THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.5.2.2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.1.Types of Stomata 2.2.1.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.) Desv 177 1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.1.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.1.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.2.2. 1.2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1.2.2-Thermometers 1.3.4.2.1.1.1-Sampling of drugs 2.2.1 Testing Drugs 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.2.2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.2.1.2.1.1-Nessler Cylinder.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .2-Sieves 1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1.

approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.1.3 Limit Tests 2.3.3.3.2-Refractive Index 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.2.1.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.Weights and Measures 5.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.3.1-Powder Fineness 2.3.3.2.5-Limit Test for lead 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.

II. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act.P. In general. Part-I. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. accordingly. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Vol. would be deemed to have been amended vii . II. the Dangerous Drugs Act.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. Part-I. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. II would be official.). Part-I.I. Vol. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Vol.

If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. If the odour persists to be discernible. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. viii . Italics . Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . Mesh Number . This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. Hindi. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. distribution and method of collection. Purity and Strength . which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Identity. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. indicated in monograph. When the term “drop” is used. substances or processes described in Appendix. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. Synonyms . The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg).Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). it is described as having odour. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Introductory Para . the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Weights and Measures . Odour and Taste . English.GENERAL NOTICES Title . if any.

Constant Weight . is used. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. according to circumstances. ix .soluble extractive. if of equivalent accuracy. ether-soluble extractive. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. statements appearing in the API. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. water-soluble ash. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. and other animal matter including animal excreta. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. water. and Identity. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. However. Percentage of Solutions .Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. with one of the four meanings given below. Standards . the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. under Description. Vol. in 100 grammes of product.C. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects.g. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. even by applying known reference standards.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . However. pests. alcohol-soluble extractive. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. moisture content. sliminess. The quantitative tests e. arsenic and heavy metals. fungi.L.In defining standards. and show no abnormal odour. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. shall constitute standards. pesticides. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations.) . V. total ash. Purity and Strength. Constituents . mould or other evidence of deterioration. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. which he uses. Part-I. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. wherever given.Under this head. colour. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. micro-organisms. acid-insoluble ash.For statutory purpose. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. those of definition of the part and source plants. the expression per cent (%).0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination.

and dust particles. Solubility .Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Statements of solubilities. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). Percentage of alcohol .All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. such as fragment of filter papers. Temperature . at a stated temperature. are intended to apply at that temperature. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.000 parts More than 10. Solutions . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices.56 oC. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts.000 parts x . When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. thermometric scale. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. all solutions are prepared with purified water. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. Reagents and Solutions . fibres.

Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. 1M. 0. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0.1 N. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.5 N. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. l. Part –I and Part-II.I.P. ml. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. mg. µ. 0. IN. unless otherwise stated.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi .) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. TS. g. Fam. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. cm. Kg. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. mm. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. PS.

Wd. St. Rt. Ori. Beng. Lf. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Bk. Kash. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Guj. Pl. Bk. Tam. Mar. Tub. Tel. Rz. Punj. Kan. Mal. Wh. Wd. Fr. Rt. Eng. Sd. Assam.Sansk. xii . St. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Ht.

37-28. brown. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. tapering slightly at both ends. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. odour. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara.8 µ in width. (Fam. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. characteristically astringent and pungent. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Akarakara Akkaraka. slightly aromatic. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. Asteraceae).1. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. b) Microscopic Root . Akalakarabha. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. taste. cambium 2-5 layered. 1.2 . an annual. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. elongated.231 µ in 1 .) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. 7-15 cm in length. shrivelled. parenchymatous cells. Akallakara. Akravu Akkalakara. Akarakarabha (Rt. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. xylem fibres thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. not easily separable. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. cylindrical. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. external surface rough. 53. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. thin-walled. vessels pitted. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. bark upto 3 mm thick.

Kaphahara. uniseriate rays very rare. Pittahara. 2. radially elongated. Danta¿£la DOSE .2. secondary phloem and medullary rays. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. 2. Appendix 22 percent. D¢pana. bi to tri and multiseriate.2. Appendix 2 percent.Prati¿y¡ya. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . running straight. Udararoga. Aj¢rna. IDENTITY.7. secondary phloem and medullary rays.Ash coloured. 2. Grdhras¢. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. Appendix 10 percent. Appendix 8 percent.0.5 -1 g.Kum¡ry¡sava. medullary rays numerous. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. áukrala. 2 . K¡sa.3. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. Powder . Svedakara. NaÀ¶¡rtava.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). secondary phloem. CONSTITUENTS .2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. V¡jikara. Appendix 2. ray cells thick-walled. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa.2.6. Buddhivardhaka.2. á£laroga.4.length having narrow lumen. áotha. also gives positive tests for inulin. of the drug in powder form. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. áv¡sa. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.

3 . thin-walled. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. thin-walled. slightly curved. endosperm mostly single layered. broken pieces. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. (Fam. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. irregularly corrugated. not distinct.2. Powder . parenchymatous cells. Sailabhava. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. oily sweet.Cream coloured. under this. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells.Shows 1-2 layered. taste.) large deciduous. Juglandaceae). odour. radially elongated. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. parenchymatous cells. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. creamish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. followed by more or less compressed. Akshoda (Cotldn. coriaceous. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. collapsed. Cotyledon .

Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.2.5 percent. Appendix Not more than 0. V¤Àya. Appendix Not less than 10.4. 2.2.25 g.7.3.2.Walnut oil and Tannin. KÀaya. Appendix Not less than 7. Sara.2. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.2. DOSE .KÀata. 2. Kaphakara.IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS . ViÀ¶ambhi.0 percent. 2.2. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. V¡taroga. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Balya. 2. áukral. THERAPEUTIC USES . 4 .6.10 . Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.0 percent. Appendix 2. B¤´ha¸a.

thin.Bk. and 5 . parenchymatous. consisting of tangentially elongated. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. upto 27 m high and 2. Jangli Aam Ambate. S. deciduous tree. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Stem Bark. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. S. laminated. Anacardiaceae). Anbalamu..5 m in girth. thin-walled cells. a few outer cells exfoliated. fracture. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. internal surface reddish-yellow. external surface smooth. Ambadam Amratakamu. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. Wild Mango Ambeda. tangentially elongated. Syn. f. Amvara -Mampusli. Ranambo Ambada. grey having lenticels. curved. Mampuiti. Amra Indian Hog Plum. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. Ambazham.3. Amra. Kurz.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. Ranamba. radially arranged. with reddish-brown contents. Ambalam. parenchymatous cells. mangifera Willd. non Gamble (Fam. acuminata Roxb.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Ambado. a small aromatic. which are thick-walled towards periphery. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Amrata (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Jangali Ambo.

Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. 2. CONSTITUENTS .2. Rucik¤t.40 and 0.96 (blue). secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. V¡tahara.7.2. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.V. KÀaya. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. thick-walled. 6 .6.. lignified. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. Ka¸¶hya.2. IDENTITY. 0. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.5 per cent. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.(greyish brown). shows cork cells.L.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Light brown. T.2. stone cells. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. 2. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent.C.5-10 g. Under U. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. Appendix Not more than 0.96.87 (blue) and 0.2.33. 0. Not more than 1 per cent. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. Pittakara.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . D¡ha DOSE .C. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. simple. 0.KÀata.33. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Powder . KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. 0. Raktapitta. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.4.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. 2. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.87 (all greyish brown).75-14 µ in dia.3. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. 2. Appendix 2.

secondary and tertiary roots present. erect. rough due to presence of some root scars. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. the perianth lobes. subsessile. membranous. bracteate with two bracteoles. sessile. perianth segments 5.0 cm in thickness. 7 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . opposite. Flower . stamens 5. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. wavy margin.) Amaranthaceae). exstipulate.1-1.5 cm in cut pieces. opposite. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. filament short. hypogynous. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs.9 m high herb. hollow when dry.Cylindrical tap root. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita.Simple. gradually tapering. numerous. (Fam.P. erect. branched. yellowish-brown.4. a stiff. PratyakpuÀpa.0. solid. 0.3-0. dorsifixed.0.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. yellowish-brown. Leaf . cylindrical.3 . May£raka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. Stem . Kharamaµjar. not distinct. obovate. slightly ribbed. bisexual. odour. decussate. actinomorphic. greenish-white.free. contorted or quincuncial. two celled. hairy. one spine lipped. anther. Apamarga (W. 0.

on both surfaces. Seed . transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. present in pith. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. demarcating the xylem rings. composed of parenchymatous cells. truncate at the apex. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. thin-walled cork cells. rectangular. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. followed 8 . cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem.gynoecium bicarpellary. lignified.Shows crescent-shaped outline. oval to rectangular. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. round at the base. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. scalariform and pitted. fibres being absent. tangentially elongated. cortex 6-10 layered. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. xylem composed of usual elements. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Root . covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. either separate throughout or found in some cases. Stem . endospermic. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. Fruit . perianth and bracteoles. stigma. spiral. thin-walled cork cells.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells.Shows a single layered epidermis. epidermis single layered. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. LeafPetiole . secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. brown. capitate. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. unilocular with single ovule. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. elongated. two medullary bundles. thin layers of cambium. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. single.Sub-cylindric. syncarpous. thin-walled. vessels annular. cortical and pith cells. Midrib . style. vessels simple pitted. 3-4 celled stalk. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. ovary superior. 2-5 celled. fibres pitted. parenchymatous cells.Mature root shows 3-8 layered.

Abhay¡ Lava¸a. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. V¡maka. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. slightly elongated in upper. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.2.Light yellow.0 on lower surface. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. stomatal index 4. V¡tahara.2. 2. 9.0-20. Medohara. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells.20-50 g. 2. 2. P¡cana. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. aseptate fibres. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Chedana. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.6. Medoroga DOSE . Appendix Not more than 5 per cent.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. palisade ratio 7. Apac¢. vessels with annular. Ka¸·u.Shows single layered. non-lignified cells.0 on upper surface.2. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta Sara. 9 .Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.5-9. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. Udara Roga. IDENTITY. rectangular.3. Appendix 2.á£la.4. scalariform and pitted thickening. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. of the drug for decoction. thin-walled epidermal cells. Lamina . 2. spiral. Ar¿a.2. shows fragments of elongated.0-11. Powder .7.2. Gu·apippali. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. mm.

very long. cylindrical. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. bitter. b) Microscopic Root . single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. Fabaceae). secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. Aparajita (Rt. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. taste. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. fibrous. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. a few showing slit-like pits. 1-5 mm in thickness. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. colour.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. medullary 10 . Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. vessels pitted with oblong.5. lightbrown. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. thin-walled. fracture. a few solitary fibres also present. polygonal. (Fam.

2.4. shows simple and compound starch grains. áotha. Tikta. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.V.3 g. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. Resin. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.2. M£traroga.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. Medhya. Starch. CONSTITUENTS .C. Kaphahara. 2. 0.79 (blue). Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.6.79 (dull yellow) in visible light.rays 1-5 cells wide.Tannin. KuÀ¶ha.2. Pittahara. Powder .Yellowish-brown. 11 .á£la. Vra¸a DOSE . IDENTITY. 0. Appendix per cent. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. 0.2. phloem and xylem parenchyma. Appendix per cent.1 . Under U.Mi¿raka Sneha.54 and 0.79 (grey). found in secondary cortex. Appendix 2. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C.7. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.L. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.L.3. oblong and pitted. V¡tahara. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 2.. Buddhiprada.79 (both yellow).. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. ViÀahara.2. of the drug in powder form. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. T. 2.

radially arranged cells of inner cork. Ale -Adi. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. pieces 5-15 cm long. pungent Rhizome . rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. oblique branches on upper side. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. 1.5 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. taste. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. (Fam. thin-walled. Inji Allamu.) Zingiberaceae). colourless. each having a depressed scar at its apex. widely cultivated in India. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . Allam. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. fracture. odour. Ardraka (Rz.6.Shows a few layered. short with projecting fibres.5-6. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. Adrak Injee. irregularly arranged. gingery. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. buds and roots are removed and washed well. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. tangentially elongated.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. lakottai. isodiametric. reaching up to 90 cm in height.

oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.63 (grey) & 0. 2. 0. fibrovascular bundles of two types. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. 2.76. 0.69. larger bundles consists of 2. elongated pits on their walls. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. 0.7.16 (blue).69 (grey). oleo-resin cells abundent.2. vessels 2-5 in number. 0. walls of oil cells suberised.83 & 0.L. free from starch. Appendix 90 per cent..69 (all light yellow).03. 0. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele.2. 0. Appendix 5 per cent. 0.63 & 0.35. reticulate and spiral vessels. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.9 T.08.92 (all yellow). collateral. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.l6 (brownish violet).C.2.7 vessels. Appendix 1 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. phloem. 2. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum.3. 0.2.5 per cent. 0.47. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. numerous closed.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.35. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.6.L. septate fibres with oblique. endodermis single layered. 0. 0. greater number occurring in inner cortical region.2.35 (light violet). 0. 0.63. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. 0. conjoint. 0. Appendix 2.4. Under U. 13 . shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.13. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.16. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. 0.dia. Powder -Light yellow. 0.2.2.69 (light violet). 2. IDENTITY. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.63 (light violet). Appendix 2 per cent.16. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.92 (violet). isodiametric cells of parenchyma. small cells of sieve tube. composed of xylem. vessels showing reticulate.76 (violet) & 0. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. 0. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. filled with abundant starch grains.V.08 (violet). 2. Appendix 8 per cent.C. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0.47 (light violet).

Vibandha. V ¤Àaya. Kaphahara. V¡tahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áopha. 14 . H¤dya. Bhedana. Ën¡ha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. Svarya. THERAPEUTIC USES . RukÀa. Rocana. DOSE .Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.á£la. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Ka¸tharoga.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. phloem fibres thin-walled. exfoliating in irregular scales. secondary phloem wide. odour and taste. incurved. rough. square to rectangular cells.5-1 cm thick. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. characteristic of dry regions. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. all traversed by medullary rays. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. Fabaceae). Vi·khadir -Guyababla. parenchyma. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. upto 3 m in height. internally light brown to reddish-brown. Arimeda (St. not distinct.7. stone cells and phloem cells. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. Pilobaval. Velvelam.Bk. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. lignified. consisting of sieve elements. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. Sadabala -Haramibaval. (Fam. fibres and crystal fibres. thinwalled cortical cells. fracture. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. with tapering 15 . fibrous. hard. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS .0 to 0. β -Amyrin.2. T.78 and 0.0.40 g for decoction. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . β-Sitosterol and Tannin. ViÀajavra¸a. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.39 and a spot at Rf.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. shows groups of cork cells. 16 . fibres. radially elongated cells. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.n-Hexacosanol. Appendix 1 per cent. 0.3.e.áopha. sclereid.39 and a spot at Rf. IDENTITY. Mukharoga.7. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. Meda¿oÀaka. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side.L. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.91 (yellow).LC. 2. Visarpa. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.2. Dantaroga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. K¡sa.2.6. P¡¸·u. Appendix 13 per cent. Udardapra áamana DOSE .3-5 g in powder form. Appendix 2.2. KuÀ¶ha. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder . Appendix 14 per cent.C. Ka¸·u. 0 to 0. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.69 (grey) is seen in visible light.Reddish-brown. K¤mi. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. 0.2.2.91 (both blue). Appendix 11 per cent. 2. 2. composed of thin-walled.ends. Atis¡ra. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. 2. Meha.4. crystal fibres elongated.

Mattimora.) Combretaceae). flat. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. Neermatti. Vellamaruthi. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. Kellemasuthu. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface.& A. a large deciduous tree. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. consisting of sieve tubes. Arjuna. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. channelled to half quilled. in the middle and outer phloem region. bitter and astringent. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. P¡rtha.8. companion cells. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. recurved. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Bilimatti. 0. traversed by phloem rays. short in inner and laminated in outer part. taste. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen.2-1.Bk. (Fam.5 cm thick. Arjuna (St. Mathichakke. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. fracture. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. Torematti Arjuna. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . curved.

shows fragments of cork cells. DOSE . mostly simple..7. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. elliptical. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Pittahara. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa.2. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. Vya´ga. Arjuna Gh¤ta..6. T¤À¡.3-6 g. 2. 2. Prameha.4.. round to oval.in dia.Reddish-brown. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . alternating with fibres. Vra¸a.2. alata). Appendix 2. Vra¸an¡¿ana. H¤dya. 4-12 cells high.2. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. sometimes upto 5 components. elliptic. Appendix 1 per cent. 2. 18 . H¤droga.2. starch grains simple and compound. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara.Medoroga. of the drug in powder form. uniseriate phloem rays.3. KÀatakÀaya. Appendix 25 per cent. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. µ Powder .2. compound of 2-3 components. a few rhomboidal crystals. round to oval. starch grains. fibres. Appendix 20 per cent. 2. IDENTITY. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone.2. Appendix 20 per cent.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. measuring 5-13 µ in dia.

cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai.9. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. Bhallataka (Fr. obliquely ovoid.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. drupaceous. smooth. dark brown. mesocarp a very broad zone. mesocarp and endocarp. (Fam. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. nut 2. Fruit . Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Scramkotati Nallajidi.) Anacardiaceae). some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. 19 . shining with residual receptacle.5-3 cm long. 30-40 layers thick. Nallajidiginga Baladur. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells.

