THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2-Thermometers 1.1.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.2.2.2.3.2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .1.2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.1-Sampling of drugs 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1 Testing Drugs 2.2.1.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.5.2.2.2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.1.4.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.2.2.1-Nessler Cylinder.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.) Desv 177 1.2.1.1.1.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2-Sieves 1.1.Types of Stomata 2. 1.1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2.2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.1.2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.

3.Weights and Measures 5.3.2-Refractive Index 2.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.1.3 Limit Tests 2.3.3.2.1.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.

is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part-I. Part-I. Vol. 1930 and the Poisons Act. II.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. would be deemed to have been amended vii . the Drugs & Cosmetics Act.I. II. Vol. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982).P.). II would be official. In general. the Dangerous Drugs Act. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. Vol. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. accordingly. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Part-I.

The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. viii . Synonyms . indicated in monograph. Odour and Taste . which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. if any. distribution and method of collection. Italics . unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. substances or processes described in Appendix. When the term “drop” is used. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Purity and Strength . If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. Mesh Number . Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Weights and Measures . If the odour persists to be discernible.GENERAL NOTICES Title .Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Identity. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Ayurvedic Formulary of India.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Hindi. it is described as having odour. Introductory Para .Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. English. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml).

The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests.g. sliminess. V. pests. Constant Weight . groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. acid-insoluble ash.In defining standards. fungi. according to circumstances. Vol. and Identity.) . ix . The quantitative tests e. Constituents . will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. Percentage of Solutions . Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. with one of the four meanings given below. shall constitute standards. and other animal matter including animal excreta.C. those of definition of the part and source plants. the expression per cent (%). total ash.Under this head. wherever given. pesticides. statements appearing in the API. However. ether-soluble extractive. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead.L. and show no abnormal odour.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. moisture content. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. Purity and Strength. Standards . even by applying known reference standards. mould or other evidence of deterioration. if of equivalent accuracy. micro-organisms. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . under Description. colour. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. is used. alcohol-soluble extractive. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. may be substituted for the tests and assays described.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. However. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”.For statutory purpose.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. water.soluble extractive. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. in 100 grammes of product. water-soluble ash.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. which he uses. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. Part-I. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. arsenic and heavy metals.

When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. thermometric scale. and dust particles.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. Statements of solubilities. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Temperature . at a stated temperature. all solutions are prepared with purified water. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. Solutions . Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. such as fragment of filter papers.000 parts x . are intended to apply at that temperature. Reagents and Solutions . When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Solubility . are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature.56 oC. fibres. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). Percentage of alcohol .000 parts More than 10.

TS. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent.1 N. mg. l. IN. 0.P. 0. ml. Fam. cm. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. Kg. 1M.5 N. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part –I and Part-II.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. PS. µ. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. mm.I. g. unless otherwise stated.

Rt. Guj. Mar. St. Ht. Tub. Tel. Wd. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Assam. Ori. St. Sd. Eng. Mal. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Kan. Bk. Wd. Tam. Lf. Pl. Wh. Fr. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Beng. Punj. Rz. Kash. Bk. Rt. xii .Sansk.

elongated.231 µ in 1 . slightly aromatic. (Fam. 53.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. Akarakara Akkaraka.8 µ in width. an annual. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. Akallakara. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. brown. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Asteraceae). Akalakarabha. Akravu Akkalakara. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. bark upto 3 mm thick.37-28. thin-walled. characteristically astringent and pungent. 7-15 cm in length. Akarakarabha (Rt. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka.2 .1. cambium 2-5 layered. odour. vessels pitted. external surface rough. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells. taste. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. 1. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. shrivelled. xylem fibres thick-walled. not easily separable. tapering slightly at both ends.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. cylindrical.

á£laroga. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. radially elongated.2.Prati¿y¡ya. also gives positive tests for inulin. Appendix 2 percent.2.4. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 8 percent. Pittahara. 2 . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. medullary rays numerous. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex.2. áotha.0. NaÀ¶¡rtava. D¢pana. Udararoga.2.7. Grdhras¢. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. 2. ray cells thick-walled. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. Appendix 2. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . bi to tri and multiseriate. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. Appendix 10 percent.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). Aj¢rna. IDENTITY. Kaphahara. áv¡sa.2. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. áukrala. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. Buddhivardhaka. secondary phloem and medullary rays. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. V¡jikara. Danta¿£la DOSE .2. 2. running straight.6. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 22 percent.Ash coloured. secondary phloem and medullary rays. Powder .Kum¡ry¡sava.5 -1 g. 2. uniseriate rays very rare. secondary phloem. K¡sa.length having narrow lumen.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Svedakara. shows vessels having scalariform thickening.

Shows 1-2 layered. parenchymatous cells. Sailabhava. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. odour. coriaceous. parenchymatous cells. Cotyledon . not distinct. endosperm mostly single layered. 3 . Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn.2. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles.Cream coloured. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. Powder . radially elongated.) large deciduous. thin-walled. Juglandaceae). raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. (Fam. under this. collapsed. thin-walled. slightly curved. creamish-brown. Akshoda (Cotldn. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. irregularly corrugated. oily sweet. broken pieces. taste. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. followed by more or less compressed.

25 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.IDENTITY.2. B¤´ha¸a. Kaphakara. Appendix Not less than 10. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. KÀaya.2. 2. ViÀ¶ambhi. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.6. Appendix 2. Appendix Not more than 0.4. DOSE .2. 4 .Walnut oil and Tannin.10 .2.0 percent. Appendix Not less than 7.0 percent. Sara. áukral. Balya. V¡taroga.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. 2.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.KÀata. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.5 percent. V¤Àya.2. 2. CONSTITUENTS .7.

Ambalam. a few outer cells exfoliated. laminated.Bk. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Amra Indian Hog Plum. acuminata Roxb. upto 27 m high and 2. fracture. Anbalamu. S. grey having lenticels. parenchymatous. Mampuiti. and 5 . Ambadam Amratakamu. mangifera Willd. thin-walled cells. parenchymatous cells. with reddish-brown contents. a small aromatic. f. internal surface reddish-yellow. consisting of tangentially elongated.5 m in girth. Jangali Ambo. Ambazham. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. S. Stem Bark. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. radially arranged. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. external surface smooth. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. curved.3. Ranambo Ambada. Amvara -Mampusli. Amra. tangentially elongated. non Gamble (Fam.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Jangli Aam Ambate. Syn.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows.. Kurz. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Ambado. Wild Mango Ambeda. deciduous tree. Amrata (St. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. thin. Ranamba. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Anacardiaceae).

2. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. Raktapitta. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.2. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . simple.3. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.87 (all greyish brown). lignified. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.2. shows cork cells. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. stone cells. 6 . Rucik¤t.2. T. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not more than 0..V. 2.4.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. IDENTITY.5-10 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5 per cent.C. 2. Under U.6.40 and 0. 0. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.96.75-14 µ in dia.C. of the drug in powder form for decoction. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.(greyish brown). Appendix 2.L. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Powder .7. D¡ha DOSE . CONSTITUENTS .87 (blue) and 0. Pittakara. KÀaya. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.KÀata.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. 2. 0. Not more than 1 per cent.33.L. thick-walled. V¡tahara.2. 2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.96 (blue). 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.33. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. 0.Light brown. Ka¸¶hya. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent.

Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Apamarga (W. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. (Fam. yellowish-brown. yellowish-brown.3-0. opposite. exstipulate.P. numerous.0 cm in thickness. hypogynous.0.Simple. PratyakpuÀpa. dorsifixed. Stem . hollow when dry. secondary and tertiary roots present. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. Flower . cylindrical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. Kharamaµjar. decussate.0. May£raka. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . anther. membranous. filament short. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. odour. solid. a stiff.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. opposite. gradually tapering. 0.4. subsessile. two celled. 0. greenish-white.5 cm in cut pieces. sessile. bracteate with two bracteoles.Cylindrical tap root. stamens 5.3 . rough due to presence of some root scars. obovate. the perianth lobes. branched. erect. 7 .free. bisexual. actinomorphic.9 m high herb. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. one spine lipped. not distinct. contorted or quincuncial.) Amaranthaceae). perianth segments 5. slightly ribbed. Leaf . erect. wavy margin. hairy.1-1.

round at the base. fibres being absent. thin-walled cork cells.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. truncate at the apex. xylem composed of usual elements. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. syncarpous. thin-walled. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. scalariform and pitted. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. parenchymatous cells. cortical and pith cells. capitate. perianth and bracteoles. style. composed of parenchymatous cells. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. two medullary bundles. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. thin layers of cambium. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. 2-5 celled.Shows crescent-shaped outline. either separate throughout or found in some cases.Sub-cylindric. rectangular. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. fibres pitted. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle.gynoecium bicarpellary. Midrib . medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. vessels simple pitted. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. oval to rectangular. followed 8 .Mature root shows 3-8 layered.Shows a single layered epidermis. thin-walled cork cells. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. unilocular with single ovule. spiral. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. ovary superior.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. brown. epidermis single layered. on both surfaces. stigma. vessels annular. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. endospermic. present in pith. Stem . each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. single. cortex 6-10 layered. 3-4 celled stalk. tangentially elongated. lignified. demarcating the xylem rings. Seed . most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. LeafPetiole . elongated. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root . epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. Fruit . pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Gu·apippali.2. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. 2. mm.á£la. Lamina . Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Udara Roga. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .0 on lower surface. thin-walled epidermal cells. Medoroga DOSE .2. Kaphahara. Ar¿a. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent.Shows single layered. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. vein islet number 7-13 per sq.0 on upper surface.20-50 g. palisade ratio 7.2.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.0-11. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. scalariform and pitted thickening.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡maka.Light yellow. P¡cana. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. slightly elongated in upper. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. Ka¸·u.7. non-lignified cells.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. vessels with annular. Apac¢. shows fragments of elongated. stomatal index 4.2. Medohara. 9. of the drug for decoction. Chedana.0-20. Powder . Tikta Sara. IDENTITY.3.2. rectangular. 2. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. 2.4. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. V¡tahara. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. spiral.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix 2. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. aseptate fibres.5-9. 9 .

a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. colour. vessels pitted with oblong. a few solitary fibres also present. fibrous. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. thin-walled. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. very long.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. fracture. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. medullary 10 . polygonal. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. lightbrown. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. a few showing slit-like pits. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. cylindrical. (Fam. b) Microscopic Root . thin walled cells filled with starch grains.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. 1-5 mm in thickness. Fabaceae). phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. Aparajita (Rt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. bitter.5. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. taste.

2.L. Pittahara. IDENTITY. Starch.6. Kaphahara.á£la. Appendix per cent.1 . of the drug in powder form.3. Taraxerol & Taraxerone.3 g. V¡tahara. 11 . áotha.7. Appendix 2. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .C. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent.C. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. Powder . shows simple and compound starch grains.2.Mi¿raka Sneha.Tannin. KuÀ¶ha. 0. 2. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS ..V. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. oblong and pitted. 0. 2. 0. phloem and xylem parenchyma..L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.rays 1-5 cells wide. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.2. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.79 (blue).4. Vra¸a DOSE . Buddhiprada.79 (grey). 0. Appendix per cent.2.54 and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. found in secondary cortex. 2. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.Yellowish-brown. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. T. Under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. measuring 3-13 µ in dia.2. ViÀahara. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Resin.79 (both yellow). Medhya. M£traroga. Tikta.

rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate.5 cm thick. oblique branches on upper side. radially arranged cells of inner cork. pungent Rhizome . tangentially elongated. pieces 5-15 cm long. Rhizomes are dug in January-February.5-6. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. taste. buds and roots are removed and washed well.) Zingiberaceae). gingery. short with projecting fibres. Ale -Adi. isodiametric. Inji Allamu. reaching up to 90 cm in height.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. Allam. each having a depressed scar at its apex. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. lakottai. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. Adrak Injee. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic .Shows a few layered. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. fracture. odour. (Fam. 1. colourless. irregularly arranged. thin-walled.6. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. widely cultivated in India. Ardraka (Rz. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial.

collateral.69.C. 2.63 (grey) & 0. 0.dia.69 (grey). of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. Powder -Light yellow.C.2. Appendix 90 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. 0. small cells of sieve tube. 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. filled with abundant starch grains. 0. 0. 0.92 (violet). 0. free from starch. 0.69 (all light yellow). reticulate and spiral vessels.76. Appendix 2 per cent. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. 0.63. septate fibres with oblique. IDENTITY. larger bundles consists of 2.35. 0. Appendix 8 per cent.35. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. 0. numerous closed. 2.7 vessels. oleo-resin cells abundent.2. 2. 0. 0. endodermis single layered. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.13. composed of xylem. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. 0. fibrovascular bundles of two types. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.08 (violet). idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. Appendix 1 per cent.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.16 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.5 per cent. 13 . vessels showing reticulate. 0.2.35 (light violet). vessels 2-5 in number. 2.7.9 T.63 (light violet). Appendix 2.L.47 (light violet).76 (violet) & 0. 0.2.3. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.47.92 (all yellow). cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf..V. elongated pits on their walls. phloem.6.L.63 & 0. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. conjoint. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T.4. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.83 & 0. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. greater number occurring in inner cortical region.16. 0. 2.16.2.l6 (brownish violet). pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. 0.69 (light violet). Appendix 5 per cent. walls of oil cells suberised. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 0.08. 0. Under U.2.03. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum.

2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. THERAPEUTIC USES . RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Kaphahara. Ka¸tharoga. Vibandha. V ¤Àaya. Ën¡ha. H¤dya.á£la. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. 14 . Rocana. áopha. DOSE . V¡tahara. Svarya. Bhedana. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.

phloem fibres thin-walled. square to rectangular cells. thinwalled cortical cells. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. with tapering 15 . fibrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. hard. internally light brown to reddish-brown. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. stone cells and phloem cells. fibres and crystal fibres. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. consisting of sieve elements. characteristic of dry regions. odour and taste. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Velvelam.7. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. not distinct. lignified.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. incurved. Arimeda (St. Sadabala -Haramibaval. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. Fabaceae). exfoliating in irregular scales. secondary phloem wide. (Fam. Pilobaval. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. upto 3 m in height. fracture. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes.5-1 cm thick. parenchyma. rough. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. all traversed by medullary rays.Bk.

medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side.40 g for decoction.LC.2. ViÀajavra¸a. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. sclereid. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. Appendix 13 per cent. Appendix 2. 0 to 0.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. Appendix 14 per cent.39 and a spot at Rf. Ka¸·u. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. Appendix 11 per cent. IDENTITY.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. β-Sitosterol and Tannin.2. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.7.2. 2. Powder .69 (grey) is seen in visible light.e.78 and 0.L. KuÀ¶ha.n-Hexacosanol. radially elongated cells. 0.3. Dantaroga.39 and a spot at Rf. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mukharoga. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. 16 .C.0 to 0.91 (yellow).2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. 2. composed of thin-walled.áopha. β -Amyrin. shows groups of cork cells.2.91 (both blue). K¡sa. 2. T. crystal fibres elongated. Atis¡ra.0. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Appendix 1 per cent.3-5 g in powder form.Reddish-brown.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES .ends.6. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Udardapra áamana DOSE .91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . fibres. Visarpa. P¡¸·u. K¤mi. Meda¿oÀaka. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. Meha.2. 2.

outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. Mattimora. (Fam. Arjuna. consisting of sieve tubes. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad.& A. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. curved. Neermatti.) Combretaceae). market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. P¡rtha. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. bitter and astringent. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10.Bk. fracture. Bilimatti.5 cm thick. Vellamaruthi. Kellemasuthu. companion cells. traversed by phloem rays.8. short in inner and laminated in outer part. 0. recurved.2-1. Torematti Arjuna. in the middle and outer phloem region. flat. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. a large deciduous tree. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. Arjuna (St. channelled to half quilled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. taste. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. Mathichakke. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. Sajada Arjuna Matti.

Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. Pittahara.. mostly simple.3. round to oval. 4-12 cells high. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. uniseriate phloem rays.. alata). H¤droga. 2. starch grains. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .4.Reddish-brown. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. sometimes upto 5 components. IDENTITY. 2. Arjuna Gh¤ta. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. T¤À¡. Appendix 2. Appendix 25 per cent.2. 2.. alternating with fibres.7. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. Vya´ga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . round to oval.2. present in most of the phloem parenchyma.2. Appendix 20 per cent. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. compound of 2-3 components. of the drug in powder form. Prameha.2. a few rhomboidal crystals. elliptical. Appendix 1 per cent. µ Powder .in dia. fibres. 2. elliptic. Appendix 20 per cent.6. Kaphahara. H¤dya. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. Vra¸a. 18 . DOSE . measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. KÀatakÀaya. shows fragments of cork cells.Medoroga. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. Vra¸an¡¿ana.3-6 g.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. starch grains simple and compound.

