows thin cork composed of 5 . Heggulla.5 cm in dia. secondary cortex composed of 5 . varying greatly in shape and size. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. b) Microscopic Root . no distinct odour and taste. Papparamulli. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. woody. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. Brihati (Rt. thin-walled.12. cylindrical. fracture. much branched perennial under shrub. Chichuriti. Ubhibharingani. phloem parenchyma much abundant. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. Putirichunda Dorli. short and splintery. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. (Fam.9 layers of thin-walled. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. tangentially elongated. a very prickly. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. long. oval and tangentially elongated cells.

measuring 5. rounded to oval starch grains. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. 2. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. H¤dya.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. measuring 5. Jvara. aseptate fibres. thick-walled.6.5 -11. CONSTITUENTS .6 µ in diameter. xylem rays uni to biseriate. tracheids.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . simple and rounded to oval starch grains. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. IDENTITY.11. phloem and medullary rays.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.7. vessels with simple pits.2. Powder .4. fibres and xylem parenchyma.10-20 g. Appendix 2. parenchymatous cells.5 . all elements being lignified. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. 2. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.á£la.3. V¡tahara. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. cells radially elongated and pitted. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. shows groups of thin-walled.2.2. Agnim¡dya. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.2. Kaphahara. H¤droga. traversed by xylem rays. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.6 µ in diameter. DOSE . 29 . 2. P¡cana.Cream coloured.2. of the drug for decoction. áv¡sa.2.5 per cent. Appendix Not more than 6.

Chavya (St. P. acrid. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. taste.5-2. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. thin-walled. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. b) Microscopic Stem . greyish-brown.0 cm in width. Syn. odour. short. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups.13. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. chaba Hunter non Blume. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . nodes and internodes distinct. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. plenty of simple starch granules present. fleshy climber.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. fibres and xylem parenchyma. consisting of round. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. cultivated mainly in Southern India. Chavya -Kattumulaku. fracture. secondary cortex a wide zone. endodermis single layered. a glabrous. (Fam. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. oval to rectangular. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab.. officinarum DC. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. cork cambium not distinct. tracheid. Piperaceae). brownish cells. P. peppery.

ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.2. Appendix 3 per cent. P¡cana.Alkaloids. 2. CONSTITUENTS .1-2 g.2. Ën¡ha. Glycosides and Steroids. fibres and simple. RukÀa.2.pitted and reticulate thickenings. Appendix 10 per cent. round to oval starch grains. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. starch grains. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. medullary rays multi seriate. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Udara Roga. THERAPEUTIC USES . 31 . shows fragments of vessels. Appendix 1. cells thin walled. round to oval. Appendix 2.3. Gulma.2. D¢pana. 2.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. IDENTITY.2. fibres needle and spindle-shaped.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Kaphahara.2. Recana. Powder . Krimi. filled with simple. of the drug in powder form. 2. Appendix 6 per cent. Pl¢h¡ Roga.7.Ar¿a.4. á£lal DOSE . 2.5 per cent.Greyish-brown.

parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. Powder . endosperm absent.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. containing a few oil globules. Seed . oil globules. oval. wedge-shaped. (Fam. 0. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. consisting of oval to polygonal. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen.1-0. 0.2 cm wide. shows stone cells. outer hills of Himalayas between 900.6 cm long. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. found growing wild in the warm valley. 32 . Dadima (Sd. beneath this. round to oval. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.Reddish-brown. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. simple.5-0. Madalam Danimma Anar. round. Maadalai. angular. thin walled. LohitapuÀpa.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. starch grains present in testa. sweetish-sour. triangular and rectangular. parenchymatous cells. taste. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. cotyledons coiled.14. Punicaceae).

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

35 cm wide. taste. 1-2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. ciliate. surface rough.Sessile. tubular. taste.25 cm long. 1-2.Cylindrical. about 2-3.5 cm long and 0. 1.6-0.2-1. taste. Dronapushpi (W. globose.Light greenish-yellow. acute. white.5 cm wide. an annual. more or less pubescent. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. subacute.5 cm across.Yellowish-green. ovate or ovate. slightly curved. quadrangular with four prominent furrows.lanceolate. Inflorescence . slightly bitter. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. hairy on upper part. corolla. Leaf . long with numerous wiry. zig-zag. fine rootlets. size variable. white. hairy. 10 dentate with a villous throat. 3-9 cm long. thin. fracture. stout herb. upto 4 mm thick. scaberulous.16. characteristic. serrate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .3-0.7-2 cm 37 . Stem . glabrous in lower part. calyx. crenate. erect. crowded in dense. nodes and internodes distinct. Gumma.) Lamiaceae).P. pungent. 1. smooth. (Fam.9 m in high. lanceolate. about 0. fibrous.

parenchymatous cells. consisting of barrel shaped. some having simple pits. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one.7 layered. vessels long with spurs. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. Seed . Leaf- Petiole . smooth. 4 . vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening.vascular bundle arc-shaped. round to angular collenchyma. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. endoderm is single layered. lateral lobes small.0. 3-4 layers towards upper surface.Schizocarpic carcerule. nutlets 3 mm smooth.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. tracheids. trigonous. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Midrib .tangentially elongated. present in centre. tracheids. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. brown. irregular. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. followed by round to oval parenchyma. cortex consisting of single layered. thin-walled cells.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. Stem . oblong. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled 38 . tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cells. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. Fruit . pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. dark brown. consists of a single layered epidermis. b) Microscopic Root .shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. secondary xylem consists of vessels. upper lip about 4 mm long. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. xylem consists of vessels. bilipped.1 cm wide. palisade single layered. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.long. tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. vascular bundles 4. thin-walled. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. composed of oval to rectangular. upto 8 cells high.3 cm long and 0. Lamina . uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. wooly.shows a single layered epidermis. vessels and tracheids have simple pits.

6. 39 . Bhedani.3.cells. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. 16. pitted and spiral vessels. V¡takara.6-40. Pittakara.2.2. K¡sa.2. 2. stomatal index 16.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. Glycoside. 2. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.áotha. 2.5 on lower surface. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.7.6-30. Lava¸a.2. K¡mal¡. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form.2. ViÀamajvara DOSE . Ka¶u Guru.2. Agnim¡ndya. CONSTITUENTS . uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. IDENTITY.Alkaloid. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent.Dull yellow. palisade ratio 7-9.4. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. a few veins present in this region. THERAPEUTIC USES . Tamaka áv¡sa.7 on upper surface. RukÀa.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. present on both surfaces. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. 2. Appendix 2. stomata diacytic. aseptate fibres. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

3-0. Cucurbitaceae). utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. taste. surface smooth.7-10 cm long. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. glossy.17. (Fam. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. an annual creeping herb.4 cm wide. cultivated in many parts of the country. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. parenchymatous cells. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. mesophyll cells thinwalled. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. B¤hatphala. 0. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. rounded and tangentially elongated. sweetish oily. creamish-yellow. Vellarika Kakadi. 40 . Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. shows stone cells. -Kakur. covered with thick cuticle. more or less ellipsoid. Hastipani. Karka¶¢. straight. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. Ervaru (Sd. parenchymatous. Hastipani. radially elongated to squarish. cotyledons two. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. 0. thin-walled. C. utilissimus Roxb. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed.

5 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent. 0. 0.IDENTITY. 2. 0. 2.97 (all grey).64.2. Raktapitta.0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.2. A¿mar¢. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. T¤À¸¡. 0.19. 0.35. (366 mm).2.58. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.91 and 0.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. 2.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.83. 2. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. 0. 0.2.58.V. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0.C. Appendix 0.83. of seeds.L. Appendix 10 per cent.35. Gulma. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Kaphakara.0. Appendix 4 per cent.Oil & Sugars.26.3-6 g.91 (blue) under U.0.D¡ha. T. V¡takara. 0. 0. 0.6. Jvara. Rucya.64. CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 41 . RaktadoÀakara. 0.C.19.51. Pittahara.3. D¢pana.77. Tikta Guru. 0.77.97 (all yellow) . 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.51.7.26.91 and 0. Appendix 2.2.

smooth. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. odour and taste not disticnt. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. Seed . 0. Gajapippali (Fr. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. Araceae).Shows more or less loosely arranged.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried.3-0. cut surface has a central core. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. rough and scaly. b) Microscopic Fruit . thin-walled. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. brownish-grey.4-0. 42 . Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .18. a large epiphytic climber.0-3.5 cm thick. (Fam. shiny.0 cm in diameter and 2. odour and taste not distinct.0-3.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2.4 cm wide. 0. greyish-brown with a dent. Orissa.6 cm long.Kidney-shaped.

Three spots appear at Rf. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. oval to polygonal. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. V¡tahara.6. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. Ka¸¶hya. 0. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. shows lignified.L.L. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. 43 .Glucosides viz. 2.93 (all yellow). in extract (Phant) form. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. pitted and with concentric striations. 2. oval to polygonal.C. Malavi¿oÀana. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.65 and 0.2. 0.Atis¡ra. Kaphahara. Appendix T.93 (brown).C. 0. Agnivardhaka.2. 2.27.2.73 (both light brown) and 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf.20. 0. Sugars & Fixed Oil. CONSTITUENTS . 2.5 per cent. 2.27. 2-4 layered. Powder .Shows a single layered. T. 0.93 (all blue) are visible. thin-walled. Punarnav¡sava. 0. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. thick-walled.2.2.65.2-3 g. K¤miroga. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. DOSE .73 and 0. 0. Stanya. IDENTITY.73 and 0. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.65. Ka¸ha Roga. thick-walled. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. 0.65. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .Dark brown. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.V.7.4. non-lignified. 0. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.3.áiv¡gutik¡. oval to polygonal.Seed . áv¡sa. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

(Fam. sometimes one seeded. P¢takarohi¸¢. seed coat thin. Gambhari (Fr.A drupe.4-0. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. thin-walled cells. papery. parenchymatous cells.) unarmed tree.0 cm long.5-1 cm long. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. ovoid. 1. 0. oily. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. two seeded. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. 0. Shivani.Seed ovate.19. black. crinkled. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. fleshy mesocarp. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. cotyledons consisting of single layered. surface smooth. parenchymatous cells. Verbenaceae). radially 44 . an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . K¡¿marya. thin-walled. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. tangentially elongated. Sr¢par¸¢. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. Seed . Seed . sweetish sour. b) Microscopic Fruit .Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. multilayered. light yellow.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Hannu -Kumbil. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢.6 cm wide.5-2. taste. taste.

Under U. Ras¡yana. 0. 0..Blackish-brown. T.98 (orange). mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.elongated epidermal cells. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Powder .26. 0. Tartaric acid.3. Ke¿ya. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.1-3 g. T¤À¸¡. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .03.98 (all yellow).08.2.93 and 0. Medhya. KÀaya.C. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. CONSTITUENTS .12. V¡tahara.98 (yellow) in visible light. 0. Appendix 25 per cent.52. of the drug in powder form.2.6. Appendix 8 per cent. 0. 0.2. Pittahara.L. 0. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.98 (all blue).C. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. Rakta Pitta DOSE .2. 2.V. shows stone cells.D¡ha. M£trak¤cchra.4 per cent. KÀata.94 and 0. 0. Appendix 2.03.22. IDENTITY. oil globules and aleurone grains.L.4. Appendix 6 per cent. Amla. 2. 0. H¤dya. Alkaloid. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Resin and Saccharine.42.18. Appendix 0.7.2.2.Arvind¡sava. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Sara. 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. H¤droga. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 45 . 2.Butyric acid.

a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . fibrous. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces.Shows a wide cork. traversed by wide phloem rays.0 m high. light yellow. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. secondary cortex wide. parenchymatous cells. mucilaginous. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. arranged in radial groups.) Aschers & Schwf. consisting of 12-20 layered.5-5 cm long. taste. fibrous. Syn. a few stone cells. consisting of tangentially elongated. fracture. rectangular. oval.. blunt tips and moderately long in size. Grewia populifolia Vahl.20. external surface smooth. thick-walled.6-1. 1. thin-walled.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. channelled. (Fam. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. Gangeru (St.Bk. moderately large in size. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. elliptical. Tiliaceae). cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. a shrub 0. radially arranged cells. 46 .

29 (blue). 0.35 (dark blue).27 (light violet). β-amyrin etc. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0.48. 0. DOSE . Appendix per cent. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.4. IDENTITY.55 (blue) & 0.J¢rak¡di Modaka. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. Appendix per cent.41.Sugar.7.2.2. 47 .55. 0. 0.Powder . 0. 0. 0. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles.64 (blue).17.3.2. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. 0.). Two spots are seen at Rf.L.61. Under U.6. Pittavik¡ra.13 (blue). 0. 0. 0. Tikta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.68 & 0. 2. Appendix 2. 2. α-amyrin.35 (violet). 0.2.68 (light violet) & 0.V. Amla. 0.Light yellow and fibrous. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 0.2.Vra¸a.L. 0.C.2. Appendix per cent.35 (both light yellow) in visible light.17 (light violet).35. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.17.48 (violet). Ka¶u. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. T. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.88 (all yellow). of the drug in powder form.08.08 (blue) 0. 0. 0.27. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.08 (violet). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.88 (light violet).2-3 g. 2.

pitted walls. most often irregularly curved. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. a climber. spreading throughout the plains. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells.21. Gurivinda Ghongchi. fruits ripen during winter. bark thin.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. feebly sweetish. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. some with brownish content. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . tangentially elongated cells. composed of 1-2 cells wide. cylindrical. Chanothee. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. Chonotee Ratti. smaller than stone cells. Kakananti Rati Kunch. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. taste. cork cambium. exfoliating in small flakes. slightly corky. becoming mildly bitter. simple or branched. odourless. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. soft. Gunja (Rt. present at short intervals. b) Microscopic Root . when distinct. Ghungchi Guluganji. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. gulagunja -Kunni. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. Fabaceae). flowering in August-September. Kundumani Guriginga. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. light brown. thinwalled. (Fam.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow.