2. Snigdha.2. CONSTITUENTS . outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. V¡tahara.2. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.5 per cent.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Appendix 11 per cent. KuÀ¶ha.3. Graha¸¢. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance.. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. very much elongated radial walls. IDENTITY. 2. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.2.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. Ka¶u. DOSE . 2. Powder . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. P¡cana.. 2.1. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Note . ether. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.7. Bhedi. Tikta. innermost prismatic.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Appendix 0. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢.F. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). 2. Ën¡ha. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. being highly thickened. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2.2 g. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Kaphahara. Part-I 20 . chloroform.Dark-brown.6.I. Appendix 5 per cent.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid.2.4. Krimi.Ar¿a. Chedi. Gulma. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. Appendix 4 per cent.

disc flowers 21 . usually oblong. sub-acute or acute. occasionally brownish. Keshavardhana. white. Flower . ray flowers ligulate. strigose with oppressed hairs. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. herbaceous. Leaf . Kesari -Bhangaro. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.2. M¡rkava.. greenish. greyish. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. Karisalai Guntakalagara. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja.2 . not toothed. 1. rough due to oppressed white hairs.Solitary or 2. Kesuriya. sessile to subsessile. 2. Bh¤´ga. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. Soppu. Bhringaraja (W. erect or prostrate. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces.5 cm long. Bhangro Bhangara. Tekar¡ja. involucral bracts about 8.P. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. upto about 7 mm in dia. Stem . often rooting at nodes.10. together on unequal axillary peduncles. node distinct.) herbaceous annual. Karisalanganni. 30 .50 cm high. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. branched. obtuse or acute. (Fam.Well developed. occasionally rooting at nodes. spreading.Opposite. strigosely hirsute. sub-entire.Herbaceous. Knnunni Bhangra. Gurugada. ovate. ligule small. scarcely as long as bracts. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .2 . Bhringiraja. Asteraceae).8. cylindrical or flat.3 cm wide. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. much branched. cylindrical. lanceolate.

parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. rarely slightly oblique. filaments epipetalous. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. pitted. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. ray cells pitted. 0. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found.1 cm wide. xylem composed of vessels. found scattered throughout wood.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. phloem rays broader towards periphery. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. one seeded. Midrib . uniseriate. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. epidermis followed by cortex. xylem ray distinct. hairy and non endospermic. pappus absent. fibre tracheids. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. cuneate.0. drum-shaped. covered with striated cuticle. non-glandular. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse.25 cm long. Fruit . a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. with a narrow wing.tubular. ovary inferior.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. traversed by xylem rays. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. free. pistil bicarpellary. fibre tracheids. Leaf- Petiole . fibres and xylem parenchyma. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. consisting of rounded cells. b) Microscopic Root . vessels numerous. Seed . externally covered with cuticle. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays.2 . tangentially elongated cells. stamen 5. dark brown.Achenial cypsella. unilocular with one basal ovule. and with pointed apical cell. 1-5 celled. epidermis followed by wide cortex. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. brown. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. warty. simple. trichomes of two types. in macerated preparation vessels small. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side.0. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. covered with warty excrescences. with very pointed tips. run straight in tangential section. corolla often 4 toothed.

uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. trichomes entire or in pieces. endarch.shows a dorsi ventral structure. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. about 3 celled. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. externally covered with cuticle.5 on upper and 23.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. 23 .Dark green. middle cells longest. pericyclic fibres distinct. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. warty. Stem . shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. vascular bundles in a ring. normally biseriate and uniseriate. some elongated with simple perforations. arranged in tangential strands. palisade ratio 3. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. pointed tips and pitted walls. Powder . followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. pitted with spiral thickening. stomatal index 20. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side.collenehymatous cells on both sides. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. hairs stiff. uniseriate.8 -4. xylem fibres with wide lumen.0 on lower surface. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. externally covered with cuticle. epidermis single layered. septa thick-walled. while the section cut at apical region.0-22. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. the cork where formed. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. Lamina . spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.5 -26. xylem consists of large number of vessels. more abundant on lower surfaces. pointed. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. wide at the base. secondary cortex composed of large. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. peg-like outgrowth. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side.5. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. collateral.

CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . H ¤droga.2.6 ml of the drug in juice form.áotha.2. 2.36 g. Tvacya. of the drug in powder form for decoction.3.2.6.7. áv¡sa. Appendix per cent. 2. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. Tikta RukÀa. ViÀahara. Ras¡yana. Kaphahara. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. Ke¿ya. Yak¤droga.4. Dantya. 2. 24 . K¡sa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya.2.2.Alkaloids. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. 12 .Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. Ëmahara. 2. Tekar¡ja marica. Appendix per cent. áirah á£la.IDENTITY. P¡¸·u. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 2. K¤miroga.3 . V¡tahara. CakÀusya.

Brahmi (W.Small. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. Brahmi.Simple. branched creamish-yellow. obovate-oblong. Syn. small. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. ovoid and glabrous. Stem . soft. 25 . prostrate or creeping annual herb. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . about 1-2 mm thick. Ondelaga. Scrophulariaceae). Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. slightly bitter. 1-2 cm long. axillary and solitary. taste. pedicels 6-30 mm long.P.) Wettst. taste. opposite. a glabrous.Thin. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi.11. Fruit .) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn.B.. found throughout India in wet and damp places. green. green or purplish green.& K. small. Flower .Thin. succulent. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. Leaf . Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. Valabrahmi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. sessile.) H. wiry. decussate.Capsules upto 5 mm long. nodes and internodes prominent. slightly bitter. glabrous. (Fam.

pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. Appendix per cent.0 µ in dia.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura..2. Stem . round to oval. endodermis single layered. endodermis single layered.2. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.4.Shows a single layer of epidermis. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. glandular hairs. V¡tahara. ViÀahara. Appendix 2. ËyuÀya.2. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Powder . a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Praj¡sth¡pana. Medhya. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent.7. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. IDENTITY.2. Tikta. 2.2. 2. Ras¡yana. 2. Appendix per cent.Root . simple. no distinct midrib present. Matiprada.0 x 2. vascular ring continuous. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. b) Microscopic 26 . cortex having large air cavities. starch grains simple.6.Yellowish-brown. glandular hairs sessile. and 8.3. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. Svarya. respectively. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. pericycle not distinct.0-14.5-9. round and oval starch grains. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.

THERAPEUTIC USES . M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . Jvara.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. P¡¸·u. Ratnagiri Rasa. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. S¡rasvata C£r¸a.1-3 g in powder form. 27 .KuÀ¶ha. Prameha. áopha.

Badikateri Kirugullia.12. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai.8 m high. cylindrical.. phloem parenchyma much abundant. Ubhibharingani. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. tangentially elongated. parenchyma and stone cells.5 cm in dia. no distinct odour and taste. a very prickly. Brihati (Rt.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. secondary cortex composed of 5 . woody. upto 1. 1-2. thin-walled. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. Heggulla. short and splintery. b) Microscopic Root . traversed by phloem rays. varying greatly in shape and size. oval and tangentially elongated cells. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. Solanaceae).9 layers of thin-walled. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. (Fam.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Putirichunda Dorli. pale yellowish-brown. much branched perennial under shrub. cork cambium single layered. Chichuriti. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. ribbed. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . Papparamulli. long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani.15 layers of thin-walled. fracture.

Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. Appendix 2. traversed by xylem rays. of the drug for decoction.3. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.2. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. 2. 2. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.5 -11. thick-walled.4. measuring 5. áv¡sa. 29 .5 . Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. vessels with simple pits. all elements being lignified. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. parenchymatous cells. CONSTITUENTS . P¡cana.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.11.10-20 g.6 µ in diameter.2. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. rounded to oval starch grains.5 per cent. IDENTITY. fibres and xylem parenchyma. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.á£la. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.Cream coloured.6 µ in diameter. Powder .2. measuring 5. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.2.6. H¤droga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. cells radially elongated and pitted.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. V¡tahara. phloem and medullary rays.7. Kaphahara. Jvara. Agnim¡dya. shows groups of thin-walled. 2. aseptate fibres. Appendix Not more than 6. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . xylem rays uni to biseriate. H¤dya. tracheids. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. 2.

cultivated mainly in Southern India. short. b) Microscopic Stem . chaba Hunter non Blume. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 .. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. officinarum DC. taste. fracture. P. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. secondary cortex a wide zone. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. fibres and xylem parenchyma. cork cambium not distinct. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. Chavya -Kattumulaku. Chavya (St. peppery. thin-walled.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl.5-2.13. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. nodes and internodes distinct.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. Piperaceae). P. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. brownish cells. oval to rectangular. acrid. consisting of round. fleshy climber. endodermis single layered. tracheid. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. a glabrous. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. greyish-brown. plenty of simple starch granules present. Syn. odour.0 cm in width.

1-2 g. á£lal DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. Pl¢h¡ Roga. 2. Appendix 6 per cent. IDENTITY. Glycosides and Steroids. shows fragments of vessels.2.7. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. fibres and simple.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. Udara Roga.2. round to oval starch grains. cells thin walled. Recana. Ën¡ha.6. Krimi. fibres needle and spindle-shaped.Greyish-brown. RukÀa. 31 . starch grains. 2.5 per cent.Ar¿a. THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS .2. Kaphahara.Alkaloids. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.pitted and reticulate thickenings.2. filled with simple. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. Appendix 1.2. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. P¡cana. Appendix 3 per cent. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Powder . medullary rays multi seriate. round to oval.2.4. D¢pana. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Gulma.

0. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. starch grains present in testa. beneath this. shows stone cells.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. 0. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. containing a few oil globules. triangular and rectangular. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. Dadima (Sd. 32 . oval.2 cm wide. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. found growing wild in the warm valley. thin walled. taste. Punicaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada.6 cm long. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. round to oval. parenchymatous cells.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. Seed . consisting of oval to polygonal. LohitapuÀpa.Reddish-brown. round. angular.5-0. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. (Fam. sweetish-sour. Maadalai. endosperm absent. wedge-shaped.14. Powder . simple.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. oil globules. cotyledons coiled.1-0. Madalam Danimma Anar.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

16. taste. serrate.35 cm wide. characteristic.Yellowish-green. about 0. stout herb. 1.25 cm long. ovate or ovate. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng.Light greenish-yellow. slightly curved. more or less pubescent. nodes and internodes distinct. Inflorescence . scaberulous. zig-zag.5 cm long and 0. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. calyx. (Fam. size variable. ciliate. pungent. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. hairy. upto 4 mm thick. glabrous in lower part.5 cm wide. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. an annual. crenate. acute. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .P. erect. Leaf . 3-9 cm long.) Lamiaceae).5 cm across. slightly bitter. 1-2.lanceolate. 10 dentate with a villous throat. corolla. fine rootlets.Sessile. smooth. globose.9 m in high. taste. taste. long with numerous wiry. white. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. lanceolate.7-2 cm 37 .3-0.6-0. Stem . fracture. crowded in dense. subacute. fibrous. hairy on upper part. tubular. Dronapushpi (W. 1. 1-2. surface rough. about 2-3. thin. white.Cylindrical.2-1. Gumma.

smooth. thin-walled cells. tangentially elongated. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. present in centre. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. endoderm is single layered. nutlets 3 mm smooth. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. oblong. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. cortex consisting of single layered. consists of a single layered epidermis. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Root . tracheids. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. Leaf- Petiole . Stem . thin-walled cells. brown. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. Seed . 3-4 layers towards upper surface.shows a single layered epidermis. followed by round to oval parenchyma. round to angular collenchyma. parenchymatous cells.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. fibres and xylem parenchyma. upto 8 cells high. tracheids. vessels long with spurs. 4 .1 cm wide. irregular. medullary rays 1-2 seriate.tangentially elongated. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. vascular bundles 4. bilipped.long. Lamina . wooly. thin-walled 38 . consisting of barrel shaped.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. xylem consists of vessels. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. some having simple pits. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. Fruit . vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening.3 cm long and 0. lateral lobes small. composed of oval to rectangular. dark brown. palisade single layered.7 layered. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells.vascular bundle arc-shaped.0. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. trigonous. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. secondary xylem consists of vessels. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.Schizocarpic carcerule. upper lip about 4 mm long. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. Midrib . secondary cortex 5-9 layered.

stomata diacytic.6-40.5 on lower surface. palisade ratio 7-9. Bhedani. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form.7. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.7 on upper surface. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 39 . Tamaka áv¡sa. 16. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. aseptate fibres.Alkaloid.áotha.6. 2.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Glycoside. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. stomatal index 16. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells.2.cells. 2. Agnim¡ndya. Lava¸a. V¡takara. Ka¶u Guru. Powder . RukÀa. Appendix 2.6-30. pitted and spiral vessels.2. K¡mal¡. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. a few veins present in this region.4. 2. ViÀamajvara DOSE . 2.2. CONSTITUENTS .3. Pittakara.2.2. present on both surfaces.Dull yellow. K¡sa. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent.

4 cm wide. Ervaru (Sd. creamish-yellow. surface smooth. -Kakur. rounded and tangentially elongated. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. Karka¶¢. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. more or less ellipsoid. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. thin-walled. Hastipani. utilissimus Roxb. sweetish oily. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. consisting of single layered epidermal cells.3-0. Hastipani. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. C. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. mesophyll cells thinwalled. an annual creeping herb. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. radially elongated to squarish. 40 . (Fam. 0. 0. Vellarika Kakadi. cultivated in many parts of the country. glossy. parenchymatous.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. straight. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Cucurbitaceae). parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. shows stone cells. lignified with distinct lumen and striations.7-10 cm long. cotyledons two.17. covered with thick cuticle. taste. B¤hatphala.

2. Appendix 10 per cent.3. A¿mar¢. Pittahara.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0.97 (all yellow) .77.C.91 (blue) under U.2.IDENTITY.51. Appendix 0.83.91 and 0.51. 41 . On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.V. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 5 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. 0.91 and 0. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Appendix 4 per cent.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. 0.26.6.2.97 (all grey).26.2.19.2. RaktadoÀakara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5 per cent.2.L. Tikta Guru. Kaphakara. Rucya. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . 2. 0. 0. 0. Jvara. T.64.0. Appendix 2.3-6 g. 2. 0.64.4. 0. 0.58. 0.0. 0.0. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.58.35. Gulma. V¡takara. 0. T¤À¸¡. Raktapitta. of seeds.Oil & Sugars. (366 mm).D¡ha. 0.7.83.L. 2. 0.C.19. D¢pana.77.35.

6 cm long.Shows more or less loosely arranged.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. 0. a large epiphytic climber. Orissa. greyish-brown with a dent. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. 0. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. Araceae).3-0. smooth. Seed . Gajapippali (Fr. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.5 cm thick. rough and scaly. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried.4 cm wide. thin-walled. cut surface has a central core.0-3. odour and taste not disticnt. brownish-grey. b) Microscopic Fruit .0 cm in diameter and 2.18.Kidney-shaped. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.0-3. 42 . shiny.4-0. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . odour and taste not distinct.

0. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent.C. 2.L. 0. K¤miroga. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.93 (all yellow). numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. Malavi¿oÀana. Ka¸ha Roga. IDENTITY. shows lignified.2. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.2.V. 2. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . oval to polygonal. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.Glucosides viz.áiv¡gutik¡.7. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.65. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. 0. Sugars & Fixed Oil. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. thick-walled.93 (brown).Shows a single layered.73 and 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. 0. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. 2. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. Powder .65.2-3 g. CONSTITUENTS . oval to polygonal.2.C.4. Three spots appear at Rf. 2. 43 . Appendix T. Stanya. 0. Kaphahara. 0.Dark brown. 0. 0. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. DOSE .20. non-lignified.3.Atis¡ra. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.2. 0. Ka¸¶hya.Seed . thin-walled. 0. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.6. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . áv¡sa.65. 2. in extract (Phant) form.73 (both light brown) and 0.65 and 0. thick-walled.93 (all blue) are visible.27. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.27.2.5 per cent. 2-4 layered. Agnivardhaka.2.L. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. T. Punarnav¡sava.73 and 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. pitted and with concentric striations. oval to polygonal.

black. sweetish sour.Seed ovate.4-0. two seeded. crinkled. multilayered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. Gambhari (Fr. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . Seed . found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. ovoid. taste. Shivani. K¡¿marya. P¢takarohi¸¢. oily. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb.6 cm wide. (Fam. Sr¢par¸¢. parenchymatous cells.) unarmed tree. papery. seed coat thin. surface smooth. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani.19.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed.5-2. sometimes one seeded.0 cm long. 0. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. light yellow.A drupe. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. b) Microscopic Fruit . parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. thin-walled. Verbenaceae). Hannu -Kumbil. taste. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha.5-1 cm long. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. fleshy mesocarp. Seed . parenchymatous cells. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. tangentially elongated. radially 44 . thin-walled cells. 1. cotyledons consisting of single layered. 0. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells.