30-40 layers thick. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. Fruit . Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Bhallataka (Fr. drupaceous. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. (Fam. smooth. 19 . in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. mesocarp a very broad zone. dark brown.) Anacardiaceae). obliquely ovoid.9. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. mesocarp and endocarp. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. nut 2. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. Nallajidiginga Baladur. shining with residual receptacle.5-3 cm long. Scramkotati Nallajidi.

chloroform.2 g. Appendix 4 per cent. of the drug in Ksirapaka form.2.7. Kaphahara. Ën¡ha.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Appendix 0. Snigdha. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.6. Ka¶u.3. Powder .5 per cent. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2.I.Dark-brown. 2. V¡tahara.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Saµj¢vani Va¶¢.2. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). KaÀ¡ya Laghu. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Appendix 11 per cent. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Note . number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.2.. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. DOSE . insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Gulma. KuÀ¶ha.4. Bhedi.2.F. very much elongated radial walls. ether. IDENTITY. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura..Ar¿a. innermost prismatic. Chedi. 2.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Graha¸¢. Part-I 20 . Tikta.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Krimi.1. Appendix 5 per cent. 2. being highly thickened. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. P¡cana.2. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.

herbaceous. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. ray flowers ligulate. occasionally brownish. branched. erect or prostrate. a number of secondary branches arise from main root.Opposite.5 cm long. usually oblong. Knnunni Bhangra. Flower . involucral bracts about 8. 30 . ligule small. lanceolate. Bhangro Bhangara. white.2 .3 cm wide. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. 1. much branched. strigosely hirsute.Herbaceous. node distinct. Karisalanganni. M¡rkava. strigose with oppressed hairs.) herbaceous annual. 2. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. Bhringiraja. Keshavardhana. Stem . Kesari -Bhangaro. scarcely as long as bracts. Leaf . often rooting at nodes. sessile to subsessile. Soppu..2 . a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m.50 cm high. occasionally rooting at nodes.8. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. Bh¤´ga.2. sub-acute or acute. upto about 7 mm in dia. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. sub-entire. ovate. not toothed. greyish. together on unequal axillary peduncles. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.10. Karisalai Guntakalagara. Bhringaraja (W. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Tekar¡ja. Gurugada. (Fam.P.Solitary or 2. cylindrical.Well developed. spreading. rough due to oppressed white hairs. greenish. Asteraceae). Kesuriya. disc flowers 21 . obtuse or acute. cylindrical or flat. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk.

shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. hairy and non endospermic. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . rarely slightly oblique. dark brown. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. pitted. simple. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. covered with striated cuticle. fibre tracheids. xylem ray distinct. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. 1-5 celled. covered with warty excrescences. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. xylem composed of vessels. found scattered throughout wood. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. free.tubular. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. fibre tracheids. epidermis followed by wide cortex. pistil bicarpellary. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. stamen 5. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. tangentially elongated cells. Midrib . pappus absent. corolla often 4 toothed. epidermis followed by cortex. non-glandular. Seed .1 cm wide.Mature root shows poorly developed cork.25 cm long. with very pointed tips.0. filaments epipetalous. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. ray cells pitted. b) Microscopic Root . drum-shaped. fibres and xylem parenchyma.0. run straight in tangential section. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. brown. 0. Fruit . anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. one seeded. Leaf- Petiole . uniseriate.Achenial cypsella. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. unilocular with one basal ovule. and with pointed apical cell. cuneate. traversed by xylem rays. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. trichomes of two types.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. with a narrow wing. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. phloem rays broader towards periphery. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. in macerated preparation vessels small. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. vessels numerous. warty. externally covered with cuticle. ovary inferior.2 . a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. consisting of rounded cells.

more abundant on lower surfaces.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. secondary cortex composed of large. hairs stiff.shows a dorsi ventral structure.5 -26. palisade ratio 3. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. Stem . xylem consists of large number of vessels. mesophyll traversed by number of veins.5 on upper and 23. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. normally biseriate and uniseriate. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. xylem fibres with wide lumen. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. arranged in tangential strands. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. pointed. epidermis single layered. a few often bifurcate and a few other large.5. about 3 celled. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. pitted with spiral thickening. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls.collenehymatous cells on both sides. while the section cut at apical region. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. pointed tips and pitted walls. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening.8 -4. collateral. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. Lamina . endarch. middle cells longest. the cork where formed. some elongated with simple perforations. pericyclic fibres distinct. trichomes entire or in pieces. peg-like outgrowth. wide at the base. stomatal index 20. uniseriate. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces.0-22. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. Powder . phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. septa thick-walled.0 on lower surface. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate.Dark green. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. externally covered with cuticle. externally covered with cuticle. 23 . similarly transverse section cut at a basal. vascular bundles in a ring. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. warty.

N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. H ¤droga. ViÀahara. áirah á£la. Tvacya. Tikta RukÀa. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. Dantya. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ecliptine and Nicotine.áotha.7.3. Yak¤droga. DOSE . Appendix per cent.4.3 . Appendix per cent.2. 2. CakÀusya. 2. K¡sa.6 ml of the drug in juice form. of the drug in powder form for decoction.IDENTITY. áv¡sa.2. 24 . Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent.36 g. 12 .Alkaloids. V¡tahara.6. K¤miroga. Ke¿ya. Kaphahara. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. Ëmahara.2. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. Tekar¡ja marica.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. P¡¸·u.2.2. Appendix per cent. 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ras¡yana. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

green or purplish green.. taste. Leaf .& K. slightly bitter. slightly bitter. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. glabrous.) Wettst. axillary and solitary. (Fam.Thin. decussate. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. ovoid and glabrous. a glabrous. about 1-2 mm thick. sessile. Scrophulariaceae). obovate-oblong. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. nodes and internodes prominent. 1-2 cm long. 25 . Valabrahmi. succulent. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. soft. Ondelaga.Capsules upto 5 mm long. Brahmi.P.Simple.Small. pedicels 6-30 mm long. wiry. branched creamish-yellow. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . found throughout India in wet and damp places. Stem .B. taste. Syn. green.Thin. Brahmi (W. Fruit . small. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. small.11.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Flower . prostrate or creeping annual herb.) H. opposite.

Appendix per cent. round and oval starch grains. Appendix 2. V¡tahara.2. starch grains simple. 2.2.2. Tikta. Appendix per cent. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. measuring 4-14 µ in dia.4. simple. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . ViÀahara. glandular hairs sessile.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. cortex having large air cavities.0 µ in dia. no distinct midrib present.2. Medhya. endodermis single layered. and 8.. Powder . Stem . endodermis single layered. Appendix per cent. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Praj¡sth¡pana. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. pericycle not distinct. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter.7.0 x 2. round to oval. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. respectively.Yellowish-brown. 2. Ras¡yana. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre.2.6. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. Matiprada. 2.Root .Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. vascular ring continuous. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.3.0-14. 2. Svarya. b) Microscopic 26 .Shows a single layer of epidermis. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. glandular hairs. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. ËyuÀya.2. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle.5-9.

Prameha. áopha. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. P¡¸·u.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Ratnagiri Rasa. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . S¡rasvata C£r¸a. 27 .KuÀ¶ha.1-3 g in powder form. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Jvara.

secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.. Brihati (Rt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. Papparamulli. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. ribbed.12. short and splintery. much branched perennial under shrub. woody. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. tangentially elongated. (Fam. 1-2. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 .15 layers of thin-walled.8 m high. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. Putirichunda Dorli. no distinct odour and taste. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. thin-walled. Ubhibharingani. cork cambium single layered.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. parenchyma and stone cells. a very prickly. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. fracture. pale yellowish-brown.5 cm in dia. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Heggulla.9 layers of thin-walled. phloem parenchyma much abundant. cylindrical. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. oval and tangentially elongated cells. traversed by phloem rays. varying greatly in shape and size. Chichuriti. long. Solanaceae). b) Microscopic Root . secondary cortex composed of 5 . Badikateri Kirugullia. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. upto 1.

Kaphahara. of the drug for decoction.2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. phloem and medullary rays. P¡cana.5 -11. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix Not more than 6. Appendix 2.2. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .10-20 g.11. 2. tracheids.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . aseptate fibres.2.5 per cent.6 µ in diameter.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. rounded to oval starch grains. 29 . Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.5 .2.4. cells radially elongated and pitted. parenchymatous cells. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. shows groups of thin-walled. Agnim¡dya. DOSE . fibres and xylem parenchyma. 2.Cream coloured. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. H¤droga. V¡tahara. 2.6 µ in diameter. H¤dya.6. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. CONSTITUENTS . oval to elongated stone cells and simple. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. all elements being lignified. thick-walled. xylem rays uni to biseriate. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. vessels with simple pits. measuring 5. traversed by xylem rays.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent.2. áv¡sa. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.á£la. Powder .7.3. 2. measuring 5.2. Jvara.

b) Microscopic Stem . Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. (Fam. Chavya (St. odour. short. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. peppery. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. taste. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. officinarum DC. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. tracheid. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. fleshy climber. secondary cortex a wide zone.5-2. thin-walled.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. brownish cells. cultivated mainly in Southern India.. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. consisting of round. Piperaceae). nodes and internodes distinct. chaba Hunter non Blume.13. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. fibres and xylem parenchyma.0 cm in width. plenty of simple starch granules present. Chavya -Kattumulaku. fracture. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . acrid. Syn. oval to rectangular. P. P. cork cambium not distinct. a glabrous. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. endodermis single layered. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. greyish-brown.

Kaphahara. filled with simple.2.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. round to oval. round to oval starch grains.4. Appendix 10 per cent. Pl¢h¡ Roga. RukÀa. starch grains. medullary rays multi seriate. D¢pana. Appendix 1. Krimi. Glycosides and Steroids. Recana. fibres and simple. shows fragments of vessels.5 per cent. Gulma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . cells thin walled. 2.7.Ar¿a.2. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. 2. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 6 per cent.1-2 g. Powder . CONSTITUENTS . 2.2. IDENTITY. á£lal DOSE . 31 .Greyish-brown. Ën¡ha.pitted and reticulate thickenings. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu.2. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Udara Roga.3. Appendix 3 per cent. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter.2.6. P¡cana.Alkaloids.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.

parenchymatous cells. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. shows stone cells.Reddish-brown. taste.6 cm long. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. containing a few oil globules. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada.1-0. starch grains present in testa. cotyledons coiled. endosperm absent.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. LohitapuÀpa. Maadalai. triangular and rectangular. angular. 0. oval. simple. thin walled. found growing wild in the warm valley.2 cm wide. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. 0. Madalam Danimma Anar. Seed . Punicaceae).5-0. wedge-shaped. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. 32 . round to oval. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. Powder . round. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. (Fam. beneath this. sweetish-sour. Dadima (Sd. oil globules. reddish-brown pigmented layer present.14. consisting of oval to polygonal. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

lanceolate. erect.) Lamiaceae). taste.9 m in high. about 2-3. Stem . serrate. scaberulous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati.25 cm long. Dronapushpi (W. slightly curved. more or less pubescent. an annual.6-0. Leaf . white. tubular.35 cm wide. hairy. fine rootlets. glabrous in lower part. ovate or ovate.Yellowish-green. subacute. 1-2. (Fam.P. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . pungent. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng.2-1. about 0. characteristic. 1-2. 1.Sessile. taste. thin. 1. Gumma. zig-zag.Cylindrical. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country.5 cm wide.16. taste. 3-9 cm long. surface rough. stout herb. corolla. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts.5 cm across. ciliate.Light greenish-yellow. slightly bitter. fracture. long with numerous wiry.5 cm long and 0. globose. smooth. fibrous. acute.3-0. calyx. white. upto 4 mm thick.lanceolate. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. hairy on upper part. crowded in dense.7-2 cm 37 . Inflorescence . size variable. nodes and internodes distinct. 10 dentate with a villous throat. crenate.

brown. oblong.shows a single layered epidermis. nutlets 3 mm smooth. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. 4 .Schizocarpic carcerule. lateral lobes small. round to angular collenchyma.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. Stem . consisting of 3-5 layers of circular.3 cm long and 0. trigonous.tangentially elongated. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. thin-walled 38 . b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. tracheids. upto 8 cells high. parenchymatous cells.1 cm wide. fibres and xylem parenchyma. followed by round to oval parenchyma. secondary xylem consists of vessels. thin-walled cells.7 layered. endoderm is single layered. dark brown. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. upper lip about 4 mm long. thin-walled cells. tangentially elongated.0. vessels long with spurs. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. vascular bundles 4. secondary cortex 5-9 layered.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. present in centre. composed of oval to rectangular. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. Midrib . tracheids. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. cortex consisting of single layered. thin-walled. Seed . spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. Lamina .shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. consisting of barrel shaped. Leaf- Petiole . secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. Fruit . some having simple pits. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls.vascular bundle arc-shaped. smooth. bilipped.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows.long. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. xylem consists of vessels. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. irregular. parenchymatous cells. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. consists of a single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. palisade single layered. wooly.

V¡takara. 2. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.3.4. IDENTITY. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. present on both surfaces. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells.2. Agnim¡ndya.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.1-3 g of the drug in powder form.6-40.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.5 on lower surface. Ka¶u Guru. pitted and spiral vessels. ViÀamajvara DOSE . 2. CONSTITUENTS .6-30. Powder .7. K¡sa.2.7 on upper surface.2. 39 . a few veins present in this region. Appendix 2. aseptate fibres.áotha. 2. stomata diacytic. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. K¡mal¡. Pittakara. stomatal index 16.Dull yellow. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent.2. Lava¸a. Tamaka áv¡sa.Alkaloid.2.6. Glycoside. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. palisade ratio 7-9. THERAPEUTIC USES . Bhedani. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 16.2. 2.cells. RukÀa.

C.4 cm wide. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. glossy. straight. Hastipani. an annual creeping herb. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. utilissimus Roxb. taste. cotyledons two. Hastipani. creamish-yellow. Karka¶¢. mesophyll cells thinwalled. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. 40 . Ervaru (Sd. 0. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. B¤hatphala. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains.17. more or less ellipsoid. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. surface smooth. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. sweetish oily. lignified with distinct lumen and striations.3-0. radially elongated to squarish.7-10 cm long. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. Cucurbitaceae). Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. Vellarika Kakadi. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. thin-walled. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. cultivated in many parts of the country. parenchymatous cells. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. -Kakur. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. 0. shows stone cells. parenchymatous. covered with thick cuticle. rounded and tangentially elongated. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. (Fam.

35.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.2.51. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2. (366 mm). 2.5 per cent.L. D¢pana.91 and 0. CONSTITUENTS .C.2. 0.7. T. Appendix 10 per cent.35. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. Pittahara.51.64. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.19.83. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Appendix 2.3-6 g. Rucya.58.97 (all yellow) .Oil & Sugars.4. Appendix 4 per cent.3.2. 0. 0.IDENTITY. T¤À¸¡. 0. 0.97 (all grey).83. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.26. Raktapitta.77.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.19.0. 0.91 (blue) under U. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . A¿mar¢. 0.26.77. Gulma. Tikta Guru. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 2.6. 0.64. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.0.2. Appendix 0. 41 .91 and 0. 0. 0.58. Jvara. THERAPEUTIC USES .V.D¡ha. 0. 0.L. 0.0. V¡takara. 0.2. RaktadoÀakara. Appendix 5 per cent. 2. Kaphakara. of seeds. 2.

found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. Orissa.6 cm long.0-3. smooth.3-0.Shows more or less loosely arranged.4 cm wide. shiny. 0. rough and scaly. greyish-brown with a dent. a large epiphytic climber. b) Microscopic Fruit .Kidney-shaped. Gajapippali (Fr.18.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. odour and taste not distinct. odour and taste not disticnt. brownish-grey.5 cm thick. 0. cut surface has a central core. (Fam.0 cm in diameter and 2.0-3.4-0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . thin-walled. Araceae). parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. Seed .Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. 42 . transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.

Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. 0.20. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.73 and 0. 0. 0. oval to polygonal. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.27. Kaphahara. 2. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.L. Ka¸ha Roga. Powder . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.65. 2-4 layered.3. non-lignified. oval to polygonal. thin-walled. Sugars & Fixed Oil. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. DOSE . Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.L. 2.Glucosides viz. áv¡sa.C. CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent.93 (brown). 2.65.2. Malavi¿oÀana. Ka¸¶hya.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. IDENTITY. oval to polygonal. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. Appendix T.65 and 0.áiv¡gutik¡. pitted and with concentric striations.2. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. Agnivardhaka. 0. 43 . thick-walled. 0.27.2.Dark brown.73 (both light brown) and 0. in extract (Phant) form.93 (all yellow). T. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. 2.2. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. 0.7. V¡tahara.2-3 g.Atis¡ra. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.73 and 0.2.4. K¤miroga. 0. shows lignified. Three spots appear at Rf.Seed .6. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. Stanya. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. thick-walled.93 (all blue) are visible. 0.V. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.C. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B.2.65. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains.Shows a single layered. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. 0. Punarnav¡sava.

Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. taste. seed coat thin. thin-walled cells. tangentially elongated. sweetish sour. Shivani. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. multilayered.A drupe. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Gambhari (Fr. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp.) unarmed tree. Hannu -Kumbil. surface smooth. radially 44 . black. light yellow. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. oily.0 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. cotyledons consisting of single layered. P¢takarohi¸¢. (Fam.5-2. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. 1. crinkled. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. Verbenaceae). 0.6 cm wide. Seed . ovoid. fleshy mesocarp.19. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. parenchymatous cells. Sr¢par¸¢. parenchymatous cells.Seed ovate. Seed .4-0. sometimes one seeded. papery. thin-walled.5-1 cm long. taste. 0. two seeded. b) Microscopic Fruit . hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. K¡¿marya.