Appendix 2.75 µ in diameter. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. IDENTITY.2. Appendix 4 per cent. vessels of varying sizes with thick.3. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. Pittahara. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. Mukha¿oÀa. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. numerous xylem fibres.3 g. of the drug in powder form. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.5 -13.2. 2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Powder . pitted walls. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. Tikta á¢ta.1 .75 µ in diameter. Appendix 10 per cent.6. 2.5 per cent. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. wood composed of narrow concentric. 2.7. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. small groups of sclerenchyma. shows fragments of cork. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. 2.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). CONSTITUENTS . xylem vessels with pitted walls. Appendix 2.Indralupta.2.Greyish-brown. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. stone cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. thin-walled and rectangular. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. áula. parenchyma thin-walled.5-13. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. 49 .diverging towards periphery.2. Appendix 9 per cent.2. DOSE .

Poaceae). closed type of vascular bundles. more numerous and closer towards periphery. scattered throughout the ground tissue. juicy and sweet. 50 . Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. with. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. b) Microscopic Stem . parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. solid. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled.) shrub. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. characteristic. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. distinct node and internode. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. cylindrical. besides the xylem and phloem elements. Ikshu (St.22. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. conjoint. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. taste. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. (Fam. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. lignified. Serdi Ikha. smooth. odour.

M£trala Not more than 2 per cent.3.Powder light brick red.Powder . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .200 . vessels and sclerenchyma.Sucrose. Appendix Not more than 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. V¡tahara.2.Bal¡ Taila. 51 . Kaphahara. Sara.400 ml in the juice form.7.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.2. Balya.2. M£tra KÀaya. shows pieces of epidermis. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. V¤Àya.Raktapitta. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.5 per cent.2. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. 2. 2. 2. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.4. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa.2. Pittahara. 2. ground tissue.6. Appendix 2.

Indravaruni. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. thin walled. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. Indrayanalata. Tumbi Paikamatti. composed of sieve elements. Tuntikai. consisting of vessels. intensively bitter. occurring throughout the country. parenchyma and medullary rays. thick walled. lying around vessels. mostly simple or rarely 52 . Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. Varithummati. fracture. b) Microscopic Root . Valiya Pekkumatti. elongated with pointed ends.5-7.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. cylindrical. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. xylem forms bulk of root. 0. thick-walled. Indramanoa. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical.23.5 cm thick. Indravarana Gothakakucti. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. fibres. a few filled with dark brown contents. parenchyma and medullary rays. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. Indrayan. Gav¡kÀ¢. Indravaruni (Rt. parenchymatous cells. longitudinal fissures present. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. áatakratulat¡. fibres aseptate. (Fam. tangentially elongated cork cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. dull yellow. tangentially elongated.) Cucurbitaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢.5 µ in dia. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. short.2-2. slightly twisted. Bitter apple Indravaran. taste. an annual or perennial. Havumakke. pitted. Paythumatti.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

E. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol.. smooth. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja.) Skeels Syn. astringent. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. oval or roundish. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed.. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. 1 cm wide.800 m. oval. brownish-black. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. b) Microscopic Powder . a large evergreen tree. 57 . thin-walled. Jambu (Sd. Myrtaceae). measuring 7-28 µ in diameter.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. rounded starch grains. 1 cm long. taste. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. Seed . shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. cuminii Druce.Brown coloured.25. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Eugenia jambolana Lam.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. (Fam. coriaceous covering.

2. Kaphahara.4. 58 .2.7. Appendix per cent. 0. 2.6. 0.IDENTITY. 2. Appendix 2.2.12. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. Amla.95 and 0.L. three spots appear at Rf. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. ViÀ¶ambhi.Madhumeha. Tannin. Udakameha.95 (all violet). light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. DOSE . 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .30 and 0. of the drug in powder form. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.30 (blue).95 (all yellow).30 and 0. 0. Pittahara. 0. CONSTITUENTS . KaÀ¡ya Guru. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.Glycoside (Jamboline). On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.20. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid.2.C. T.V.3-6 g. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.20. Appendix per cent.3. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.L.2. Appendix per cent.

found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Myrtaceae). Jambu (St. Jamu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. 0. cork cambium not distinct. Raja Jambu Merale. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. stone cells. oval to angular. taste. short and splintery. Jambuda Jomuna. Neralamara -Njaval. and reddish brown. forming a rhytidoma. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. internal surface fibrous. E. Jam Jammu Naaval. and phloem rays. fibres aseptate. (Fam.5-2. Jambu. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. younger bark mostly channelled. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3.. astringent. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. fracture. cuminii Druce.800 m.26.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. rough. a large evergreen tree.5 cm thick. upper few layers thick. stratified and reddish-brown. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. lower cork thin and colourless. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells.) Skeels Syn. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Mahamaram.Bk. light grey to ash coloured. Jamneralae. elongated.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Navval Sambu.

2. 2. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. Stambhaka.2. aseptate fibres. IDENTITY.2. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Pittahara.U¿¢r¡sava.3.region. round to oval starch grains. 60 .2. round to oval starch grains. Appendix per cent.4. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. Appendix per cent.2.Atis¡ra. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. 2. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . oval to angular. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . measuring 5-11µ in diameter. stone cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.10-20 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .Light brown. single or in groups.2. DOSE . of the drug for decoction. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. V¡tala. Raktapitta.2.7. elongated. 2.6. reddish-brown content.

61 . kernel yellowish and oily. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. Jayapala (Sd. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. slightly quadrangular. consisting of an epidermal layer.Shows a hard testa.27. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. Neervalam Jepal. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. b) Microscopic Seed . Neervalam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Tinti·¢phala. dull cinnamon-brown. thin-walled cells. oblong. filled with brownish content. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. found throughout tropical India. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. Japal beej. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. Japala. consisting of a large endosperm. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. 5-7 m high. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Euphorbiaceae). ovate. no marked odour. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. (Fam.) small evergreen tree. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. slightly bent at middle. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. Nervala -Nervalam.

54 (yellow).2.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa.C. Powder . 0.V. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.2.49. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 0. 62 . On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6. T.2.7. Vibandha DOSE . 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .29. CONSTITUENTS . 0.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.34 (grey).90 (all yellow). oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Resins & Phorbol esters. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. 0. Pittahara. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.2.2.84 (brown). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.5 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. Udararoga.Fixed oil.84 (all violet). 0.39. 2.L.White with black particles of testa.54 and 0.L. IDENTITY.4.3. Appendix 15 per cent.63 and 0.C.2. of the drug in powder form.10. Appendix 3 per cent. 0.6-12 mg.34. Appendix 7 per cent. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.Jvara. 2. Appendix 2. 0. 2.

spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. oblong. a quick growing. having secretory cavities in phloem.8-6 m high.shows single layered epidermis.5 cm long.. polygonal. pith small. palisade single layered. glabrous. Atti.) Merr. 7. á£kÀma patra. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. 63 . Karijimangai. Lamina . paripinnate. entire. stomata anisocytic. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. present on both surfaces.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Jalugu. Fabaceae). S. Jayanti Jaita. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. (Fam. linear.3 cm long. short lived shrub. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis .28. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. 1. parenchymatous cells. Jay¡.0-3. consisting of thin-walled. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee.8 cm wide. Arishimajingai. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. 0.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. very shortly stalked. opposite. -Semp. aegyptiaca Pers.3-0. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. 1. leaflets 6-16 pairs. Jayanti (Lf.5-15. mucronate to acuminate. jayata Arinintajinamgi.7 layered round.Syn.

19. 0.56.2. Appendix 2.3.2.Protein. CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. 0. 0. Pittahara. 0. 0.29. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.05.48.7. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.91 and 0. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. 0. shows spongy parenchyma. 0. 2. 2. Powder .C.05. palisade cells. Appendix per cent. 0.97 (yellow). Galaga¸·a. 0.2. 2.Ratnagiri Rasa. 0. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. DOSE .97 (all grey). Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .29.19. 0.11.L.2. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.4. 0.2. IDENTITY.Dull green.2. palisade ratio 3. Calcium and Phosphorus.11. Appendix per cent.37. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.11.29.56 (all pink) and 0.6. Ras¡yana.19. 0.05. 0. 0. 0. 0.25-4.V. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.L. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.M£trak¤cchra.C.56. T.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.69.97 (all yellow).small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.3-6 g. 0. Appendix per cent. 0. ViÀaroga.37. 64 .91 and 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0. 2. V¡tahara. in powder form.48. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.

35 mm in breadth. seed without aril also prescent. odour. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani.29. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . Seed . parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. taste. bitter. (Fam. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. Celastraceae). followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Gangunge humpu. light to dark brown. a large climbing shrub. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. Jyotishmati (Sd. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. brownish-orange. Gangunge beeja. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin.5-3. colour. collapsed. unpleasant. ripe seeds. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. surface generally smooth and. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2.hard.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried.

5 per cent. 0.composed of polygonal. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0.V. Tikta Sara. (all blue) & 0.2. Powder . V¡tahara.2.82 & 0. V¡maka.63. 0.4.L. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). 0. 2. Appendix 2.54 (both blue).L.2. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. Appendix 6 per cent. Meddhya 66 .89 (all yellow). (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. 0. 2. UÀ¸a.20. 2.89 (both greenish blue).3. Appendix 1. CONSTITUENTS .82.7.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.04. áirovirecanopaga.89. Oil and Tannins.35. 2. Kaphahara. 0.15.94 (yellow) in visible light.54. dark brown. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.C. Appendix 9 per cent.35. Under U.Oily. 0. stone cells. 0. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.82 (pink) & 0. 2.2.8 IDENTITY. 0. 0. Virecaka. D¢pana.Alkaloids.82. Appendix 45 per cent. Appendix 20 per cent.C. 0.54. thin-walled. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.2. 0.2.V.2.94 (yellow). embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.

Oil : 5-15 drops.Seed: 1-2 g.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. Sm¤tidaurbalya. ávitra.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE .V¡tavy¡dh¢. 67 . THERAPEUTIC USES .

large tree. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Kadam Kadam. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Kadappai. 68 b) Microscopic . Kadamba (St.. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Rubiaceae). Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. a deciduous. traversed by uni to triseriate. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. Kadambu Needam. some cells contain chlorophyll. A. rectangular cells.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. Vellaikhadambu. Kadamba mara. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. composed of thin-walled. Indulam. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. phloem composed of sieve tubes. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadamba Kadamba. Kadamba Nipo. Vellai Kadambam. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Syn. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. elongated cells of phloem rays. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. bitter. (Fam.Bk. Kadavala. taste. Priyka Roghu. indicus A.30. Rich. a few cells with brown contents.

2. 2.5 per cent. 0.7.L. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Alkaloids. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).79 (grey) and 0. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.64.63 (yellowish grey). 0.13.79.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.phloem fibres. Raktapitta.5:10) shows under U.57.90 (grey). L C.0. 0.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.D¡ha. 0.5 .1.83 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. V¡tahara. Appendix 3 per cent. fibres. 0.2. Vra¸a. 69 . DOSE . Appendix 9 per cent. Vra¸aropa¸a. phloem cells.2.31. 2. Appendix 5 per cent. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.2. 2.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. cells distinct and slightly elongated. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. Steroids. YonidoÀa.2. 0.6. 2. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. 0. 0.C. Appendix 2. Lava¸a.5 g. Appendix 1. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.03. 0. T. THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder . of the drug in powder form.70 (orange yellow).Brown.21. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. shows fragments of cork cells. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.

) Solanaceae).31. Manatakkali. 30-45 cm high. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. anther 1. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. white or pale violet. Kakamachi (W. calyx 2-3 mm long. Manitakkali. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. obtuse notched at apex.5 mm long. sub-umbellate. filaments short. ganike. 1. corolla 4-8 mm long. five lobed.5-8. pedicels 6-10 mm long. glabrous. peduncles 6-20 mm long.2-2. slightly woody and branched. petiolate. yellowish. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. 2. ovary globose. narrowed at both ends. bark thin. extra-axillary. style cylindric. flattened. glabrous. Stem . 70 . divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. quite common in cultivated lands. ovate or oblong.Simple. hairy at base. green. a herbaceous annual weed. slender. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. oblong. Flower . Ganikesopu. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . found throughout the country in dry parts. road sides and gardens. Pikachia.25 mm long. pale brown.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. Ganikegida. externally smooth. hairy in lower part. toothed or lobed. obtuse. very slender. (Fam. Leaf . 3-8 flowered cymes. oblong. Manaththakkali. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region.5 cm long and 2.Small. thin. sinuate.Erect.P.5 cm wide. glabrous or pubescent.

minutely pitted.. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. covered with thick. covered with striated cuticle. central vascular bundle shallow. trichomes multicellular.Discoid. LeafPetiole . in small or large patches. rays composed of thin-walled. smooth. Stem . usually accompanied by fibres. smooth shining Seed .shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. 1.25 µ in dia. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows.' oval parenchymatous cells. 6mm in dia. cortex of large. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. embedded in perimedullary zones. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. endoderrnis single layered. cambium 2-4 layered.5-8. phloem rays uniseriate. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. xylem rays homogenous. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. phloem consists of thin-walled. slightly striated cuticle. measuring 2.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. epidermis single layered. parenchyma 4-6 layered. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. measuring 2. filled with starch grains. bicollateral. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. radially elongated cells. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. compactly arranged.Shows single layered.Fruit . two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. arc71 . vascular bundles-collateral. polygonal cells. single or with two or rarely 3 components. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. conjoint and open. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. yellow or black. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. uniseriate. trichomes similar to those found on petiole.5-11 µ in dia. yellow.. starch grains. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. slightly elongated.A berry. covering trichomes. obtuse.. pith large. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Midrib . thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. tangentially elongated.. arcshaped. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. uniseriate. composed of thin-walled. oval to round starch grains. uniseriate. internal phloem.5 mm in dia.10 layered in angular parts. covered with striated cuticle. but 4.

vein islet number 7-10.2.6.C. single. present beneath palisade parenchyma. 72 .Alkaloids and Saponins. papery epicarp. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.2.11 µ in diameter.34 (both pink).7. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation.4. palisade ratio 2-4.2. epidermis with irregular outline. Appendix 2. measuring 2.06 & 0.Creamish-green.06 & 0. 2. palisade single layered. Under U. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. Appendix per cent. 2. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. IDENTITY. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.5 .2. a few broken pieces of pointed. stomata anisocytic.L. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. 0.C.Shows thin. Fruit .dorsiventral.97 (all yellow). 0. T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.2. 034 and 0. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.06. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. unicellular hairs. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. CONSTITUENTS .34 (both brown) in visible light. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.V. Powder .3. Lamina .L.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. Appendix per cent.2. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. a few vessels with spiral thickenings. 0. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.