93 and 0. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder .4. 0.98 (yellow) in visible light.2.2.D¡ha.4 per cent. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.V. 0. 2.03. THERAPEUTIC USES . T.elongated epidermal cells.2.C. Resin and Saccharine. 0. of the drug in powder form.03.1-3 g.98 (all yellow). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.22. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. T¤À¸¡. 0. 0. Pittahara. oil globules and aleurone grains.Butyric acid. KaÀ¡ya Guru. IDENTITY.98 (orange). Rakta Pitta DOSE .L. Appendix 2. Amla. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. CONSTITUENTS .2. 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.7.12. 0.Blackish-brown.L.98 (all blue). filled with oil globules and aleurone grains.2.52. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. Appendix 25 per cent.C. H¤dya.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.42. 2. KÀaya.3. 45 . 0. 0. Ras¡yana. M£trak¤cchra. Appendix 0. KÀata. Medhya.6. Sara. Tartaric acid.18. Under U. H¤droga. 0.Arvind¡sava. Alkaloid. 2. Ke¿ya. Appendix 8 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.08.94 and 0. 0. 0. shows stone cells.26. V¡tahara..

arranged in radial groups.) Aschers & Schwf. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. rectangular. Grewia populifolia Vahl.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk.5-5 cm long. Gangeru (St.6-1. elliptical. a few stone cells. Tiliaceae).20. 46 . moderately large in size. thick-walled.Shows a wide cork. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. channelled. secondary cortex wide.Bk. fracture. a shrub 0. (Fam.. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. traversed by wide phloem rays. consisting of 12-20 layered. 1. oval. mucilaginous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . light yellow. fibrous. fibrous. Syn.0 m high. radially arranged cells. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. blunt tips and moderately long in size. consisting of tangentially elongated. taste. parenchymatous cells. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. external surface smooth.

Under U. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. 0. Appendix per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.V. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.08 (blue) 0. 0. of the drug in powder form.17. DOSE .2. 0.2. 0. Amla. 0.88 (all yellow). Appendix per cent. 0. Ka¶u.2. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. THERAPEUTIC USES .88 (light violet).27. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. β-amyrin etc.Light yellow and fibrous.08.48 (violet).55.7. 0.68 & 0.2. CONSTITUENTS .35 (violet). 0.17 (light violet). 47 .17. 2. 2.55 (blue) & 0. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.41.48.2-3 g.J¢rak¡di Modaka.C. Two spots are seen at Rf.2.C.Sugar. 2.L. 0.35. 0.Vra¸a. Tikta.3. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. Pittavik¡ra.68 (light violet) & 0. 0.13 (blue). 2.27 (light violet). 0. 0.08 (violet). 0. 0. 0. IDENTITY. 0. α-amyrin. 0.35 (dark blue).29 (blue).Powder .4. Appendix per cent. T.64 (blue). 0.2. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.6. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .).L.61. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. 0.

light brown. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. cylindrical. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. Gurivinda Ghongchi. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. composed of 1-2 cells wide. a climber. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. thinwalled. pitted walls. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. odourless. spreading throughout the plains. Chanothee. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. flowering in August-September. cork cambium. most often irregularly curved. simple or branched. feebly sweetish. Ghungchi Guluganji. Kakananti Rati Kunch. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. Chonotee Ratti. (Fam. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. Gunja (Rt. gulagunja -Kunni. present at short intervals. Fabaceae). bark thin.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. when distinct. fruits ripen during winter. taste. exfoliating in small flakes. tangentially elongated cells. Kundumani Guriginga.21. becoming mildly bitter. slightly corky. some with brownish content. b) Microscopic Root . soft. smaller than stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 .

CONSTITUENTS .75 µ in diameter. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood.Greyish-brown.4. parenchyma thin-walled. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. of the drug in powder form.2. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. xylem vessels with pitted walls.3 g. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches.7. Powder .2. Appendix 4 per cent.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.5 per cent.6. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. pitted walls. thin-walled and rectangular. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.5-13. small groups of sclerenchyma. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. Mukha¿oÀa. Tikta á¢ta. Appendix 9 per cent. IDENTITY. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes.5 -13. 2. 2.2.diverging towards periphery. 2.3. 2. wood composed of narrow concentric. numerous xylem fibres. áula. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Indralupta. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. Appendix 10 per cent.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). vessels of varying sizes with thick. stone cells.75 µ in diameter. Appendix 2. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya.1 . rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. shows fragments of cork. Pittahara. 49 . similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. Appendix 2. DOSE .2. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.

Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. characteristic. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. cylindrical. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. scattered throughout the ground tissue. with. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. smooth. solid. (Fam. juicy and sweet. Serdi Ikha. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. lignified. Ikshu (St.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. taste.22. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. 50 . more numerous and closer towards periphery. distinct node and internode. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. Poaceae). besides the xylem and phloem elements. conjoint. b) Microscopic Stem . closed type of vascular bundles.) shrub. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. odour. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis.

Sara. vessels and sclerenchyma. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. 2.5 per cent.6. DOSE .7.2. M£tra KÀaya. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Balya. IDENTITY. V¡tahara.2. shows pieces of epidermis. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .Sucrose.2.3.200 .Raktapitta.Powder . 2. Appendix 2. V¤Àya.Powder light brick red.400 ml in the juice form. 51 . 2. Kaphahara. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. Appendix Not more than 2.2.2.2. ground tissue. 2.4.Bal¡ Taila. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara.

taste. Havumakke. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. Bitter apple Indravaran. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. Varithummati. Valiya Pekkumatti. thin walled. pitted.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. short. lying around vessels. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Gav¡kÀ¢. Indramanoa. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. 0. áatakratulat¡. Indrayan. longitudinal fissures present. thick walled.23. Indravarana Gothakakucti. Indrayanalata. intensively bitter. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. slightly twisted.) Cucurbitaceae). Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. parenchyma and medullary rays. fibres. a few filled with dark brown contents. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. occurring throughout the country.5 cm thick. dull yellow. elongated with pointed ends. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. Tuntikai. mostly simple or rarely 52 . Tumbi Paikamatti. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. thick-walled. tangentially elongated cork cells. fibres aseptate. b) Microscopic Root . (Fam. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. parenchymatous cells. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. cylindrical. consisting of vessels. Indravaruni (Rt.5 µ in dia. parenchyma and medullary rays.5-7. fracture. xylem forms bulk of root. an annual or perennial.2-2. Paythumatti. composed of sieve elements. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. tangentially elongated. Indravaruni.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

. taste.) Skeels Syn.25. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. (Fam. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. 57 . Myrtaceae). E. oval. Eugenia jambolana Lam. brownish-black. Jambu (Sd. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Seed .800 m. b) Microscopic Powder . a large evergreen tree. astringent. oval or roundish.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.Brown coloured. 1 cm wide.. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. 1 cm long. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. rounded starch grains. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. smooth. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. thin-walled. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. cuminii Druce. coriaceous covering. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam.

Madhumeha. 2. Udakameha. DOSE .95 (all violet). Amla.7.30 and 0.6. CONSTITUENTS . 0.3. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.30 (blue). three spots appear at Rf.95 (all yellow).2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Kaphahara.2.3-6 g. 58 . THERAPEUTIC USES .30 and 0.20.20.12. Appendix per cent.L.4. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. T. Appendix 2. 2. Appendix per cent.C. Pittahara. of the drug in powder form.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. 0. Appendix per cent.Glycoside (Jamboline). 2.2.2. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.V. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. 0. Tannin.2. 0.IDENTITY.L.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.95 and 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. ViÀ¶ambhi.C. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru.

found throughout India upto an altitude of 1.5 cm thick. stone cells. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. Jamneralae. elongated. rough. Eugenia jambolana Lam.6 m with a bole up to 15 m.. Jamu. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones.Bk. (Fam. lower cork thin and colourless. Navval Sambu. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. Jambuda Jomuna. a large evergreen tree. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. Jam Jammu Naaval. Jambu (St. forming a rhytidoma.26.) Skeels Syn. short and splintery.800 m. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. younger bark mostly channelled. fibres aseptate. Jambu.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. astringent.5-2. E. and reddish brown. cork cambium not distinct. stratified and reddish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. Mahamaram. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. upper few layers thick. internal surface fibrous. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. and phloem rays. taste. cuminii Druce. fracture. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. light grey to ash coloured. Raja Jambu Merale. Myrtaceae). oval to angular. Neralamara -Njaval. 0.

7. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Light brown. 2. Appendix per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Raktapitta. reddish-brown content. V¡tala.6.Atis¡ra. round to oval starch grains. elongated. 2.2. Appendix 2.region.2.2.U¿¢r¡sava. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . measuring 5-11µ in diameter. Pittahara. IDENTITY. Kaphahara.3. 60 . stone cells.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.2.4. of the drug for decoction. single or in groups.10-20 g. round to oval starch grains. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Stambhaka.2. Appendix per cent. DOSE . oval to angular. aseptate fibres. Appendix per cent. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . 2. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.

Japal beej. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. consisting of an epidermal layer. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. 5-7 m high. slightly quadrangular. Jayapala (Sd. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. Neervalam Jepal. Euphorbiaceae). filled with brownish content. thin-walled cells. Neervalam.27.) small evergreen tree. Nervala -Nervalam. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. b) Microscopic Seed . hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. oblong. ovate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. 61 . dull cinnamon-brown. Japala. consisting of a large endosperm. Tinti·¢phala. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity.Shows a hard testa. found throughout tropical India. (Fam. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. no marked odour. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. slightly bent at middle. kernel yellowish and oily. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo.

63 and 0.84 (all violet). under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Appendix 2.2. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. Appendix 7 per cent.2.6-12 mg.2. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. 2. of the drug in powder form.10. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. IDENTITY. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .39.Fixed oil. 0.54 and 0.34.54 (yellow).5 per cent. 2.84 (brown). 0.29.2.C. Appendix 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 3 per cent. 2. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 62 .V.90 (all yellow).7. Resins & Phorbol esters. 0.4. Udararoga. 0. Appendix 15 per cent. Powder . 0. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.34 (grey). 0.2. Vibandha DOSE .L. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.White with black particles of testa. Pittahara.Jvara.3.C.L. T.49. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.

thin-walled parenchymatous cells.8-6 m high. consisting of thin-walled. linear.) Merr.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢.7 layered round. Jay¡. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. mucronate to acuminate. S. aegyptiaca Pers. Jayanti Jaita. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . Jayanti (Lf.Syn. 63 .5 cm long. 7. palisade single layered.28. short lived shrub. Fabaceae). each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. a quick growing. Karijimangai. Arishimajingai.0-3. oblong.5-15. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. very shortly stalked.shows single layered epidermis.. stomata anisocytic.8 cm wide. Atti. pith small. jayata Arinintajinamgi. Lamina . glabrous. á£kÀma patra.3-0. leaflets 6-16 pairs. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. polygonal. 0. present on both surfaces. having secretory cavities in phloem.3 cm long. entire. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. 1. paripinnate. opposite. Jalugu. (Fam. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. -Semp. 1. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta.

Appendix 2. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. palisade cells. 0. 2. shows spongy parenchyma. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent.19.29. 0.69.56.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.2. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0.56. Calcium and Phosphorus. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. palisade ratio 3. DOSE . Appendix per cent.2. Ras¡yana. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. in powder form. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.11.91 and 0. 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.7.C.29. 0.37. THERAPEUTIC USES . ViÀaroga.97 (all grey).19.91 and 0. 0. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. 0.05. 0.2. Galaga¸·a. V¡tahara.M£trak¤cchra.6.11. 0. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. 0.Dull green.Ratnagiri Rasa.2.V.C.2.Protein. 2. 64 . 0. Powder .37. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.56 (all pink) and 0.29.11.3-6 g. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY.4. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Pittahara.05.05. T.48.3. 2. 0.L.97 (all yellow).2. 0. 0. 0.97 (yellow). 0.25-4.48. Appendix per cent.19.

hard. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. unpleasant. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari.35 mm in breadth. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side.5-3. a large climbing shrub.29. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. Celastraceae). parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. ripe seeds. collapsed. Gangunge humpu. brownish-orange. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. colour. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. surface generally smooth and. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. odour. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. Jyotishmati (Sd. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. taste. Gangunge beeja. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. bitter. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. light to dark brown. (Fam. seed without aril also prescent.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. Seed .

2.35. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).8 IDENTITY. 0. Powder . 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Alkaloids.2. thin-walled. (all blue) & 0. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.89. Tikta Sara.L. 0. Under U.82.2. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.C. 0.Oily.89 (both greenish blue). 2.82 (pink) & 0. Appendix 6 per cent.4.94 (yellow) in visible light. 0. D¢pana. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. UÀ¸a.82.20. 0. 0.82 & 0. CONSTITUENTS .15.04. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.63. 2. Oil and Tannins.2. Appendix 2. Appendix 9 per cent. 0.2. dark brown. Kaphahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0.7. V¡maka. 0. 0. 2. 2.V. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.54.L.V.94 (yellow). áirovirecanopaga. V¡tahara. Appendix 20 per cent.5 per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Meddhya 66 .3. Appendix 45 per cent.6.2.2. Virecaka.C.35. stone cells. Appendix 1.composed of polygonal. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.54 (both blue).54.89 (all yellow).

V¡tavy¡dh¢. ávitra. DOSE . 67 . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . Oil : 5-15 drops.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Seed: 1-2 g.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Sm¤tidaurbalya.

30. Vellaikhadambu. large tree. indicus A. Rich. Kadamba Kadamba..) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. elongated cells of phloem rays. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. Vellai Kadambam.Bk. Kadambu Needam. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. rectangular cells. Indulam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Kadam Kadam. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Priyka Roghu. Kadavala. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. Kadappai. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. A. (Fam. Rubiaceae). traversed by uni to triseriate. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Kadamba (St. 68 b) Microscopic . some cells contain chlorophyll. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. phloem composed of sieve tubes. taste. composed of thin-walled. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. a deciduous. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. a few cells with brown contents. bitter. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Syn. Kadamba mara. Kadamba Nipo.

phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. L C. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.7. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.3.D¡ha. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. Powder . THERAPEUTIC USES .6.63 (yellowish grey). T.5:10) shows under U. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. 0. 0. phloem cells.2. Raktapitta. of the drug in powder form. cells distinct and slightly elongated.70 (orange yellow). companion cells and phloem parenchyma. DOSE . 2.2.Alkaloids. 0. 0. Vra¸a.21.2.phloem fibres. 0.5 . and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.83 and 0.1.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Steroids. Appendix 2. Lava¸a.79 (grey) and 0. Appendix 1.2. YonidoÀa. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.0. 0.90 (grey). Appendix 5 per cent. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.03.79.13. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. 2. fibres.64. 2.57. 0.Brown. 69 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 9 per cent. shows fragments of cork cells. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). 2.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Appendix 3 per cent. V¡tahara. 0.4.C.2. Vra¸aropa¸a. CONSTITUENTS . 0. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.2. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal.31.L. 0.5 g.

glabrous. hairy in lower part. obtuse notched at apex. white or pale violet. ovary globose.2-2. 70 .Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. Stem . Pikachia.25 mm long. five lobed.5 cm wide. sinuate. narrowed at both ends. corolla 4-8 mm long. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Manitakkali. Flower . peduncles 6-20 mm long. obtuse. green. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes.5 mm long. 1. found throughout the country in dry parts. (Fam. Ganikegida. oblong. thin. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. very slender. ovate or oblong. pale brown.P. slender. Kakamachi (W. toothed or lobed.Small. hairy at base. Ganikesopu. petiolate. anther 1. style cylindric. slightly woody and branched. calyx 2-3 mm long. glabrous.5 cm long and 2. externally smooth.Erect. 3-8 flowered cymes. a herbaceous annual weed.) Solanaceae). ganike. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. 2.Simple. extra-axillary. filaments short. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. Leaf . Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. Manatakkali. quite common in cultivated lands.5-8. bark thin. glabrous or pubescent. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. yellowish. flattened. pedicels 6-10 mm long. road sides and gardens.31. 30-45 cm high. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Manaththakkali. sub-umbellate. oblong.

minutely pitted. arc71 . trichomes multicellular. vascular bundles-collateral. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. covering trichomes. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. phloem rays uniseriate. cambium 2-4 layered.25 µ in dia. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. obtuse. pith large. Midrib . but 4. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. arcshaped.5-11 µ in dia.10 layered in angular parts. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. covered with thick. single or with two or rarely 3 components. internal phloem. yellow or black. rays composed of thin-walled. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. 6mm in dia.. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round.. filled with starch grains. tangentially elongated. measuring 2. covered with striated cuticle. central vascular bundle shallow. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. uniseriate.. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. Stem . secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. smooth shining Seed . parenchyma 4-6 layered. smooth.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells.Discoid. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows.. xylem rays homogenous.5 mm in dia. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. yellow. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. polygonal cells.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. uniseriate. phloem consists of thin-walled.A berry.Fruit . oval to round starch grains. 1. covered with striated cuticle.' oval parenchymatous cells.5-8. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. cortex of large. bicollateral. uniseriate. slightly striated cuticle. in small or large patches. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. usually accompanied by fibres. embedded in perimedullary zones. epidermis single layered. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. starch grains. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. composed of thin-walled. endoderrnis single layered. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. measuring 2. compactly arranged. conjoint and open. slightly elongated. radially elongated cells. LeafPetiole .Shows single layered.

shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. IDENTITY. 2. epidermis with irregular outline. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit.V. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. measuring 2. vein islet number 7-10. 2.2. Powder . a few broken pieces of pointed.34 (both brown) in visible light.2. Appendix per cent. 0.C.L.4. palisade ratio 2-4.L.06 & 0.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. present beneath palisade parenchyma. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. palisade single layered. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.11 µ in diameter.97 (all yellow). 0. papery epicarp.3. unicellular hairs. Lamina .Alkaloids and Saponins. 0. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. T. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. single.2. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. 034 and 0.dorsiventral. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. CONSTITUENTS . 72 . Appendix 2.5 . scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.Creamish-green. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. stomata anisocytic. Under U.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.2.34 (both pink).06. 2.2.6.06 & 0. Fruit .7. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.Shows thin.2. 2.

Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.áotha. Tikta Laghu. Ka¸·u. Jvara. H¤dya. Hikk¡. Pittahara. 73 . V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha.5 -10 ml. Svarya. of the drug in juice form. Netraroga. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ras¡yana. Chardi. Ar¿a. Sara. Prameha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. Rasar¡ja Rasa. H¤droga.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. V¡tahara. DOSE .

gynoecium and thalamus. starchy and large. seed hard. Kanwal Kamal.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. carpels many. Nymphaeaceae). Kamal. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Nelumbium speciosum Willd.32. black. 2-4 cm long.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. petals numerous. membranous. Tavare. free.3-2 cm wide. extended into clavate appendages. Aravinda. linear 1. Aravindan. Kalh¡ra. Venthamara. corolla. Naidile. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Padma. broken pieces also occur. 1. crimp led. 3-5 cm long. comprising of calyx. gynoceium apocarpous. a large. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. androecium. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Paduman. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. 74 . Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Sitopala. Syn. crimpled. 1.5-3 cm wide. Chenthamara. obtuse. Pamposh Tamarai. anther. Thamaraipoo. (Fam. finely veined. dark brown. embedded in a creamy. Sarojam Kaluva. erect. elliptic. Kamala (Fl.4-2 cm long. sepals leaf-like. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Kamalam. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m.. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. yellowish-brown.

2. Appendix per cent. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. spherical. Pittahara.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). parenchymatous cell. Sant¡pahara. 2. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.2. . composed of thin-walled. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. Stamen Filament . Powder . shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Anther .2. ground tissue consisting of polygonal.2. Appendix per cent. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. 2. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. Appendix 2. having smooth exine and intine. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls.Aravind¡sava. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. Tikta. M£tra Virajan¢ya.7.2. angular. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent.2. IDENTITY. ViÀavik¡ra. two on either sides.6. rectangular.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . spore sac contains yellow. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. THERAPEUTIC USES . followed by ground tissue of oval.shows four chambered anther.4. columnar. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. DOSE .2. vascular bundle single.filament appears circular in outline. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues.b) Microscopic Flower Petal .Dusty brown.3. Appendix per cent. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.12 -24 g. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. of the drug for decoction.Raktapitta. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. yellow pollen grains. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. Visarpa.

Powder . a deciduous. 76 . Kapittha (Fr. Kavataleal. hard. Belalu. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. sour.33. Balada. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. aromatic. sharp. taste. axillary thorns. often cultivated in many parts of India. found throughout the plains of India. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. slightly triangular and oval. stone cells. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . thin-walled. reddish brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. straight. parenchymatous cells. Rutaceae). triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen.Reddish-brown. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings.shows irregular.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. stone cells. F. having longitudinal ridges and furrows.) Swingle. Pulp. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Belada hannu. semicircular. Syn. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. odour. Bilvara. rough. elephantum Correa (Faro. Haminamara -Vilar maram. Siwalik range and forests. found in groups. glabrous tree with strong.

Appendix 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.50. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.91 (blue) and 0.95 (blue). Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.95 (violet) . THERAPEUTIC USES . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. 77 . CONSTITUENTS .Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.2. 0. Appendix per cent. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.37. Appendix per cent. 0.12. DOSE .91 and 0. Under U. 0.91 (violet) and 0.L. V¡mi. Pittav¡tahara.14 (sky blue). Appendix per cent. Amla.3. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya.37 (brown). T.2.06.L. 0. KaÀ¡ya.2. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Agnim¡ndya.C.1-3 g. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. Hikk¡. Lekhana. Appendix per cent. 6. 2.IDENTITY. 0.12 (brown). KaÀ¡ya Laghu.95 (all yellow).4. Vra¸an¡¿aka. Unripe Pulp: Amla.50 (violet).2.2. 2.6. of the drug in powder form.V. 0.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.91 (grey) in visible light.7. 2.Citric acid and Mucilage. 0. 0. Ripe-T¤À¡. 0. 2. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. Sangr¡h¢. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.2. Gr¡h¢.áv¡sa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.

a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. met throughout India in wild state. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. rough due to longitudinal striations. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. sometimes cultivated. starch grains simple. tubular.Greyish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. (Fam . and compound having 2-3 components. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. external surface brownish-grey. light in weight. 78 .Bk. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. shows single and groups of stone cells.) Apocynaceae). prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.34. Karamarda (St. internal surface grey and smooth. fracture. flat or slightly curved pieces. simple and compound starch grains. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. short. b) Microscopic Powder .

3. 0.L. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .48 g. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. DOSE . On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.58 (both light grey). Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.2.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.C. Appendix per cent.Marma Gu¶¢k¡.KuÀthahara. of the drug for decoction.6.90 (pink) and 0.C.IDENTITY. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.2. CONSTITUENTS .52 (light sky blue).97 (violet). Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 2.2.V.2. 2. 0. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. 0. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.2. Appendix per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. Appendix per cent. 79 .L.35. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. Pittakara. T.7. Appendix 2. 0.

found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. single cells of varying shape and size. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. fibrous. traversed by phloem rays. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape.. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. external surface rough.. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. cells. tangentially elongated cells. Naktam¡la.) glabra Vent. Karanja (Rt. very bitter. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. (Fam. Syn. Fabaceae). taste. internally. secondary phloem very wide. P. Bk. a glabrous tree.35. tangentially elongated. due to peeling off. fracture.) Merr. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. 3-11 µ in dia. most of phloem 80 . thin-walled. Nakt¡hv¡. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal.

2. phloem rays many.K¤miroga.31 (sky blue). 0. Ëntravidradhi. T. ViÀaghma. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.80 and 0. 0. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. 2. Appendix 17 per cent.1-3 g. Appendix 2. 0.37. 1-2 seriate. 0.09. 0. V¡tahara.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. mostly straight.13 (Sky blue).47.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Yoniroga. Prameha.80 (light blue).47 (greenish yellow). THERAPEUTIC USES . stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter.25 (sky blue).4. 0.18. 0.3. IDENTITY.51 (light blue).6. Appendix 3. 0. most of ray cells contain starch grain. 0.2.Flavones Kanugin. Powder -Creamish-yellow. 81 . DOSE .04 (blue). parenchymatous cells. consisting of thin-walled. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. phloem fibres.2. 2. Ka¸·u.47.98 (all yellow). Appendix 2 per cent. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0.L. Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. Tikta.42 (sky blue).18 (blue) 0.V. Ka¸·£ghna. 0. shows thin-walled. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.7. 0. 0. 0. of the drug for decoction. 2.37 (greenish yellow).08 (greenish blue). 0. Appendix 11 per cent.C.31.2. cork cells. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. KuÀtha.5 per cent.C.L. similar to those present in secondary cortex. DuÀ¶avra¸a. 0. 2.51. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.

found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. secondary phloem a very wide zone. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. a glabrous tree. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. 3-11 µ in dia. tangentially elongated. cells. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. Fabaceae). Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu.. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Karaµjaka. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. reddish-brown or dull brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.. consisting of 82 . secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. irregularly distributed. Nakt¡hv¡. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. internally light yellow. thin-walled. bark does not easily separate from xylem. (Fam. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. taste. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.) Merr. rounded to oval in shape. 1-2 seriate.) Vent. tangentially elongated cells. rough due to the presence of numerous. Karanja (Rt. Syn. P. bitter.36. bark. fracture. light in weight.

Appendix per cent. 83 . Demethoxy-kanugin. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. 2.2.2. Prameha. K¤miroga.4. thin-waned cells towards inner region. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. tracheids.DuÀ¶avra¸a. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells.1-2 g. Appendix 2. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. Appendix per cent. KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . rounded to oval in shape.. V¡tahara. tangentially elongated towards outer region. Kanugin.6. shows fibres in singles or groups.7.Karanjin. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Yoniroga. IDENTITY. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. Powder -Light yellow. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. 2. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Ka¸·£.radially elongated. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pittahara. CONSTITUENTS . ViÀaghna. DOSE . 2. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. of the drug in powder form. 2. starch grains.2. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. Vidradh¢.2. more. Ëntravidradh¢.Methylfisetin.3.2. Vra¸a¿odhana. fibres and parenchyma. consisting of 2-3 components. Tikta.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. Kaphahara.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. tangentially elongated. phloem parenchyma. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. bitter. composed of rectangular. short and fibrous. alternating with stone cells. P. fibre small.) glabra Vent. thick-walled cells.) Merr. b) Microscopic Bark . lenticellate pieces. odour. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. slightly quilled. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. Fabaceae). Syn. usually 0.Bk. Karanja (St. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. 84 . filled with reddish-brown content. taste. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.37.. Karaµjaka. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. traversed by medullary rays. Karanja. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. at some places lenticels also appear. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. fracture. Nakt¡hv¡. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. arranged in a tangential manner.2-1 cm thick. more or less smooth.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. a glabrous tree. recurved. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. (Fam. phloem fibre and stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. unpleasant.

Pinnatin. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin.2. medullary rays wavy. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. oil globules found in secondary phloem only.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Demethoxy- kanugin. 85 . and rarely. ViÀaghma. KuÀ¶ha. 2. Ka¸·u. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". IDENTITY. Appendix 2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex.1-2 g. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. Ka¶u. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . starch grains simple. Pittahara.2.5 per cent. simple and compound starch grains. Pongapin.7. of the drug in powder form. Kaphahara. Appendix 18 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent. elongated. 5Methoxyfurano (2"..DuÀ¶avra¸a. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. V¡tahara.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. present in secondary cortex. Yoniroga DOSE . Tikta. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. rounded to oval. Appendix 13 per cent. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. Prameha. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. thin-walled and aseptate. 2.2. Powder -Yellowish-cream. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. 3". thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin.polygonal. Appendix 1. Ëntravidradh¢. aseptate fibre and stone cells.3. Vidradh¢. K¤miroga. oil globules. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components.2. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. CONSTITUENTS .2. 3" 7 : 8). Gamatin. usually 2-4 cells wide. 2. Kanugin. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. 2.4.

Dithouri Honge.5-0. (Fam.5 cm long and 3. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. arcshaped. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Fabaceae). Unu.) Vent. Ungu. Karanja (Lf. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. isodiametric. petiolule short.) Merr. 0. Pongana Ganuga.8 cm. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. vascular bundle single.38. epidermis single layered. a glabrous tree.2 . found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Syn. 6. consistig of tabular cells. dark green. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. P. leaflets 2-3 pairs. cortex consisting of angular. consisting of xylem and phloem. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. 86 . a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji.11.9-8. covered with cuticle. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.circular in outline. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. xylem vessels arranged radially. Hulagilu -Pungu.3 cm wide. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Nakt¡hv¡. Kanajo Karuaini. Karanja. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. traversed by xylem rays.. Karaµjaka.

Powder -Green.6.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. 7) -flavone.shows single layered epidermis. 2. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Kaphahara. 5". áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. 2. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.A new Furanoflavone -3' . Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". palisade ratio 3. Ka¸·ughna. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. covered with thick cuticle. 5" . mesophyll cells.(4". Pittavardhaka. Appendix 3. consisting of tabular cells. present in lower surface. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent.2. vascular bundle.2. Appendix 11 per cent. Ka¶u. palisade two layered.3. Appendix 16 per cent.2. K¤imihara. stomata anisocytic. phloem and pith. . Appendix 2. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 2.5) . V¡tahara. collateral. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.6. CONSTITUENTS .5-50. shows spiral xylem vessels.Mid rib . 2. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. Tikta. Appendix 10 per cent.4.5".6.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4".2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.7.2. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.6. cortex consists of round to oval.5-20. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.2. stomatal index 12.

THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a. 88 . DOSE . Ka¸·au. KuÀ¶ha.For external use only.J¡ty¡di Taila.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .K¤miroga.

a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . 3 valved at the apex when mature.4. upto an altitude of 1500 m. 2.2. 2.2.2.) Cucurbitaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. 2.2.5 per cent. Appendix 28 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent.25 cm long. usually pointed or beaked. pendulous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella.6 per cent. Kathilla.3. IDENTITY. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. Nil Appendix 8.6. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. extremely bitter. (Fam. fusiform. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. 2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. taste. Kakiral.2.2. K¡ravall¢. Varivall¢.Fr.39. Appendix 2. Karavallaka (Fresh. Appendix 0.7. surface rough. oblong.5 .

L.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 90 .75. 0. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.L. P¡¸·u. CONSTITUENTS . 0.81 and 0.10 . 0.15 ml.16. Aruci. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Jvara. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡sa. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. Kaphahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. 0.46. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.60. K¡mal¡. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. D¢pana. 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.V.43.96 (sky blue).23 (red). KuÀ¶ha. K¤miroga.98 (all blue).98 (all yellow).C. Raktavik¡ra. 0. 0. Prameha. 0. T.C.50. 0. H¤dya. 0.34.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.67 and 0. juice of fresh drug.61 (light sky blue).áv¡sa. 0.98 (red & sky blue).03. 0.T. V¡tahara.17. DOSE .

Kalikutki Katuki Karru. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex.1 cm in diameter. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. bitter.2. taste. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. short. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. primary cortex persists 91 . subcylindrical. mostly attached with rhizomes.40. Rohi¸¢. bitter.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. suberised cells. cylindrical. Kauka. Katuku rohini. pleasant. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini.Thin. 5-10 cm long. Kav¢. b) Microscopic Rhizome . odour. (Fam. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. fracture. Scrophulariaceae). odour. pleasant. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. straight or slightly curved. cortex single layered or absent. Sutiktaka. cork cambium 1-2 layered. externally greyish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. fracture. short. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . Tiktarohi¸¢. Katuka (Rz.05-0. Katuka rohini Kutki.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. kaur Katuka rohini. inner surface black with whitish xylem. . 0. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. taste. Root . Kaurohi¸¢. Katki. dusty grey. a perennial.

05.C.V.41. 0. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. vessels have varying shape and size. 0. simple round to oval. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. IDENTITY.2.2. parenchyma and fibres.30. 0. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. Appendix per cent. hypodermis single layered. Powder . xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. abundantly found in all cells.21. 0. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. thick-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.35 (green). 0. Appendix per cent.2. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.2. 0. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. lignified. parenchyma. 0. 2. 2. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres.37. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.in some cases. 0. thick-walled cells of endodermis. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.41 and 0.62. thick-walled.84 (all brownish grey). Appendix per cent. tracheids long. fibres aseptate. cambium 2-4 layered. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. tracheids. 0.6. 92 . tracheids. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.10. cortex 8-14 layered. some cylindrical with taillike. consisting of oval to polygonal.10. 0. thick-walled. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. 0. simple round to oval. 0.3. secondary xylem consists of vessels.17. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs.30.4. 0. 2. T.17. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.L. tapering ends.L. Appendix 2. thick-walled. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres.7. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. 0.30 (blue) and 0.2. parenchymatous cells. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.21. secondary phloem poorly developed.Dusty grey. 2. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. 0.05 (blue).C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends.84 (all yellow). mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork.. 0. starch grains. Appendix per cent.72 and 0. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered.104 µ in diameter. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. starch grains.2. measuring 25 .

Sarvajvarahara Lauha. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. 93 . Bhedin¢.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡.1 . D¢pan¢.CONSTITUENTS . DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3 g. D¡ha. K¡mal¡.áv¡sa.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). Arocaka. of the drug in powder form. Jvara. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀamajvara. THERAPEUTIC USES . KuÀ¶ha. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Pittahara.