2. Pittahara. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. 0. Amla. H¤dya.52. Appendix 2. 0. 2. 0.3. Sara. IDENTITY.L. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.2. T¤À¸¡. 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.C.2.4 per cent. 0.Arvind¡sava. 0.93 and 0. 45 .. oil globules and aleurone grains. Rakta Pitta DOSE . Under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.V. Ras¡yana.1-3 g. Appendix 8 per cent. 0.L. M£trak¤cchra.D¡ha. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.03.18. KÀata. Appendix 6 per cent. 0.03. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.98 (orange). THERAPEUTIC USES .98 (all blue).26. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Powder . 0.Butyric acid. H¤droga. 2. Medhya. Ke¿ya. 0. Appendix 25 per cent.2.08. 0.2.98 (all yellow). Alkaloid.4.2.42.94 and 0. Appendix 0.98 (yellow) in visible light. of the drug in powder form. KÀaya. 0. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C. 0. T. Resin and Saccharine.22.12. shows stone cells.Blackish-brown.2.6. CONSTITUENTS . KaÀ¡ya Guru.elongated epidermal cells. Tartaric acid. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.7. V¡tahara.

Shows a wide cork. Gangeru (St. oval. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. light yellow. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. fibrous. a shrub 0. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. consisting of tangentially elongated. moderately large in size. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals.. thick-walled. arranged in radial groups. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. radially arranged cells. Grewia populifolia Vahl. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. consisting of 12-20 layered. (Fam. fibrous. Syn.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk.0 m high. 1.) Aschers & Schwf.Bk. 46 . secondary cortex wide. thin-walled. rectangular.5-5 cm long. traversed by wide phloem rays. blunt tips and moderately long in size. channelled. Tiliaceae). fracture. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate.6-1. mucilaginous. a few stone cells. taste. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula.20. external surface smooth. elliptical. parenchymatous cells.

0. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. α-amyrin. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. 0. Appendix per cent.Sugar.V. 0.7. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. of the drug in powder form. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. 0. 0.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. 0. 0. 0.35 (violet).55 (blue) & 0.2.2. 0. 0.Vra¸a. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.13 (blue). stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. T.L.L. Tikta.3. IDENTITY.88 (light violet). 47 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.J¢rak¡di Modaka.17.C. β-amyrin etc.35 (dark blue).2.Powder .C. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.68 & 0. Ka¶u. 2. DOSE . 0.Light yellow and fibrous. Appendix per cent.2-3 g.29 (blue). 0. Pittavik¡ra. 0. Appendix per cent.48 (violet). 0. 0.41. 2. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. 0.08.88 (all yellow).17 (light violet).2.2.).61. CONSTITUENTS .35.2. 0. 0.55. 2.27 (light violet). 0. Appendix per cent.17.48.08 (blue) 0. Under U. Appendix 2. Amla.64 (blue). 0.27. 0.6.08 (violet). Two spots are seen at Rf.68 (light violet) & 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

most often irregularly curved. thinwalled. Gurivinda Ghongchi. smaller than stone cells. light brown. becoming mildly bitter. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. Kundumani Guriginga. slightly corky. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. odourless. b) Microscopic Root . Gunja (Rt. bark thin. Fabaceae). Chanothee. present at short intervals. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. fruits ripen during winter. cork cambium. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. tangentially elongated cells. pitted walls.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. Chonotee Ratti. gulagunja -Kunni. spreading throughout the plains. flowering in August-September. exfoliating in small flakes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. cylindrical. Kakananti Rati Kunch. when distinct. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. Ghungchi Guluganji. some with brownish content. taste. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. (Fam. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . simple or branched. soft. feebly sweetish. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. a climber. composed of 1-2 cells wide.21. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture.

CONSTITUENTS .3 g.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin).2. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. áula.diverging towards periphery.6. of the drug in powder form. shows fragments of cork. 2. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. stone cells. 2. Powder . rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.75 µ in diameter.2.3. Appendix 2. Appendix 4 per cent. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. 2.2. thin-walled and rectangular.2.5-13. wood composed of narrow concentric. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. small groups of sclerenchyma.7. Mukha¿oÀa. pitted walls. parenchyma thin-walled. IDENTITY. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma.4.Indralupta.2. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2. numerous xylem fibres. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Tikta á¢ta. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. DOSE . medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. THERAPEUTIC USES .75 µ in diameter. vessels of varying sizes with thick. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. Pittahara. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. Appendix 9 per cent.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. xylem vessels with pitted walls.2.Greyish-brown. 49 .5 per cent. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.1 .5 -13.

50 . odour. cylindrical. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. taste. besides the xylem and phloem elements. distinct node and internode.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. more numerous and closer towards periphery. (Fam. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. closed type of vascular bundles. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. characteristic.) shrub. Ikshu (St. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. conjoint. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. solid. with. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma.22. Serdi Ikha. Poaceae). scattered throughout the ground tissue. smooth. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. b) Microscopic Stem . rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. lignified. juicy and sweet.

V¤Àya. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. DOSE .Raktapitta. Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.Bal¡ Taila. 2.400 ml in the juice form.2. Kaphahara.3.6. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M£tra KÀaya. Pittahara.Powder . 51 .2. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.Powder light brick red. Appendix 2. 2. ground tissue.5 per cent. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Sara. vessels and sclerenchyma.2.2. Appendix Not more than 2. 2.2. shows pieces of epidermis.Sucrose. V¡tahara.200 . IDENTITY. 2.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.7.

fibres aseptate. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. áatakratulat¡. thick-walled. xylem forms bulk of root. Indravaruni. (Fam. Indrayan. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Valiya Pekkumatti. Indravarana Gothakakucti. elongated with pointed ends. slightly twisted. Tumbi Paikamatti. Paythumatti. dull yellow. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. Indramanoa. tangentially elongated. tangentially elongated cork cells. b) Microscopic Root . Indrayanalata.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular.5 µ in dia. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. a few filled with dark brown contents. fracture. Tuntikai. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. parenchyma and medullary rays. thick walled. fibres. pitted. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell.) Cucurbitaceae). occurring throughout the country. taste. consisting of vessels. intensively bitter. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. 0. Gav¡kÀ¢.5-7. Indravaruni (Rt. parenchymatous cells. cylindrical.23. Varithummati. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. Bitter apple Indravaran. parenchyma and medullary rays.2-2.5 cm thick. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Havumakke. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. mostly simple or rarely 52 . thin walled. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. longitudinal fissures present. an annual or perennial. lying around vessels. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. short. composed of sieve elements.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

6 m with a bole up to 15 m. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. 1 cm wide. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. Seed . Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. E. (Fam. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3.. thin-walled. smooth. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. a few schizogenous cavities are also found.25. Myrtaceae). cuminii Druce.) Skeels Syn. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia.800 m. b) Microscopic Powder . shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. astringent. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja.. 57 . coriaceous covering. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. 1 cm long.Brown coloured.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. Jambu (Sd. oval or roundish.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. taste. rounded starch grains. brownish-black. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. a large evergreen tree. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. oval. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. Eugenia jambolana Lam.

of the drug in powder form.Madhumeha.95 and 0.3-6 g. DOSE .30 and 0. 2.2. 2.C. Appendix per cent. 0.2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.L.12. three spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. THERAPEUTIC USES . RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Udakameha.3. T.Glycoside (Jamboline). Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. Tannin.2.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.IDENTITY. 58 .30 and 0.20. CONSTITUENTS .20. Pittahara. KaÀ¡ya Guru.7.4. Appendix per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Kaphahara.95 (all yellow). Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.2.2. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.95 (all violet). On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.6. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. ViÀ¶ambhi. 2. 0.30 (blue).2. Amla.V. 0.L. 2.C. 0.

0. oval to angular. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Jambu. E.) Skeels Syn. short and splintery. forming a rhytidoma.26. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones.. astringent. cuminii Druce. lower cork thin and colourless. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Eugenia jambolana Lam. stratified and reddish-brown.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Jam Jammu Naaval. fracture. (Fam. a large evergreen tree. and reddish brown.800 m. Jamneralae. Jambu (St. Navval Sambu. rough.5-2. light grey to ash coloured. younger bark mostly channelled. internal surface fibrous. Neralamara -Njaval. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. and phloem rays.Bk.5 cm thick. cork cambium not distinct. Raja Jambu Merale. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Mahamaram. upper few layers thick. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Jamu. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. Myrtaceae). phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. stone cells. Jambuda Jomuna. elongated. fibres aseptate.

reddish-brown content. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara. oval to angular.2. 2.2. Pittahara. 2.7.10-20 g.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapitta.4. THERAPEUTIC USES . phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. aseptate fibres. stone cells. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.region. 60 . Stambhaka.2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.6.U¿¢r¡sava. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. elongated. round to oval starch grains. Appendix per cent.Atis¡ra. round to oval starch grains. single or in groups. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. Appendix 2.2. 2. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . DOSE .Light brown. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Appendix per cent. 2. IDENTITY. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.3. V¡tala.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Jayapala (Sd. Japal -Japolota Nervalam.) small evergreen tree. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. Japal beej. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. (Fam.Shows a hard testa. no marked odour. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. dull cinnamon-brown. Euphorbiaceae). oblong. Tinti·¢phala. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. slightly bent at middle. slightly quadrangular. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Neervalam Jepal.27. consisting of an epidermal layer. thin-walled cells. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. consisting of a large endosperm. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. Nervala -Nervalam. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. 5-7 m high. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. ovate. found throughout tropical India. kernel yellowish and oily. filled with brownish content. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. b) Microscopic Seed . Japala. 61 . Neervalam.

IDENTITY.34 (grey).L.6. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 15 per cent. 2.C.2.29. 2. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 0.2. Appendix 2. 0. Vibandha DOSE .2.5 per cent. 2. Pittahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 0. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.49.C.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. 0. Udararoga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.84 (all violet).84 (brown).34.90 (all yellow).54 (yellow). Powder .V.L.2. 0.Jvara. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.3.54 and 0.Fixed oil.4. 0.2. 0.10. 2. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.39. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.6-12 mg. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 7 per cent.63 and 0. 0. T. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2. Appendix 3 per cent. Resins & Phorbol esters.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. 0. 62 . On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.White with black particles of testa. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.7. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.

present on both surfaces. jayata Arinintajinamgi. palisade single layered. aegyptiaca Pers.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. opposite. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. very shortly stalked. entire. Lamina .) Merr. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. short lived shrub. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. polygonal. oblong.5-15.8-6 m high.3-0. 1. Jayanti (Lf. Jayanti Jaita. mucronate to acuminate.5 cm long. 0.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. consisting of thin-walled. stomata anisocytic. 63 . Jalugu. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta.28. linear. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. á£kÀma patra. Arishimajingai. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound.8 cm wide.3 cm long.. S. -Semp. having secretory cavities in phloem. a quick growing. pith small. Jay¡. leaflets 6-16 pairs. 7.7 layered round. Atti. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . paripinnate. 1. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. (Fam. glabrous. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. Karijimangai. parenchymatous cells.0-3.shows single layered epidermis.Syn. Fabaceae).

0.3. 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.05. Appendix per cent.29. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.19. 0. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .25-4.3-6 g. 0. 0.C. T. 0.2.97 (all yellow). Appendix per cent. 0.Protein.91 and 0. 0. Powder .Dull green. Ras¡yana.56.7. shows spongy parenchyma. THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.05. 0. 0.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. 0. 0.19. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2.4. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. 0.91 and 0.29.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.29. 0.48. 0. 0.2.2. 2. Appendix per cent.2.6. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.97 (yellow).V.05.19.37. Calcium and Phosphorus.2. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. ViÀaroga. 64 .11. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.M£trak¤cchra. V¡tahara.69.56 (all pink) and 0.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.11. 0. 2.48. Pittahara.97 (all grey).2.11. Appendix per cent. 0.C.37. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. palisade ratio 3. Galaga¸·a. DOSE .56.Ratnagiri Rasa. palisade cells. in powder form. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.L.

a large climbing shrub. Gangunge beeja.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. ripe seeds. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. (Fam. brownish-orange. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. Seed . surface generally smooth and. collapsed. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. colour.5-3. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.29. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. seed without aril also prescent.35 mm in breadth. light to dark brown.hard. odour. Jyotishmati (Sd. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. taste. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. bitter. Gangunge humpu. unpleasant.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . Celastraceae). inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

2.89. Appendix 1. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.89 (both greenish blue). V¡maka.5 per cent.C. 0. 0.Alkaloids. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.35.2.7.8 IDENTITY. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Tikta Sara.C. 0.Oily.V.2.4.3. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.54 (both blue). 0. thin-walled. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. D¢pana. Powder .L.89 (all yellow). 0. stone cells. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.94 (yellow). 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).94 (yellow) in visible light. 0.15.composed of polygonal.04.2.54. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. (all blue) & 0. 0. UÀ¸a.82 & 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.82.54. Appendix 20 per cent. 0.6. Appendix 6 per cent. áirovirecanopaga.2. Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS . parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.V. 0. Under U. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. V¡tahara. 2. 2. 0. Appendix 9 per cent. 0. Meddhya 66 .2.63. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. 2. Oil and Tannins. Appendix 2.L. Virecaka.20. 2. dark brown. 0.82 (pink) & 0. Appendix 45 per cent.35.82.

67 . Oil : 5-15 drops.V¡tavy¡dh¢. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. Sm¤tidaurbalya. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ávitra.Seed: 1-2 g.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.

) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Indulam. Kadavala. Rich. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. taste. Kadappai. bitter. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. indicus A. rectangular cells.30. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc.Bk. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Kadamba (St. a deciduous. Kadamba Nipo. Kadambu Needam. Rubiaceae). Priyka Roghu. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide.. Vellai Kadambam. a few cells with brown contents. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. traversed by uni to triseriate. Vellaikhadambu. elongated cells of phloem rays. Kadamba mara. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. some cells contain chlorophyll. A. Kadamba Kadamba. composed of thin-walled. large tree. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Syn. (Fam. 68 b) Microscopic . most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Kadam Kadam. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem.

5 . 2.6. T.2.31. 69 .0.L. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. YonidoÀa. Lava¸a. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. 2. 0.C. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. fibres.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 5 per cent. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. Vra¸a.90 (grey). 2. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).4. phloem cells. Appendix 2.3. THERAPEUTIC USES .57.1.5:10) shows under U.83 and 0. 0.5 per cent. 0.Brown. cells distinct and slightly elongated. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. V¡tahara.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 1.2.2.2.Alkaloids. 0. Powder . shows fragments of cork cells. 2. L C.03.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.phloem fibres. 0.2.63 (yellowish grey).79. 0.5 g.70 (orange yellow). 0. Appendix 9 per cent. Raktapitta.13.64.21. 0.D¡ha. Steroids. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.79 (grey) and 0. 0. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7. Vra¸aropa¸a. 0. DOSE . some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. Appendix 3 per cent.2. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form. 0.

1. very slender.2-2. found throughout the country in dry parts. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. 3-8 flowered cymes.31. glabrous.Erect. road sides and gardens. petiolate. Kakamachi (W. peduncles 6-20 mm long. ovary globose. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Leaf .Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. glabrous. extra-axillary. corolla 4-8 mm long. obtuse. Ganikegida. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. 30-45 cm high. sinuate. pale brown. thin. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. 70 . slender.Small.25 mm long. bark thin. yellowish. quite common in cultivated lands. hairy at base. 2. toothed or lobed. oblong. filaments short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. obtuse notched at apex.5 cm long and 2. ganike. Flower . externally smooth. (Fam. hairy in lower part. glabrous or pubescent. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. oblong. a herbaceous annual weed.Simple. Pikachia. anther 1.5 mm long. Ganikesopu. green. white or pale violet.P. Stem . narrowed at both ends. five lobed. Manitakkali. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Manatakkali. slightly woody and branched. calyx 2-3 mm long. ovate or oblong. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. Manaththakkali.) Solanaceae). flattened. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia.5-8.5 cm wide. pedicels 6-10 mm long. sub-umbellate. style cylindric.

tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. covered with striated cuticle. epidermis single layered.10 layered in angular parts.5-11 µ in dia. obtuse. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. compactly arranged. uniseriate. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. rays composed of thin-walled. cambium 2-4 layered. single or with two or rarely 3 components. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. LeafPetiole .shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells.. pith large. endoderrnis single layered. arc71 . composed of thin-walled. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole.Discoid. covered with thick. minutely pitted. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls.Shows single layered. yellow or black. 1. parenchyma 4-6 layered. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. covering trichomes. conjoint and open. slightly striated cuticle. uniseriate. Midrib .. uniseriate. bicollateral. in small or large patches.' oval parenchymatous cells. measuring 2. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. embedded in perimedullary zones. Stem . parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. covered with striated cuticle. cortex of large. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. filled with starch grains. oval to round starch grains. central vascular bundle shallow. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. slightly elongated..Fruit . polygonal cells. tangentially elongated. 6mm in dia. radially elongated cells. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells.25 µ in dia.A berry. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. vascular bundles-collateral. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. smooth shining Seed . smooth. xylem rays homogenous. phloem rays uniseriate.5-8. phloem consists of thin-walled. internal phloem.. arcshaped. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells.5 mm in dia. yellow. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. starch grains. usually accompanied by fibres. but 4. measuring 2. trichomes multicellular.