Pittahara. DOSE . of the drug in juice form. Chardi.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Ka¸·u. Hikk¡.5 -10 ml. THERAPEUTIC USES . H¤dya. 73 . Svarya. Kaphahara. KuÀ¶ha. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Sara. H¤droga. Netraroga. Ar¿a. Tikta Laghu.áotha. Ras¡yana. Prameha. V¡tahara. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Jvara.

fruit an etaerio of achenes. broken pieces also occur. 3-5 cm long. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Paduman. Aravindan. Kamala (Fl. Pamposh Tamarai. comprising of calyx. corolla. 1. seed hard. starchy and large. (Fam. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Kanwal Kamal.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.5-3 cm wide.4-2 cm long. Thamaraipoo.. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. black. Nymphaeaceae). finely veined. Syn. erect.32. extended into clavate appendages.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. Venthamara. Chenthamara. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Tavare. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Kamal. crimp led. sepals leaf-like.3-2 cm wide. petals numerous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. embedded in a creamy. linear 1. Padma. 1. 74 . yellowish-brown. aquatic herb with creeping stem. gynoceium apocarpous. anther. free. Aravinda. androecium. gynoecium and thalamus. membranous. 2-4 cm long. Sitopala. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. Naidile. dark brown. crimpled. Kalh¡ra. a large. elliptic. Sarojam Kaluva. carpels many. Kamalam. obtuse. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal.

2. 2. composed of thin-walled. Anther . Tikta. parenchymatous cells. Visarpa. parenchymatous cell. angular. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. M£tra Virajan¢ya.b) Microscopic Flower Petal .2. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. two on either sides. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. 2.2.Aravind¡sava. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter.7.filament appears circular in outline. measuring 50-61 µ in dia.2. yellow pollen grains. vascular bundle single.Dusty brown. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. followed by ground tissue of oval. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. Appendix per cent. rectangular.12 -24 g. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled.Alkaloid (Nelumbine).2.6. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. DOSE . Stamen Filament . Pittahara. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. spore sac contains yellow. Appendix per cent. spherical. . 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .Raktapitta. Powder . columnar. of the drug for decoction. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.3. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.2. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. ViÀavik¡ra. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle.2. IDENTITY. Sant¡pahara.shows four chambered anther. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.4. having smooth exine and intine. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls.

33. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. sour. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. hard. taste. straight. elephantum Correa (Faro. Kavataleal. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. often cultivated in many parts of India. glabrous tree with strong. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. Haminamara -Vilar maram. reddish brown. Belada hannu. Rutaceae).) Swingle. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . semicircular. stone cells. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Belalu. Siwalik range and forests. sharp. a deciduous. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. thin-walled. Kapittha (Fr. parenchymatous cells. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Syn. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. rough.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn.Reddish-brown. found throughout the plains of India.shows irregular. 76 . aromatic. stone cells. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. Balada. Powder . odour. F. axillary thorns. found in groups. Bilvara. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. slightly triangular and oval. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. Pulp.

THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 0. 0.91 (grey) in visible light. Ripe-T¤À¡. 2.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. 6. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. Gr¡h¢. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. 0. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. Amla.12 (brown).2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.4. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.95 (all yellow).12. 0. KaÀ¡ya.V.3.2.95 (blue). Appendix per cent. 0.7. Appendix per cent. Hikk¡.91 and 0. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta.L. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. of the drug in powder form.91 (violet) and 0. T.06. 0.37 (brown). 2. 2.L. Agnim¡ndya. 2.95 (violet) . Under U. Unripe Pulp: Amla. Vra¸an¡¿aka. 0. Appendix 2. V¡mi.14 (sky blue). Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.37. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. Lekhana. Pittav¡tahara. Sangr¡h¢.91 (blue) and 0.50.50 (violet).C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.IDENTITY. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.6. 0. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 77 .2. CONSTITUENTS .áv¡sa.2.2. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.C. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Appendix per cent.Citric acid and Mucilage.1-3 g.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin.Greyish-brown. light in weight. Karamarda (St. met throughout India in wild state. starch grains simple. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. shows single and groups of stone cells. external surface brownish-grey. b) Microscopic Powder . secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. simple and compound starch grains. tubular. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. fracture. (Fam . a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres.34. rough due to longitudinal striations.Bk. short. 78 . Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. sometimes cultivated. flat or slightly curved pieces. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. internal surface grey and smooth. and compound having 2-3 components.) Apocynaceae).

of the drug for decoction.L. CONSTITUENTS .2. T. 79 .2.7.2.2.97 (violet). DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. Pittakara. Appendix per cent.C. Appendix per cent. 2.35.2.V. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.KuÀthahara. 0.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.58 (both light grey). 0.C.6.90 (pink) and 0. 0. Appendix per cent.Marma Gu¶¢k¡.4.3. 0. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .52 (light sky blue).IDENTITY.48 g.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. 2. Appendix per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.2. Appendix 2. 2.

Fabaceae). single cells of varying shape and size.) Merr. due to peeling off. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. P. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Syn. tangentially elongated cells.35. most of phloem 80 .. 3-11 µ in dia. Naktam¡la. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. Nakt¡hv¡. Karanja (Rt.. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. secondary phloem very wide. a glabrous tree.) glabra Vent. (Fam. traversed by phloem rays. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. fracture. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. Bk. taste. tangentially elongated. external surface rough. thin-walled. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. internally. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. fibrous. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. very bitter. cells. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal.

0. 0. shows thin-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES .6.5 per cent.2. 0.25 (sky blue). phloem fibres. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery.4.80 (light blue).Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. Appendix 2 per cent.K¤miroga. cork cells. Ka¸·£ghna. parenchymatous cells.3. IDENTITY. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0. 2. 0. Ka¸·u. Appendix 17 per cent.37.7. Appendix 11 per cent. consisting of thin-walled.51 (light blue). 2. DOSE . Appendix 3.80 and 0. V¡tahara.08 (greenish blue).09. 81 . most of ray cells contain starch grain. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.18 (blue) 0.L. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DuÀ¶avra¸a.37 (greenish yellow).51.47. mostly straight. Yoniroga.2. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0. 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 2. Powder -Creamish-yellow.13 (Sky blue).42 (sky blue).04 (blue). 0.47 (greenish yellow).2.2.98 (all yellow).L. phloem rays many. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 1-2 seriate.1-3 g. 0.Flavones Kanugin.C.18. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. Tikta. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.2. Ëntravidradhi. of the drug for decoction. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. 0. CONSTITUENTS .parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.31 (sky blue).C. 0.31. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. KuÀtha. 0. Appendix 2. 0. 0. T. Prameha.V.47. ViÀaghma.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Pittahara.

some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. thin-walled.) Vent. reddish-brown or dull brown. bitter. rough due to the presence of numerous. tangentially elongated. cells. tangentially elongated cells. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. bark. 3-11 µ in dia. taste. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. internally light yellow. consisting of 82 .) Merr. Nakt¡hv¡. rounded to oval in shape. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. P. secondary phloem a very wide zone.. light in weight. Karaµjaka. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. irregularly distributed. a glabrous tree.36. 1-2 seriate. Syn. bark does not easily separate from xylem. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight.. (Fam. fracture. Fabaceae). Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Karanja (Rt. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja.

THERAPEUTIC USES . Ka¸·£. Tikta.3. 2. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara. Pongachromene & Tetra-O.radially elongated. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.6.2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. 2. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. KuÀ¶ha. shows fibres in singles or groups. fibres and parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. Appendix 2. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. Appendix per cent. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays.1-2 g. ViÀaghna. Powder -Light yellow. IDENTITY. Kanugin.Methylfisetin.2. Appendix per cent. Vra¸a¿odhana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Yoniroga. Demethoxy-kanugin.4. 2. more. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.DuÀ¶avra¸a. rounded to oval in shape. Prameha. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Pittahara. starch grains. DOSE . tangentially elongated towards outer region. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.7. 83 . 2. thin-waned cells towards inner region. Ëntravidradh¢. consisting of 2-3 components. Vidradh¢. Kaphahara.Karanjin. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. tracheids.2. K¤miroga.2.2. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.. CONSTITUENTS . xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells.2.

found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. (Fam. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. alternating with stone cells. usually 0. composed of rectangular.) Merr. Nakt¡hv¡. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. bitter. phloem parenchyma. more or less smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. P. Karanja.Bk. b) Microscopic Bark . Karanja (St.) glabra Vent. thin-walled.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. arranged in a tangential manner. fracture. lenticellate pieces. taste. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. a glabrous tree.. thick-walled cells. short and fibrous. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Fabaceae). Syn. fibre small. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. tangentially elongated. filled with reddish-brown content. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. traversed by medullary rays. odour. parenchymatous cells. 84 .2-1 cm thick. forming a continuous or discontinuous band.37. Karaµjaka. unpleasant. slightly quilled. phloem fibre and stone cells. recurved. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. at some places lenticels also appear. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal.

elongated. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Pittahara. Appendix 3 per cent. simple and compound starch grains. Demethoxy- kanugin. medullary rays wavy. 3". and rarely. Kaphahara.7. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. Appendix 1. Ëntravidradh¢. Appendix 2. Prameha. V¡tahara. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. Powder -Yellowish-cream. Gamatin. KuÀ¶ha. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. 2. aseptate fibre and stone cells.6. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape.DuÀ¶avra¸a.3. CONSTITUENTS . usually 2-4 cells wide. present in secondary cortex. 2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.polygonal. ViÀaghma. Ka¸·u. 85 . thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin.1-2 g.2. oil globules. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin.2.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. Vidradh¢. Kanugin. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". 2.2.. Appendix 13 per cent. 5Methoxyfurano (2". 3" 7 : 8). a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem.4. Yoniroga DOSE . K¤miroga. Appendix 18 per cent. Pinnatin. rounded to oval. starch grains simple. Ka¶u. Tikta.5 per cent. IDENTITY. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.2. of the drug in powder form. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. Pongapin. thin-walled and aseptate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.

5 cm long and 3. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. a glabrous tree. vascular bundle single..3 cm wide. Karanja (Lf. xylem vessels arranged radially. Nakt¡hv¡.5-0.) Vent.8 cm. 0. 86 . Pongana Ganuga. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. covered with cuticle. Kanajo Karuaini. dark green. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Karanja.11. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. 6. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.circular in outline. isodiametric.9-8. (Fam.38. epidermis single layered. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. petiolule short. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. Unu.) Merr. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Fabaceae).2 . consisting of xylem and phloem. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. cortex consisting of angular. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. Ungu. consistig of tabular cells. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. Hulagilu -Pungu. leaflets 2-3 pairs. traversed by xylem rays. Syn. arcshaped. Dithouri Honge. P. Karaµjaka.

2. Appendix 10 per cent.5".6.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent. 2. Appendix 16 per cent. Powder -Green.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". K¤imihara. CONSTITUENTS . spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Appendix 3. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. covered with thick cuticle. 2. Appendix 11 per cent. 7) -flavone. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.(4". collateral. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. mesophyll cells. Appendix 2.6. V¡tahara. vascular bundle.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.2. shows spiral xylem vessels.5-20.4. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. phloem and pith. 5".A new Furanoflavone -3' . áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 .3. Ka¸·ughna.6. consisting of tabular cells. stomata anisocytic. present in lower surface. Kaphahara. . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.Mid rib . 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.6.2. Pittavardhaka.shows single layered epidermis.2. 2.5-50. palisade two layered.5) . 2. Ka¶u. palisade ratio 3.2. stomatal index 12. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. Tikta. 5" .7. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. cortex consists of round to oval.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a.For external use only.K¤miroga. Ka¸·au.J¡ty¡di Taila. 88 . KuÀ¶ha.

Nil Appendix 8. IDENTITY. 2. 2. surface rough. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa.2.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 .7. fusiform. K¡ravall¢. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.25 cm long. (Fam.2. taste. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. extremely bitter.3.2. Kakiral. pendulous. usually pointed or beaked.Fr. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. Appendix 0.) Cucurbitaceae).5 . upto an altitude of 1500 m.2. Appendix 28 per cent. Appendix 2. 2. Kathilla. Karavallaka (Fresh. Varivall¢. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds.2. 3 valved at the apex when mature.2.6 per cent.6. Appendix 6 per cent. oblong.5 per cent.39.

61 (light sky blue).98 (red & sky blue).03. 0.60. KuÀ¶ha. 0.23 (red). 0. juice of fresh drug.50.98 (all blue). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. CONSTITUENTS .Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 90 .15 ml. Jvara.67 and 0. K¤miroga. K¡sa.T.C.L.96 (sky blue).98 (all yellow).75. DOSE .81 and 0. 0.17.C. 0. 0.áv¡sa. D¢pana.34. 0.10 . 0. 0.16. P¡¸·u.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Kaphahara. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. THERAPEUTIC USES . On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.46. 0. T. Raktavik¡ra. K¡mal¡. 0. 0.L. H¤dya. Aruci. V¡tahara.43.V. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 0. Prameha.

a perennial. odour. Tiktarohi¸¢.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. primary cortex persists 91 . cylindrical. Sutiktaka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. externally greyish-brown. pleasant. short. dusty grey. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Rhizome is cut into small pieces.Thin. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. Katuka rohini Kutki. bitter. b) Microscopic Rhizome . Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. Kav¢. Root . Rohi¸¢. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. odour. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. (Fam. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. taste.2. Katuku rohini. kaur Katuka rohini. cortex single layered or absent. straight or slightly curved. 5-10 cm long. Kaurohi¸¢. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. taste. inner surface black with whitish xylem.1 cm in diameter. mostly attached with rhizomes. 0. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. subcylindrical. bitter. suberised cells. Kauka. Katki. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. fracture. Scrophulariaceae). Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome .Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. pleasant. .40. Katuka (Rz. short. cork cambium 1-2 layered.05-0. fracture.