Flower . Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. Stem .5 cm long. stout. lanceolate.6 cm long. with long white hairs. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. Hygrophila spinosa T.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees.Usually unbranched. entire and hairy. didynamous. annual herb.Mostly adventitious. Nirchulli.6-2 cm long. widely 2 lipped. second pair 94 . creamishbrown in cut surfaces. corolla 3. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. tube 1. externally greyish-brown. all linear-lanceolate. swollen at nodes.Greenish-brown. no characteristic odour and taste.Yellowish-brown. which are 1. IkÀuraka.Acanthaceae). abruptly swollen at top.P. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. fasciculate.41. whitish to brown. acute. sub-quadrangular. common in water logged places throughout the country. bracts about 2. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. Kolarind. Culli. Vayalculli Talikhana. Kolavankal ---.5-1 cm wide. Kalsunda --Golmidi. no characteristic odour and taste.Anders (Fam. stamens 4.2 cm long. Kettu.3 cm long. Nirguvireru. calyx 4-partite. subsessile. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . broader than the other three. Leaf . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Syn. a spiny. 1-7 cm long. upper sepal 1. 0. Kokilaksha (W.

thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 4seeded.8 cm long. hairy but appearing smooth. linear-oblong. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. polygonal cells. brownish cells. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. phloem fibres thick-walled. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. variable in size. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. oblong. filament quite glabrous. pith large. inner cells smaller. 0. flat or compressed. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. capsule about 0. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. Fruit . composed of transversely elongate. endodermis single layered.Ovate.0. a few thick-walled. anthers two celled. with a number of large air cavities. style filiform. round. fibres thick-walled.Two celled. radially arranged.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. pubescent. arranged radially having spiral thickenings.25 cm long and 0. arranged radially. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. xylem present in a ring. thin-walled cells. ray cells thin-walled. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. vessels angular. cortical cells thin-walled. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Stem . broader towards centre. involute with a fissure on upper side. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. scattered throughout the phloem region. phloem narrow. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. compressed.larger. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. Seed .1 . secondary xylem forms continuous ring. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. thin-walled. 95 . moderately thick-walled.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. having small intercellular spaces. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. subequal. rectangular to cubical. light brown. radially elongated in xylem region. single or in groups of 2-3. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. arranged in radial rows. fibre walls uniformly thickened. peripheral ones larger. isolated cells found scattered in this zone.2-0. radially elongated in secondary xylem. pointed. ray cells thin walled. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. consisting of round to polygonal cells. b) Microscopic Root . size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. vessels with spiral thickenings. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. truncate at the base.15 cm wide. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. stigma simple. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. composed of polygonal. glabrous. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.

24-30. 2. thin-walled. shows aseptate. palisade 1-2 layered.6.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.2. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered.LeafMidrib . cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. unicellular hairs and globules. parenchymatous cells. 2. Appendix per cent. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . parenchymatous.7.2. Seed . loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. stomata diacytic. elongated fibres.2. palisade ratio 6. stomatal index 17. Tikta Picchila. Fruit . Powder . epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.2. thick-walled. . Appendix per cent. palisade.2.78. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. Amla.75. tangentially elongated cells. 2. Rucya. composed of thin-walled. oval to hexagonal. Lamina . Appendix per cent.4. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. M£trala. Appendix 2. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle.2. IDENTITY. 2. V¤Àya. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. vein islet number 17-42. collenchyma 2-5 layered.25-15. covered with thick cuticle. sclerenchymatous cells. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening.Shows concavo-convex outline.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.3. lignified. V¡jikara.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules.Light brown.

T¤À¸¡.3 -6 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ëmav¡ta áotha. DOSE . V¡tarakta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 97 .P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). of the drug in powder form.

a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. thinwalled cells. Kokil¡kÀ¢. whitish to brownish. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. slightly transversely elongated. Root-Appears circular in outline. Hygrophila spinosa T. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. stout. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Kokilaksha (Rt. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. Culli --. thin-walled. IkÀuraka.42. the size of these cells. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. branches on nodes. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. 98 . thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. polygonal cells.Acanthaceae). annual herb. Syn. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. consisting of small. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. common in water logged places throughout the country. no characteristic odour and taste. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. Kolavulike. Anders (Fam. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. secondary phloem narrow. Nerugobbi.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. a spiny.

2.Ëmav¡ta áotha. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. A¿ma¤¢. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . each group composed of 2-6 cells. vessels with spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. broader towards centre. 2.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. 2.3 -6 g. Powder . uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. lignified fibres. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. Appendix 2.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. scattered throughout the phloem region. Appendix per cent. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. fibre walls uniformly thickened. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.6.2.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta Picchila. 2.2. M£trala. 2.Light brown to ash coloured. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. angular. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. IDENTITY. shows fragments of pitted. V¡tarakta. V¡tahara.4. having spiral thickening. radially elongated in the xylem region. THERAPEUTIC USES .7. Amla.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix per cent.2. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . ray cells thin-walled. 99 . of the drug for decoction.2.

truncate at the base. Anders. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. IkÀuraka. Maradarishina -Maramannal. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. taste. hairy but appearing smooth. the 100 . shows hairs and oil globules. annual herb. Maradarishana. Kokilaksha (Sd. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Powder . white.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees.43. Hygrophila spinosa T. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. b) Microscopic Seed . a spiny. light yellowish-brown. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. flat or compressed. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. stout. Syn.Greyish-brown. Swelling Index . (Fam. parenchymatous cells. Daruhuladur Darhald. common in water logged places throughout the country.8 -10. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. thinwalled. oil globules present in this region. Acanthaceae).

An yellow semi-drying oil. 0.03 (light brown). Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. 0. 2. CONSTITUENTS .Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. V¤Àya. Protease and an Alkaloid.L. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.55 (light blue).internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.31. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf.6. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.. 0.10 (light brown). including any sticky mucilage. Add 25 ml of water.2. 2.L.52 and 0. 0.03.áotha.52 (dark brown) and 0.76 (sky blue) and 0.3. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3 -6 g. 2. Appendix 2. 0.72 (dark brown). 0.2.V. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. Lipase. Pitt¡¿mar¢.93 (sky blue). DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.4.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. Santarpa¸a. V¡tarakta. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . 101 . 0.38. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.41 (light blue).2. 0. IDENTITY. of the drug in powder form.38 (light brown). and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.17 (light brown).24 (red). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.17.31 (dark brown). enzymes like Diastase.24.C. 0. 0.2. 0. related to 1 g of seeds. Kaphahara.72 (all yellow). 0.24 (dark brown).C. T.

4 cm long.3 cm long.P) Portulacaceae).4 cm long. Ghola -Lonak.1 to 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Loni. fracture.Cylindrical. Doddagoni Soppu. 3-4 leaves. petals obovate. Common Indian Purslane Luni. root hairs abundant in upper region. Stem . 102 . Gho¶ik¡.3 to 2. Kuzuppa (W. characteristic. Loni -Koricchira. Kwfa Pasalai. 0.6 cm wide. subtended by an involucre.35-0. swollen at the nodes. smooth and greenish-brown. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn.1 to 0. style 5-6 fid.25-0. Peddapavila Kura. Fruit . prostrate herb. found throughout the country.5 cm long and 0. cuneiform. Baranunia Garden Purslane. Badanuni. Loni. Kozhuppu Pappukura. oblique. 0. sub-sessile. oblong. very delicate and soon falling off. (Fam. short. Pulikkirai. secondary roots. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. Moti Luni Khursa. -Baraloniya. at terminal heads.An ovoid capsule. Lonika. surface smooth. rounded and truncate at the apex.Almost cylindrical. spathulate. fracture. ribbed. brownish-grey.Simple.2 cm in diameter.44. 50 cm long. short. dehiscing above the base. small. Khurfa. Paruppukkeerai. bright yellow. Kozhuppa. Flower . 0. 0. Badi Lona Dudagorai. Payilikura. less in number. Kozuppa.5 cm long. an annual succulent. Kulfa. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Chhotalunia. sepal 0. odour. stamens 8-12. 0.A few. branched. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Leaf .

2. covered externally with a thick cuticle. Appendix per cent.3.Seed -Numerous. Appendix 2. having simple pits and spiral thickening. simple as well as compound. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. LeafMidrib . Stem .Greyish-brown. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. shows groups of oval to polygonal. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. fragments of cork cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. phloem and xylem parenchyma. oval cells. dark brown.. oval. tracheids.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. Appendix per cent. parenchyma abundant. as well as compound.7. having intercellular spaces. Lamina . having 2-3 components. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. vessels. tracheids and parenchyma.4. .shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells.2. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. Appendix per cent. 2.2. minute.07 cm across.2. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. arranged in radial rows. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. 2.2. tracheids and parenchyma. IDENTITY. pitted and spiral vessels. parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. phloem. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. palisade single layered. 0. solitary or in groups of 2-5. measuring 6-14 µ .shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. black. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. b) Microscopic Root . Powder .Wavy in outline. reniform. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells.6. secondary xylem consists of vessels. stomata paracytic type. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple.06-0. thick-walled with wide lumen. parenchymatous cells. present in mesophyll cells. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. 2. ray cells and pith. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled.2. secondary xylem composed of vessels. pericycle fibre present in patches. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. 2. thin-walled.

0.08. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .41.T. Prameha.L.10. RukÀa. 0.L.10. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. 0. 0. CakÀuÀya.52 (both faint green). T. 0.68 (yellow) and 0. V¡tahara..98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .76 (all pinkish red).V.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. áotha. of the drug in powder form. Carbohydrates.50.3 . Pittakara. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Vra¸a DOSE . 0.08. THERAPEUTIC USES .Agnim¡ndya. 0. 0. 0. 104 . 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Under U. 0.Protein.76 (green) in visible light.61. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.68 and 0.76 and 0. Ar¿a. 0. 0.C.6 g.Marma Gu¶ik¡. (both green). 0.52.68.41. Gulma.10. 0.

105 . external surface light brown. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. hairy pinnae. 0. stipulate. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled.P) diffused undershrub. with secondary and tertiary branches. sensitive to touch. tapering. Var¡kr¡nt¡. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. greyish brown to brown. alternate. yellowish-green. (Fam. fracture hard.4 cm broad.week bristles longitudinally grooved. nearly glabrous. Lajavanti. Lajauni Muttidasenui. Leaf . petiolate. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. slightly astringent.3-0. bark fibrous. odour. covered with long. upto 2. upto 2 cm thick. linear lanceolate. 0. Stem . bark fibrous. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Lajjalu (W. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. taste.5 cm in dia.Cylindrical. internal cut surface grey. Adamalati Lajaka.Cylindrical.6-1. sparsely prickly. distinct. sessile. Lajamani Chhuimui. woody. easily separable from wood. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. Machikegida. 25-50 cm high.2 cm long. rependant .Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . obliquely rounded at base. Fabaceae).45. acute. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. varying in length.

fibres. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 1-1. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. secondary cortex wide. tangentially elongated to oval. spreading bristle at sutures. fibres single or in groups. 0. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. respectively. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. ovary sessile. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. brown to grey. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. 0. scattered throughout. a number of lignified. tangentially elongated cells. crystal fibres thick-walled. lobes 4. thick-walled. parenchyma. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 2-3 seriate more common. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Seed . simple. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma.6 cm long.Lomentum. stamens 4. fibres of two types. phloem rays thick-walled. ovate oblong. moderately thick-walled. 3-25 chambered. starch grains. 2. ovules numerous. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. parenchymatous cells. pith consisting of polygonal. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. in globose head. Fruit . xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents.Compressed. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. xylem rays radially elongated. Stem . 0. peduncles prickly. radially elongated. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. phloem fibres single or in groups. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. filled with reddish-brown contents. much exserted.4-0. straw coloured. calyx very small. arranged in tangential bands.3 cm long. rarely multiseriate. thick-walled. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. crystal fibres elongated. glabrous. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. b) Microscopic Root . vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. scattered throughout secondary xylem. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face.Pink.3 long. consisting of large.Flower . 106 . thick-walled. oval-elliptic. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. corolla pink. dry.

4. fibres. single and compound starch grains. spongy parenchyma.81 (bluish-pink). yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. Appendix per cent. Lamina . Appendix per cent. lignified cells followed by single layered. vascular bundle single.62. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. one in each wing. crystal fibres.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. Powder . Appendix 2. T. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. shaggy hairs. 2. 0. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.7. Midrib .C. reticulate. branched. shows.shows epidermis on both surfaces. palisade cells non glandular.2.Shows single layered radially elongated cells.2. Appendix per cent. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. shaggy hairs.L.2.V.3. covered with thin-cuticle. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. 2. pitted vessels. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 2.Leaf- Petiole .Reddish-brown.shows single layered epidermis. endocarp of thick-walled.2.35. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Fruit . endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. with 2 . cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. branched. parenchymatous cells. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . pericycle same as in petiole. 0.2. palisade single layered.6. 0.69 (all blue) and 0. 2. parenchymatous cells Seed . pericycle arranged in a ring. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. parenchymatous cells.3 components IDENTITY. spongy parenchyma single layered. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma.C. Appendix per cent. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. thin-walled.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

35 and 0.35 (orange). 0. Vra¸a. KuÀ¶ha. 108 . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 0. D¡ha. Atis¡ra.spots appear at Rf. Raktapita DOSE . CONSTITUENTS . áv¡sa. Yoniroga. Ku¶aj¡valeha.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Kaphahara.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. THERAPEUTIC USES . PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.áopha.

Halippe. Eppimara -Irippa. Mahawash tree Mahudo. lanceolate. sweet.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. epipetalous. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. (Fam. Syn. Mahua Katiluppai.) Macbride. Kattu Iluppai. short. Ippa. Hippenara. b) Microscopic Corolla . M. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. erect 0. Ilippa. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. followed by thin-walled.F. Madhuka. tabular. a few 109 . taste.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). ovate lanceolate. Hippe. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree.Gmel. latifolia (Roxb. and also cultivated.5-2 cm long.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Madhuka (Fl. Androecium . corolla fleshy. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues.46. reddish-brown. epipetalous and arranged in two series. Iluppa. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Bassia latifolia Roxb. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. anther sub-sessile. Sapotaceae) . Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. basifixed.

5 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara.7. KÀata. KÀaya.2.15 g. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. Appendix 25 per cent. round. Appendix 5 per cent.áv¡sa.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug.2. Appendix 10 per cent. D¡ha. IDENTITY. lignified cells.Madh£k¡sava.3. áramahara. El¡di Modaka. pollen grains single or in groups. tapetum not distinct. unicellular hairs. árama DOSE . 110 . 2. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac.6. Appendix 70 per cent.Dark brown. 2. Pittakara.2.2. endothecium composed of radially elongated. Appendix 0. shows fragments of epidermal cells. Ah¤dya.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.10 .4. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.2. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Powder . spherical. T¤À¸¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . Balya. 2. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. Appendix 2.2.2.unicellular hairs present on one side. oval shaped. 2.

yellowish-brown to light-brown. Flower . triandra Lam. white often tinged with pink. short. Gandal¢. no characteristic odour and taste. cream to grey. Stem .3-2 cm wide. Leaf ... repens Gmel. often rooting at lower nodes.. Syn. bracteoles 111 . 0. nodiflora R.Flower in small axillary sessile heads.) R. fracture. obtuse or subacute. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa.5 cm wide. Bahli. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. internodes 0. Matsy¡duni.1-0. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. A. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. Matshyakshi (W. non Link. denticulata R. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. 2. Br.5 cm long. Br. 0. or elliptic.. Br.1.6 cm diameter. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .3-7.47. no characteristic odour and taste. linear-oblong. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.Cylindrical. nodes and internodes distinct. A.Herbaceous. A.. weak.P. with spreading branches from the base.5-5 cm long. short. (Fam. A. fracture. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. no characteristic odour and taste. Amaranthaceae). sessile.

1-2 layered towards dorsal side.2 cm long. acute. no characteristic odour and taste. compressed.dorsiventral. perianth 2. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. consistig of thin-walled.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. 112 . vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. no characteristic odour and taste. numerous. covered wtith striated cuticle. xylem tissues lignified. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. irregular. round or oval. round to oval. collenchymatous cells. isodiametric. palisade 2-3 layers. isodiametic cells.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. thin. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. parenchymatous cells.5 mm long. Leaf- Midrib . Lamina . round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. orbicular. consisting of thin-walled cells. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells. ovary obcordate.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. radially arranged cork cells. palisade ratio 3-5. stomata paracytic. pith distinct.1. b) Microscopic Root .5-3 mm long. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. parenchymatous cells. style very short. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. open and exarch. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. shows wavy or undulate. with anomalous secondary growth. compressed with thickened margins. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. ovate. parenchymatous cells. present in the centre. 1. sepals ovate. composed of thin-walled. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. thin-walled. scarious. capitellate. Stem .Utricle. single layered. with are conjoint. Fruit . thin-walled round or oval. each consisting of xylem and phloem. vascular bundles three. secondary cortex narrow. bicollateral. pith consisting of thin-walled. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. vascualr bundles radially arranged. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

2.2.44. Tikta.94 and 0.25. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.2. 2.44.68 (all red). Under U. Kaphahara.2. Appendix 19 per cent.35.L.81. 0. 0. 0.44 (all green).C.Sugar. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L. Appendix 2.Powder . 0.KuÀ¶ha. Appendix 4. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.2. 0.33 and 0.54 and 0.Olive green. Pittavik¡ra. V¡tahara. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. IDENTITY. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.59. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.5 per cent.V. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . T. 0.33.16.2. 0.18. 2. 0. 113 . CONSTITUENTS . Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. paracytic stomata.4. of the drug in powder form.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.2 -3 g.7.. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2.3. 0.96 (all yellow). 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.16.C. 0.6. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES .

mucilaginous cells. varying in size. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. bitter. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated.2-0. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. cells flat at base. Fabaceae).5 cm long.Seed shows a layer of thick. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Seed . annual herb. very hard. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. parenchymatous cells. 30-60 cm tall.15-0. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings.48. (Fam. 0. pleasant. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. dull yellow. columnar palisade.walled. covered externally with thick cuticle. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. taste. odour. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. smooth.35 cm broad. Methi (Sd.) aromatic. several layers of thin walled. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. 0. cultivated throughout the country. 114 . rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side.