L.5 . Appendix per cent. single.Alkaloids and Saponins.C.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally.Shows thin. 0. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation.2. present beneath palisade parenchyma. papery epicarp. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit.4. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. 0.L.6. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. unicellular hairs. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.dorsiventral.11 µ in diameter. measuring 2. Appendix 2. palisade single layered. Fruit . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.2. CONSTITUENTS . light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. T. Under U.06.2.06 & 0. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. IDENTITY.2. palisade ratio 2-4. stomata anisocytic. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.V.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Powder .3. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.2. 2. epidermis with irregular outline. 2. Lamina . a few broken pieces of pointed.Creamish-green.34 (both pink). 0. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. 2. Appendix per cent.34 (both brown) in visible light. 72 .C. vein islet number 7-10. both upper and lower epidermis single layered.7.06 & 0. 034 and 0. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle.97 (all yellow).

Prameha.áotha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ar¿a. of the drug in juice form. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H¤dya. Jvara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Sara. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. V¡tahara. Rasar¡ja Rasa. KuÀ¶ha. Kaphahara. Ka¸·u. Tikta Laghu. Hikk¡. Ras¡yana. Netraroga. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.5 -10 ml. DOSE . Pittahara.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. H¤droga. Chardi. Svarya. 73 .

Padma. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. (Fam.32. Aravinda. Pamposh Tamarai. 3-5 cm long. Nelumbium speciosum Willd.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. starchy and large. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. seed hard. broken pieces also occur. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. dark brown. 2-4 cm long. 1. Sarojam Kaluva. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. fruit an etaerio of achenes. corolla. embedded in a creamy. carpels many. linear 1.5-3 cm wide. petals numerous. elliptic. Aravindan. yellowish-brown. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Kalh¡ra. extended into clavate appendages. Kamalam. anther. Venthamara. Kanwal Kamal. Kamala (Fl. finely veined. free. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Tavare. Naidile. 1.4-2 cm long. Tavaregedd -Tamara. black. gynoecium and thalamus. crimp led. erect. androecium. Syn. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers.3-2 cm wide. Paduman. 74 . membranous. obtuse. a large. Nymphaeaceae).2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. crimpled.. comprising of calyx. Kamal. sepals leaf-like. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. Sitopala. Thamaraipoo. Chenthamara. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. gynoceium apocarpous.

two on either sides. 2.3.Aravind¡sava. angular. Visarpa.Raktapitta.shows four chambered anther.7. columnar.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.4. Appendix 2. DOSE .6. Tikta. composed of thin-walled. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ground tissue consisting of polygonal.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. Anther . Appendix per cent. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. parenchymatous cells. followed by ground tissue of oval. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta.filament appears circular in outline. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . yellow pollen grains. Appendix per cent. having smooth exine and intine. Appendix per cent. Powder . Sant¡pahara. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. 2. .Dusty brown.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.2. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. rectangular. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. THERAPEUTIC USES . measuring 50-61 µ in diameter.2. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. of the drug for decoction. ViÀavik¡ra. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis.2. 2.2. Stamen Filament . Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. Pittahara. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.2. spherical. vascular bundle single. parenchymatous cell. spore sac contains yellow.12 -24 g. M£tra Virajan¢ya. 2.2. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha.

Kavataleal. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . Balada. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried.33. slightly triangular and oval. a deciduous. straight. Siwalik range and forests. odour. Kapittha (Fr. sharp. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Rutaceae). Kavita Wood apple Kotha. Bilvara. often cultivated in many parts of India. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. reddish brown.Reddish-brown. hard. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. rough. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. Belada hannu. found throughout the plains of India. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. found in groups. Haminamara -Vilar maram. axillary thorns. semicircular. Belalu. sour.shows irregular. Powder . having longitudinal ridges and furrows. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. stone cells.) Swingle. 76 . parenchymatous cells. elephantum Correa (Faro. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. aromatic.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. Pulp. stone cells. F. Syn. thin-walled. taste. glabrous tree with strong. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Gr¡h¢. Agnim¡ndya. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.L.Citric acid and Mucilage. Hikk¡.95 (blue). CONSTITUENTS .12.50 (violet). Appendix per cent. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. KaÀ¡ya.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. 0. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.2.37 (brown).95 (violet) .1-3 g.2. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. Appendix 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. V¡mi. 2. T. Under U. 0. Appendix per cent.91 and 0. Sangr¡h¢.2. 77 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent.7. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4.C.50.áv¡sa. 2.C.14 (sky blue).12 (brown).2. 0. Ripe-T¤À¡. Lekhana.91 (violet) and 0.IDENTITY. Unripe Pulp: Amla. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya.L. of the drug in powder form. 6.95 (all yellow). 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.3. Appendix per cent. 0. DOSE . 0.V.37.91 (blue) and 0. 0. 0. Amla. 2. 0.2.6.06. Pittav¡tahara. Vra¸an¡¿aka.91 (grey) in visible light.

short.Bk. simple and compound starch grains. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3.34.Greyish-brown. met throughout India in wild state. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. b) Microscopic Powder . measuring 3-7 µ in dia. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 78 . fracture. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. (Fam . external surface brownish-grey. light in weight. flat or slightly curved pieces. starch grains simple. sometimes cultivated. shows single and groups of stone cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Karamarda (St. and compound having 2-3 components. tubular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells.) Apocynaceae). a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. rough due to longitudinal striations. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. internal surface grey and smooth. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma.

IDENTITY.2.L.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. 79 . CONSTITUENTS .2. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.90 (pink) and 0.6.C. Pittakara. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. 2.35.2. 2.3.7. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. of the drug for decoction. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.C. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.V.2.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. DOSE . (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.4.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. Appendix per cent.97 (violet). 0. 0. T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.52 (light sky blue).58 (both light grey). Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.2.KuÀthahara.48 g.

P. Nakt¡hv¡. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. internally.. single cells of varying shape and size. Naktam¡la. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. secondary phloem very wide. taste. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes.. fracture.) glabra Vent. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. Fabaceae). external surface rough. Syn.) Merr. fibrous. tangentially elongated cells. a glabrous tree. Bk. due to peeling off. thin-walled. tangentially elongated. most of phloem 80 . upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. traversed by phloem rays. cells. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. very bitter. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.35. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Karanja (Rt. (Fam. 3-11 µ in dia. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape.

04 (blue). (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. parenchymatous cells.7. Ka¸·u.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.2.L.K¤miroga. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. Powder -Creamish-yellow. Appendix 11 per cent. 2.37 (greenish yellow). stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. Ëntravidradhi. shows thin-walled.4. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .47. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 3. DOSE . Prameha.2.2.09. Pittahara.51. ViÀaghma. 0. 1-2 seriate. 0. Ka¸·£ghna. similar to those present in secondary cortex. of the drug for decoction.47 (greenish yellow).51 (light blue). 0.42 (sky blue).18 (blue) 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. phloem rays many. IDENTITY. V¡tahara.C.25 (sky blue). KuÀtha.2. 0.5 per cent. Appendix 2 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0. 0.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.80 (light blue). 0. 0. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex.L.1-3 g. 0.6. DuÀ¶avra¸a. Tikta.13 (Sky blue).31. CONSTITUENTS . 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.Flavones Kanugin.C.2. consisting of thin-walled. T.08 (greenish blue).80 and 0. cork cells. 81 .31 (sky blue). most of ray cells contain starch grain. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.47. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. phloem fibres. 0. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. 0.18. 0. 2. mostly straight.V. 0. Yoniroga. 0. 0.37.98 (all yellow).3. 0. Appendix 2. 0. Appendix 17 per cent.

a glabrous tree. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.36. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. bark does not easily separate from xylem.. Karanja (Rt. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. reddish-brown or dull brown. Karaµjaka. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. P. (Fam. tangentially elongated cells. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. irregularly distributed. internally light yellow. rough due to the presence of numerous.) Merr. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. rounded to oval in shape. tangentially elongated. cells. fracture. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. bitter. taste. thin-walled. secondary phloem a very wide zone. bark. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. Fabaceae). glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Syn. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size.) Vent. 3-11 µ in dia. Nakt¡hv¡. light in weight. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. consisting of 82 . 1-2 seriate.. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal.

CONSTITUENTS ..2. Pittahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells.2. Ëntravidradh¢. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. starch grains. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells.2.Methylfisetin. K¤miroga. 2.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.2. Ka¸·£. Appendix per cent. fibres and parenchyma. Yoniroga. Appendix per cent.DuÀ¶avra¸a.Karanjin.6. 2. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. Kanugin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. consisting of 2-3 components. tracheids. IDENTITY.3. of the drug in powder form.2. 2. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled.2. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. Tikta. thin-waned cells towards inner region. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. rounded to oval in shape. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Kaphahara. Powder -Light yellow.1-2 g. KuÀ¶ha. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Vidradh¢. Appendix 2. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells.4. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows fibres in singles or groups. 2. Demethoxy-kanugin. 83 . DOSE .7. more. ViÀaghna. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pongachromene & Tetra-O. tangentially elongated towards outer region. Prameha. Vra¸a¿odhana. Appendix per cent.radially elongated. Appendix per cent. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound.

outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. Karanja (St. at some places lenticels also appear. traversed by medullary rays. slightly quilled. short and fibrous. fracture. lenticellate pieces. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Nakt¡hv¡. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. P. odour.37. bitter. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. b) Microscopic Bark . upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.. alternating with stone cells.2-1 cm thick. parenchymatous cells. unpleasant. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. filled with reddish-brown content.Bk. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled.) Merr. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. tangentially elongated. phloem parenchyma. 84 . usually 0. a glabrous tree. thin-walled.) glabra Vent. thick-walled cells. (Fam. Karanja. Syn. composed of rectangular. Fabaceae).Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. taste. Karaµjaka. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. phloem fibre and stone cells. recurved. arranged in a tangential manner. fibre small. more or less smooth. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells.

Gamatin.3. Pinnatin. 2. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. Pittahara. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. medullary rays wavy.polygonal. V¡tahara.6. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. Kaphahara.1-2 g. Appendix 1.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. Appendix 3 per cent. IDENTITY. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. Appendix 13 per cent. of the drug in powder form. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components.DuÀ¶avra¸a. 85 . 3" 7 : 8). CONSTITUENTS . Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Ka¶u. 3". Prameha. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. phloem parenchyma and rays cells.2. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.. 2. Tikta. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . and rarely. Kanugin. Demethoxy- kanugin. rounded to oval.7. Appendix 2. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin.2. oil globules.2. simple and compound starch grains. Powder -Yellowish-cream. Pongapin. elongated.2. ViÀaghma. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. starch grains simple. usually 2-4 cells wide.2. 2. Vidradh¢.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.4. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. Ka¸·u. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. 5Methoxyfurano (2". present in secondary cortex. aseptate fibre and stone cells. thin-walled and aseptate. Ëntravidradh¢. Yoniroga DOSE .2. Appendix 18 per cent. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem.5 per cent. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. K¤miroga.

traversed by xylem rays. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Dithouri Honge.5-0. (Fam. 86 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. cortex consisting of angular. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. consisting of xylem and phloem.) Vent. vascular bundle single. Ungu. Karanja. consistig of tabular cells. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. petiolule short. a glabrous tree. Karanja (Lf.5 cm long and 3. arcshaped. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. covered with cuticle. Pongana Ganuga. Fabaceae). Hulagilu -Pungu. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex.11. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Syn. dark green. leaflets 2-3 pairs. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. xylem vessels arranged radially. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. 6. epidermis single layered.8 cm.38.) Merr.9-8. P. isodiametric. Karaµjaka. Unu. Nakt¡hv¡.3 cm wide. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces.2 . 0.. Kanajo Karuaini.circular in outline. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

Ka¸·ughna. consisting of tabular cells.6.2. Kaphahara.5 per cent. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. palisade ratio 3. shows spiral xylem vessels. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2. Ka¶u. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.5-20. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square.Mid rib . Appendix 11 per cent. . 7) -flavone. Appendix 16 per cent.2.6.2. Pittavardhaka. cortex consists of round to oval. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". collateral.5".shows single layered epidermis. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. stomatal index 12.2. mesophyll cells.6. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Tikta. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. K¤imihara. Powder -Green.5-50. Appendix 3.6. phloem and pith. stomata anisocytic.A new Furanoflavone -3' .(4".3. 5". CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. 2. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . covered with thick cuticle. palisade two layered. 5" . epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.7. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.4.5) . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. 2.2. present in lower surface. vascular bundle. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4".

DOSE . KuÀ¶ha.K¤miroga. Vra¸a.For external use only. THERAPEUTIC USES . 88 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ka¸·au.J¡ty¡di Taila.

Appendix 2. Appendix 0.2. (Fam. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.7. surface rough. oblong. taste.6 per cent.2. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. 3 valved at the apex when mature. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.4.2.Fr.5 . 2. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. Nil Appendix 8. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella.5 per cent.) Cucurbitaceae). 2. 2. extremely bitter. Kakiral. K¡ravall¢. fusiform. upto an altitude of 1500 m.39.2. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . Kathilla.6. usually pointed or beaked.25 cm long. 2. Varivall¢.3. Appendix 28 per cent.2.2. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. Appendix 6 per cent. Karavallaka (Fresh. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. IDENTITY. pendulous.

60. CONSTITUENTS .98 (all blue). P¡¸·u. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¤miroga.98 (red & sky blue).50. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.T. 0. DOSE . V¡tahara.V. 0.áv¡sa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.L. 90 . KuÀ¶ha.46.03. T. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. 0.96 (sky blue). 0. Raktavik¡ra.C. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.10 . 0.L. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. 0. H¤dya.16.81 and 0.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. 0. 0. K¡sa. D¢pana.15 ml.98 (all yellow).61 (light sky blue). Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi.67 and 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .17. 0.C. Aruci. K¡mal¡. 0. Kaphahara.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. juice of fresh drug.34. Prameha. Jvara. 0.23 (red).75.43.

externally greyish-brown.40. straight or slightly curved. Katuku rohini. kaur Katuka rohini. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. taste. bitter.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. cylindrical. Katuka rohini Kutki. taste. b) Microscopic Rhizome . circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. 0. subcylindrical. 5-10 cm long. Rohi¸¢. Scrophulariaceae). primary cortex persists 91 . Katuka (Rz. Tiktarohi¸¢. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. pleasant. odour.05-0. Sutiktaka. Kauka. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. (Fam. short. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. suberised cells. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. cork cambium 1-2 layered.1 cm in diameter. Kav¢. Rhizome is cut into small pieces.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. dusty grey. inner surface black with whitish xylem.2. . tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. cortex single layered or absent. fracture. mostly attached with rhizomes. pleasant. short. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. bitter. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome .Thin. fracture. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. a perennial. Root . Katki. Kaurohi¸¢. odour.

IDENTITY. 0.L. 0. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.in some cases. parenchyma and fibres. consisting of oval to polygonal. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.2.17.2. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. 2. 0.C.C. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. 0.4. Appendix 2. 0. tracheids. parenchyma. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. simple round to oval.41. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. tracheids long. 2. 0. fibres aseptate. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.62. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends.Dusty grey.2. Powder . cortex 8-14 layered. secondary phloem poorly developed. Appendix per cent.37. tracheids.21. 0. 0. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape.72 and 0. 2. 1-2 layers of cork cambium.05. tapering ends. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. Appendix per cent. measuring 25 . vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation.3.7. 0. parenchymatous cells.. thick-walled.17.84 (all brownish grey). On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.30. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.35 (green).L. starch grains. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.84 (all yellow). vessels have varying shape and size.6.10.2. thick-walled. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.2.41 and 0. lignified. secondary xylem consists of vessels. 0.104 µ in diameter. thick-walled cells of endodermis. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. 0. 0. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. hypodermis single layered. T. 0. 0.30 (blue) and 0. 0. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. thick-walled. starch grains.21. 2. thick-walled.2. simple round to oval. abundantly found in all cells.10. cambium 2-4 layered. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. 92 .30.V.05 (blue). some cylindrical with taillike. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. Appendix per cent.

K¡mal¡. Pittahara.3 g.CONSTITUENTS . Sarvajvarahara Lauha.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Jvara. of the drug in powder form. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Bhedin¢. DOSE . ViÀamajvara.áv¡sa. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 93 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. D¡ha. Tiktaka Gh¤ta.1 . D¢pan¢. KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. Arocaka.Glucoside (Picrorhizin).