2. 92 . secondary xylem consisting of vessels. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.4. 0. 2.30 (blue) and 0. tracheids. 0. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. 0.84 (all brownish grey). 1-2 layers of cork cambium. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. 0. thick-walled.2. simple round to oval. 0. IDENTITY.17. simple round to oval. thick-walled. 2. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. consisting of oval to polygonal.104 µ in diameter.17.84 (all yellow).2. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. 0. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.30. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.C. 0. 0. 0.L. 0. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. hypodermis single layered. thick-walled. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. thick-walled. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. 0. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. T. starch grains. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. abundantly found in all cells. 2. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.2.41..35 (green).V. some cylindrical with taillike.21. Appendix per cent.3. starch grains. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent.in some cases.05 (blue). vessels have varying shape and size. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.41 and 0. Appendix per cent.6. thick-walled cells of endodermis. measuring 25 . On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. cambium 2-4 layered. secondary phloem poorly developed. tracheids long. fibres aseptate. Appendix 2.2. 0. tracheids.21. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. 2. secondary xylem consists of vessels. 0.37.72 and 0. lignified. parenchyma and fibres. 0.2.10. parenchyma.05. cortex 8-14 layered. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls.7.L. Appendix per cent.C.10.62. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. parenchymatous cells.30. Powder . tapering ends. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.Dusty grey. Appendix per cent.

Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. Pittahara. of the drug in powder form. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Jvara. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya.1 . K¡mal¡. DOSE . D¢pan¢.CONSTITUENTS .Glucoside (Picrorhizin).Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta.áv¡sa.3 g. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Arocaka. 93 . Sarvajvarahara Lauha. ViÀamajvara. D¡ha. Bhedin¢. THERAPEUTIC USES .

with long white hairs. all linear-lanceolate.Acanthaceae).6-2 cm long. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. IkÀuraka. 0. acute. annual herb. stamens 4. no characteristic odour and taste.Greenish-brown. sub-quadrangular. Flower . tube 1. upper sepal 1. calyx 4-partite. stout. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura.Usually unbranched. Leaf . Culli. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. Kolavankal ---.2 cm long. didynamous. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Syn. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. a spiny. lanceolate.5-1 cm wide.5 cm long. whitish to brown. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara.6 cm long.41. Kalsunda --Golmidi. Vayalculli Talikhana. Hygrophila spinosa T. which are 1. no characteristic odour and taste.P.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees.Yellowish-brown. swollen at nodes. fasciculate. Stem . corolla 3. bracts about 2. entire and hairy. broader than the other three. externally greyish-brown. Kettu. abruptly swollen at top. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. Kokilaksha (W. Nirguvireru.Anders (Fam.3 cm long. 1-7 cm long. second pair 94 . creamishbrown in cut surfaces. Nirchulli. widely 2 lipped. subsessile.Mostly adventitious. common in water logged places throughout the country. Kolarind.

radially elongated in secondary xylem.2-0. fibre walls uniformly thickened. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. peripheral ones larger. stigma simple. Seed . multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. broader towards centre.1 . oblong. xylem present in a ring. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. phloem narrow. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. hairy but appearing smooth. fibres thick-walled. consisting of round to polygonal cells. subequal. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. 4seeded. glabrous. polygonal cells. ray cells thin walled. composed of transversely elongate. having small intercellular spaces. scattered throughout the phloem region. style filiform. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. thin-walled. Fruit . 95 .Two celled. capsule about 0. rectangular to cubical. pointed. endodermis single layered.25 cm long and 0. truncate at the base. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. round. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. pubescent. single or in groups of 2-3. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers.8 cm long.15 cm wide. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. anthers two celled. compressed. cortical cells thin-walled.0. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. phloem fibres thick-walled. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. variable in size.larger. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. moderately thick-walled. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. linear-oblong.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. brownish cells. 0. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. filament quite glabrous.Ovate. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. a few thick-walled. light brown. b) Microscopic Root . secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. flat or compressed. radially elongated in xylem region. radially arranged. arranged radially. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. inner cells smaller. Stem . vessels with spiral thickenings. thin-walled cells. ray cells thin-walled. composed of polygonal. pith large. with a number of large air cavities. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. arranged in radial rows. involute with a fissure on upper side. vessels angular.

acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. lignified.2.4.24-30. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle.25-15. thick-walled. stomata diacytic.7. V¤Àya.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface.Shows concavo-convex outline.2. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.2. Appendix per cent. tangentially elongated cells. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. vein islet number 17-42. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. stomatal index 17. 2.2. unicellular hairs and globules.2. covered with thick cuticle. 2. elongated fibres. IDENTITY.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Seed . palisade. M£trala. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. parenchymatous cells.3. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. Amla.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. Appendix per cent. composed of thin-walled. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. V¡jikara. 2. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. sclerenchymatous cells. thin-walled.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. collenchyma 2-5 layered. parenchymatous. palisade 1-2 layered. palisade ratio 6. Fruit . Tikta Picchila. shows aseptate. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. 2. Appendix per cent. .LeafMidrib .6. Rucya. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.78. Powder .75. Appendix per cent. Lamina . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . oval to hexagonal. Appendix 2.2. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening.Light brown. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate .

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. V¡tarakta.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra).T¤À¸¡.3 -6 g. Ëmav¡ta áotha. DOSE . 97 .

Culli --. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. Root-Appears circular in outline. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. Nerugobbi. consisting of small. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. whitish to brownish. common in water logged places throughout the country. thinwalled cells. annual herb. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. the size of these cells. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. slightly transversely elongated. Hygrophila spinosa T. Syn. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. IkÀuraka. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. Kokilaksha (Rt.Acanthaceae). thin-walled.42. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. Kokil¡kÀ¢. polygonal cells. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. branches on nodes. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. 98 . a spiny. Kolavulike. no characteristic odour and taste. stout. Anders (Fam. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. secondary phloem narrow.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. Powder . surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres.Ëmav¡ta áotha. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. having spiral thickening.6.7. fibre walls uniformly thickened. 2. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. Tikta Picchila. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region.2. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. of the drug for decoction.4. 2. Amla. radially elongated in the xylem region.3 -6 g.2. ray cells thin-walled. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. scattered throughout the phloem region.3. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. broader towards centre.2. M£trala. Appendix 2.Light brown to ash coloured. 99 . V¡tarakta. each group composed of 2-6 cells. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . IDENTITY. angular.2.2.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. vessels with spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. A¿ma¤¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fragments of pitted. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. lignified fibres. 2. Appendix per cent.

Acanthaceae). 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. Anders. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. Daruhuladur Darhald. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. hairy but appearing smooth. annual herb. shows hairs and oil globules. b) Microscopic Seed . thinwalled. the 100 .8 -10.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. parenchymatous cells. Hygrophila spinosa T. light yellowish-brown. (Fam. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. IkÀuraka.43. truncate at the base. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. a spiny. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Swelling Index . flat or compressed. common in water logged places throughout the country.Greyish-brown. Powder . Maradarishana. stout. taste. Maradarishina -Maramannal. oil globules present in this region. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. Kokilaksha (Sd. white.

(366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. including any sticky mucilage.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. 0. related to 1 g of seeds. 2.17. 0. 0. V¤Àya.38 (light brown). 101 .2.C. of the drug in powder form.C. Appendix per cent. Santarpa¸a.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. Appendix 2. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . Pitt¡¿mar¢. 0. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. 0. Lipase. 0. 0. 0.31 (dark brown). 0. 0.24.38. IDENTITY.L. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.41 (light blue). DOSE . CONSTITUENTS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.An yellow semi-drying oil.3. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.V. 0. V¡tarakta. 0.áotha.72 (all yellow).72 (dark brown). Appendix per cent.52 (dark brown) and 0. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.2.24 (dark brown). Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. 0.55 (light blue)..03. T.31.3 -6 g. 0.4.24 (red).L. Add 25 ml of water. Appendix per cent.17 (light brown). 0. 2.93 (sky blue).52 and 0.2. enzymes like Diastase.2. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.10 (light brown).03 (light brown).76 (sky blue) and 0. 2.6. Kaphahara. Protease and an Alkaloid.

rounded and truncate at the apex.44. stamens 8-12. 0. spathulate. Payilikura. Kuzuppa (W.4 cm long. Kulfa. prostrate herb. style 5-6 fid.A few. Lonika. oblong. cuneiform.25-0. short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. 0. fracture. Pulikkirai. brownish-grey.3 to 2. sub-sessile.2 cm in diameter. an annual succulent.6 cm wide.3 cm long. Loni -Koricchira. Loni. swollen at the nodes. 0. surface smooth. at terminal heads. Khurfa. characteristic. ribbed. 50 cm long. petals obovate. Flower . found throughout the country.1 to 0. Gho¶ik¡. Chhotalunia.Almost cylindrical.35-0. Stem .4 cm long.Cylindrical. Kozhuppu Pappukura. bright yellow.P) Portulacaceae). 0. (Fam. Common Indian Purslane Luni.5 cm long. Kwfa Pasalai. short. dehiscing above the base. secondary roots. smooth and greenish-brown. Leaf . sepal 0.An ovoid capsule. root hairs abundant in upper region. fracture. Paruppukkeerai. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Badi Lona Dudagorai. small. oblique. 102 . ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Moti Luni Khursa. Baranunia Garden Purslane. Kozhuppa. odour. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. Fruit . Doddagoni Soppu. branched. very delicate and soon falling off. 0. Loni. Kozuppa. less in number.1 to 0. -Baraloniya.5 cm long and 0.Simple. 3-4 leaves. Peddapavila Kura. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Ghola -Lonak. Badanuni. subtended by an involucre.

tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. as well as compound. oval. Lamina .2. . palisade single layered.3.2. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. covered externally with a thick cuticle. reniform. parenchyma abundant. dark brown. having intercellular spaces. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. 2. having simple pits and spiral thickening. present in mesophyll cells. thin-walled. Powder . having 2-3 components.Wavy in outline. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents.6. pericycle fibre present in patches. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. shows groups of oval to polygonal. 0.2. thick-walled with wide lumen. black. parenchymatous cells. stomata paracytic type. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. parenchymatous cells. tracheids and parenchyma.4. ray cells and pith.7.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. b) Microscopic Root . phloem and xylem parenchyma.07 cm across.06-0. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. Stem . minute. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. 2. vessels.. IDENTITY. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. 2. secondary xylem consists of vessels. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening.Shows 5-15 layers of cork.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. arranged in radial rows.Greyish-brown. secondary xylem composed of vessels.2.2. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. Appendix 2. simple as well as compound. Appendix per cent. LeafMidrib . phloem. pitted and spiral vessels. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres.Seed -Numerous. measuring 6-14 µ . Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. oval cells. tracheids. fragments of cork cells.2. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. solitary or in groups of 2-5. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. tracheids and parenchyma. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells.

52 (both faint green). 0. 0.Protein. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 0.68 (yellow) and 0.76 (all pinkish red). On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES .L. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 104 .41.L.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .3 .6 g. 0. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. áotha.50. RukÀa..10. 0.08. Pittakara.76 and 0. 0.10.C.T.76 (green) in visible light. 0. CakÀuÀya.08. 0. 0.C. 0. Under U.68. (both green). 0.61. 0. 0.Agnim¡ndya.41. 0. Prameha. Carbohydrates. of the drug in powder form.52.68 and 0. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. Ar¿a. V¡tahara. T.V.Marma Gu¶ik¡. Gulma. Vra¸a DOSE .10. 0.

greyish brown to brown. 25-50 cm high. Leaf . Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. stipulate.45. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. Fabaceae). varying in length. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .week bristles longitudinally grooved.Cylindrical. distinct. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. 0. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. leaflets 10-20 pairs.Cylindrical. internal cut surface grey.5 cm in dia. Stem . Lajauni Muttidasenui. 0. rependant . tapering. (Fam. 105 . easily separable from wood. taste.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. sessile.P) diffused undershrub. fracture hard. covered with long. yellowish-green. obliquely rounded at base. nearly glabrous. alternate. external surface light brown. slightly astringent. woody. odour. acute.3-0. bark fibrous.2 cm long. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. Var¡kr¡nt¡. upto 2. with secondary and tertiary branches. hairy pinnae. linear lanceolate.6-1. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. Lajavanti. petiolate. sensitive to touch.4 cm broad. Lajamani Chhuimui. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. Lajjalu (W. upto 2 cm thick. sparsely prickly. bark fibrous. Machikegida. Adamalati Lajaka.

2. 106 . parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. tangentially elongated cells. a number of lignified. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.4-0.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. filled with reddish-brown contents. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. simple. phloem rays thick-walled. moderately thick-walled. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. much exserted.3 cm long. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. arranged in tangential bands.6 cm long. scattered throughout secondary xylem. corolla pink. 2-3 seriate more common. in globose head. rarely multiseriate. secondary cortex wide. thick-walled. straw coloured. scattered throughout. 3-25 chambered. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. lobes 4. crystal fibres elongated. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. Stem . spreading bristle at sutures. consisting of large. stamens 4. b) Microscopic Root . Fruit .Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. fibres of two types. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. oval-elliptic.3 long. pith consisting of polygonal.Compressed. 0. 1-1. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. radially elongated. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings.Flower . 0. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. brown to grey. glabrous. Seed . phloem fibres single or in groups. tangentially elongated to oval. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. calyx very small. ovules numerous. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. fibres.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. dry. xylem rays radially elongated. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thick-walled. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. respectively. fibres single or in groups.Lomentum. ovary sessile. parenchyma. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. peduncles prickly. starch grains. ovate oblong. crystal fibres thick-walled. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays.Pink. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components.

shaggy hairs. Appendix per cent. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. endocarp of thick-walled. T. 0. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. reticulate. Midrib .69 (all blue) and 0. lignified cells followed by single layered. Appendix per cent. 0. branched. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U.L.2.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .L. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. Fruit . covered with thin-cuticle.2.2. Appendix per cent. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. pitted vessels. spongy parenchyma.7. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade.C.Leaf- Petiole . fibres. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. Appendix 2. crystal fibres. 2. parenchymatous cells.35.2.2. branched.C. single and compound starch grains. shows. spongy parenchyma single layered.62.Shows single layered radially elongated cells.shows single layered epidermis.3 components IDENTITY.V. vascular bundle single. with 2 . palisade single layered. Powder . embryo straight with short and thick radicle. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled.Reddish-brown.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. one in each wing. shaggy hairs.6.2. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells Seed . yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. 0.81 (bluish-pink). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. pericycle same as in petiole. 2. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. Lamina . followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. pericycle arranged in a ring. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. palisade cells non glandular. Appendix per cent.3. parenchymatous cells.shows epidermis on both surfaces. 2.4. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. Atis¡ra. 0.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. áv¡sa. Vra¸a.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Ku¶aj¡valeha. D¡ha. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . KuÀ¶ha.35 (orange).áopha. THERAPEUTIC USES . 108 . 0. Yoniroga. Kaphahara. Raktapita DOSE .35 and 0.