V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. Aruci DOSE . Prameha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. Appendix 5 per cent.4. Appendix 4 per cent.Yellow. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent. Appendix 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Alkaloid. of the drug in powder form. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. Jvara. 115 . 2.2. IDENTITY. Sapogenins and Mucilage. Appendix 2. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.2.2. aleurone grains.6. Kaphahara. Powder . CONSTITUENTS .2.3-6 g.3. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.Graha¸¢. oil globules. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.2. 2.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. Rucya.

3 cm long. seplas 6. pedicel with scattered hairs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . petiole 5-5.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.49.5-10 cm long. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. sub-marginate at the apex. cylindrical. regular. petals 1.P. oblong.Lower leaves hairy. taste.. having a few longitudinal striations. Leaf . Mulaka (W. coarsely toothed. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. complete 1-2 cm long. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. Stem . upper most leaves simple. an annual or biennial bristly herb. sometimes brown red.0 cm in dia.Flower in long terminal raceme.1-1. Flower .7-2. not distinct. variable size and thickness. odour. yellowish-green.Slender. bright green. Muli. hollow.) Brassicaceae). (Fam. lyrate. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. bisexual. blade obovate.Root cylindrical. 0. compressed. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Rakhyasmula Mulaka.2 cm long. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. slightly pungent.

hairs unicellular. 2-4 mm long. oily. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. epidermis single layered. stamen 6 in two whorls. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. cork cells. solitary or ingroups. palisade 2-3 layers. present in cortex and phloem.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. endodermis at some places. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. thin-walled. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. 10-12 ovuled. elliptical. medullary rays four to many cells wide. Leaf- Petiole .dorsiventral. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. vascular bundle three in number.purple vein. round to oval.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. erect. irregularly globose. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. two outer smaller and four inner longer.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. epidermis followed by 6. occasionally pale purple. 3-9 cm long and 0. parenchymatous cells.Siliqua. Seed . style about 4 mm long. continuous or more or less constricted. taste. traversed by xylem rays. sometimes flattened. Stem . traversed by phloem rays. cylindrical. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. round to oval. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. 1-2 chambered. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. radially arranged. present in cortex. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.Reddish-brown. 117 .appears biconvex in outline. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. present only on upper side. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components.1. 2 mm wide. pith a wide zone of polygonal. starch grains simple. Lamina . ovary superior. Midrib .4 cm thick.8. green or brown-purple. thin-walled.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. one central and two lateral. longitudinally sulcatus. Fruit . phloem. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells. greenish-yellow. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. covered with thick cuticle. single layered.

2. Appendix per cent. of columnar cells. Gandhaka Va¶¢. Gulma. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Fruit . parenchymatous cells. covered with a thin-cuticle. covered with thin.40 ml. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Appendix per cent. thin-walled. H¤dya. Ar¿a.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells.Agnim¡ndya. Appendix 2. tangentially elongated. 118 . 2. P¡cana. Appendix per cent.2. Ud¡varta. parenchymatous cells present. Pittahara. DOSE . reddish-brown. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. spiral vessels.Yellowish-green. Kaphahara.2. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal.2. thinwalled.3. CONSTITUENTS . Powder .Glucoside.Shows a single layered epidermis. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ diameter.2. oil globules and round to oval starch grains.2. Seed . endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. P¢nasa. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . shows aseptate fibres.7. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. IDENTITY. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Svarya.20 . straight cuticle. of the drug in juice form.M£lakakÀ¡ra. Rucya.4. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated.6. Tikta Laghu. 2. 2.

Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. white in colour. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. 2. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy.2.2. Rakhyasmula Mula.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. Brassicaceae). fusiform. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. usually 25-40 cm in length. rarely sweet.4. Mullangi.7.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Moclangi gadde. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Appendix 2.2. Appendix per cent.50. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Appendix per cent.3. (Fam. 2. slightly or strongly pungent.2. Mula Muli Moolangi. IDENTITY. 119 .2. variable in size. 2. cylindrical. taste. Mulaka (Rt. Mulaka. Saleya. 2. Visra.6.) annual or biennial bristly herb.

ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. K¡sa. Tikta Laghu.V. Dadru. H¤dya. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. Gulma.04 & 0. áv¡sa. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. T.LC.L. Vrana.Agnim¡ndya.T. 0.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .Glucoside. of the drug in the juice form 120 . (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Galaroga. 0. Rucya. P¢nasa. Pittahara. P¡cana. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .04.34. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. Ud¡varta DOSE . 0. Netraroga. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.09.C. 0.49 & 0. Jvara. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. Svarya. Ar¿a.69 (all yellow).09 (both blue).15-30 ml.09 & 0.04.

found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . 6-12 cm long and 0. Syn. colour. traversed by phloem rays.42000 m. tenuifolium Wall. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. dull brown. Gandhakuti. secondary cortex composed of rounded. 0. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. taste. thin-walled cells. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . cambium 2-4 layered. fibres and parenchyma.6 . parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. slightly bitter. rectangular cells.Shows 10 .) DC.2. thin-walled cells. Mura (Rt.4 m tall. odour.3 . traversed by xylem rays. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. secondary phloem shows wide zone. a perennial herb. aromatic. S.51. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. consisting of tangentially elongated. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Daitya. tangentially elongated. Root .25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated.1. inner cells thin-walled. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. (Fam. Apiaceae ).

secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents.6.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . secondary phloem.2. Sucrose and Mannitol.2. 122 . 2.Arvind¡sava. composed of radially arranged. secretory canals. short with blunt ends.7. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . oil globules and simple starch grains.1-3 g. round to oval.4. xylem and phloem rays. 2. Bhrama. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. M£rchha.2. 2. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. secondary phloem. Tikta. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. IDENTITY. Appendix 9 per cent. distributed throughout secondary cortex. starch grains simple. fibres aseptate.2. of the drug in powder form. D¡ha. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. somewhat oval cells. Jvara..3.Brown. Ka¶u. xylem parenchyma. Appendix 17 per cent. Powder . present in secondary cortex. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .áv¡sa. Appendix 9 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. Appendix 3. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . parenchymatous cells. shows groups of cork cells.5 per cent.having spiral thickenings. secretory canals numerous.2. secondary xylem and medullary rays. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.

taste. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. fracture. slightly bitter. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. phloem rays 1 123 .Shows a cork. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. phloem fibres absent. tangentially elongated.5-3 cm thick. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. some filled with reddish-brown contents. Jartor Koratige Hambu. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. Murva (Rt. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. Koratige. rectangular cells. Madhusrava. similar to those present in secondary cortex. twining shrub. & Am. Kallu Shambu. odour. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. indistinct. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood.52. resin cells present irregularly in this region. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. b) Microscopic Root . (Fam. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. bark easily separable from wood. a large stout. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. Halukaratige.) Asclepiadaceae).

10-20 g.2-6 g. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. Appendix 14 per cent. simple and compound starch grains.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified.Light brown. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Ka¸·£. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. fibretracheids.22 µ in diameter. vessels with pitted walls.3 cells wide. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure.5-22 µ dia. Appendix 2. Pittahara. of the drug in powder form. starch grains simple. K¤miroga.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. Tikta Guru. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . fibres. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. T¤Àn¡. V¡tahara. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.4. fragments of cork. Medoroga. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.. Mukha áosa. of the drug for decoction.6. Appendix 7 per cent.7.tracheids. fibres. Appendix 0. 2. Powder .2.3.5 . elliptical to spherical with central hilum. 5. 2. IDENTITY. 2. present in parenchymatous tissues.2. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations.2. Prameha Mihira Taila. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . H¤droga. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. Appendix 5 per cent. DOSE . consisting of small tangential. Meha. measuring 5. tracheids. Raktapitta. shows a number of stone cells. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.Ar¿a. composed of vessels. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma.2.2.2.. 124 . Jvara.

occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. odour. 125 . connective and filament. (Fam. Konkan. yellowish and thin-walled. consisting of thin-walled. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single.9-1. containing pollen grains. fragrant. b) Microscopic Androecium . often buttressed at the base. anther about 0. soft to touch.1. quite brittle. Veluthapala. astringent. Nahar Nageshvara. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. parenchymatous cells. linear. exine and intine distinct. N¡gapuÀpa. basifixed. Hem¡. Powder . Nagppu. an Ke¿ara. coppery or golden brown.0 cm long.53. Sachunagkeshara. Guttiferae). slender. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. filament 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. taste. Nauga. N¡ga. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara.Anther shows golden-brown. Nagchampa. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. thick-walled. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk.5 cm long. Peri. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar.9 cm long. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. Naugaliral. connective not visible with naked eye. Pilunagkesar. Nagakesari -Nangaa. Nagakesar (Stmn. distinct protuberances on walls. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. Bengal. more or less twisted.8 . each stamen 0. Assam.) evergreen tree. shows elongated cells of filament. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu.Brown. filiform. Nagachampakam. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige.

áopharoga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. V¡tarakta. Kum¡ry¡sava. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.2.3. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.6.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.2.7. Appendix per cent. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. Var¸ya.2. Tikta.2. CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara. 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form.Essential oil and Oleo-resin.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.IDENTITY. 126 .4.2.Raktapitta. Vastiroga DOSE .1-3 g.

1. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . vascular bundles collateral and three in number.) shrub. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. Fabaceae).2 cm wide.2.1. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. pale green to greenish-black. N¢l¢n¢. (Fam. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip.3-1. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. 127 .5 cm long and 0.54. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. Nili (Lf. no characteristic odour and taste. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. leaflet 1-2. pith composed of round to oval.8 m high.

Ke¿ya. similar as in petiole.2. Jvara.50-100 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows groups of mesophyll cells. epidermis.2. 128 . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . vascular bundle single.7. Appendix 2. Gulma. Appendix 7. Appendix 25 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.shows epidermis.shows dorsiventral structure. 2. Ud¡varta.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.6. collateral and crescent shaped..4. Udararoga. 2.Ëmav¡ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Lamina . palisade 2-3 layers.5 per cent. of decoction. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. cuticle and hair. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . Pl¢haroga. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma.2. V¡tahara.2. Appendix 2 per cent.. 2.3.Glycoside (Indican). aseptate fibres. pitted vessels. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. similar as in petiole and midrib. cuticle and hair. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. V¡tarakta.Midrib . K¤imiroga. K¡sa.Greenish-grey.. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .2. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.2.

Gari Nili Kadunili. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. Karunili. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. Fabaceae). thin-walled cells. Nil.. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. with lenticels. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. group of fibres. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma.) shrub.2-1. Olleneeli -Amari. rectangular. Nila Nili. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. Nili. Rangapatr¢. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. (Fam. Nili Chettu.55. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. 0. Neeligida. woody.8 m high.1 -1. 1. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. odour not distinct. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. Nila -Neel Avuri. Indian Indigo Gali. secondary cortex a narrow zone. secondary phloem composed of usual elements.10 layers of tangentially elongated. Neeli Nili. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. slightly bitter.5 cm thick. cylindrical. Nili (Rt. hard. consisting of usual elements. taste. thin-walled cells. 129 .

and 0. Appendix 2.81 (blue)..58. V¡tahara. ViÀavik¡ra.50. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf..47 (blue).21. Ëmav¡ta. 0. Ud¡varta. 0. Appendix 3 per cent. T. 0.58. 2. 0.C. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.Creamish-brown. CONSTITUENTS .40.2.86 (green) and 0. 0.80. 2. 0.14 (blue).6.48 g.86 and 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0. 0.27. Ke¿ya. K¡sa. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. Udararoga. 0. 0.10.40 (blue). 0. Powder .63. round to oval. 0.14. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. present in cortex. 0. 130 .V.40. starch grains simple.33.91 (all grey).91 (blue).75.2. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.14.10.75 (blue). 0. 0.33.4. pitted vessels. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .3.L. phloem.27. DOSE . Pl¢h¡roga.2.Arvind¡sava.7.63. 0. 0. Appendix 6 per cent.30 (bluish green).50.86. 0.2.75. simple and compound starch grains.2.2.06.63 (bluish green).06. 0.58 (blue).oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.91 (all yellow). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. IDENTITY. 0.Gulma.L. 0. V¡tarakta. K¤imiroga. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. 0. Appendix 0.0. xylem parenchyma and rays. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. 0.7 per cent. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. of drug for decoction. Recan¢. shows aseptate fibres.81.C. 0. 0. 2.0. 0.

(Fam. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Limbado. Nimbam. slightly yellowish-green.5 cm long and 1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. odour. rachis 15-25 cm long. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Limba. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. taste. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Compound. Kahibevu. Melia azadirachta Linn. 7-8. Bevu. Nimba (Lf. Limado. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. alternate. Veppan Vemu. Aryaveppu. Meliaceae). Bakan. lanceolate. crystals also present in phloem region.7 cm wide. Bevinama -Veppu. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. indistinct. Veppa Balantanimba.1 cm thick. Juss Syn. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. Oilevevu. Nimba Nimba. opposite.0-1. Veppu.56. 0. Bakayan. Arulundi. acute. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . serrate. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Kohumba Nim. Nim. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. exstipulate. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Nim Vemmu. leaflets with oblique base. 131 .

palisade single layered. Appendix per cent.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.5 on upper surface.2. Appendix per cent. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. Ëma¿otha.7. composed of thin walled.Jvara. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. Appendix 2. stomatal index 13. 2. 2.Green.1-3 g. fibres.2. IDENTITY. K¤miroga. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. shows vessels. palisade ratio 3. Appendix per cent.Lamina . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. 2.0-11. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. V¡tal¡.Triterpenoids and Sterols. traversed by a number of veins. tangentially elongated cells. Prameha.3. epidermis on either surface.2. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . covered externally with thick cuticle.2. of the drug in powder form. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. ViÀarogas DOSE .5 on lower surface and 8.0-4. thin-walled cells.6. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.5. 132 . 2. Netraroga. Vrana.shows dorsiventral structure. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.4. Powder . CONSTITUENTS .2. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. KuÀ¶ha.0-14.

Kadunimb. taste. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. fracture. Nimba (St. Juss. fibrous. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. (Fam. Nimba. Nimb Bevu. odour. fissured and rusty-grey. a moderate sized to fairly large. Oilevevu -Veppu. evergreen tree. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Aruveppu Balantanimba. extemal surface rough. Nimba. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Meliaceae). Bakam Veppai.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Vembu Vemu. Melia azadirachta Linn. considerably thick in older barks. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Kahibevu. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken.57. characteristic. woody. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Limba Nimba Nim. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem.

Appendix 7 per cent. IDENTITY. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna.Reddish-brown.2.6. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.measuring 2. cork cells.3. 0.C. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.V. and 0.5 per cent.20. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Powder . lignified rectangular to polygonal. Appendix 1.2. having wide lumen and distinct striations. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 2.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. T. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem.2.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. starch grains. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. stone cells mostly in groups. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.75-5 µ in diameter. 2.2. 0. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. 0. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. simple. Pittahara.2. 0.86 (blue). measuring 2.90 (green). round with central hilum. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. Kaphahara. 2. 0.63 and 0.72 (blue). secondary cortex absent in most cases. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate.4. 2. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.45. simple starch grains.L.C. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .7. ViÀaghna. Appendix 6 per cent.2.L. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.90 (all blue). Vra¸a¿odhanakara. CONSTITUENTS .outer surface.

Decoction should be used externally. of the drug in powder form. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara.. Ka¸·u. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.D¡ha. Vra¸a DOSE . Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.2-4 g. Nimb¡di C £r¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rakta Pitta. K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha. Prameha. 135 .

15 m high with irregular branches. Tesu Muttug. dark-brown. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. internal surface rough. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. Khakharo. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. exposing light brown surface. 5-10 or more layered. Palash. Muttuga. fracture. greyish to pale brown. Muttala -Plasu.) Kuntze (Fam. cork cells.5 . Plas.Bk) Fabaceae). having brown colour. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. often in groups. moderately thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Dhak. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. rectangular. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. except in very arid parts.1 cm thick. thin-walled. rectangular 136 . beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged.2 cm thick usually peels off. dark brown. curved. Palasha (St. slightly astringent. tanniniferous cells. taste. Paras Moduga. 12 . rhytidoma 0. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. Khakhapado Dhak. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. Tesu Purasu. Chettu Dhak. pale brown. Camata. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. Modugu. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m.58. 0.