2 cm long. Culli. broader than the other three.5-1 cm wide. Nirguvireru. abruptly swollen at top. Kokilaksha (W. Leaf . Kolarind. entire and hairy. externally greyish-brown. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. acute. upper sepal 1.P. a spiny. annual herb. tube 1. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Usually unbranched.Yellowish-brown. no characteristic odour and taste. 0. bracts about 2. sub-quadrangular.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees.3 cm long. all linear-lanceolate. Kettu. Flower . Kolavankal ---. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. stamens 4. Vayalculli Talikhana. 1-7 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste. fasciculate. stout. widely 2 lipped. which are 1.Greenish-brown. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. lanceolate.Acanthaceae). covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. with long white hairs. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. Nirchulli. second pair 94 . didynamous.Anders (Fam. IkÀuraka. swollen at nodes. corolla 3. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. calyx 4-partite.6-2 cm long.Mostly adventitious. Kalsunda --Golmidi. Hygrophila spinosa T. common in water logged places throughout the country.5 cm long. subsessile. Stem .6 cm long. whitish to brown.41. Syn.

a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex.Ovate. broader towards centre. arranged in radial rows. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. ray cells thin walled. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. b) Microscopic Root . filament quite glabrous. endodermis single layered. radially elongated in xylem region. round. pith large. inner cells smaller. Seed . style filiform. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. xylem present in a ring. radially elongated in secondary xylem. truncate at the base.0. 95 . where these cells are mostly radially elongated.15 cm wide.larger. having small intercellular spaces. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. glabrous. vessels with spiral thickenings. 0. ray cells thin-walled.8 cm long. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts.25 cm long and 0. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. anthers two celled. Stem . brownish cells. vessels angular. rectangular to cubical. consisting of round to polygonal cells. single or in groups of 2-3. pointed. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. subequal. pubescent. phloem narrow. involute with a fissure on upper side. arranged radially. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. fibre walls uniformly thickened. flat or compressed. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. peripheral ones larger. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. oblong.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. with a number of large air cavities.1 . medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. cortical cells thin-walled. linear-oblong. 4seeded. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. Fruit .2-0. thin-walled cells. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. composed of polygonal. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. hairy but appearing smooth. fibres thick-walled. a few thick-walled. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. variable in size. polygonal cells. thin-walled. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. moderately thick-walled. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. stigma simple. capsule about 0. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. phloem fibres thick-walled. scattered throughout the phloem region.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. compressed. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. radially arranged. composed of transversely elongate. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. light brown. arranged radially having spiral thickenings.Two celled.

Seed . Appendix per cent. unicellular hairs and globules. Appendix per cent.78.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. parenchymatous cells.Shows concavo-convex outline. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. vein islet number 17-42. covered with thick cuticle. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.24-30. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. oval to hexagonal. tangentially elongated cells. Fruit . Lamina . IDENTITY. lignified. palisade. stomata diacytic. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. shows aseptate. sclerenchymatous cells. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . embryo composed of oval to polygonal. palisade 1-2 layered.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. M£trala. V¤Àya. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces.3. Amla.LeafMidrib . stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. thick-walled. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. Appendix 2. V¡jikara.4. collenchyma 2-5 layered. Appendix per cent. thin-walled.75. 2. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.2. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. elongated fibres. palisade ratio 6. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. 2. 2. Powder . . Rucya.6. composed of thin-walled. 2.Light brown. Tikta Picchila.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered.2.2.7.2. Appendix per cent.2.25-15. stomatal index 17. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. parenchymatous.

of the drug in powder form. 97 . V¡tarakta.3 -6 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .T¤À¸¡.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . Ëmav¡ta áotha.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra).

branches on nodes.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. polygonal cells. Root-Appears circular in outline. Kokil¡kÀ¢.42. the size of these cells. a spiny. Syn. thinwalled cells. IkÀuraka. Nerugobbi. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. Culli --. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. 98 . below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex.Acanthaceae). Kolavulike. common in water logged places throughout the country. Hygrophila spinosa T. stout. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. slightly transversely elongated. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. Anders (Fam. secondary phloem narrow. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. consisting of small. whitish to brownish. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Kokilaksha (Rt. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. thin-walled. no characteristic odour and taste. annual herb. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions.

V¡tahara. of the drug for decoction.2.3 -6 g. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Amla. Powder .3. THERAPEUTIC USES .phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells.7.2. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. M£trala. each group composed of 2-6 cells. ray cells thin-walled. broader towards centre. 2.2. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. 2. Appendix per cent. having spiral thickening. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. Appendix per cent. vessels with spiral thickening. Appendix 2.Light brown to ash coloured. 99 . fibre walls uniformly thickened. Tikta Picchila.2. scattered throughout the phloem region. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.Ëmav¡ta áotha.6. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . secondary xylem forms continuous ring. angular. 2. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.4. shows fragments of pitted. lignified fibres.2. 2.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. radially elongated in the xylem region. V¡tarakta.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. A¿ma¤¢.

common in water logged places throughout the country.8 -10. b) Microscopic Seed . Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. the 100 . Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. truncate at the base. thinwalled. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. Powder . Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. Syn. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Acanthaceae). slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Anders. IkÀuraka. Hygrophila spinosa T. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. Kokilaksha (Sd. light yellowish-brown. a spiny. flat or compressed. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. (Fam. annual herb. white. oil globules present in this region. Maradarishana. stout. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Swelling Index . embryo composed of oval to polygonal.43.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. taste. hairy but appearing smooth. Daruhuladur Darhald. Maradarishina -Maramannal. shows hairs and oil globules. parenchymatous cells.Greyish-brown.

0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.03.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.2. 0. 0..L. Appendix per cent. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¤Àya. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .38 (light brown). Pitt¡¿mar¢. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.41 (light blue).6.3 -6 g.L. DOSE .38.C. Appendix per cent.03 (light brown). including any sticky mucilage. enzymes like Diastase. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. 0.24. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. 0.55 (light blue). 0. Appendix per cent. 0. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. Kaphahara.C. V¡tarakta. 2.2. Lipase. 0.17 (light brown). 0.4. 0. 0.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.93 (sky blue). 101 .31 (dark brown). T. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. 2.52 (dark brown) and 0. 0. related to 1 g of seeds. Protease and an Alkaloid. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Appendix 2.10 (light brown).24 (red).2.3.76 (sky blue) and 0.V.2.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. 0.31.72 (dark brown). 0. 0.17. Add 25 ml of water.An yellow semi-drying oil.2. Santarpa¸a. 0.áotha. 2. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY.72 (all yellow). 0. of the drug in powder form. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf.52 and 0.24 (dark brown).

found throughout the country.5 cm long and 0. Pulikkirai.44. style 5-6 fid.2 cm in diameter. Kozuppaccira Kurfah.An ovoid capsule. secondary roots. bright yellow. Gho¶ik¡. characteristic. Badi Lona Dudagorai.1 to 0. 0. 0. Payilikura. subtended by an involucre. short. odour. Leaf .P) Portulacaceae). Stem . oblong. Lonika. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. Loni -Koricchira. smooth and greenish-brown. Loni.3 to 2.3 cm long. oblique. rounded and truncate at the apex. Baranunia Garden Purslane. (Fam. Moti Luni Khursa.25-0. Kulfa. an annual succulent. Kozhuppu Pappukura. very delicate and soon falling off. 3-4 leaves. short.Cylindrical. spathulate. fracture. Peddapavila Kura. surface smooth. branched. less in number. Flower . fracture.5 cm long. dehiscing above the base.A few.6 cm wide. brownish-grey.1 to 0. sub-sessile. ribbed. at terminal heads. stamens 8-12. petals obovate. -Baraloniya. 0. 50 cm long. Kozhuppa. 0. prostrate herb. sepal 0. Loni. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Kwfa Pasalai. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Kuzuppa (W. Chhotalunia. Ghola -Lonak.35-0.Almost cylindrical. cuneiform.4 cm long. Kozuppa. Paruppukkeerai. 102 .Simple. root hairs abundant in upper region. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Common Indian Purslane Luni. small. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . swollen at the nodes.4 cm long. Badanuni. Doddagoni Soppu. Khurfa. Fruit .

2. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. phloem and xylem parenchyma. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres.7. b) Microscopic Root . spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. Powder . shows groups of oval to polygonal.. having 2-3 components. arranged in radial rows. stomata paracytic type. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. dark brown.4. pitted and spiral vessels. vessels. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. oval cells. tracheids. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. fragments of cork cells.2.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. LeafMidrib . secondary xylem composed of vessels. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled.Seed -Numerous. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. present in mesophyll cells. solitary or in groups of 2-5. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. reniform. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. 2. parenchyma abundant.2. thin-walled. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. oval. 2. having simple pits and spiral thickening.3. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. black. Stem . tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. Lamina . tracheids and parenchyma. ray cells and pith. 2. covered externally with a thick cuticle. pericycle fibre present in patches. 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. minute. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. palisade single layered.Wavy in outline. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. tracheids and parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. phloem. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells.07 cm across.06-0.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled.6. thick-walled with wide lumen. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.Greyish-brown. simple as well as compound. Appendix per cent.2. . Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. measuring 6-14 µ .shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. secondary xylem consists of vessels. having intercellular spaces. parenchymatous cells.2. as well as compound.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis.

0. (both green). 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. of the drug in powder form.C.52. áotha.V.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Pittakara. 0..68. CakÀuÀya. 0.C. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 0.52 (both faint green).08.41. Under U.3 . Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.68 (yellow) and 0.41. 0. 0.10.08. V¡tahara.10. Gulma.76 (green) in visible light.6 g.Agnim¡ndya. 104 . THERAPEUTIC USES .50.76 and 0. 0. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vra¸a DOSE . 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .Marma Gu¶ik¡. T. RukÀa.10. 0. Ar¿a. 0.76 (all pinkish red).61. 0.T. Carbohydrates.L.Protein. 0.68 and 0. 0. 0. Prameha.

bark fibrous. Var¡kr¡nt¡. Lajjalu (W. varying in length. upto 2 cm thick. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. alternate. easily separable from wood. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . linear lanceolate. woody.45.2 cm long. covered with long. 105 . 0. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. fracture hard.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. taste. sparsely prickly. slightly astringent. internal cut surface grey. Fabaceae). Lajamani Chhuimui. nearly glabrous. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. Stem . sessile. 25-50 cm high. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. obliquely rounded at base. bark fibrous.3-0. rependant . cut surface of pieces pale yellow. Leaf . Adamalati Lajaka. odour.Cylindrical. (Fam. petiolate. with secondary and tertiary branches.P) diffused undershrub. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled.week bristles longitudinally grooved. 0.5 cm in dia. acute.Cylindrical. tapering. yellowish-green. Lajauni Muttidasenui. stipulate. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. Machikegida. upto 2.6-1.4 cm broad. Lajavanti. external surface light brown. greyish brown to brown. hairy pinnae. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. distinct. sensitive to touch.

b) Microscopic Root . vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. starch grains. 0. oval-elliptic. scattered throughout. fibres single or in groups.Flower . thick-walled. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. dry. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. respectively. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.4-0. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. 0. fibres of two types. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. ovate oblong. consisting of large. Stem .Compressed. in globose head. spreading bristle at sutures.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. much exserted.6 cm long. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. arranged in tangential bands. crystal fibres thick-walled. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. filled with reddish-brown contents. 1-1. glabrous. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. radially elongated. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements.Pink. thick-walled. pith consisting of polygonal. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. Seed . starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. parenchyma. scattered throughout secondary xylem.3 long. rarely multiseriate.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. peduncles prickly. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. 0. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. tangentially elongated cells. 2-3 seriate more common. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex wide. a number of lignified. lobes 4. ovary sessile. stamens 4. fibres. straw coloured. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. Fruit . crystal fibres elongated. brown to grey. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. phloem rays thick-walled. 106 . ovules numerous. xylem rays radially elongated. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. tangentially elongated to oval. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. moderately thick-walled. 3-25 chambered. corolla pink. phloem fibres single or in groups.Lomentum. simple.3 cm long. calyx very small.

shows. parenchymatous cells Seed . Lamina . parenchymatous cells. Fruit . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. pitted vessels. Appendix per cent.2. 2. one in each wing. Midrib . some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. endocarp of thick-walled.6. thin-walled. branched. single and compound starch grains. spongy parenchyma single layered.4. palisade cells non glandular. Appendix per cent. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. lignified cells followed by single layered.69 (all blue) and 0. covered with thin-cuticle. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. reticulate. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .2. palisade single layered.L.Reddish-brown. spongy parenchyma.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. Appendix per cent. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally.81 (bluish-pink).7.2. 2. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. Appendix per cent. 2.2. with 2 . cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. vascular bundle single.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. shaggy hairs.V. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. crystal fibres. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.shows single layered epidermis.shows epidermis on both surfaces.62. 0. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.35.2. fibres. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells.Leaf- Petiole . Powder . pericycle same as in petiole. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. parenchymatous cells. pericycle arranged in a ring.L.3 components IDENTITY. branched. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. shaggy hairs. 2. T.C. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.2. Appendix 2. 0.C.3.

Yoniroga. CONSTITUENTS . Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha.spots appear at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 0. D¡ha.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. 0. Atis¡ra. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. 108 . Kaphahara. Vra¸a. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.áopha. Ku¶aj¡valeha. áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . Raktapita DOSE .35 (orange).Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.35 and 0.

epipetalous. ovate lanceolate.F. b) Microscopic Corolla .) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Hippenara. epipetalous and arranged in two series. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. (Fam. Syn. Madhuka. a few 109 . Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. latifolia (Roxb. Halippe. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Ippa.46. Mahawash tree Mahudo. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. Androecium . Sapotaceae) . Hippe.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. lanceolate. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Mahua Katiluppai.) Macbride. Iluppa. sweet. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. reddish-brown. anther sub-sessile. erect 0. tabular. Kattu Iluppai. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Ilippa. and also cultivated. basifixed. M.5-2 cm long. corolla fleshy. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. Madhuka (Fl. Eppimara -Irippa.Gmel. followed by thin-walled.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. short. taste.

2.unicellular hairs present on one side. Ah¤dya. tapetum not distinct.2. unicellular hairs. 2.4. Pittakara. Balya. round. 110 . of the drug. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. áramahara. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. oval shaped.2.5 per cent. D¡ha.2. V¡tahara.Madh£k¡sava.6. KÀata. 2. Appendix 25 per cent. IDENTITY.2.7.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Appendix 70 per cent.Dark brown. spherical. KÀaya. árama DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix 2. 2. El¡di Modaka.2.3. endothecium composed of radially elongated. lignified cells. Appendix 5 per cent.áv¡sa.15 g. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. THERAPEUTIC USES . pollen grains single or in groups. T¤À¸¡. Powder . shows fragments of epidermal cells.2. Appendix 0. Appendix 10 per cent. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls.10 .9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.

fracture. Br. often rooting at lower nodes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡.5 cm long. A. sessile. Leaf . 0. internodes 0. A.. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak.. 2. no characteristic odour and taste. nodiflora R..P. short.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. Stem . a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . repens Gmel. obtuse or subacute.. non Link. Br. linear-oblong. A. Flower . or elliptic. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. white often tinged with pink. nodes and internodes distinct. Syn.47.Herbaceous.1-0. triandra Lam. cream to grey.Cylindrical. no characteristic odour and taste. (Fam. no characteristic odour and taste.5 cm wide.3-7. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. Bahli. Gandal¢. short. Amaranthaceae). bracteoles 111 .1. Matshyakshi (W. with spreading branches from the base. 0. weak. Matsy¡duni. yellowish-brown to light-brown.. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha.) R.6 cm diameter. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. Br.5-5 cm long. denticulata R. A. fracture.3-2 cm wide.

perianth 2. consisting of thin-walled cells. single layered. numerous. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. 1. pith consisting of thin-walled. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. Leaf- Midrib . stomata paracytic.5-3 mm long. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. covered wtith striated cuticle. secondary cortex narrow. no characteristic odour and taste. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10.1. bicollateral. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.5 mm long. round to oval. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. with anomalous secondary growth. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. shows wavy or undulate. parenchymatous cells. open and exarch. parenchymatous cells.dorsiventral. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. compressed. collenchymatous cells. orbicular. round or oval. scarious. palisade 2-3 layers. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. vascular bundles three.2 cm long. capitellate. isodiametric. Stem .Utricle. parenchymatous cells. with are conjoint. consistig of thin-walled. thin-walled round or oval. Fruit . b) Microscopic Root . pith distinct. each consisting of xylem and phloem. parenchymatous cells. Lamina . radially arranged cork cells. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. composed of thin-walled. compressed with thickened margins. style very short. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. thin-walled. 112 . thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. xylem tissues lignified. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. no characteristic odour and taste. ovate. palisade ratio 3-5. irregular. isodiametic cells. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. ovary obcordate. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. vascualr bundles radially arranged. thin.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. present in the centre. acute. sepals ovate. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round.