Gmel.) Macbride. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Madhuka.F.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers.Petal shows a single layered epidermis.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree.46. ovate lanceolate. tabular. taste. Ilippa. Madhuka (Fl. Mahawash tree Mahudo. Mahua Katiluppai. M. reddish-brown. Iluppa. followed by thin-walled. corolla fleshy. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. short. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26).5-2 cm long. Syn. b) Microscopic Corolla . vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. epipetalous and arranged in two series. Hippe. Sapotaceae) . Bassia latifolia Roxb. lanceolate. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. a few 109 . Halippe. epipetalous. Ippa. Kattu Iluppai. Eppimara -Irippa. erect 0. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. anther sub-sessile. Hippenara. basifixed. Androecium . and also cultivated. sweet. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. latifolia (Roxb. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua.

Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.15 g.2.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. árama DOSE .5 per cent. T¤À¸¡. shows fragments of epidermal cells. tapetum not distinct. El¡di Modaka.Dark brown. unicellular hairs.2. IDENTITY.2. Appendix 0. Pittakara.3. 2. Appendix 5 per cent. spherical.áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls.7. áramahara. 2.2. KÀata. lignified cells. Appendix 2. Appendix 25 per cent.2. Ah¤dya. round. D¡ha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. KÀaya. oval shaped. Balya. Powder . 2. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. Appendix 70 per cent. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 110 . 2. endothecium composed of radially elongated.6. 2. V¡tahara.Madh£k¡sava. Appendix 10 per cent.2. pollen grains single or in groups. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS .unicellular hairs present on one side.10 .4. of the drug.

Gandal¢. Flower . Br. with spreading branches from the base. non Link. fracture. no characteristic odour and taste. no characteristic odour and taste. 0.47. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. triandra Lam.P.5 cm wide.3-2 cm wide.Cylindrical. bracteoles 111 . Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .6 cm diameter. short. fracture. often rooting at lower nodes. nodes and internodes distinct. Br. white often tinged with pink. repens Gmel.5 cm long. Br... sometimes reaching 10 cm long. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa.Flower in small axillary sessile heads.. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. A. (Fam. Leaf . numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. A. yellowish-brown to light-brown. obtuse or subacute.Herbaceous.3-7.) R. Stem .. short. A. sessile. 0. Syn. 2.5-5 cm long. denticulata R. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡.1-0. cream to grey. or elliptic.1. nodiflora R. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. weak. no characteristic odour and taste. Matshyakshi (W. Amaranthaceae). linear-oblong.. internodes 0. A.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. Matsy¡duni. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Bahli.

there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. pith consisting of thin-walled. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. irregular. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish.5-3 mm long. orbicular. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. parenchymatous cells. ovary obcordate. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. shows wavy or undulate. Fruit . spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. no characteristic odour and taste. Leaf- Midrib . each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. parenchymatous cells. vascular bundles three. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. collenchymatous cells. xylem tissues lignified. stomata paracytic. radially arranged cork cells.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. round or oval. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. covered wtith striated cuticle. with are conjoint. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. b) Microscopic Root .Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. compressed with thickened margins. compressed. vascualr bundles radially arranged. 112 . isodiametric. thin-walled round or oval. Lamina .5 mm long. consistig of thin-walled. no characteristic odour and taste. single layered. isodiametic cells. thin-walled. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches.dorsiventral. perianth 2. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. parenchymatous cells. with anomalous secondary growth. present in the centre. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. bicollateral. 1. round to oval.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. composed of thin-walled.2 cm long.Utricle.1. scarious. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin. each consisting of xylem and phloem. numerous. open and exarch. acute. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. Stem . capitellate. style very short. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. parenchymatous cells. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. sepals ovate. consisting of thin-walled cells. palisade ratio 3-5. secondary cortex narrow. pith distinct. palisade 2-3 layers. ovate.

2.Sugar. IDENTITY.68 (all red).2. 0.2. 113 .35. 0.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.96 (all yellow).KuÀ¶ha.33 and 0.2.2.59.44 (all green). 0. Kaphahara. 0.16.L. THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.C.7. 0. paracytic stomata.2.V. Appendix 10 per cent. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Appendix 2.5 per cent.54 and 0. CONSTITUENTS .3.2 -3 g. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . 2. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0. 2.6.18. Pittavik¡ra. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 19 per cent. of the drug in powder form.L.44. 2. T.81. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. 0. 0. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Under U.4.44. 0. V¡tahara.16. Appendix 4. Tikta. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. 0. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0..94 and 0.25.Olive green.33. 0. Appendix 3 per cent. 0.Powder . palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.C.

columnar palisade. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. cells flat at base. very hard. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. Methi (Sd. odour. cultivated throughout the country. 0. several layers of thin walled. pleasant.5 cm long. (Fam.) aromatic. Fabaceae). parenchymatous cells. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. mucilaginous cells. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. bitter.walled. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.48. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. 0. varying in size. 30-60 cm tall.Seed shows a layer of thick. annual herb. thin-walled.35 cm broad. covered externally with thick cuticle. smooth.15-0. b) Microscopic Seed . Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium.2-0. dull yellow. 114 . dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. taste.

aleurone grains. CONSTITUENTS .3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2. Sapogenins and Mucilage. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. Jvara.2.2. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. oil globules. Prameha.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.Yellow. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix 4 per cent. Powder . 2. 115 . of the drug in powder form. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. Appendix 2. Appendix 0.2. Kaphahara.Graha¸¢.5 per cent. 2.4. IDENTITY.3-6 g.6. Appendix 5 per cent. Rucya.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.Alkaloid. Aruci DOSE .

odour. an annual or biennial bristly herb. Mulaka (W.Lower leaves hairy.49. not distinct. hollow. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. compressed. taste. oblong. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally.7-2. slightly pungent.Flower in long terminal raceme. sometimes brown red. bisexual. Flower .P. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.Root cylindrical.1-1. pedicel with scattered hairs. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. seplas 6. having a few longitudinal striations. petiole 5-5.0 cm in dia.5-10 cm long. complete 1-2 cm long. (Fam.3 cm long.2 cm long.Slender. Stem . cylindrical. blade obovate. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. variable size and thickness. Muli. upper most leaves simple.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.. petals 1. Leaf . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . regular. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. coarsely toothed. lyrate. sub-linear but narrowed at the base.) Brassicaceae). white or lilac with yellow or 116 . yellowish-green. sub-marginate at the apex. bright green.

4 cm thick. elliptical. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. oily. traversed by xylem rays. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. 2 mm wide.appears biconvex in outline. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. medullary rays four to many cells wide. Leaf- Petiole . erect. 117 .dorsiventral. 10-12 ovuled. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells. one central and two lateral. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root . 3-9 cm long and 0.Reddish-brown. continuous or more or less constricted. Midrib .Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. covered with thick cuticle. radially arranged. taste. traversed by phloem rays. epidermis single layered. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. two outer smaller and four inner longer. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. present only on upper side. cylindrical.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. 1-2 chambered. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. occasionally pale purple. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. starch grains simple. solitary or ingroups. ovary superior. Fruit . pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. pith a wide zone of polygonal. present in cortex. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. present in cortex and phloem. longitudinally sulcatus. Stem . Lamina .12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. green or brown-purple.Siliqua.1. palisade 2-3 layers. cork cells. round to oval.8. vascular bundle three in number. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. round to oval. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. thin-walled. hairs unicellular. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups.purple vein.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. epidermis followed by 6. irregularly globose. style about 4 mm long. Seed . single layered. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. greenish-yellow.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. sometimes flattened. phloem. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. endodermis at some places. stamen 6 in two whorls. 2-4 mm long. parenchymatous cells.

Fruit . Appendix per cent.2. 2.Agnim¡ndya.7.Shows a single layered epidermis. 2. Gandhaka Va¶¢.Yellowish-green. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated.40 ml. Appendix 2.2.6. of the drug in juice form. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Ar¿a. Appendix per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. oil globules and round to oval starch grains.2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. Seed .Glucoside. CONSTITUENTS . straight cuticle. covered with a thin-cuticle. parenchymatous cells present. shows aseptate fibres. Ud¡varta. thinwalled. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. 118 . Kaphahara. Rucya. Powder . Appendix per cent. Tikta Laghu.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. spiral vessels. Appendix per cent.3. 2. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. reddish-brown.M£lakakÀ¡ra. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. P¢nasa. Pittahara. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. H¤dya. Svarya. P¡cana. DOSE . IDENTITY. covered with thin. Gulma. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal.4. tangentially elongated. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of columnar cells.20 .2.2.

an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy.4.50. Mula Muli Moolangi. Saleya. 2. Rakhyasmula Mula. Appendix 2.2.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. usually 25-40 cm in length. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. IDENTITY. Visra.2. rarely sweet. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Brassicaceae). 2.2.7. 2.) annual or biennial bristly herb.6. Appendix per cent. 2.2. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. white in colour. Appendix per cent. taste. Mulaka (Rt. Moclangi gadde. cylindrical. variable in size. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. fusiform. (Fam. 119 . slightly or strongly pungent. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. Mulaka.3. Mullangi. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. having a few lateral fibrous roots.2.

T. Svarya. Gulma. Ar¿a. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. Kaphahara. K¡sa.49 & 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.Glucoside. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . Galaroga. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .09 & 0. 0. T. P¡cana. 0. Dadru.34.15-30 ml. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. 0.09. Tikta Laghu.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. of the drug in the juice form 120 . 0. 0.04. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.V.04 & 0.Agnim¡ndya.C.L. P¢nasa.69 (all yellow).47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ud¡varta DOSE . Vrana.04. Jvara. áv¡sa.LC.09 (both blue). Pittahara. 0. Rucya. Netraroga. H¤dya.

vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . slightly bitter. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. Mura (Rt.2.Shows 10 . outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents.1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi.) DC. taste. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. a perennial herb. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars.51. 0. tangentially elongated. dull brown. tenuifolium Wall. traversed by xylem rays. thin-walled cells. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.4 m tall.3 . aromatic. Syn. consisting of tangentially elongated.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. S. fibres and parenchyma. secondary cortex composed of rounded. Root . Apiaceae ). consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. traversed by phloem rays.42000 m.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. 6-12 cm long and 0. inner cells thin-walled.6 . colour. odour. Gandhakuti. cambium 2-4 layered. (Fam. thin-walled cells. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. secondary phloem shows wide zone. rectangular cells. Daitya.

T¤Àn¡ DOSE . Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. 122 . starch grains simple. M£rchha. present in secondary cortex. 2. Tikta. secretory canals numerous. xylem and phloem rays. CONSTITUENTS . Sucrose and Mannitol.4. secondary phloem. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide.2. Appendix 3. of the drug in powder form. secretory canals.2. shows groups of cork cells. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter.2. D¡ha.3. parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem. somewhat oval cells.Arvind¡sava.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Appendix 2. 2. Appendix 9 per cent.1-3 g.2.Brown. secondary xylem and medullary rays. IDENTITY.7.2. xylem parenchyma.having spiral thickenings. 2. short with blunt ends. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. fibres aseptate. Jvara. Appendix 17 per cent.6. round to oval. Ka¶u.5 per cent.2.áv¡sa. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. composed of radially arranged. oil globules and simple starch grains. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 9 per cent. distributed throughout secondary cortex.. Bhrama.

phloem fibres absent. odour. & Am. twining shrub. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. taste. some filled with reddish-brown contents. resin cells present irregularly in this region. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. Jartor Koratige Hambu. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. fracture. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. a large stout. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Madhusrava. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. phloem rays 1 123 . composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. similar to those present in secondary cortex. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. (Fam. rectangular cells. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present.5-3 cm thick. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. indistinct. b) Microscopic Root .Shows a cork. Koratige. bark easily separable from wood.) Asclepiadaceae). Halukaratige. slightly bitter. Murva (Rt.52. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. tangentially elongated. Kallu Shambu.

Light brown.2-6 g. Appendix 0. Meha. 5. 2. T¤Àn¡. shows a number of stone cells. 124 . Powder .3. Medoroga. Appendix 5 per cent. of the drug for decoction. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. Pittahara. tracheids.2. 2. 10-20 g. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. composed of vessels. starch grains simple. IDENTITY. fibretracheids.7. consisting of small tangential. Ka¸·£.5-22 µ dia.3 cells wide. Prameha Mihira Taila.. THERAPEUTIC USES .6. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components.Ar¿a. measuring 5. Mukha áosa. Appendix 7 per cent. K¤miroga. 2.tracheids. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure.4. H¤droga. 2. fibres. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. Tikta Guru. vessels with pitted walls. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 14 per cent. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. fibres. V¡tahara.2. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.2.5 per cent. Jvara. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls.2. of the drug in powder form.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue.22 µ in diameter.. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. Appendix 2. present in parenchymatous tissues. Raktapitta. fragments of cork. simple and compound starch grains.2.5 . Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.