Appendix 2. traversed by phloem rays.50 cells in height. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.3 components.2.48 and 0. Powder . starch grains simple and compound with 2 . On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.18.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.4. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.6.V.2. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . 0.. Appendix 1. companion cells. straight. T. 0. 0. sclereids mostly in groups. phloem fibres. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. Appendix 14 per cent.10. 7 . numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.L. measuring 2.7. 2.12 cells wide.67 (all yellow).2.C. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem. phloem parenchyma. 2. 0. thin-walled cork cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.Reddish-brown..65 (all blue).Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. Appendix 10 per cent. 0.48. 0.cells followed by a zone of 2 . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.48 and 0. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 12 per cent. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.67 (all violet). secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.2.10. 2. 0. crystal fibres.4 layers of sclereids. dark brown coloured cells.13.2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.C.75 .3. 137 . 2.10.L.75 µ in dia.

Vra¸a. S¡raka . Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. Gulma. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga. KaÀ¡ya Sara. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Agnid¢paka.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 138 .5-10 g.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. DOSE . Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Tikta. Graha¸¢.Ar¿a.

whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. smooth. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey.Bk) Fabaceae). exfoliating in narrow strips. Mulmurumgai Badisa. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada.5-2. (Fam. tangentially elongated to squarish. parenchymatous cells. radially arranged and thin-walled.0 cm thick. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam.59. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. Paribhadra (St. medium sized. secondary cortex consists of large. stone 139 . yellowish to cream coloured. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. quick growing tree. inner bark fibrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. Pangara Hongar. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

Balak¤t. of drug in powder form. V¤Àya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru.2-4 g. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V¡tarakta. 148 . Volatile Oil.CONSTITUENTS . V¡taroga DOSE ..Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.Alkaloids. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.

mottled with darker brown lines. b) Microscopic Seed . B. linear. hilum present at the apex of round edge. 0. Piyar.5 cm wide. Priyalam. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 .) Anacardiaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. taste. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. sclerenchymatous cells. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. pleasant. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. sweetish-oily.3-0. micropyle superior. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. thick-walled. creamish-brown. Satdhan -Charal.63.6 cm long. pitted.4-0.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. collapsed cells of integument. large. Shalichokha Piyal. occurring mostly in groups. Priyala (Sd. Syn. which are of various size. (Farn. 0. latifolia Roxb. followed by remnants of disorganised. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Chowl. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. Saraparuppu Sara. Korka. funicle stout. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. odour.

0.08. KÀaya.98 (all violet).2. 0.4.P£gakha¸·a.type.0 µ in dia. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. KÀata. Pittahara.91. 2.72. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6. procambium bundles. H¤dya.94 (blue). Appendix 2.98 (all yellow).3. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.A creamish-brown paste.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. IDENTITY.72. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. 150 .D¡ha.2.20 g.27.08.84. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.5-5. 2.C. 0. Bhagnas¡dhaka. shows numerous mesophyll cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.94 and 0.2. Powder . áukrakara.5 per cent.Albuminoids. Oil and Starch. DOSE .27.7. THERAPEUTIC USES . Balya.91.C.5-5. CONSTITUENTS . and oil globules. 2. 0. 0. Sara. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.2. Raktapitta. Appendix 4 per cent.0 µ in dia.10 .2. Priy¡la Taila. T. of the drug in powder form.2. Kaphakara. 0. V¡tahara. BrÆha¸a.measuring 2. V¤Àya. 0. 0. 2. Appendix 0.54. Appendix 7 per cent. 0. and sclerenchymatous cells.L.72 and 0. Appendix 10 per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. 0. 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .94 and 0.54. 0.V. 0.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. 4 lobbed spreading.5 .5-7. brown. corolla. 2. filament very long. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres.) Verbenaceae).5 cm across.4 m high shrub. b) Microscopic Peduncle . parenchymatous cells. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . and abundant in Bengal plains. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. equal in size. bell-shaped. calyx. 1. 1.2.0.2. Priyangu (Infl. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. anther ovate. densely clothed with wooly hairs. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. long.64. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. Flower . stamens 4. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. ovary 2-4 celled. hairy.Shows more or less wavy outline. (Fam. brown. stigma minutely capitate. basifixed. densely hairy. an erect. epipetalous.3 mm in dia. peduncle cylindrical. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. tubular. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.Cymose. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu.5 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. thin-walled. style.

2. groups of thin-walled. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. aseptate fibres. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form. Pakv¡tis¡ra. 2. Pras¡dana. 2. Appendix per cent.4.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Ku´kum¡di Taila.2. Appendix per cent. fibres aseptate.fibres.D¡ha. Kanaka Taila. DOSE .2. xylem consists of usual elements. Appendix 2.Brown. IDENTITY. Jvara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent.Glycosides. Resin and Saponin.2.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. spiral vessels.2. Daurgandhyahara. Appendix per cent.1-3 g. N¢lik¡dya Taila. Powder . Rakta. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Appendix per cent. El¡di C£r¸a. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. 152 . (Mukharoga).3. Terpenes. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rakta-Pitta. M£travirajan¢ya. Sandh¡n¢ya. Phenolic compound. Vra¸aropa¸a.6. elliptical. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. 2. 2. Sved¡dhikya.

Dh¡nya. smooth. (Fam.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Poaceae). b) Microscopic Root . exodermis 1-2 layered. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Sali. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. thin. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. cortex differentiated into three zones. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Bhatta. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.) cultivated throughout India. sclerenchymatous cells. Chawl. pitted vessels and 153 .Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. Coke Chaval. both consisting of round to oval. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Akki -Ari. Dhanarmul. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Nelver Dhanyamu. Biyyamu Chaval.05-0. Dhana. Damgara. Shali (Rt. Dhana Bhatto. Nellu Tandulamul. Vr¢hi. Cala.Greyish-cream. Nellu. thick-walled. Corava. sclerenchymatous cells. composed of thick-walled. soft. Paddy Shalichokha. Nivara -Chaval. Bhata. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. an annual herb.65. Powder . outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. cylindrical. Dhan Rice. Odalu. Jhona Arishi. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces.

M£trala. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. Svarya.4. Var¸ak¤t. BrÆha¸a. Laghu. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2. 2. 2.2. Rucya.2. Kaphahara.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .7. Pittahara. 154 . V¡tahara. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.StanyakÀaya.2.2.3. KaÀ¡ya Guru. H¤dya. 2.2. Balya.50 g. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. CakÀuÀya. Appendix per cent.

Shankhapushpi. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. ovary superior and bicarpellary. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots.Slender. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. Sankhahuli Kakattam.1-0. yellowish-brown to light brown. 155 . Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. sub-erect. 1-5 cm long. free. hairy on both surfaces. Stem .66. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . alternate with the petals. stamen 5. a prostrate. light green. sparsely hairy. found throughout the country. inserted deep in the corolla tube. hairy.) Convolvulaceae). sepals narrowly. cylindrical.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. 0. spreading. Kakkanangudi. cylindrical. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.White or pinkish. Karakhuratt. Leaf .4 cm thick. acute. epipetalous. Flower . Sankhapuspi. corolla shortly discoid.5 cm broad. light green.Shortly petiolate. perennial herb with a woody root stock. about 0. linear-lanceolate. Shankhavela. Sankha pushpin (W.1-0.Usually branched. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. linear-lanceolate.5-2 cm long and 0. 0.P.

mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. cortex differentiated in two zones. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. starch grains solitary or in groups. thick-walled cells. 13. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. xylem consisting of usual elements. simple and composed of 2-3 components. Lamina . cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. elliptical. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. minutely puberulous. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. tanniniferous.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. pale brown pericarp. phloem. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. phloem composed of sieve elements. elongated. round to oval in shape.Appears nearly circular in outline. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. Stem .8 µ in dia. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.0.Capsule. phloem a narrow zone. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells.Light yellowish-green. mm. covered with thick cuticle. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct.. Seed . pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. LeafMidrib . fibres and tracheids. hairs unicellular. measuring 3 . medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length.Fruit .appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. unicellular hairs. covered with thick cuticle. vascular bundle bicollateral.Brown. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. Powder . present in cortex. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. at places unicellular hairs present. thin. present on both surfaces. b) Microscopic Root . stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface.. palisade ratio 6-9. oblong globose with coriaceous. vein islet number 21-25 per sq.walled cells.8-17. endoderrnis single layered. simple and compound starch grains.Shows single layered epidermis. epidermis single layered. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. 156 . 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. . xylem rays and parenchyma. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. both having round to oval. palisade two layered. fibres and parenchyma. xylem consists of vessels. mm. secretory cells present in this region.

and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Ras¡yana. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. 2. Ras¡yana. Appendix 2. ËyuÀya.2. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara.2. Br¡hma. Ras¡yana.7.3. Appendix per cent. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.2.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. 2.4. 2. Tikta. Medhya.6. Appendix per cent.2.M¡nasaroga. Clitoria ternatea Linn.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Apasm¡ra DOSE .3-8 g. Agastyahar¢tak¢. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. 2.IDENTITY.

gradually tapering. Siju. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. Bilikalli. 20-40 cm high. trilocular. odour and taste not distinct. sub-sessile. horned. odour and taste indistinct. ovate. Carmas¡hv¡. Flower .5 mm across at the mouth. annual herb. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. 4-5 cm long. free to the base. subacute. Saptala Kangi Tillakada.Involucre broadly campanulate. 1 mm long. 158 . Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni.celled with or without attached pedicel.5-2 mm thick. cylindrical. pale brown. greenish-yellow. Kalli -Chasma Lantha.1. 3. Chagulputputi Satala. ribbed. Fruit . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡.Capsule.Small.7-7 cm long. 0. a much branched. short. filament pubescent.) Euphorbiaceae). having a few secondary roots. Leaf . smooth. Saptala (W. lanceolate or linear oblong. linear. sessile.2-0. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. Joyachi. shortly 2-fid at the apex. ciliolate. 3-4 mm in dia. fracture. style.67. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. (Fam. gland semilunate. lobes short. solitary. 2.P.8 cm wide.

vessels having simple pits. centre occupied by a pith. 159 . flattended. secondary cortex consists of 4.3 mm long. starch grains simple. parenchymatous cells. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres.6 layers of oval. circular to oval. 2. tracheids and medullary rays. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. mature root shows thin walled cork. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. lignified cells with wide lumen. fibres. consisting of thick-walled.shows slightly convex outline. Leaf- Midrib . rarely a few oil globules also present. measuring 5. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side.5-19. solitary or in groups. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. b) Microscopic Root . rounded to oval. elliptical. Stem .Young root shows exfoliated. some rounded. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. single layered epidermis. epidermis single layered. striated cuticle. traversed by numerous xylem rays. fibres elongated and aseptate. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. filled with yellowish-brown content. thickwalled and lignified. secondary phloem narrow. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem composed of vessels. rounded at the base. all elements. composed of sieve elements. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular.25 µ in diameter.Seed . rounded to oval. leprous tuberculate testa. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. tangentially elongated cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. with wide lumen present in this region. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. stone cells oval to elongated. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. elliptical. fibres and vessels having simple pits.75 µ in dia. rectangular. found scattered in phloem region. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. all elements thick-walled and lignified. thick-walled lignified. covered externally with thick. tangentially elongated elliptical. palisade single layered present on both sides. simple. parenchymatous cells. endodermis not distinct. secondary xylem consists of vessels. grooved at one side. fibres and tracheids. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct.

Gulma.6.04.2.87 (violet). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. V¡tal¡. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).V.L. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. Visarpa.Light yellow. Appendix per cent. Vibandha.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. stone cells thick-walled. 0.2. 0.7.2.Powder . Appendix 2. T. RukÀa.46 (brown) and 0. aseptate fibres.Ën¡ha. 2. 2.L. and 0. Appendix per cent.50 g. simple.67. Pittahara.C.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.04 and 0. 160 . 2. 0.0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.4.2.3. Appendix per cent. shows vessels with simple pits. DOSE . elliptical. oval to elongated. of the drug for decoction. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.46. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf.2.57 (all yellow). Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.C. RaktadoÀahara. Ud¡vartta. Udararoga. lignified with wide lumen. rounded to oval starch grains. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. Mi¿raka Sneha. IDENTITY.

graveolens Benth. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. b) Microscopic Fruit . Syn. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. often stalk attached. slightly raised. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. A. Shulupa. mesocarp. ex Flem. Shepa. odour. glabrous. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. dark brown. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. brown. and a warm. mericarps usually separate and free. Sulpha. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. Apiaceae).. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. 4 mm long. Satahva (Fr. parenchymatous. A. akin to caraway. dorsal 161 .68. (Fam. sowa Roxb. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. a tall. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. graveolens DC. var. slightly sharp taste.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. broadly oval and compressed dorsally.. P. filiform and incospicuous.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. graveolens Linn. glabrous. vittae.. yellowish membranous wings.

Brown.costae three.68 (violet). of the drug in powder form. Vra¸a. Kaphahara.7.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. 2. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .59 (blue) and 0. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.á£la.10 T. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.2.2.2. Appendix 3 per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.2. carpophore split.2.Essential Oil. V¡tahara.5 per cent.59 and 0. 162 .C. 2.6. 2. Powder .Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 2. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a.68 (all yellow).2. each costae with vascular strands.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Atis¡ra. Appendix 15 per cent. IDENTITY. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.4.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 1.C. Jvara. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. Appendix 2. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. cellulosic.37 (pink) 0. shows spiral vessels. Appendix 4 per cent. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. 0.3. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. Netra Roga DOSE . Appendix 14 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. 0. 2.3-6 g.

Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. thickened. Shewgachi pane Sajana. Bahala. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Moringaceae). entire. odour and taste not distinct. AkÀ¢va. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. a small or medium sized tree. (Fam. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. Segata. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Sajne Horse Radish Tree.2-2 cm long and 0. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Muringa Elai Sevaga.69. slender.) Gaertn. Nugge ele -Murinna.5-1 cm wide.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. thin walled. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. elliptic. central region 163 b) Microscopic . Mocaka -Sajina. Segata pana. Sajna. commonly cultivated throughout the country. Shigru (Lf. pith and phloem parenchyma. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Munga. parenchymatous cells. leaflet 1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Mungna Neegge. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. parenchymatous cells. Sekato. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. palisade single layered. Syn.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Muringa. pericycle forming a broken ring. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. ovate or obovate. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. and articulated at the base. oval to elliptical. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Leaflet . Tishnagandha. Rachis . vascular bundle collateral. found wild in sub Himalayan tract.

0. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 0.46 (all red) & 0.82 (yellow) and 0.7. 0. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.94 (blue). unicellular hairs with blunt tip.2. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. V¡tahara. Sirovirecaka 164 . 0. 0.87 (blue).26. 0. 0.26.L. 2. áukra N¡¿aka. 0. 0. RukÀa. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. 0. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. 0.94 (yellow) in visible light. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. 0. Powder -Greyish-green.05. 0.C.94 (violet). Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. 0.2.2. vein islets number 50-65.59 (blue). 0.46 (green). 0.69 (blue) and 0.53 (yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.3.36.Carbohydrate.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.36 (green).46 (dark green) & 0. Appendix per cent.2.52 (green).0. 2. 0.38.05.V. Pittahara. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. B ¤Æhana.36 (yellowish green).69 (yellow).2.occupied by a crescent-shaped.26 (all green). 0. palisade cells.6.18.2.05. K¤mihara.30 (pink). spiral vessels.20. Protein. Medohara. T. IDENTITY. stomata anornocytic. 2.18. Under U.L. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. 2.46 (both blue). stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. (all green). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. 0. 0. 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.4. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0. palisade ratio 6-11. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. 0.

K¤miroga.áopha. DOSE .10 . Vidradhi. Gulma. Medoroga. Pl¢haroga. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Galaga¸·a. 165 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀatinduka Taila.Ratnagiri Rasa.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.

beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. thin walled. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. odour. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened.70. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. taste. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. Sthulaela (Sd. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. 0. parenchymatous cells. perispenn encloses the 166 . Beraelam. (Fam. spicy pungent. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless.3 cm wide. perisperm consists of polygonal. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. sclerenchymatous.4 cm long. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. brown to dark brown. thin-walled. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam.) Zingiberaceae). cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam.. membraneous aril. aromatic.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ka¸·u. 2. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 5 per cent. 2. H¤ll¡sa. Mukharoga. 2.áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . simple.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. Appendix 2. T¤À¸¡. polygonal. rounded to oval.(Seed).Light brown. shows fragments of testa.6. oil globules. 167 .2. Chardi. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.2.4. DOSE . starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter.0. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. both composed of polygonal.2. Mukha¿odhaka.7. thin-walled.2. RukÀa.S¡rivady¡sava. Appendix 4 per cent. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.10 CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara.2. Note . Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.2. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. (Seed).5 per cent.endosperm and embryo. of the drug in powder form. 2. 2.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Powder . V¡tahara. IDENTITY.5 -1 g. thin-walled. Appendix 1. perisperm cells. Tikta Laghu. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. K¡sa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. rich in protein. Rocaka. Appendix 14 per cent.2. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.3.

lignified. stem and branches. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. phloem fibres thickwalled. fracture. internal surface smooth. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. odour. Thumbooni. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles.71. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . parenchymatous cells. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. sharp prickles. aromatic. Jimmi. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. Z. Rutaceae).0. thick-walled cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. external surface pale brown. (Fam. Tumburudra.) Roxb. armed with long.Bk. Syn. stone cells found in 168 . Tejovati (St. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. light yellow to pale brown. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places.2 cm thick. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements.1-0. aromatic pungent. Tumbura. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. rather deeply furrowed. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. thin-walled. taste. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. short. brownish. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m.