Under U. V¡tahara.16. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.Olive green. 0.54 and 0. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.35. 0.68 (all red). Appendix 2.2.2.C.44. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.33 and 0.Powder .7.33.4. Pittavik¡ra.94 and 0.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form. paracytic stomata.2 -3 g. 0. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.16.96 (all yellow)..KuÀ¶ha.25.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.V. 0. 0. 0.2. 2. Appendix 4.L. 0.C.81. 0. 0. IDENTITY. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. Appendix 3 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. Tikta. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Raktavik¡ra DOSE .Sugar.59. 0.18. Appendix 19 per cent.L. T. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 113 . 0.2. Kaphahara.44. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent.44 (all green). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6. 2.

mucilaginous cells.15-0.5 cm long. Fabaceae). covered externally with thick cuticle. parenchymatous cells. 30-60 cm tall.walled.) aromatic.Seed shows a layer of thick. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. thin-walled. cells flat at base. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. varying in size. annual herb. cultivated throughout the country. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. columnar palisade. 0. Methi (Sd. very hard. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. bitter. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium.35 cm broad.2-0.48. (Fam. odour. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. 0. taste. several layers of thin walled. dull yellow. b) Microscopic Seed . pleasant. smooth. 114 .

V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. Rucya.6.Alkaloid. Sapogenins and Mucilage. 2. 115 .Mustak¡riÀ¶a.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS .Graha¸¢. aleurone grains.Yellow. Powder . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. Appendix 2. Appendix 4 per cent. Aruci DOSE . Jvara.2. Kaphahara.4.2. Prameha.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 5 per cent. 2. 2. Appendix 0.2.5 per cent. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa.3-6 g. oil globules.3.2. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.

Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. blade obovate.) Brassicaceae). Stem . Flower . sub-marginate at the apex. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying.2 cm long. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. (Fam. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. petals 1. not distinct. oblong. sometimes brown red. lyrate. an annual or biennial bristly herb.1-1. variable size and thickness. seplas 6.0 cm in dia. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. Leaf .Flower in long terminal raceme. complete 1-2 cm long. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . bisexual. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . slightly pungent. coarsely toothed. regular.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. Mulaka (W.Lower leaves hairy. upper most leaves simple.Root cylindrical.7-2. taste.49.Slender. pedicel with scattered hairs. cylindrical. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. compressed. yellowish-green. odour. 0. having a few longitudinal striations. petiole 5-5.P. Muli.. hollow.5-10 cm long. bright green.3 cm long.

starch grains simple. continuous or more or less constricted. present only on upper side. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. endodermis at some places. cork cells.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.8. single layered. medullary rays four to many cells wide. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. occasionally pale purple. traversed by xylem rays. radially arranged. one central and two lateral. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres.1. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups.Siliqua. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends.Reddish-brown. thin-walled. Lamina . oily. present in cortex and phloem. hairs unicellular. 117 . style about 4 mm long. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. thin-walled. epidermis followed by 6. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. pith a wide zone of polygonal. parenchymatous cells. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. Seed . round to oval. greenish-yellow. b) Microscopic Root . phloem. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. two outer smaller and four inner longer. Fruit . 10-12 ovuled. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. cylindrical. 3-9 cm long and 0. vascular bundle three in number. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. 2 mm wide.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. present in cortex. green or brown-purple. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. parenchymatous cells.appears biconvex in outline. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. round to oval. erect. stamen 6 in two whorls.dorsiventral.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. Leaf- Petiole . covered with thick cuticle. longitudinally sulcatus. 1-2 chambered. traversed by phloem rays.purple vein. elliptical. sometimes flattened. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. Midrib .4 cm thick. Stem . solitary or ingroups. taste.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. 2-4 mm long. irregularly globose. epidermis single layered. parenchymatous cells. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. ovary superior. palisade 2-3 layers.

2.20 . oil globules and round to oval starch grains.2. covered with thin. 2. covered with a thin-cuticle. Rucya. Appendix per cent.4.Yellowish-green.6. IDENTITY. Gulma. spiral vessels. P¡cana. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . parenchymatous cells present.M£lakakÀ¡ra. Ar¿a. tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. measuring 3-14 µ diameter.2.2. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal.Glucoside. CONSTITUENTS .2. Kaphahara. containing aleurone grains and oil globules.2.Agnim¡ndya. P¢nasa. Ud¡varta. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. Appendix per cent. DOSE . Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. H¤dya. 118 .Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. Appendix per cent. thin-walled.Shows a single layered epidermis. Seed . reddish-brown. Powder . straight cuticle. 2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2.40 ml. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Tikta Laghu. Gandhaka Va¶¢. Svarya. 2. of columnar cells. Pittahara.Fruit . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2.3. shows aseptate fibres. of the drug in juice form. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. Appendix per cent. thinwalled.

2. 119 .2. IDENTITY. taste. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.2. Rakhyasmula Mula.2. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. Mullangi. Appendix per cent. 2. variable in size.2. Mula Muli Moolangi. Appendix per cent.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Appendix per cent.2. fusiform.6.3. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. cylindrical. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth.7. usually 25-40 cm in length.) annual or biennial bristly herb. rarely sweet.4. white in colour. (Fam. Brassicaceae). Mulaka. 2. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Moclangi gadde. Appendix 2. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Mulaka (Rt. 2. slightly or strongly pungent.50.2. Saleya. Visra.

On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. P¡cana. Pittahara. Tikta Laghu.Agnim¡ndya. 0.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. 0.04 & 0. Svarya.49 & 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.15-30 ml. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .C. Ar¿a. áv¡sa.L.09. 0. H¤dya.V.04.09 (both blue). Netraroga.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .69 (all yellow). Rucya. Kaphahara.T.LC. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.04. P¢nasa. Gulma. 0. of the drug in the juice form 120 .09 & 0. Ud¡varta DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Jvara. 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Glucoside. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .34. 0. T. Galaroga. Dadru. K¡sa. Vrana.

cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. a perennial herb. traversed by xylem rays.4 m tall. aromatic. fibres and parenchyma.1. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. Syn. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic .) DC. taste.2. thin-walled cells.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. traversed by phloem rays. slightly bitter. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma.3 .6 . 0. colour.42000 m. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. cambium 2-4 layered. consisting of tangentially elongated. inner cells thin-walled. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige.51. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . tenuifolium Wall.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. thin-walled cells.Shows 10 . Gandhakuti. secondary phloem shows wide zone. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. dull brown. Mura (Rt. odour. 6-12 cm long and 0. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. tangentially elongated. Root . Apiaceae ). Daitya. (Fam. secondary cortex composed of rounded. S. rectangular cells.

fibres aseptate. 122 . secretory canals numerous. round to oval. M£rchha. 2. shows groups of cork cells. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .2. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. Appendix 9 per cent. parenchymatous cells. short with blunt ends. Tikta. Appendix 9 per cent. starch grains simple. secretory canals. Appendix 17 per cent. distributed throughout secondary cortex. 2. secondary phloem. xylem parenchyma.Brown. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . measuring 7-55 µ in dia. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. Appendix 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.5 per cent.2. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents.1-3 g.3.7. secondary xylem and medullary rays..2. somewhat oval cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of the drug in powder form. 2.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). Appendix 3. D¡ha. oil globules and simple starch grains. Ka¶u. secondary phloem. IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS . composed of radially arranged. Jvara.Arvind¡sava.2. 2. Powder . Bhrama.áv¡sa.2.4.having spiral thickenings.2. Sucrose and Mannitol. xylem and phloem rays. present in secondary cortex.6. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . xylem rays 2-5 cells wide.

Murva (Rt.5-3 cm thick. twining shrub. similar to those present in secondary cortex. b) Microscopic Root . phloem rays 1 123 . some filled with reddish-brown contents. resin cells present irregularly in this region. Madhusrava. slightly bitter. Kallu Shambu.) Asclepiadaceae). bark easily separable from wood. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. fracture. rectangular cells. odour. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. Koratige. phloem fibres absent. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. taste. Halukaratige. indistinct.Shows a cork.52. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. Jartor Koratige Hambu. (Fam. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. a large stout. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. tangentially elongated. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. & Am. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size.

elliptical to spherical with central hilum. 2. of the drug in powder form.5-22 µ dia. Mukha áosa. 5. simple and compound starch grains. Prameha Mihira Taila. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. THERAPEUTIC USES . fragments of cork. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. DOSE .5 .4. tracheids. T¤Àn¡. fibretracheids. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapitta.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2. 2. Appendix 14 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent. fibres. 10-20 g. Ka¸·£. consisting of small tangential. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains.tracheids.2-6 g.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Ar¿a.2. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue.7. H¤droga.2. 124 . Appendix 7 per cent. shows a number of stone cells. vessels with pitted walls. Medoroga. vary in shape and size with borderd pits.6. Pittahara. Meha. fibres.. Appendix 0.2. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. V¡tahara. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. of the drug for decoction. 2.2. K¤miroga. IDENTITY.3 cells wide. composed of vessels.Light brown.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.22 µ in diameter. Jvara.2. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent. starch grains simple. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. Powder . 2.. present in parenchymatous tissues. measuring 5.3. Tikta Guru.

containing pollen grains. Powder . quite brittle. Peri. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. filiform. often buttressed at the base. yellowish and thin-walled. anther about 0.9 cm long. fragrant. basifixed. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. slender. Nagachampakam. filament 0. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Assam.9-1. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. parenchymatous cells. odour. Nauga. (Fam. N¡gapuÀpa. Bengal. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. each stamen 0. Nagakesari -Nangaa. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Konkan. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. linear. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. Pilunagkesar. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall.Anther shows golden-brown. an Ke¿ara. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Nagakesar (Stmn. taste. Nagchampa.5 cm long. Naugaliral. connective not visible with naked eye. astringent.Brown.) evergreen tree. Nagppu.0 cm long.1. more or less twisted. Nahar Nageshvara. soft to touch.53. connective and filament. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. consisting of thin-walled. Hem¡. b) Microscopic Androecium . exine and intine distinct. shows elongated cells of filament.8 . Sachunagkeshara. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. Guttiferae). about 15-18 m high with short trunk. distinct protuberances on walls. Veluthapala. 125 . thick-walled. N¡ga. coppery or golden brown.

Tikta. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. 2. Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form.Raktapitta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.7.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Var¸ya.2.4. 2.2. V¡tarakta. CONSTITUENTS .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent. áopharoga. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. Vastiroga DOSE . Appendix 2.2.1-3 g. Appendix per cent.2.3.IDENTITY. Kum¡ry¡sava. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.6. Appendix per cent. 126 .

appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. N¢l¢n¢. pale green to greenish-black.54. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. (Fam. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.1. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. 1. Nili (Lf. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. 127 .5 cm long and 0. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings.) shrub.2. Fabaceae). vascular bundles collateral and three in number. leaflet 1-2.2 cm wide.3-1. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. pith composed of round to oval. no characteristic odour and taste.8 m high.

2. 2. Ud¡varta.50-100 g.. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. vascular bundle single.shows epidermis. pitted vessels.Ëmav¡ta. Pl¢haroga. Appendix 10 per cent. cuticle and hair. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. of decoction. epidermis. K¤imiroga.2.Greenish-grey. V¡tarakta. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. Lamina . V¡tahara. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. K¡sa.7.3. palisade 2-3 layers. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .4. cuticle and hair.5 per cent. 2. Udararoga.2.2. collateral and crescent shaped. shows groups of mesophyll cells. Ke¿ya. similar as in petiole and midrib.Midrib . Jvara. aseptate fibres. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 7.2..N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.2. 128 . paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .Glycoside (Indican). Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Appendix 2 per cent. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . similar as in petiole. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 25 per cent. 2.shows dorsiventral structure.2.6. Gulma.. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .

secondary phloem composed of usual elements. Indian Indigo Gali.55. thin-walled cells. Nila Nili. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Nili Chettu. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. hard. 1. woody.2-1. Nili (Rt.5 cm thick. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. (Fam. rectangular. Neeligida.) shrub. 0. Neeli Nili. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. secondary cortex a narrow zone. Nila -Neel Avuri. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. thin-walled cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. odour not distinct. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. group of fibres. taste. slightly bitter. Nili.. consisting of usual elements.8 m high. Karunili. Nil. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo.1 -1. with lenticels. Gari Nili Kadunili. cylindrical.10 layers of tangentially elongated. Rangapatr¢. 129 . Fabaceae). b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. Olleneeli -Amari. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits.

V¡tahara. 0. 0. 0.75 (blue). starch grains simple. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. K¤imiroga. shows aseptate fibres. Appendix 0. present in cortex. 0.81 (blue).40.Arvind¡sava. 0. 2.C.50. simple and compound starch grains.63. 0.0.27.2. Recan¢.63 (bluish green).58.3.6.7 per cent.2. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 3 per cent. 0.2. Ud¡varta. 0.2.L.14 (blue).06..27. 0. Ëmav¡ta.86. 0.30 (bluish green).86 (green) and 0.58 (blue). Powder .58. DOSE . (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. Appendix 2. T. ViÀavik¡ra.50. 2. 0. of drug for decoction.81.C.91 (blue). Pl¢h¡roga. and 0.4. 0.2.48 g.14.40. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. 0. Appendix 6 per cent. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Ke¿ya.7. IDENTITY.33.80. phloem. 0. V¡tarakta. 2.Creamish-brown. Udararoga. xylem parenchyma and rays.. 0.91 (all grey).06. 0. 0.2.V.L. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.40 (blue). 0. 0.47 (blue). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.75. 130 .63. 0.75. 0. 0.91 (all yellow). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.10. CONSTITUENTS . K¡sa. 2.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. 0. 0.33. 0.86 and 0.0. 0.21. 0. 0. 0. pitted vessels.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.10.14. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. round to oval. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Gulma.

taste. Meliaceae). Aryaveppu. Veppan Vemu. indistinct. Nimba (Lf. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. crystals also present in phloem region. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Kohumba Nim. alternate. exstipulate. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. 7-8.5 cm long and 1. serrate. acute. rachis 15-25 cm long. Nim. Bevu. (Fam. lanceolate.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. slightly yellowish-green. Juss Syn. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. leaflets with oblique base. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. 0. opposite.Compound.0-1. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. 131 . Veppu. Veppa Balantanimba. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Limba. odour.7 cm wide. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Bakan. Limado.1 cm thick. Bakayan. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Limbado. Nimba Nimba. Melia azadirachta Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Oilevevu. Arulundi. Kahibevu.56. Nim Vemmu. Bevinama -Veppu. Nimbam.

fibres. 2. 2.2. tangentially elongated cells. Vrana.6. palisade single layered. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. thin-walled cells. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.0-14.3.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. Appendix per cent.7. Appendix per cent.Lamina . K¤miroga. Powder . IDENTITY.Triterpenoids and Sterols. ViÀarogas DOSE . 2.0-4.Jvara. stomatal index 13. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .shows dorsiventral structure. composed of thin walled. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.1-3 g.Green.2. V¡tal¡. CONSTITUENTS .4. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. 2. Appendix per cent. Prameha.2.5. shows vessels. covered externally with thick cuticle. KuÀ¶ha.5 on upper surface. palisade ratio 3. Netraroga. Appendix per cent.2.2.2. epidermis on either surface. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. 132 . traversed by a number of veins.0-11.5 on lower surface and 8. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. Ëma¿otha.

Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Kahibevu. Nimba (St. Syn. Nimba. extemal surface rough. Nimba. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Limba Nimba Nim. characteristic. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Juss. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. fracture.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. a moderate sized to fairly large. Melia azadirachta Linn. Vembu Vemu. fibrous. Nimb Bevu. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. fissured and rusty-grey.57. Meliaceae). odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Oilevevu -Veppu. considerably thick in older barks. Kadunimb. (Fam. taste. Bakam Veppai. evergreen tree. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Aruveppu Balantanimba. woody. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m.

On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.86 (blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. 2. Pittahara.2.2. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. Appendix 6 per cent. IDENTITY.Reddish-brown. lignified rectangular to polygonal.L.45.72 (blue). 0. secondary cortex absent in most cases.75-5 µ in diameter. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. Appendix 5 per cent. simple starch grains. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.5 per cent. starch grains. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.2. round with central hilum. 0. and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium.2.measuring 2. Appendix 1.2. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.90 (all blue). Appendix 7 per cent.2. ViÀaghna. cork cells. 2. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. stone cells mostly in groups.20. 0. 0. simple. CONSTITUENTS .6. measuring 2. 0. T.V.C. 2.3. having wide lumen and distinct striations. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 2.C. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends.4.7.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.L.90 (green).outer surface. 2.63 and 0. Kaphahara. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . Powder .

Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2-4 g. Prameha. Decoction should be used externally. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .D¡ha. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Rakta Pitta. Vra¸a DOSE .Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha. 135 . Jvara. of the drug in powder form. Ka¸·u. Nimb¡di C £r¸a.

15 m high with irregular branches. thin-walled.) Kuntze (Fam. Modugu.58. curved. Muttuga. tanniniferous cells. Paras Moduga. rectangular 136 . beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. 5-10 or more layered. Khakharo. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. dark-brown. Palasha (St. Chama Tha Palas -Palash.2 cm thick usually peels off. exposing light brown surface. rectangular. Muttala -Plasu. taste. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. rhytidoma 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka.1 cm thick.5 . b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. greyish to pale brown. Palash. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. cork cells. except in very arid parts. fracture. dark brown. internal surface rough.Bk) Fabaceae). having brown colour. Tesu Purasu. pale brown. moderately thick-walled. Dhak. Plas. 12 . Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. Khakhapado Dhak. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. Chettu Dhak. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. Tesu Muttug. 0. Camata. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. often in groups. slightly astringent.