Sachunagkeshara. each stamen 0. Guttiferae).53. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. (Fam.Brown. Naugaliral. 125 . N¡ga. quite brittle. Bengal. Nagchampa. Konkan. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. soft to touch.9 cm long. b) Microscopic Androecium . Nagachampakam. Powder .Anther shows golden-brown.) evergreen tree. consisting of thin-walled. Assam.8 . slender. fragrant. often buttressed at the base. distinct protuberances on walls. about 15-18 m high with short trunk.5 cm long. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Peri. connective and filament. Veluthapala. Nagppu. N¡gapuÀpa.9-1. more or less twisted. linear. Nagakesari -Nangaa. coppery or golden brown. Nahar Nageshvara. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. filiform. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. parenchymatous cells. anther about 0. exine and intine distinct. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. an Ke¿ara. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. thick-walled. astringent.1. odour. Hem¡. connective not visible with naked eye. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. filament 0. taste. containing pollen grains. shows elongated cells of filament. Nauga. basifixed. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Nagakesar (Stmn.0 cm long. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Pilunagkesar. yellowish and thin-walled.

2. of the drug in powder form. Var¸ya. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kum¡ry¡sava. 2.2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. áopharoga.2.1-3 g. Kaphahara. V¡tarakta.IDENTITY. Tikta. Appendix per cent. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6. 126 .2. Appendix per cent.4.Raktapitta.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. 2. 2. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.3. Vastiroga DOSE .7.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.

5 cm long and 0. Nili (Lf. leaflet 1-2. pale green to greenish-black. N¢l¢n¢.3-1. no characteristic odour and taste. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole .) shrub.2. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 1. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. pith composed of round to oval.2 cm wide. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. (Fam. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. 127 .1. Fabaceae). vascular bundles collateral and three in number.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings.8 m high.54. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.

2. Pl¢haroga. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2 per cent. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . shows groups of mesophyll cells.50-100 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. Appendix 7. cuticle and hair. vascular bundle single.2. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. epidermis.. V¡tarakta. collateral and crescent shaped. palisade 2-3 layers. Appendix 25 per cent. Lamina .4. Appendix 10 per cent. 128 .6.2.Ëmav¡ta. CONSTITUENTS .2.7.Midrib .shows epidermis. V¡tahara. of decoction.Greenish-grey. Gulma. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .3. IDENTITY. similar as in petiole. cuticle and hair.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. pitted vessels.shows dorsiventral structure. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Appendix 2. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. Jvara.2. similar as in petiole and midrib. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. Udararoga. aseptate fibres. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . K¤imiroga.. 2.2. Ud¡varta.Glycoside (Indican). Ke¿ya. 2. 2.5 per cent. K¡sa.2.

Nil. Fabaceae). Indian Indigo Gali. Neeli Nili. woody.55.8 m high. rectangular. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. Karunili. taste. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. cylindrical. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. Nila Nili.5 cm thick. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. Olleneeli -Amari. (Fam. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels.. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. odour not distinct. secondary cortex a narrow zone. thin-walled cells. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. Rangapatr¢.2-1. 1. 129 . Nili Chettu. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Nila -Neel Avuri. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. hard. slightly bitter.1 -1.) shrub. 0. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. thin-walled cells. group of fibres. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. with lenticels. Nili (Rt. Gari Nili Kadunili. consisting of usual elements. Nili. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma.10 layers of tangentially elongated. Neeligida.

0.2. present in cortex. 0. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. Recan¢.2. DOSE . 0. 0. phloem.40 (blue). starch grains simple.Gulma. V¡tarakta.75. 0. 0.Arvind¡sava.58.. 0.V.L. Appendix 4 per cent.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. 130 .91 (all grey). Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .7 per cent.10.81 (blue).. 0. 0. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. pitted vessels.63 (bluish green).10.63.40.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. 2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.7. Pl¢h¡roga. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.06. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Udararoga. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.14. simple and compound starch grains. 0. IDENTITY. 0.0.47 (blue). 2.L. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.14.C.2. shows aseptate fibres.30 (bluish green). Appendix 2.27. round to oval. Appendix 3 per cent. 0. 0. Appendix 0. 2.6.86 (green) and 0.50. 0. and 0. Ëmav¡ta. Powder . T. 0. CONSTITUENTS .81. 0.2.33.48 g.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.Creamish-brown. 0. 0.75. 0.50. K¤imiroga.91 (all yellow). 0. of drug for decoction.3. xylem parenchyma and rays.75 (blue). Appendix 6 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. 0.86 and 0.14 (blue). measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Ke¿ya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.27. V¡tahara. ViÀavik¡ra. 0.0.80.86.58.06. K¡sa.33. 2. 0. 0. Ud¡varta.58 (blue).2.C. 0.4.40.91 (blue).21.63.

acute. Veppu. (Fam. taste. opposite. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. 7-8. Nimba (Lf.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. rachis 15-25 cm long. Kahibevu.5 cm long and 1. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. crystals also present in phloem region. Kohumba Nim. lanceolate. odour. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle.56. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Veppa Balantanimba. Arulundi. Meliaceae). Nimbam. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Nim. slightly yellowish-green. Juss Syn. Limba. Limado. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. indistinct. Oilevevu. Melia azadirachta Linn. exstipulate. 131 . Bevu.0-1. Bevinama -Veppu. Bakayan. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Bakan.Compound. Nim Vemmu. leaflets with oblique base. Veppan Vemu. Aryaveppu. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba.1 cm thick. alternate.7 cm wide. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . serrate. Limbado. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Nimba Nimba. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand.

rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells.6. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. Powder . 2. shows vessels. 2. CONSTITUENTS .Jvara. traversed by a number of veins.2.2.Green.2.0-14. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. Vrana.4. tangentially elongated cells.5 on upper surface. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. KuÀ¶ha. covered externally with thick cuticle. 2. Appendix per cent. Netraroga.3. ViÀarogas DOSE . Ëma¿otha. composed of thin walled. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only.Lamina . epidermis on either surface. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta.0-11.5 on lower surface and 8.shows dorsiventral structure. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. stomatal index 13.0-4. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. V¡tal¡. palisade single layered.2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. K¤miroga. palisade ratio 3. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. thin-walled cells.7. fibres. Appendix 2.1-3 g.2. Appendix per cent. 132 . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.5. Prameha.Triterpenoids and Sterols.2.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.

Syn. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. (Fam. Nimb Bevu. considerably thick in older barks. odour. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Vembu Vemu.57. Nimba. Nimba. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Melia azadirachta Linn. evergreen tree. Juss. characteristic. a moderate sized to fairly large.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Nimba (St. Oilevevu -Veppu. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. fissured and rusty-grey. Bakam Veppai. woody. Meliaceae). fracture. taste. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Kahibevu. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. extemal surface rough. Kadunimb. fibrous. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Limba Nimba Nim.

75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands.90 (green).outer surface.7.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.63 and 0. simple starch grains. Appendix 2.6. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.45.2.2.90 (all blue). having wide lumen and distinct striations.C. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. round with central hilum.2. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Appendix 1. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna.3.Reddish-brown. 0. 2. ViÀaghna.C.75-5 µ in diameter. IDENTITY. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. T. and 0. Appendix 7 per cent. Pittahara. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . Powder . stone cells mostly in groups.2.20. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. CONSTITUENTS . 0.L. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. 2.2. lignified rectangular to polygonal.L. 2. Appendix 5 per cent. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Kaphahara. measuring 2. simple.2. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.measuring 2. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.V. cork cells.86 (blue). most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.5 per cent. 2.4.72 (blue). secondary cortex absent in most cases. starch grains.

Decoction should be used externally. Nimb¡di C £r¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . 135 . Prameha..D¡ha. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Ka¸·u.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. K¤miroga. of the drug in powder form. KuÀ¶ha. Jvara. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Vra¸a DOSE . Rakta Pitta.2-4 g.

rough due to presence of rhytidoma. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. rhytidoma 0. rectangular. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. Paras Moduga. 0. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam.Bk) Fabaceae). Khakhapado Dhak.) Kuntze (Fam. curved. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. dark brown. Camata. Muttala -Plasu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. Palash.58. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork.2 cm thick usually peels off. Khakharo.5 . beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. taste. Tesu Purasu. pale brown.15 m high with irregular branches. Tesu Muttug. Modugu. Palasha (St. Dhak. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. often in groups. Plas. greyish to pale brown. cork cells. rectangular 136 . having brown colour. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. dark-brown.1 cm thick. 12 . tanniniferous cells. internal surface rough. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. moderately thick-walled. Chettu Dhak. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. except in very arid parts. 5-10 or more layered. slightly astringent. thin-walled. exposing light brown surface. fracture. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. Muttuga. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part.

0.3 components. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C.12 cells wide. Appendix 10 per cent.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. CONSTITUENTS .3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. 2.6. straight. 2.Reddish-brown.48 and 0.5 per cent. 137 . in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.2.13.2. 0. traversed by phloem rays.50 cells in height. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. phloem fibres.67 (all yellow).L. T. 0.C. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 2. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY..L.67 (all violet). 0. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.10.65 (all blue).7.10. Appendix 12 per cent. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . Powder .10. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.2.3. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.2. crystal fibres. phloem parenchyma. 0.75 .cells followed by a zone of 2 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. sclereids mostly in groups. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. dark brown coloured cells.V.48.. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. measuring 2. Appendix 1. thin-walled cork cells.4 layers of sclereids.75 µ in dia. 0. 7 .18. 2. Appendix 14 per cent.2. 0. 2.48 and 0. companion cells. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . 0.2.

Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. K¤miroga. 138 . Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila.Ar¿a. Graha¸¢.5-10 g. Tikta. DOSE .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vra¸a. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Agnid¢paka. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . S¡raka . Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. KaÀ¡ya Sara.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Gulma.

Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. medium sized.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. secondary cortex consists of large. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers.Bk) Fabaceae). exfoliating in narrow strips. quick growing tree.5-2. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. inner bark fibrous. parenchymatous cells. radially arranged and thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. Pangara Hongar. stone 139 . Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. smooth. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .59. Mulmurumgai Badisa. yellowish to cream coloured. Paribhadra (St. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey.0 cm thick. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. (Fam. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. tangentially elongated to squarish.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

148 . V¤Àya. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. V¡taroga DOSE .V¡tarakta.CONSTITUENTS .2-4 g. of drug in powder form.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.Alkaloids. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.. Balak¤t. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .. Volatile Oil.

found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. Piyar. micropyle superior. Saraparuppu Sara. sweetish-oily. which are of various size. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. pitted. large.4-0. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. pleasant.) Anacardiaceae). creamish-brown. occurring mostly in groups. (Farn. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. followed by remnants of disorganised. collapsed cells of integument. linear. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. Chowl. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. funicle stout. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 .3-0. B. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. Syn.63. Priyalam. odour. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. Korka. taste. sclerenchymatous cells. 0. thick-walled. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. Shalichokha Piyal. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells.6 cm long. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. latifolia Roxb.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered.5 cm wide. b) Microscopic Seed . Priyala (Sd. mottled with darker brown lines. hilum present at the apex of round edge. Satdhan -Charal.

KÀata. 0.0 µ in dia.2. BrÆha¸a.6. V¤Àya.91. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.5-5.2. 0.08.54.D¡ha. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.L.54. IDENTITY. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.2.2. shows numerous mesophyll cells. 0.4.72. Appendix 0. 0.91.2. Oil and Starch.08. 2. of the drug in powder form. 0.0 µ in dia. Priy¡la Taila.Albuminoids.V.7. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.94 and 0.C.2. 2. KÀaya. T.type. and sclerenchymatous cells. H¤dya. Pittahara. Appendix 4 per cent. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. procambium bundles. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. Powder .5-5. 0. V¡tahara. áukrakara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. 2.measuring 2.20 g.27.C.94 and 0.84. 0. 150 . 0.72. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphakara. Appendix 7 per cent. 0.72 and 0.98 (all yellow).P£gakha¸·a. 0.98 (all violet). CONSTITUENTS .3. Sara. Bhagnas¡dhaka. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2.A creamish-brown paste.10 . DOSE . 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. and oil globules. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.L.27. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. Balya. Raktapitta.94 (blue).

3 mm in dia. style. 2. 1.4 m high shrub. brown. (Fam. filament very long. densely clothed with wooly hairs.) Verbenaceae). Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. Priyangu (Infl. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. ovary 2-4 celled. 1. parenchymatous cells. hairy. tubular. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu.2. b) Microscopic Peduncle . stamens 4. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.0. calyx.Cymose. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical.64. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . equal in size. bell-shaped. peduncle cylindrical. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. 4 lobbed spreading. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . Flower . epipetalous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. brown. corolla.5 . anther ovate. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs.5 cm across.5-7. an erect. long.5 cm long. and abundant in Bengal plains. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres.Shows more or less wavy outline.2. thin-walled. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. stigma minutely capitate. basifixed. densely hairy.

1-3 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. N¢lik¡dya Taila. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. V¡tahara. 2. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. 2. CONSTITUENTS .Glycosides. fibres aseptate. Kanaka Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent.2. Appendix per cent. aseptate fibres. Sandh¡n¢ya. groups of thin-walled. Ku´kum¡di Taila. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Terpenes. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. 2.3. (Mukharoga). spiral vessels.2. 2.7. Appendix per cent. Rakta. elliptical.D¡ha. Appendix per cent. Rakta-Pitta. Vra¸aropa¸a. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Jvara. xylem consists of usual elements. Pakv¡tis¡ra. M£travirajan¢ya.Brown.4. IDENTITY.fibres.2. Sved¡dhikya.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Appendix 2.2. of the drug in powder form. Pras¡dana. 152 .2. Appendix per cent. DOSE . Daurgandhyahara. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. El¡di C£r¸a. Resin and Saponin. Phenolic compound.

Nelver Dhanyamu. Nellu. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. smooth. Paddy Shalichokha. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. thick-walled. b) Microscopic Root . both consisting of round to oval. Coke Chaval. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Nellu Tandulamul. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Damgara. Corava. an annual herb.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Dhana.05-0. sclerenchymatous cells. cylindrical. Dhan Rice. exodermis 1-2 layered. Dh¡nya. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Vr¢hi. (Fam. Bhatta. composed of thick-walled. Cala. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. soft. Jhona Arishi. Nivara -Chaval. Dhana Bhatto. Odalu.) cultivated throughout India.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells.Greyish-cream. Biyyamu Chaval. Bhata. sclerenchymatous cells. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Dhanarmul. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. pitted vessels and 153 . Powder . thin. Akki -Ari. 5-15 cm in length and 0. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Sali. Shali (Rt. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Poaceae). cortex differentiated into three zones.65. Chawl.

Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Svarya. 154 . V¡tahara. BrÆha¸a. 2. Balya. Laghu. of the drug for decoction.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Kaphahara.2.StanyakÀaya.2. CakÀuÀya. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. 2. Pittahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Var¸ak¤t.50 g. Appendix per cent. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Guru.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Baddh¡lpavarcasa.Br¡hma Ras¡yana.3.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. M£trala.7. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. H¤dya. Rucya.2. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent.4.2.

sub-erect. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. about 0. acute. Sankhahuli Kakattam. 0. spreading. Stem . light green. Shankhapushpi. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. Flower . sepals narrowly. cylindrical. hairy on both surfaces.1-0. corolla shortly discoid. 0. linear-lanceolate.P. found throughout the country. perennial herb with a woody root stock. 155 .Shortly petiolate. cylindrical.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. hairy. sparsely hairy.5-2 cm long and 0. 1-5 cm long.Slender. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. yellowish-brown to light brown. alternate with the petals.66. linear-lanceolate. a prostrate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .) Convolvulaceae).4 cm thick.5 cm broad. Leaf . Shankhavela.Usually branched. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis.White or pinkish. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. Sankhapuspi. ovary superior and bicarpellary. light green. stamen 5. inserted deep in the corolla tube. Kakkanangudi. Sankha pushpin (W. Karakhuratt. epipetalous.1-0. free.

fibres and parenchyma. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. unicellular hairs. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. phloem composed of sieve elements. . round to oval in shape. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. 13. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. oblong globose with coriaceous. both having round to oval. LeafMidrib .0. simple and composed of 2-3 components. phloem..appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. mm. present on both surfaces. covered with thick cuticle.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. Powder . covered with thick cuticle.Capsule. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits.Light yellowish-green. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. palisade two layered. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. thick-walled cells. cortex differentiated in two zones.8 µ in dia. starch grains solitary or in groups. Stem .Fruit . elliptical.. vascular bundle bicollateral. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. minutely puberulous. tanniniferous. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. at places unicellular hairs present. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. secretory cells present in this region.walled cells. pale brown pericarp. 156 . thin. fibres and tracheids. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. xylem rays and parenchyma. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated.Shows single layered epidermis. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered.Brown. measuring 3 . mm. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. xylem consists of vessels. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. b) Microscopic Root . present in cortex. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. endoderrnis single layered. phloem a narrow zone. palisade ratio 6-9. xylem consisting of usual elements.8-17. hairs unicellular. Lamina . stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. Seed . epidermis single layered. simple and compound starch grains. elongated.Appears nearly circular in outline. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248.

2. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Medhya. Kaphahara.6. Br¡hma. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Ras¡yana. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Apasm¡ra DOSE .M¡nasaroga. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 2.2. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Ras¡yana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2.4.7. Agastyahar¢tak¢.IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana.2.3-8 g. Clitoria ternatea Linn. ËyuÀya. 2.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Tikta.3. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. 2.2.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

P.Small. glabrous outside and pubescent inside.7-7 cm long. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. 3. Siju. greenish-yellow. smooth.celled with or without attached pedicel. cylindrical. solitary. Chagulputputi Satala. (Fam.5 mm across at the mouth.Capsule. annual herb.1. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. pale brown. Flower . lobes short. 20-40 cm high. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. 1 mm long. lanceolate or linear oblong. Saptala (W.67. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. Joyachi. gland semilunate. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. 3-4 mm in dia. linear. 0. 158 . sessile. fracture. a much branched. Leaf .Involucre broadly campanulate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . having a few secondary roots. style. ribbed. odour and taste indistinct. gradually tapering. Fruit . horned. Bilikalli. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. 4-5 cm long. free to the base. ovate.5-2 mm thick. 0. ciliolate. shortly 2-fid at the apex. short.) Euphorbiaceae). filament pubescent. sub-sessile. trilocular.2-0. Carmas¡hv¡. 2.8 cm wide. subacute. odour and taste not distinct.

ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. vessels having simple pits. measuring 5. lignified cells with wide lumen. 2. fibres and tracheids. fibres elongated and aseptate. 159 . thick-walled lignified. flattended. covered externally with thick. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. secondary xylem composed of vessels. Leaf- Midrib . Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.6 layers of oval.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. composed of sieve elements. parenchymatous cells. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces.5-19. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. with wide lumen present in this region.25 µ in diameter. centre occupied by a pith. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. traversed by numerous xylem rays. epidermis single layered. all elements.3 mm long. secondary phloem narrow. fibres. fibres and vessels having simple pits.75 µ in dia. grooved at one side. some rounded. endodermis not distinct. all elements thick-walled and lignified. rounded to oval. secondary xylem consists of vessels. tangentially elongated elliptical. elliptical. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. circular to oval. consisting of thick-walled. starch grains simple. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. striated cuticle.Young root shows exfoliated. leprous tuberculate testa. elliptical. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. mature root shows thin walled cork. stone cells oval to elongated. b) Microscopic Root . filled with yellowish-brown content. solitary or in groups. rounded at the base. Stem . vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs.shows slightly convex outline. palisade single layered present on both sides. simple.Seed . found scattered in phloem region. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. rarely a few oil globules also present. secondary cortex consists of 4. rectangular. tangentially elongated cells. rounded to oval. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. tracheids and medullary rays. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. thickwalled and lignified.

2.V.7. 160 .87 (violet). Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .04 and 0.0. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a.C. simple. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.Powder . Appendix 2. Vibandha.2. stone cells thick-walled.L.50 g. Appendix per cent.L. shows vessels with simple pits. Appendix per cent. RaktadoÀahara. and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf.67.46 (brown) and 0. aseptate fibres.04. V¡tal¡. 2.2.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).2. IDENTITY. T. elliptical. oval to elongated. Appendix per cent.57 (all yellow). Udararoga. RukÀa. 0. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.4. of the drug for decoction. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. lignified with wide lumen.6.Ën¡ha. Ud¡vartta. Pittahara. Gulma.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. 0. CONSTITUENTS . rounded to oval starch grains. 2.2.Light yellow. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix per cent.3. 0.C. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mi¿raka Sneha.46. Visarpa. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.

some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. Shepa. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. filiform and incospicuous. graveolens DC. graveolens Linn. yellowish membranous wings. parenchymatous. Syn. akin to caraway. graveolens Benth. A. glabrous.. (Fam. Satahva (Fr. often stalk attached. brown. ex Flem. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. dorsal 161 .) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. odour. var. Apiaceae). slightly sharp taste. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. sowa Roxb. a tall. slightly raised. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. glabrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya..Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. A.. Shulupa. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. dark brown. 4 mm long. Sulpha. and a warm. mesocarp. vittae. b) Microscopic Fruit . 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. P. mericarps usually separate and free. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil.68. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt.

On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.2.costae three.10 T. Powder .2. V¡tahara. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Netra Roga DOSE . Appendix 4 per cent.3-6 g. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Jvara. carpophore split. 0.Essential Oil. 2. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. cellulosic.68 (violet). Appendix 1. 2.37 (pink) 0. CONSTITUENTS .6. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.2. each costae with vascular strands. Appendix 14 per cent. 2.59 and 0.59 (blue) and 0.2. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. IDENTITY.2.L. 162 . aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.2. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. Appendix 2.C. Kaphahara.Brown.68 (all yellow). Atis¡ra.3. 0.L. Vra¸a.5 per cent.á£la. of the drug in powder form. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 15 per cent.7.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. 2. shows spiral vessels.4.C. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent.

cortex consisting of 5-10 layered.5-1 cm wide. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. (Fam. AkÀ¢va. vascular bundle collateral. Sajna.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. entire. Mocaka -Sajina. Moringaceae).69. Segata pana. Shigru (Lf. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. consisting of pericyclic fibres.2-2 cm long and 0. Leaflet . pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. thin walled. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. thickened. Muringa. Bahala. palisade single layered. Nugge ele -Murinna. odour and taste not distinct. Muringa Elai Sevaga. oval to elliptical. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. elliptic. leaflet 1. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. Shewgachi pane Sajana. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. pith and phloem parenchyma. commonly cultivated throughout the country. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. pericycle forming a broken ring. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Munga. Syn. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. central region 163 b) Microscopic . a small or medium sized tree. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Mungna Neegge. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Sekato.Rachis shows single layered epidermis.) Gaertn. parenchymatous cells. Tishnagandha. slender. Segata. ovate or obovate. and articulated at the base. parenchymatous cells. Rachis .

B ¤Æhana.46 (dark green) & 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf.30 (pink). IDENTITY.36. 0. 0. 0.2. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. 0.2.46 (both blue). palisade ratio 6-11. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.2. 0.L. Protein. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.4.94 (violet). 2. Powder -Greyish-green. palisade cells. 0. áukra N¡¿aka. T. Under U.6.occupied by a crescent-shaped. stomata anornocytic.36 (green).69 (yellow). Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0.26. Appendix per cent. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.53 (yellow). 0. Medohara. 0.C.L. 0.05. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.26 (all green). 2. 0.05. (all green). Appendix per cent.2.18. CONSTITUENTS . 0.Carbohydrate. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.82 (yellow) and 0. Appendix 2. 0. 0.36 (yellowish green). rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. Pittahara.2.26.C.7.52 (green). ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya.46 (all red) & 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Sirovirecaka 164 .0.94 (yellow) in visible light. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.18. Appendix per cent.69 (blue) and 0. 0.2. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.59 (blue). 0. 2. V¡tahara.05.87 (blue). RukÀa. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.20. vein islets number 50-65.V. K¤mihara.94 (blue). 2.38. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. spiral vessels.46 (green). 0. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.3. 0.

ViÀatinduka Taila.áopha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pl¢haroga. Vidradhi.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. DOSE . Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Medoroga. Galaga¸·a.10 . Gulma. K¤miroga. 165 .Ratnagiri Rasa.

perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. membraneous aril. Sthulaela (Sd. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. Beraelam. spicy pungent. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. taste. brown to dark brown.. parenchymatous cells. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡.4 cm long. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. aromatic. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present.3 cm wide. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam. thin walled. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. odour. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam.70. thin-walled. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. perispenn encloses the 166 . parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. sclerenchymatous. perisperm consists of polygonal. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 0.) Zingiberaceae).

K¡sa. (Seed). DOSE . Mukharoga. Note . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Ka¸·u. rounded to oval. Appendix 1. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.2.2.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Appendix 2. perisperm cells. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent.2. 2. 2. H¤ll¡sa.4. polygonal. simple.10 CONSTITUENTS . Mukha¿odhaka. Tikta Laghu. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. oil globules. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. Chardi.Light brown.6. Appendix 4 per cent. Rocaka. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. 2.7. of the drug in powder form. 2. both composed of polygonal. Kaphahara.2.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.2.2.S¡rivady¡sava. parenchymatous cells. Powder . THERAPEUTIC USES .3. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. RukÀa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.endosperm and embryo.áv¡sa. T¤À¸¡. shows fragments of testa. thin-walled. Appendix 14 per cent. rich in protein.5 per cent. 2.2. 167 . thin-walled. IDENTITY. V¡tahara.0.5 -1 g. Karp£r¡dy¡rka.(Seed). while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter.

Bk. rather deeply furrowed. Tumbura. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. aromatic pungent. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. phloem fibres thickwalled. Thumbooni. thick-walled cells. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. taste. Tumburudra. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high.2 cm thick. armed with long.1-0. Tejovati (St. odour. Syn. internal surface smooth. stone cells found in 168 . channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. Jimmi. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. fracture. stem and branches. brownish. thin-walled. aromatic.) Roxb. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam.0. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. Z. short. Rutaceae). light yellow to pale brown. (Fam. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . cork 15-20 layers of tabular. lignified. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. parenchymatous cells. sharp prickles.71. external surface pale brown. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements.

2. Appendix 2. starch grains round and oval.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. aseptate fibres. Powder . Appendix 8.5 per cent. stone cells.75 µ in diameter.2. Kaphahara.10-20 g.13.Yellowish-brown. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. 169 . Appendix 13 per cent. shows fragments of cork cells.75 .4. Appendix 1. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. round and oval measuring 2.75 . P¡cana. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high.5 per cent. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.2.75 µ in diameter. Mukharoga. measuring 2.Aruci. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. Rucya. áv¡sa. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. a Volatile Oil and Resin. Appendix 12 per cent.7. K¡sa. 2. 2. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. of the drug for decoction. Ëmav¡ta.2. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). CONSTITUENTS .6. IDENTITY. THERAPEUTIC USES .13. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. oil globules and starch grains.3.2. Hikk¡. Medhya. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.

72. entire or serrate. (Fam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . slender. annual herb. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. found throughout the country. internally cream. Tulasi (W. taste. Lamiaceae). obtuse or acute. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. fracture. pubescent on both sides. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡.P.Purplish or crimson coloured. 30 .6 .2 cm wide. odour faintly aromatic.Erect. petiole thin. pubescent. branched. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn.3. blackish-brown externally and pale. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. sub quadrangular. characteristic. odour. hairy. wiry.) an erect. K¤À¸atulas¢. lower lip 170 . Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. much branched. shortly apiculate. externally purplish-brown to black. soft. small in close whorls. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. herbaceous. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. about 1. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. Shree Tulasi. hairy.60 cm high. woody. elliptic oblong.5-3 cm long hairy. branched. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. Thulasi. violet internally. aromatic. pedicels longer than calyx.2. Flower . Leaf . Stem .Thin. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi.5-5 cm long 1. coloured.

pungent. found scattered in phloem. phloem consisting of sieve elements. vessels pitted. Seed . slightly compressed.1 cm long. odour. long. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. Stem . aromatic.epidermis. pungent. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. slightly mucilaginous. vessels pitted. each with one seed. tracheids. taste. slightly notched at the base. xylem consists of vessels. odour. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. aromatic. xylem surrounded by phloem. b) Microscopic Root .Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. 0. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. corolla about 4 mm long. Leaf- Petiole . rectangular. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. thin-walled. nearly smooth. three vascular bundles situated centrally. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. lateral two short and central two largest. mucilaginous when soaked in water. thin-walled. fibres and parenchyma. fibres with pointed ends. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. pungent. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. round to oval polygonal. thin-walled. in groups and rarely in singles. thin-walled. occasionally a few cells collapsed. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. Midrib . middle one larger than other two. Fruit . taste. parenchymatous cells.A group of 4 nutlets. fibre tracheides. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells.shows somewhat cordate outline. phloem consists of sieve elements. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. glandular trichomes short. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. no odour. measuring 22-27 in dia. filled with brown content. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. taste. enclosed in an enlarged. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. pubescent. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. elongated.Rounded to oval. parenchymatous cells. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. membranous.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. 171 . pitted with pointed ends. brown. veined calyx. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. parenchymatous cells.