Medhya.75 . 2. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.2. áv¡sa.Yellowish-brown.2. shows fragments of cork cells.2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. DOSE . Appendix 13 per cent. IDENTITY. Rucya.2.4. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.10-20 g.13. stone cells.6. Mukharoga. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. starch grains round and oval. Powder .75 µ in diameter.Aruci.13. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . measuring 2. Kaphahara. oil globules and starch grains. Appendix 1.5 per cent. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. round and oval measuring 2. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa).5 per cent.3. 2. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 12 per cent.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. Appendix 8.2. Ëmav¡ta. of the drug for decoction. K¡sa. 169 .Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. P¡cana. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .75 µ in diameter. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2. Hikk¡.75 . aseptate fibres.7. a Volatile Oil and Resin.

Shree Tulasi. herbaceous.Thin. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. found throughout the country. coloured. lower lip 170 . odour. taste.72. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . (Fam. elliptic oblong. Stem . fibrous in bark and short in xylem. slender.2. fracture. soft. annual herb. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. small in close whorls. wiry.Purplish or crimson coloured. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. odour faintly aromatic. branched.5-5 cm long 1. characteristic. hairy. sub quadrangular.5-3 cm long hairy. violet internally. aromatic. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. Thulasi.6 . entire or serrate. about 1. much branched. shortly apiculate. Tulasi (W. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped.3. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. Leaf . Flower . pedicels longer than calyx.) an erect. blackish-brown externally and pale. Lamiaceae). branched. internally cream. hairy. woody.60 cm high.2 cm wide. externally purplish-brown to black.Erect. petiole thin. K¤À¸atulas¢. 30 . obtuse or acute. pubescent. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. pubescent on both sides.P. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi.

aromatic. membranous. fibres with pointed ends. taste. each with one seed.1 cm long. Fruit . odour. occasionally a few cells collapsed. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. fibres and parenchyma.Rounded to oval. rectangular. in groups and rarely in singles. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. pitted with pointed ends. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. middle one larger than other two. aromatic. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. round to oval polygonal. brown. vessels pitted. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. slightly mucilaginous. thin-walled. thin-walled. 0. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. pungent. slightly compressed.A group of 4 nutlets. parenchymatous cells. slightly notched at the base. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. vessels pitted. filled with brown content. veined calyx. phloem consisting of sieve elements. found scattered in phloem. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. pungent. phloem consists of sieve elements. elongated.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. glandular trichomes short. Seed . parenchymatous cells.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. xylem consists of vessels. 171 . pungent. fibre tracheides. thin-walled. taste. Stem . pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. pubescent. b) Microscopic Root .shows somewhat cordate outline. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. taste. Midrib . corolla about 4 mm long.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. no odour. tracheids. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. lateral two short and central two largest. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. thin-walled. measuring 22-27 in dia. enclosed in an enlarged. long. parenchymatous cells. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. xylem surrounded by phloem. nearly smooth. odour. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. three vascular bundles situated centrally. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. mucilaginous when soaked in water. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. Leaf- Petiole .epidermis.

ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.C. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. Tikta. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2. parenchymatous cells. Record Rf.2. Durgandhihara 172 . 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. values of eugenol and caryophyllence.Greenish: shows thin-walled. Appendix 4 per cent. value 0. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Appendix 1. H¤dya.2.Essential Oil. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. palisade ratio 3. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. IDENTITY. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.4.L. Pittavardhin¢.1.2.16 on lower surface. 2. On cooling spray. Appendix 2. Appendix 10 per cent.2.2. Appendix 8 per cent.15 . caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.5 per cent. Rf. CONSTITUENTS . vein islet number 31 .7.8. a few containing reddish brown contents. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. V¡tahara.minutes Under observation.C. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. thin walled fibres. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). oil globules. in thoroughly vanillin . rounded to oval.35.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . T.Lamina .L. Kaphahara.3.7. Rucya. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. RukÀa.2. 2. Powder .

KuÀ¶ha. áv¡sa. Netraroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .A¿mar¢. Hikk¡. Chardi.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. K¤miroga.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. K¡sa. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. 173 . 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .

characteristic. glandular trichomes short. obtuse or acute.5-5 cm long. 174 b) Microscopic . petiole 1. entire or serrate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. found throughout the country. hairy. thin. consisting of xylem and phloem. LeafPetiole . Tulasi (Lf.6-3. middle one larger than the other two.shows cordate outline. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. covering trichomes multicellular. (Fam. rarely slightly reflexed at tip.2 cm wide. an erect. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. Holy Basil Tulasi. much branched annual herb. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes.) 30-60 cm high. and 2-8 celled. balloon-shaped head. uniseriate 1-8 celled long.5-3 cm long. petiolate. aromatic. odour. measuring 22-27 µ dia. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. elliptic-oblong. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil.. K¤À¸atulas¢. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. upper epidermis. three vascular bundles situated centrally. Lamiaceae).73. 1. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. pubescent on both surfaces. taste.

98 (blue).93 (both light green). 0. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0. 0.83 (all pink) 0. 0.V. 2.33.8. Appendix per cent.4.54 (blue). 0.2.12 (light violet).33. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces. 0.45 (yellowish green). 2.85 & 0. shows fragments of polygonal. 0.54. 0.2. CONSTITUENTS . anomocytic and diacytic stomata. Lamina .6.7.Midrib .33 (both green) 0. 0.85 (blue).75.93 (all0 yellow). Powder . 0.45 (violet).45.88 and 0.21 (brown).93 (pink) & 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent..12 (light green). palisade ratio 3.2.33 (violet).83. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Nerol and Camphene etc.93 (violet) and 0.epidermis. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. 0. 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.2.Light-green.30. 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.08.98 (blue).83 (blue).45. T. 0. 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.C. vein islet number 31-33.). trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.3. 0. 0. 2.08 (both green). less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.21.12.75 (violet). 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. Appendix 2.03 (dark green).04. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.04.C.2. IDENTITY.L. 0. Under U.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.L.04.21. 2. 0. 0. Caryophyllene. 0. 0. 0.08 (violet). 0. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. palisade and spongy parenchyma. 0.2. 0. 0. 175 .

H¤dya. Hikk¡. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Aruci. KuÀ¶ha. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. RukÀa. 176 . Kaphahara. K¤miroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. K¡sa. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. áv¡sa. Pittahara. Tikta.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2-3 g.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Prati¿y¡ya. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡.74. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. somewhat collenchymatous. Vekhandas -Varch. present in this 177 b) Microscopic .) semiaquatic herb. cells towards periphery. fracture. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight.5-1. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. smaller. short.Shows single layered epidermis. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. and 0. Araceae). broadly. Ghodavaca Vasambu. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. buff coloured intemally. aromatic. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. pungent and bitter. Ghodvach Bach. triangular. Rhizome . Gora-bach Baje. (Fam. Vacha (Rz. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. odour. large. thin-walled cells of various sizes. enclosing large air spaces. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. Ugr¡. upper side marked with alternately arranged. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. taste. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca.5 cm thick.

a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.L. Powder . Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.. reticulate.2. shows fibres. spherical. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. endodermis distinct. 2. Methanol-Yellowish green iv.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. starch grains simple. Appendix per cent.C.C. 2.Yellowish-cream b.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Petroleum ether-No change ii. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent.10 T. Powder as such: .2. Chloroform-Light green iii.2. Benzene-No change IDENTITY.14 (violet) and 0.region.6. 2.3. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Extracts in i.2.L.4. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. Appendix per cent. Eugenol and Asarone). Starch and Tannin.2. stele composed of round.2. Appendix 2. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains.Buff coloured. 2.7. present in cortex and ground tissue. 178 .

Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. THERAPEUTIC USES . Apasm¡ra. K¡sa. Unm¡da. S¡rasvata. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. K¤mihara. 1.Vac¡di Taila.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vibandha. Kar¸a Sr¡va. DOSE .60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Ëdhm¡na. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. áv¡sa. V¡tahara. Medhya. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Kaphahara. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. C£r¸a. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Ka¸¶hya.2 g. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. 179 .á£la. Tikta Laghu. Sm¤ti daurbalya. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

rarely 5 cm long. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Beesh. papillose on outside. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. 0.) (Fam. roots are generally collected late in September. thin-walled. small portions of stem sometimes attached. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. Sth¡varaviÀa.1. conical. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. suberised. Mithvisa Mitha Visha.5 cm. rough due to root scars. Mithalelia. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. parenchymatous cells.75. Bachhnaag. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. perennial herb. Nabhi. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. Vatsanabha (Rt. Vatsanabhi. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. cartilaginous. plant is an erect. occasionally separated due to breakage. odour indistinct. taste. ovoid. without or with a few intercellular spaces. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. Ranunculaceae). gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Teliya Bish Basanalli. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Naabhi Bachnak. Meethabisha. fracture. Vatsanabhi. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . Basanaag Bisa. Mahura. dark brown to blackish-brown. 2-4. tapering downwards to a point. poisonous. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag.4 .8 cm thick. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. Vatsanabha. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi.

2. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .39 and 0.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. Laghu.56. Anandabhairava Rasa. Trid°Àahara. ÙikÀ¸a.5 per cent.2. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia.2. Appendix 2. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 24 per cent. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.2. 0.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. 0.Light grey. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. 2. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. xylem exarch.3. Appendix 2 per cent. often forming 'V' shaped ring. containing a few groups of phloem strands. UÀ¸a.7. cambium having 6 10 angles. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. occupying more than half the radius.C.2. metaxylem vessels met in centre.L. 2. a few aseptate fibres. T.96 (both orange).endodermis. 0. 0. 0.10.4. present in cortical cells.20. 0. consisting of round to oval cells. Appendix 5. RukÀa. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.6. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. inner bark parenchymatous.74 and 0. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. IDENTITY. 2. Powder . Appendix 8 per cent. Sv®dala. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex.L.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. S £tasekhara Rasa. 2.C. some scattered. CONSTITUENTS .39. shows vessels. Viyav¡yi.

15 .30 mgs of the drug in powder form.THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡taroga. Sannip¡ta. 182 . V¡takaphajvara. Jvar¡tis¡ra. Kanharoga. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. DOSE .

stone cells moderately thick-walled. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. Eagio. but pliable. Bhoikolu. taste. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. usually does not break. Bhonykoru. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. starchy and somewhat porous. thin-walled cells. Bhuikumra Vidari. Vidari (Tub. Vid¡rik¡. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Nelagumbula. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. outer surface reddish-brown. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta.76. Gumadi belli. Nelagumbala. Bhumikusmanda.Rt. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. cut surface creamish-brown. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. (Fam. sweetish. smooth except for protuberances at some places. thinwalled.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. Fabaceae). Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers.

Appendix 2. phloem fibres much elongated.13.5 . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. somewhat round. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . highly thickened. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Pittahara. Angmarda. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. 2.Gluconic and Malic acids. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. Ras¡yana. a few latex duct also present. measuring 5. Appendix 4. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. angular to oval.2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content.2. 2. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. CONSTITUENTS . Manmath¡bhra Rasa. having central hilum and striations. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5.2.5 . present in all parenchymatous cells. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). IDENTITY.75 µ in dia. Powder .7.75 µ in dia. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. distributed throughout this region. Appendix 24 per cent. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.. M£trala. V¡tahara. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.Buff coloured.2.6. and also rarely in stone cells. Var¸ya. lignified with narrow lumen.2. 2. DOSE . plenty of starch grains mostly simple. radially elongated cells.2. Raktapitta. Balya. Appendix 17 per cent.and pits.D¡ha.4. áoÀa.3-6 g. fragments of cork. Svarya. Stanyada. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells.5 per cent. J¢van¢ya. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. of the drug in powder form. Daurbalya. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.Marma Gu¶ik¡.3. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.13. 184 . THERAPEUTIC USES .

pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. square or quadrilateral. followed by more or less. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. followed by 2-3 layers. taste. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. an annual. pale-greenish-yellow. Jav Barley Cheno. spongy parenchymatous cells. smooth.2-0. not distinct. oblong. sativum Pers.) Poaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. seed coat appears as a colourless line. about 1 cm long and 0. sweetish-acrid.3 cm wide. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. thick-walled. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. round to oval wavy walled cells. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava.77. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. elliptic. (Fam. sclerenchymatous fibres. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. erect herb. odour. Syn. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. cultivated chiefly in North India. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . 50-100 cm high. H. Yava (Fr. polygortal inner epidermal cells. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea.

Medahara. 0.2.Starch.36.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.22.83 and 0. M£trahara. starch grains simple. Pittahara.92 (yellow). Lekhana. simple starch grains. Svarya.06. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Globulin. V¤Àya. sclerenchymatous fibres.53. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.16.2. 0. 0.2. and the rest starch layers. 0. 0. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.72 (all pink. IDENTITY. 0.10. 0.C.3. round to oval.2. 0.2. 0. Pur¢Àak ¤t. 0.56.V. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.6. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. Kaphahara.31. endosperm divided into two zones. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.) CONSTITUENTS . 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. 0.83 (all violet) and 0. 0.65 & 0.2.10. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.2. Orientoside. Orientin.68.68.45.31. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Appendix 1.31. 0.narrow lumens.24.L.L. 2.Creamish-white. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.14.92 (all grey). Proteins (Albumin. 2. Var¸ya 186 . Appendix 4 per cent. Sugars. 0. V¡tak¤t. 0. Appendix 5.7 T. Fats. Vitexin etc. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.5 per cent. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 0. 0. 0.5 2.44. Powder . 0. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 2. 2.5 per cent. 2.22.5 per cent. Sthairyakara.4. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. Appendix 2.

B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Dh¡nvantara Taila.100 . Medoroga. Tvagroga DOSE . Urustambha. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡sa. of the drug. El¡dya Modaka.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . P¢nasa. T¤À¸¡. Prameha. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.áv¡sa. Gandharvahasta Taila. 187 .200 g. Kanharoga. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Sarsap¡di Pralepa.

filled with reddish-brown contents. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. 20-30 cm long and 0. Neladangara. dark brown.2-1 cm thick. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. secondary cortex almost 188 . Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). cork cambium single layered. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. radially arranged cork cells. stipules green. Desv.8 cm long. glabrous. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. elliptical.5-1 cm long. branched.Well developed. gradually tapering. slightly rough at basal region with slender.) Fabaceae).Cylindrical. sharp axillary spines upto 3. extipulate. Leaf . terete. no taste and odour. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . Punjab.78.7 cm broad. Javasa. Y¡sa. secondary and tertiary root absent. opposite. 0. Yavasaka (W.Simple. drooping. nearly 0. striate. a small thorny shrub. glabrous. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat.P. fracture. oblong. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. alternate. Stem . ballidurabi. short. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. 0.1-1 cm thick. hard.5-0. mucronate obtuse. (Fam.

thin-walled. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands.appears biconvex in outline. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. pith composed of a few thin-walled. parenchyma and fibres. filled with tannin. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. 5.5-14. some cells filled with tannin.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. xylem fibres. tanniniferous cells. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. phloem composed of sieve elements. angular. filled with tannin. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll.75 µ in dia. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. tracheids and fibres. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. parenchymatous cells. phloem composed of sieve elements. 3-45 cells long. 189 . starch grains simple.absent. parenchymatous cells. hypodermis 1-2 layered. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits.14.5.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle.75 µ in diameter. xylem situated above phlome. Stem . xylem consists of vessels. hypodermis 2-3 layered. covered externally with thick cuticle. thin-walled. present throughout the region. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. tracheids. Lamina . covered with cuticle. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. Midrib . pericycle present in form of fibre groups. xylem consists of vessels. tracheids. vascular bundle collateral. fibres. tangentially elongated cells. Powder . parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata.Greenish-brown. elongated. pitted vessels. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. simple. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. a few with thick wall and simple pits. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. rounded to oval. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. epidermis single layered.appears circular in outline. Leaf- Petiole .

V¡tarakta. K¡sa. 2. 190 . Kaphahara. Appendix 2. Appendix 2. Sucrose. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2.2. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. Invert Sugars). Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.50 g.IDENTITY. Appendix 10 per cent. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent. T¤À¸¡. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix 13.7. D¢pana. Arimed¡di Taila. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix 2 per cent.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.4. Raktapitta.Chardi. Tikta. THERAPEUTIC USES . Visarpa DOSE . CONSTITUENTS .2.Sugars (Melizitose.6.20 .3. Jvara. 2.5 per cent. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.