CONSTITUENTS . in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends. 2. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. Appendix 12 per cent. 0. sclereids mostly in groups.10. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.10.48 and 0. starch grains simple and compound with 2 .C. Appendix 10 per cent. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.4. Appendix 1.C. 7 .3 components. Appendix 14 per cent. Powder . phloem fibres.48 and 0.50 cells in height. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. companion cells.67 (all yellow). prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.2. 0.7. dark brown coloured cells.10.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 0. phloem rays multiseriate 4 .5 per cent. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. straight. Appendix 2. 0.2. crystal fibres.75 µ in dia.6.Reddish-brown. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly.. 2. 0.2. phloem parenchyma. T. traversed by phloem rays. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.65 (all blue). 0.75 .12 cells wide. thin-walled cork cells. measuring 2.18.cells followed by a zone of 2 .3.V. 137 . 0.48. 2.13.L.. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 2. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.2.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.67 (all violet). phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.4 layers of sclereids. 0.L. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .

Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. 138 . K¤miroga.5-10 g.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Vra¸a. S¡raka . DOSE . Agnid¢paka.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Graha¸¢. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Ar¿a. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. KaÀ¡ya Sara. Gulma.

59. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. Pangara Hongar.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai.Bk) Fabaceae). also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. tangentially elongated to squarish. Mulmurumgai Badisa. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. yellowish to cream coloured.5-2. stone 139 . b) Microscopic Stem Bark . secondary cortex consists of large. exfoliating in narrow strips. smooth. parenchymatous cells. Paribhadra (St. quick growing tree. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. inner bark fibrous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. medium sized. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam. radially arranged and thin-walled.0 cm thick. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

2-4 g. 148 . Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara..CONSTITUENTS . Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Volatile Oil. of drug in powder form.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. Balak¤t. V¡taroga DOSE . V¤Àya. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡tarakta.Alkaloids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru..

pleasant. odour. creamish-brown. followed by remnants of disorganised. occurring mostly in groups. Piyar. Syn. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. pitted.5 cm wide. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . taste. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. Priyala (Sd. sweetish-oily. sclerenchymatous cells. (Farn. collapsed cells of integument. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. 0. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng.3-0.6 cm long.63. mottled with darker brown lines. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. B. Satdhan -Charal.) Anacardiaceae). hilum present at the apex of round edge. micropyle superior. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer.4-0. linear. latifolia Roxb.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Chowl. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. Shalichokha Piyal. Korka. 0. Priyalam. thick-walled. Saraparuppu Sara. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. funicle stout. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. large. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. which are of various size. b) Microscopic Seed .

0.C. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. KÀaya.94 and 0.2. 2. 0.94 and 0. 0. V¡tahara. Raktapitta. 2. BrÆha¸a. 0.08. Oil and Starch. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. Priy¡la Taila. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.7.20 g. 0.94 (blue). H¤dya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.0 µ in dia. 0. áukrakara. Pittahara. procambium bundles. and sclerenchymatous cells.54.6.27.98 (all violet).72.72. 0.5-5. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. 150 . Sara.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .D¡ha.91.72 and 0. 2.10 . DOSE . Kaphakara.L.5-5. CONSTITUENTS .V.91. Appendix 10 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0.P£gakha¸·a. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .27. Balya. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.2. 0.3.measuring 2. Bhagnas¡dhaka. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara.98 (all yellow).A creamish-brown paste. 0. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. Appendix 2.54. Appendix 0. T.2. KÀata.5 per cent. of the drug in powder form.84.L. shows numerous mesophyll cells. and oil globules. Appendix 7 per cent. V¤Àya.0 µ in dia. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.type.Albuminoids.4.08. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. 0. 0. 0.C.2. Powder . IDENTITY.

filament very long. 4 lobbed spreading.Cymose. long. and abundant in Bengal plains. stamens 4. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. 1. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal.64. ovary 2-4 celled. b) Microscopic Peduncle . Flower . peduncle cylindrical. style.4 m high shrub.5 cm across. brown. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents.3 mm in dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .) Verbenaceae). phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . anther ovate. an erect. basifixed. Priyangu (Infl. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. (Fam. epipetalous.Shows more or less wavy outline. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. 1.5 cm long.0. brown. densely hairy.5 . Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl.5-7. stigma minutely capitate.2.2. calyx. densely clothed with wooly hairs. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. hairy. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. equal in size. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. bell-shaped. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. corolla. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. tubular. 2.

Terpenes. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.7.Glycosides. DOSE . V¡tahara.6. Jvara. Ku´kum¡di Taila. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. 2. 2.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. of the drug in powder form. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Appendix per cent. M£travirajan¢ya.1-3 g. Rakta-Pitta. El¡di C£r¸a.2. spiral vessels.D¡ha. 2. Kanaka Taila.2. Appendix per cent.Brown.2. Pakv¡tis¡ra. fibres aseptate. Phenolic compound. (Mukharoga). Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. 152 . Powder . Sved¡dhikya. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. THERAPEUTIC USES .3. Rakta. aseptate fibres. groups of thin-walled.fibres.2. Appendix per cent. N¢lik¡dya Taila. elliptical.4. Sandh¡n¢ya. xylem consists of usual elements. Vra¸aropa¸a. Pras¡dana. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Appendix 2. Resin and Saponin.2. IDENTITY.2. Daurgandhyahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS .

Nellu. Jhona Arishi. (Fam. an annual herb. Dhana. Vr¢hi. Odalu. Nelver Dhanyamu. sclerenchymatous cells. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Cala. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Paddy Shalichokha. Damgara. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Shali (Rt.05-0. Nellu Tandulamul. Dhana Bhatto. Chawl. pitted vessels and 153 . Coke Chaval. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Akki -Ari. Bhatta. Poaceae). cylindrical. both consisting of round to oval.) cultivated throughout India. b) Microscopic Root . Corava. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. cortex differentiated into three zones. thick-walled. Dhanarmul. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous.Greyish-cream. soft. Dh¡nya. Sali.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. composed of thick-walled. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Nivara -Chaval. Dhan Rice. sclerenchymatous cells. exodermis 1-2 layered. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Biyyamu Chaval.65. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Bhata. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. thin. smooth. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Powder .

Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Laghu. Rucya. 2. Svarya. Var¸ak¤t.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Balya.50 g.2. CakÀuÀya. 154 . Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent.2. BrÆha¸a.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Kaphahara.StanyakÀaya. 2. M£trala.3.4.7. Appendix per cent. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . KaÀ¡ya Guru. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Pittahara. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. H¤dya.2.2.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Shankhapushpi. Flower . 1-5 cm long. sepals narrowly.White or pinkish.Shortly petiolate.Usually branched. corolla shortly discoid. yellowish-brown to light brown. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. linear-lanceolate.66. Shankhavela. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.Slender. Leaf . Shankhauli --Sankhahuli.1-0. acute. light green.P. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. alternate with the petals. light green. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. a prostrate.5-2 cm long and 0. about 0. perennial herb with a woody root stock.1-0. inserted deep in the corolla tube. Karakhuratt. ovary superior and bicarpellary. Stem . linear-lanceolate. cylindrical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. free. epipetalous. found throughout the country. spreading. sub-erect. Kakkanangudi.) Convolvulaceae). 0. 0.5 cm broad. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Sankhapuspi. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. sparsely hairy.4 cm thick. 155 . hairy on both surfaces. stamen 5.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. Sankha pushpin (W. hairy. cylindrical.

both having round to oval. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. Stem . elongated. round to oval in shape.0. xylem consisting of usual elements.Brown.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. phloem composed of sieve elements. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. thin.Appears nearly circular in outline. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. measuring 3 . xylem rays and parenchyma. Lamina . pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. present on both surfaces. hairs unicellular.Fruit .walled cells. elliptical. phloem a narrow zone. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. endoderrnis single layered. simple and compound starch grains. covered with thick cuticle. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. at places unicellular hairs present. Seed . pale brown pericarp. simple and composed of 2-3 components. xylem consists of vessels. thick-walled cells. covered with thick cuticle. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. secretory cells present in this region. Powder .. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. phloem.Light yellowish-green.8 µ in dia. fibres and tracheids.Capsule. mm. oblong globose with coriaceous. palisade two layered. 156 . cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. palisade ratio 6-9. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. present in cortex. LeafMidrib . and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. tanniniferous. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. 13.Shows single layered epidermis. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. mm. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. minutely puberulous. epidermis single layered.. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. . unicellular hairs. vascular bundle bicollateral. fibres and parenchyma. cortex differentiated in two zones. starch grains solitary or in groups.8-17.

ËyuÀya. Appendix 2. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Appendix per cent. 2. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Appendix per cent.2.IDENTITY. Ras¡yana.3-8 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.6. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Medhya.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Appendix per cent.3. Br¡hma.M¡nasaroga. Tikta.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Pittahara.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Agastyahar¢tak¢.4. 2. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Ras¡yana.2. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.2. Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent.7. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Kaphahara.2.

7-7 cm long. annual herb.67. 158 . 0. ovate. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. short. Flower . ribbed.Capsule. smooth. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. greenish-yellow. Fruit . 2.5-2 mm thick. Saptala (W. free to the base. Chagulputputi Satala.Involucre broadly campanulate. gland semilunate. Leaf . ciliolate. 0. odour and taste not distinct. horned. 3. Kalli -Chasma Lantha.5 mm across at the mouth.8 cm wide. having a few secondary roots. filament pubescent. linear. lanceolate or linear oblong. gradually tapering. sessile. sub-sessile. solitary. 20-40 cm high.P. 4-5 cm long. Bilikalli.celled with or without attached pedicel. Siju. (Fam. pale brown. Carmas¡hv¡. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Joyachi. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 1 mm long. 3-4 mm in dia. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. cylindrical.1. style. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡.2-0. lobes short.Small.) Euphorbiaceae). subacute. fracture. shortly 2-fid at the apex. a much branched. trilocular. odour and taste indistinct.

rarely a few oil globules also present. mature root shows thin walled cork. tangentially elongated elliptical.3 mm long.75 µ in dia. rounded to oval. covered externally with thick.5-19. composed of sieve elements. rectangular. 2. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. found scattered in phloem region. 159 . tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. centre occupied by a pith. consisting of thick-walled. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. single layered epidermis. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. measuring 5. rounded to oval. circular to oval. filled with yellowish-brown content. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. fibres elongated and aseptate. secondary phloem narrow. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. endodermis not distinct. secondary cortex consists of 4. Leaf- Midrib . hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. fibres. grooved at one side. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. flattended. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. solitary or in groups. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. fibres and vessels having simple pits. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. rounded at the base. tracheids and medullary rays. all elements thick-walled and lignified. some rounded. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. Stem . stone cells oval to elongated. secondary xylem consists of vessels. elliptical.6 layers of oval.Young root shows exfoliated. elliptical. b) Microscopic Root .Seed . tangentially elongated cells. epidermis single layered. fibres and tracheids. with wide lumen present in this region. parenchymatous cells. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct.shows slightly convex outline. thickwalled and lignified. palisade single layered present on both sides. striated cuticle. leprous tuberculate testa.25 µ in diameter. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. traversed by numerous xylem rays. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. all elements. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. thick-walled lignified. parenchymatous cells. simple. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. starch grains simple. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. vessels having simple pits. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. lignified cells with wide lumen. secondary xylem composed of vessels. parenchymatous cells.

CONSTITUENTS .2. RukÀa. simple.3. Gulma.Light yellow.2. and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. 2.C.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. 160 .50 g. DOSE . Vibandha. Ud¡vartta.V.87 (violet). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. Udararoga. 2.04 and 0. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf.67. lignified with wide lumen. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. T. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. oval to elongated.2. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf.Ën¡ha.C. of the drug for decoction.46 (brown) and 0. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a.L. Appendix per cent.2. Visarpa.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. stone cells thick-walled.4. shows vessels with simple pits. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. RaktadoÀahara. rounded to oval starch grains.Powder .2. aseptate fibres.L. 2.0. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara. elliptical.46.2. Mi¿raka Sneha. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix 2.7. Appendix per cent.6.57 (all yellow).04. V¡tal¡.

brown. var. graveolens Benth. graveolens DC. Syn. Shulupa. Sova Sabasige --Badishep.. A. Satahva (Fr. glabrous. b) Microscopic Fruit . ex Flem. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. graveolens Linn. Apiaceae). sowa Roxb. dorsal 161 .. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. A. Shepa. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. mericarps usually separate and free. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. a tall. vittae. slightly sharp taste. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. Sulpha. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. yellowish membranous wings. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. glabrous. filiform and incospicuous. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. parenchymatous. (Fam.. slightly raised. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. mesocarp. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. P. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. dark brown. and a warm.68.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. often stalk attached. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. akin to caraway. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. 4 mm long.

0. 2.Essential Oil.2.59 (blue) and 0. shows spiral vessels. Powder .6.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. each costae with vascular strands. Appendix 3 per cent. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3-6 g. 2. Appendix 4 per cent.2.á£la.68 (all yellow).C.2. Appendix 15 per cent. 2.37 (pink) 0. IDENTITY.2. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. Atis¡ra. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. cellulosic. carpophore split.5 per cent.L.68 (violet). Jvara. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 1. 2.7. Netra Roga DOSE .59 and 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.Brown. CONSTITUENTS . endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Appendix 2. V¡tahara.L.2. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.2.2. 2. Kaphahara. Vra¸a. 162 . passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels.10 T.costae three.C.4. Appendix 14 per cent. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.

parenchymatous cells. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. Munga. Sajna. Muringa. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. pericycle forming a broken ring. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Moringaceae). Leaflet . Nugge ele -Murinna. vascular bundle collateral. central region 163 b) Microscopic . Shewgachi pane Sajana. entire. Bahala.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. oval to elliptical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. a small or medium sized tree. slender. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Mocaka -Sajina. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. AkÀ¢va. thickened. leaflet 1. consisting of pericyclic fibres. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces.2-2 cm long and 0. pith and phloem parenchyma. Mungna Neegge.5-1 cm wide.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Tishnagandha. Muringa Elai Sevaga. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. ovate or obovate. Shigru (Lf. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Rachis . pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. and articulated at the base.) Gaertn. (Fam. odour and taste not distinct.69. commonly cultivated throughout the country. Segata pana. Syn. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. palisade single layered. Sekato. thin walled. Segata. elliptic. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers.

05.C.3.C.4. 0.26. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. Appendix per cent.V. spiral vessels.2.6. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.38.69 (blue) and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.2.2.94 (blue).94 (violet). unicellular hairs with blunt tip. Powder -Greyish-green.46 (green). Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0.0. B ¤Æhana. 0. áukra N¡¿aka.2.46 (both blue). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. RukÀa.2. 0. Pittahara.26.94 (yellow) in visible light. 0. stomata anornocytic. Under U.05.46 (all red) & 0. palisade ratio 6-11.occupied by a crescent-shaped.26 (all green).18. 0. 0. Appendix 2.87 (blue). 0. vein islets number 50-65.36 (green).Carbohydrate. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.20. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. 2. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.05. K¤mihara.36. 0.18. 0.7.59 (blue). CONSTITUENTS .L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.L.52 (green). 2. palisade cells. 0. 0. 0.53 (yellow). shows groups of spongy parenchyma. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. 0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya.36 (yellowish green). Medohara. 2. 0.30 (pink). T.46 (dark green) & 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Appendix per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.82 (yellow) and 0. 2.2. 0. (all green). 0. 0. Protein. Appendix per cent. Sirovirecaka 164 . 0. 0.69 (yellow). V¡tahara. 0.

165 . Gulma.Ratnagiri Rasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pl¢haroga. ViÀatinduka Taila. K¤miroga. DOSE . Galaga¸·a.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.10 .áopha. Vidradhi. Medoroga. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .

brown to dark brown. (Fam. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. spicy pungent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. perisperm consists of polygonal. Beraelam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. thin walled. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. taste. odour. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. sclerenchymatous. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. 0. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho.. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. membraneous aril. aromatic.) Zingiberaceae). Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock.70. parenchymatous cells. Sthulaela (Sd.3 cm wide. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. perispenn encloses the 166 . thin-walled.4 cm long.