15 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.1. palisade ratio 3.2. Appendix 4 per cent.Lamina . Appendix 1. Durgandhihara 172 . On cooling spray.minutes Under observation. 2. Rf. rounded to oval. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Powder . stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . values of eugenol and caryophyllence.6. Pittavardhin¢. thin walled fibres. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). Kaphahara. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. Record Rf.4.5 per cent.2. RukÀa.C. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. V¡tahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. Appendix 8 per cent. Tikta.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .16 on lower surface. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.35. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings.7.L. a few containing reddish brown contents. T.L. H¤dya.Greenish: shows thin-walled.C.2. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. Rucya. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. value 0. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. parenchymatous cells.2.Essential Oil. IDENTITY. Appendix 10 per cent. oil globules. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. in thoroughly vanillin .3.2.2. Appendix 2. vein islet number 31 . 2.8. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.7. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.

Netraroga. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). Chardi. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. K¡sa. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . 173 . Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. Hikk¡. áv¡sa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .A¿mar¢. KuÀ¶ha. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form.

odour. covering trichomes multicellular. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil.) 30-60 cm high. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. middle one larger than the other two. characteristic. Holy Basil Tulasi. Lamiaceae). followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. 1. pubescent on both surfaces. petiolate. (Fam. petiole 1.shows cordate outline.2 cm wide. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. found throughout the country. thin. much branched annual herb.6-3. elliptic-oblong. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. three vascular bundles situated centrally. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. glandular trichomes short. and 2-8 celled. consisting of xylem and phloem. aromatic. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. balloon-shaped head.. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. an erect. Tulasi (Lf. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. 174 b) Microscopic . measuring 22-27 µ dia. upper epidermis. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi.73. hairy. K¤À¸atulas¢.5-5 cm long. LeafPetiole . obtuse or acute. entire or serrate.5-3 cm long.

98 (blue). 0.L.2. Powder .45 (violet). Appendix per cent.04.12. Nerol and Camphene etc. shows fragments of polygonal.12 (light violet).2.12 (light green).21. 2.93 (pink) & 0.04. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. 0.03 (dark green). Caryophyllene. palisade ratio 3.83.C. 0. 0.21.2.54 (blue). palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. Under U. 0. 0. 2. Appendix per cent.93 (both light green). stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.epidermis. 0.08 (both green). less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.45.Midrib . covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.33.54. T.8.3. 0. 0. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. 0.. 0. 2. IDENTITY. 0.L.30.C. 0.08. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.85 & 0. 0.93 (violet) and 0. 2.88 and 0.21 (brown).2.45.85 (blue).93 (all0 yellow). Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.75 (violet). 0.98 (blue). 0. 0. 0. vein islet number 31-33. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.2. 175 .33 (both green) 0.33 (violet). Lamina .83 (all pink) 0. 0. 0. 0.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.).75. 0.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.V. 0.08 (violet). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0.Light-green.4. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.7. palisade and spongy parenchyma. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.83 (blue).33.45 (yellowish green). 0.2. Appendix 2. 0. 0.04. 0.6.

V¡tahara. Pittahara. H¤dya. K¤miroga.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.Aruci. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. RukÀa. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. KuÀ¶ha. Hikk¡. K¡sa.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES .2-3 g. Tikta. 176 . Prati¿y¡ya. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. áv¡sa. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form.

sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. smaller. odour.5-1. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. fracture. pungent and bitter. large. Vacha (Rz. aromatic. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn.Shows single layered epidermis.) semiaquatic herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. Rhizome . cortex composed of spherical to oblong. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. enclosing large air spaces. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. and 0. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. Gora-bach Baje. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. upper side marked with alternately arranged. (Fam. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. taste. cells towards periphery.74. broadly. Vekhandas -Varch. somewhat collenchymatous. Ghodvach Bach. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . Ugr¡. Ghodavaca Vasambu. thin-walled cells of various sizes. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. triangular. Araceae).5 cm thick. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. buff coloured intemally. short. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome.

of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. shows fibres. 178 .73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. Eugenol and Asarone).2. present in cortex and ground tissue. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.2. starch grains simple. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.Buff coloured.C. 0. Extracts in i.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. Appendix per cent.3. 2. Appendix per cent. 2.. reticulate. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. 2.region.2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.2. spherical.2. Powder .C. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. Starch and Tannin.2.L. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.Yellowish-cream b. Chloroform-Light green iii. Powder as such: .7. Appendix 2. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. Petroleum ether-No change ii. endodermis distinct. 2.6.4. stele composed of round.2. Appendix per cent.L.14 (violet) and 0. CONSTITUENTS .10 T. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside).

Sm¤ti daurbalya. Ka¸¶hya. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. V¡tahara. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. áv¡sa. Kaphahara. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. 179 . Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Apasm¡ra. S¡rasvata.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Unm¡da.á£la. K¡sa. Medhya. Tikta Laghu. Kar¸a Sr¡va.Vac¡di Taila. 1.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. C£r¸a. K¤mihara. Ëdhm¡na.2 g. Vibandha. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.

papillose on outside. Nabhi. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. cartilaginous. tapering downwards to a point. Meethabisha. 0. Vatsanabhi. Mithalelia. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely.1. dark brown to blackish-brown. ovoid. Bachhnaag. fracture. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. Vatsanabha (Rt. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. suberised. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. occasionally separated due to breakage. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end.75. Sth¡varaviÀa. Naabhi Bachnak. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Vatsanabha. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . Beesh. without or with a few intercellular spaces. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Teliya Bish Basanalli.4 . taste. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation.8 cm thick. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. small portions of stem sometimes attached. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. Basanaag Bisa. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. 2-4.5 cm. Ranunculaceae). Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. thin-walled. odour indistinct. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. parenchymatous cells. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. Mahura. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. rough due to root scars. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. Vatsanabhi.) (Fam. roots are generally collected late in September. perennial herb. conical. plant is an erect. poisonous. rarely 5 cm long.

0. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. Powder .Light grey. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. Laghu.7. xylem exarch. 0. Trid°Àahara.2. Appendix 8 per cent.2. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. IDENTITY.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. ÙikÀ¸a. Anandabhairava Rasa. containing a few groups of phloem strands. Viyav¡yi. a few aseptate fibres.C.2. present in cortical cells. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. some scattered. S £tasekhara Rasa.2.2. UÀ¸a. 0.endodermis.5 per cent. 2.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. occupying more than half the radius.L. 0. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex.20. cambium having 6 10 angles. 2.4. metaxylem vessels met in centre. RukÀa. Appendix 24 per cent. 0.6. CONSTITUENTS . inner bark parenchymatous.39 and 0. 2. Appendix 5.C. Appendix 2. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.96 (both orange).39. shows vessels. T.56.2. consisting of round to oval cells. Appendix 2 per cent. Sv®dala. 2.74 and 0.10.L. 0.3. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. often forming 'V' shaped ring. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.

DOSE . 182 . Sannip¡ta.V¡taroga.15 . Jvar¡tis¡ra.30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.THERAPEUTIC USES . Kanharoga. V¡takaphajvara.

Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . but pliable. Nelagumbula.Rt. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. taste. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Nelagumbala. (Fam. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. outer surface reddish-brown. Gumadi belli. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Bhoikolu. starchy and somewhat porous. cut surface creamish-brown. thin-walled cells. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. stone cells moderately thick-walled. Fabaceae). Vidari (Tub.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. thinwalled. usually does not break. Bhuikumra Vidari. Vid¡rik¡. smooth except for protuberances at some places. Bhonykoru.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular.76. Bhumikusmanda. sweetish. Eagio. -Mudakku Bhuikohala.

Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. Pittahara. Appendix 24 per cent. M£trala. CONSTITUENTS .and pits. DOSE . xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 . vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. having central hilum and striations. fragments of cork. Raktapitta.13.75 µ in dia.Marma Gu¶ik¡.13.3. radially elongated cells.5 . B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. phloem fibres much elongated. J¢van¢ya. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements.5 per cent. Appendix 17 per cent. IDENTITY. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Ras¡yana. 2. Svarya.D¡ha. lignified with narrow lumen. Manmath¡bhra Rasa.2.2. Appendix 4. 2. and also rarely in stone cells. 184 . áoÀa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.2.2. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. highly thickened. Stanyada.2.7. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. measuring 5. Angmarda. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. Var¸ya. Daurbalya.Buff coloured. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah).75 µ in dia.4. 2.6. distributed throughout this region.3-6 g. angular to oval. 2. somewhat round. Powder . Appendix 4 per cent. present in all parenchymatous cells.Gluconic and Malic acids. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. THERAPEUTIC USES . a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. Appendix 2. V¡tahara.. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.2. a few latex duct also present. of the drug in powder form. Balya.

not distinct. square or quadrilateral. spongy parenchymatous cells. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . smooth. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. oblong.) Poaceae). taste. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow.77. erect herb.2-0. followed by more or less. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. H. cultivated chiefly in North India. seed coat appears as a colourless line. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. thick-walled. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. polygortal inner epidermal cells. round to oval wavy walled cells. sativum Pers. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. elliptic. sclerenchymatous fibres. sweetish-acrid. Jav Barley Cheno. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. pale-greenish-yellow. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped.3 cm wide. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. 50-100 cm high. Yava (Fr. about 1 cm long and 0. odour. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. followed by 2-3 layers. Syn. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. an annual. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. (Fam.

Pur¢Àak ¤t. and the rest starch layers.5 per cent. 0. 0.5 per cent.14.24.44. Orientin. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.2. 0. Sthairyakara.72 (all pink. Vitexin etc.31. Fats. Orientoside.narrow lumens. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. Medahara. simple starch grains.31. 2. V¤Àya. Appendix 4 per cent. 2.65 & 0. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.6.Creamish-white.2. 0.53.2. Svarya. 0. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. 0. M£trahara.68. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.2. Globulin. 0. 2. 0. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.10.56. 0.83 (all violet) and 0.5 2.5 per cent.83 and 0. V¡tak¤t. Appendix 2. 0. 0. Appendix 1.92 (all grey). Appendix 5. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.68. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 4 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. starch grains simple.4.C. 0. IDENTITY.V. 0. Lekhana. Proteins (Albumin.) CONSTITUENTS . Sugars. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 0. 0. 2.22.22. Pittahara.06.Starch. 0. endosperm divided into two zones. 0. round to oval.3.L. 0. sclerenchymatous fibres.10. 0.C.36. Appendix 2. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. Var¸ya 186 . RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.45. 0.L.16.92 (yellow).2.2.31. Powder .7 T. Kaphahara. 0.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Urustambha. T¤À¸¡.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Dh¡nvantara Taila. P¢nasa.áv¡sa. Gandharvahasta Taila. Kanharoga. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. 187 .200 g.100 . Prameha. El¡dya Modaka. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. of the drug. K¡sa. Medoroga. Tvagroga DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .

a small thorny shrub. secondary and tertiary root absent. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. 0. radially arranged cork cells. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole.1-1 cm thick.8 cm long.5-1 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . branched. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. (Fam. striate. cork cambium single layered.2-1 cm thick. Yavasaka (W. filled with reddish-brown contents. Duralabha -Venkatithura. 20-30 cm long and 0. Leaf . 0. dark brown. elliptical. alternate. no taste and odour. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. sharp axillary spines upto 3.Well developed. secondary cortex almost 188 . Stem . Punjab. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. gradually tapering. drooping.P. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). slightly rough at basal region with slender. Y¡sa. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. stipules green. extipulate. Desv. nearly 0. oblong. Neladangara. glabrous. terete. opposite. glabrous.5-0. fracture.) Fabaceae). ballidurabi. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. hard.78.7 cm broad. mucronate obtuse.Simple. Javasa. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri.Cylindrical. short.

Leaf- Petiole . tracheids and fibres thick-walled. thin-walled. elongated. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. filled with tannin. tangentially elongated cells. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. parenchymatous cells. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. parenchymatous cells. xylem consists of vessels. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. 5.Greenish-brown. Lamina . parenchyma and fibres. present throughout the region. vascular bundle collateral. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. phloem composed of sieve elements. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle.14. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. Stem . vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. Midrib . rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. angular.75 µ in diameter. tracheids. Powder . pitted vessels. pith composed of a few thin-walled. epidermis single layered. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. rounded to oval. tracheids and fibres. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. round and oval starch grains measuring 5.5-14. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. filled with tannin. tanniniferous cells. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. xylem fibres. simple.absent.75 µ in dia. a few with thick wall and simple pits. hypodermis 2-3 layered. fibres.appears circular in outline. starch grains simple.5. covered externally with thick cuticle. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. hypodermis 1-2 layered. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. tracheids. xylem consists of vessels. covered with cuticle. 189 . 3-45 cells long. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. phloem composed of sieve elements. xylem situated above phlome.appears biconvex in outline. some cells filled with tannin. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. thin-walled. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays.

2.3.20 . K¡sa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Kaphahara. Invert Sugars).2. 2.5 per cent. Appendix 13. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. Raktapitta.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent. Appendix 2 per cent. 190 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Visarpa DOSE .2. Tikta. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.7. Jvara. T¤À¸¡. CONSTITUENTS .2. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form for decoction.2.6. 2.Sugars (Melizitose. Appendix 2.4.50 g. Sucrose. Appendix 10 per cent. V¡tarakta.Chardi. 2.2. D¢pana. THERAPEUTIC USES .IDENTITY. Arimed¡di Taila.

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