2. DOSE .2. 2.6. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. polygonal. IDENTITY.5 -1 g. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. simple.S¡rivady¡sava. Appendix 1. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter.2. 2. Mukharoga. Ka¸·u. (Seed). 2. rounded to oval.(Seed). Powder .2.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. 167 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.5 per cent. Kaphahara. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 2. Note . of the drug in powder form. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 4 per cent.2. H¤ll¡sa. K¡sa.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). 2. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. shows fragments of testa.2.endosperm and embryo. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. thin-walled. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. T¤À¸¡. Rocaka. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta.2. rich in protein. RukÀa.3.Light brown. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.0.7.áv¡sa. Tikta Laghu. parenchymatous cells. both composed of polygonal. Appendix 14 per cent. oil globules. Mukha¿odhaka. V¡tahara. perisperm cells.2. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. Chardi.4.10 CONSTITUENTS .

taste. fracture. Jimmi. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. internal surface smooth. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. Tumbura. thin-walled. thick-walled cells. light yellow to pale brown. Tumburudra. Tejovanti -Thumboonal.1-0.71. cork 15-20 layers of tabular.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places.0. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. stem and branches. Z. phloem fibres thickwalled. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. Rutaceae). Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. aromatic. Thumbooni. short. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. rather deeply furrowed. brownish.) Roxb. odour. Tejovati (St. stone cells found in 168 .2 cm thick. sharp prickles. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. aromatic pungent. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. lignified. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . aseptate and arranged in tangential rows.Bk. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. armed with long. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. parenchymatous cells. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. (Fam. external surface pale brown.

measuring 2.7.5 per cent. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. 169 . DOSE .tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.13. aseptate fibres.75 µ in diameter.2. K¡sa. P¡cana.3. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Powder . Appendix 8. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. CONSTITUENTS . stone cells. Mukharoga.2.6.75 . Appendix 1. Ëmav¡ta. Appendix 12 per cent. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Yellowish-brown. round and oval measuring 2.2. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. áv¡sa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. shows fragments of cork cells. 2.10-20 g.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. 2. a Volatile Oil and Resin.75 µ in diameter.75 .5 per cent. Appendix 2. starch grains round and oval. Hikk¡. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa).13.4. Medhya.Aruci. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug for decoction.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Rucya. 2.2. Appendix 13 per cent. oil globules and starch grains. Kaphahara. IDENTITY. 2. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

blackish-brown externally and pale.5-3 cm long hairy. (Fam. Thulasi. pedicels longer than calyx. coloured. entire or serrate.72. fracture. Stem . elliptic oblong. found throughout the country. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. externally purplish-brown to black. lower lip 170 . K¤À¸atulas¢. hairy.5-5 cm long 1. odour. internally cream. hairy. wiry.) an erect. shortly apiculate. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. annual herb. odour faintly aromatic.3. 30 . slender.2.Erect.2 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. Leaf . upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. herbaceous. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi.Purplish or crimson coloured. small in close whorls. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. petiole thin. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . characteristic. taste. branched. violet internally. Tulasi (W. Lamiaceae). Flower . aromatic. much branched. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. woody. Shree Tulasi. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. obtuse or acute. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan.P. pubescent on both sides. soft.Thin. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. about 1. sub quadrangular.60 cm high. branched. pubescent.6 .

171 . pungent. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. mucilaginous when soaked in water. round to oval polygonal. nearly smooth. each with one seed. three vascular bundles situated centrally. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. pitted with pointed ends. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. odour. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. 0.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. fibres with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. measuring 22-27 in dia. aromatic. phloem consisting of sieve elements. elongated. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. thin-walled. vessels pitted.shows somewhat cordate outline. b) Microscopic Root . pubescent. thin-walled. found scattered in phloem.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. phloem consists of sieve elements. fibres and parenchyma. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. membranous.A group of 4 nutlets. xylem consists of vessels. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. taste. Leaf- Petiole . glandular trichomes short. corolla about 4 mm long. Stem . pungent. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate.1 cm long. middle one larger than other two. aromatic. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. thin-walled. fibre tracheides. rectangular.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. Seed . veined calyx. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. occasionally a few cells collapsed. lateral two short and central two largest. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. brown. pungent. taste. slightly mucilaginous. parenchymatous cells. taste. slightly notched at the base.Rounded to oval. no odour. odour.epidermis. long. xylem surrounded by phloem. enclosed in an enlarged. parenchymatous cells. in groups and rarely in singles. tracheids. Fruit . slightly compressed. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. thin-walled. vessels pitted. filled with brown content. Midrib . tracheids fibres and parenchyma.

Powder .3. value 0. On cooling spray. Appendix 8 per cent. parenchymatous cells.16 on lower surface. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. Appendix 4 per cent.7.L.L. a few containing reddish brown contents. Durgandhihara 172 . in thoroughly vanillin . V¡tahara. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10).1. thin walled fibres. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.C. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . slightly raised above the level of epidermis. Appendix 2. Rucya. oil globules. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. Kaphahara.5 per cent. vein islet number 31 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. CONSTITUENTS . rounded to oval.8. Record Rf.C. IDENTITY.2. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.2.7. values of eugenol and caryophyllence.Greenish: shows thin-walled. Appendix 10 per cent.2.Lamina .minutes Under observation. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Rf.Essential Oil. T. palisade ratio 3. 2.6.4. Appendix 1. Pittavardhin¢. RukÀa.35. H¤dya. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.15 . Eugenol (orange brown) approx. 2.2.2.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole.2. Tikta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. 2.

KuÀ¶ha. Chardi. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed).A¿mar¢. K¡sa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Netraroga. áv¡sa. Hikk¡.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡r¿va á£la DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. K¤miroga. 173 .

thin. measuring 22-27 µ dia.2 cm wide. elliptic-oblong.73. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells.) 30-60 cm high. much branched annual herb.5-3 cm long. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi.shows cordate outline.5-5 cm long. hairy. obtuse or acute. glandular trichomes short. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. covering trichomes multicellular. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. Holy Basil Tulasi. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. found throughout the country. middle one larger than the other two. rarely slightly reflexed at tip.. upper epidermis. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. LeafPetiole . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. petiole 1. Lamiaceae). uniseriate 1-8 celled long. characteristic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. 1. an erect. three vascular bundles situated centrally. K¤À¸atulas¢. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. taste. Tulasi (Lf. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. (Fam. aromatic. odour. pubescent on both surfaces. petiolate. consisting of xylem and phloem. balloon-shaped head. 174 b) Microscopic . entire or serrate. and 2-8 celled.6-3.

0. 2. 0. 0..V. 2. Powder . Caryophyllene.54 (blue). 0.85 & 0. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.93 (all0 yellow). except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0.21. 0.2. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.88 and 0.93 (violet) and 0.08 (violet). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.33. 0.6.04.L. 0.8.08.98 (blue). 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. Lamina . 0. vein islet number 31-33.4. IDENTITY.08 (both green).04. 0.93 (both light green).83 (blue).L. Appendix per cent. 175 .Midrib . 0. 0.2. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. 0. 0.Light-green.45 (violet). 0. palisade and spongy parenchyma. Appendix 2.12 (light green). 0.33 (violet).21 (brown).33. 0.2. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.75.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.7. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. Appendix per cent.85 (blue). 0.83 (all pink) 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.C. 0.45.03 (dark green).epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. 0.45. 0. T. 0.12 (light violet).04. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.93 (pink) & 0. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. shows fragments of polygonal.98 (blue). 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.21.C.epidermis. 0. 0.54.12.33 (both green) 0. Under U.2.).3.83. 2. Nerol and Camphene etc. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.75 (violet).30.45 (yellowish green). Appendix per cent.2. palisade ratio 3. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. 0.2. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.

V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form. K¤miroga. Tikta. 176 . Pittahara. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE .2-3 g. Hikk¡. KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES .Aruci. áv¡sa. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. Kaphahara. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. H¤dya. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. K¡sa. RukÀa.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Prati¿y¡ya.

cortex composed of spherical to oblong. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. upper side marked with alternately arranged. fracture. Vacha (Rz.74.5 cm thick. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. aromatic. Ugr¡. somewhat collenchymatous. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. cells towards periphery. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. smaller. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. pungent and bitter. and 0. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. Ghodavaca Vasambu. broadly. thin-walled cells of various sizes. buff coloured intemally. short. Araceae). somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. Gora-bach Baje. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. large. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. odour.5-1.) semiaquatic herb. Vekhandas -Varch. enclosing large air spaces. Ghodvach Bach. triangular. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. (Fam. taste. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars.Shows single layered epidermis. Rhizome . rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells.

Petroleum ether-No change ii.2. endodermis distinct. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. 2. Powder as such: . parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.2. Powder .L. Chloroform-Light green iii. 2. 2. spherical.Buff coloured. 2. Benzene-No change IDENTITY.2.6.14 (violet) and 0. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. Starch and Tannin.4.C. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.region. CONSTITUENTS .. stele composed of round. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.2.7. present in cortex and ground tissue.10 T. 178 . reticulate.2. Appendix per cent. 2.Yellowish-cream b. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. Appendix 2.C. starch grains simple.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. Appendix per cent.3. Extracts in i. Appendix per cent.2. Eugenol and Asarone).73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. shows fibres. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.L. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside).

V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. áv¡sa. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Medhya. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. S¡rasvata. 1. K¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara. 179 .2 g. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a.á£la. K¤mihara. Kaphahara. Ka¸¶hya. DOSE . M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. C£r¸a. Apasm¡ra. Ëdhm¡na. Kar¸a Sr¡va. Tikta Laghu. Unm¡da.Vac¡di Taila. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Vibandha.

Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Vatsanabha. Meethabisha. Vatsanabha (Rt. Bachhnaag. Sth¡varaviÀa.1. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. conical. poisonous. parenchymatous cells. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. odour indistinct. Mithalelia. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. Ranunculaceae). cartilaginous. ovoid. Nabhi. thin-walled. Teliya Bish Basanalli. Beesh. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. plant is an erect. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. perennial herb.4 . small portions of stem sometimes attached.5 cm. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. tapering downwards to a point. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Vatsanabhi. Vatsanabhi. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone.75. suberised. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. dark brown to blackish-brown. rarely 5 cm long.) (Fam. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. fracture. Basanaag Bisa. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . 0. roots are generally collected late in September.8 cm thick. 2-4. rough due to root scars. taste. Naabhi Bachnak. without or with a few intercellular spaces. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. papillose on outside. occasionally separated due to breakage. Mahura. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely.

of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. Appendix 5.6. Trid°Àahara. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre.C. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. 2.5 per cent.10. ÙikÀ¸a.L. 2. occupying more than half the radius. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.20. RukÀa.C. Laghu.endodermis.2. Appendix 24 per cent. consisting of round to oval cells. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. 0. 0. UÀ¸a. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. inner bark parenchymatous.56. Appendix 8 per cent.2. IDENTITY.96 (both orange). Appendix 2 per cent.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. CONSTITUENTS . some scattered. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. present in cortical cells. S £tasekhara Rasa. 0.39 and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Light grey. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. 0.7. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .3. metaxylem vessels met in centre. Powder . V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. xylem exarch. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. 0. cambium having 6 10 angles.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.39. Viyav¡yi.2. containing a few groups of phloem strands. shows vessels.L. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex.2.4. Anandabhairava Rasa. often forming 'V' shaped ring. T. 2.2.2. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. 0.74 and 0. Appendix 2. a few aseptate fibres. Sv®dala.

V¡taroga. 182 . Sannip¡ta. DOSE .30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Jvar¡tis¡ra.15 . Kanharoga.THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡takaphajvara. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.

smooth except for protuberances at some places. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. thinwalled. thin-walled cells. Bhonykoru. Fabaceae).76. usually does not break. stone cells moderately thick-walled. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. Vidari (Tub. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Eagio. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. starchy and somewhat porous. sweetish. Nelagumbala.Rt. but pliable. Gumadi belli. Nelagumbula. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Vid¡rik¡. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. taste. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Bhuikumra Vidari. outer surface reddish-brown. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . cut surface creamish-brown. Bhoikolu.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. (Fam. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Bhumikusmanda.

secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. V¡tahara. distributed throughout this region. present in all parenchymatous cells.D¡ha. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells.2. Appendix 17 per cent. and also rarely in stone cells. 2. Appendix 24 per cent.5 . Raktapitta.7. a few latex duct also present. THERAPEUTIC USES . having central hilum and striations. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2. Appendix 4 per cent.Buff coloured. CONSTITUENTS . xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. Ras¡yana.6. Daurbalya.13. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. J¢van¢ya. 2. Appendix 2. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening.5 . M£trala.2.4.2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. radially elongated cells. IDENTITY.3-6 g.75 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form. 2.5 per cent. Stanyada. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). Manmath¡bhra Rasa. Pittahara.2. Svarya. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. somewhat round. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. Angmarda.2. DOSE . B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Gluconic and Malic acids.. áoÀa. phloem fibres much elongated. fragments of cork.3. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. 184 .and pits. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. Var¸ya.75 µ in dia.Marma Gu¶ik¡. angular to oval. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. highly thickened. Appendix 4.13. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. Powder .2. measuring 5. lignified with narrow lumen. Balya.

Jav Barley Cheno. seed coat appears as a colourless line. pale-greenish-yellow. erect herb. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. sativum Pers. taste. odour. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. ovoid-and tapering at both ends.77. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. sclerenchymatous fibres. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. an annual. round to oval wavy walled cells. not distinct. smooth. spongy parenchymatous cells.2-0.) Poaceae). Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. 50-100 cm high. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. sweetish-acrid. Syn. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. thick-walled. square or quadrilateral. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. cultivated chiefly in North India. elliptic. followed by more or less. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. polygortal inner epidermal cells. Yava (Fr. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . oblong. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea.3 cm wide. (Fam. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. followed by 2-3 layers. H. about 1 cm long and 0.

2. Appendix 4 per cent.Creamish-white. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. IDENTITY. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.68. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.2. Medahara. Orientoside. 0. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.24.83 (all violet) and 0. 2.5 per cent. 0. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz.V. 0. starch grains simple.22. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. V¤Àya.83 and 0. Powder .) CONSTITUENTS .7 T. Pur¢Àak ¤t.2.4. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.Starch. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.narrow lumens. 0. 0. 0. 0.72 (all pink. Var¸ya 186 .92 (all grey).31.2.16. 0.44. endosperm divided into two zones.68. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 2. V¡tak¤t.92 (yellow). Globulin.5 per cent.L. 0. Sugars. Appendix 1.31. 0.6. M£trahara. 0. round to oval.2. Proteins (Albumin.53. Svarya. Appendix 4 per cent.2.L. 0.C. simple starch grains.06.65 & 0. Orientin.36. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.5 2. Sthairyakara. 0.3. sclerenchymatous fibres. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.10. Appendix 2.45.C. Fats. Pittahara. 0.2.10. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.2. 0. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. 2. 0. 0. and the rest starch layers.14. Kaphahara.5 per cent. 0. 0. Lekhana. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. Appendix 5. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.22. 0.56.31. Vitexin etc.

100 . Medoroga.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. K¡sa. Tvagroga DOSE . Gandharvahasta Taila. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.200 g. P¢nasa. of the drug. Urustambha. THERAPEUTIC USES .áv¡sa. 187 . Prameha. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. T¤À¸¡. El¡dya Modaka. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Kanharoga. Dh¡nvantara Taila.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

5-1 cm long. opposite. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. gradually tapering. Y¡sa. oblong. Duralabha -Venkatithura. 0. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. hard.8 cm long. a small thorny shrub. terete. ballidurabi. Stem . drooping. glabrous. Neladangara. mucronate obtuse. Desv. alternate. extipulate.P. no taste and odour. dark brown. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. (Fam. striate. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi.5-0.78.Cylindrical. slightly rough at basal region with slender. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). nearly 0.2-1 cm thick. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . Javasa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. elliptical. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown.) Fabaceae). short. secondary and tertiary root absent. stipules green. fracture. Leaf . glabrous.Simple. sharp axillary spines upto 3. 20-30 cm long and 0. Punjab.7 cm broad. filled with reddish-brown contents. branched. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. Yavasaka (W.1-1 cm thick.Well developed. cork cambium single layered. secondary cortex almost 188 . Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. 0. radially arranged cork cells.

paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. xylem consists of vessels. parenchymatous cells. phloem composed of sieve elements. tracheids. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. a few with thick wall and simple pits.absent. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. parenchyma and fibres. present throughout the region.75 µ in diameter. vascular bundle collateral. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. tracheids and fibres. rounded to oval. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. thin-walled. xylem fibres. xylem situated above phlome. epidermis single layered. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region.appears biconvex in outline.14. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. thin-walled. Leaf- Petiole . 189 . hypodermis 2-3 layered. phloem composed of sieve elements. filled with tannin.5. pitted vessels. xylem consists of vessels. tanniniferous cells. Midrib . Stem . 5. hypodermis 1-2 layered. parenchymatous cells. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. fibres. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. tracheids. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. tangentially elongated cells. Powder . starch grains simple. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin.appears circular in outline. 3-45 cells long. filled with tannin. covered with cuticle. angular.5-14. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. pith composed of a few thin-walled. elongated.epidermis consisting of single layered cells.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle.Greenish-brown. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. simple. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. Lamina . covered externally with thick cuticle. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded.75 µ in dia. some cells filled with tannin.

Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2.2. Jvara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. D¢pana.50 g. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .Chardi. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. 2.Sugars (Melizitose. Appendix 10 per cent.2. 2.6. Sucrose. Tikta.5 per cent.20 . K¡sa.IDENTITY. V¡tarakta. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Arimed¡di Taila. Invert Sugars). of the drug in powder form for decoction. Visarpa DOSE .5 per cent. 2. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Kaphahara. Raktapitta. Appendix 13. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 2 per cent.2.2.2. 190 .3.4. T¤À¸¡. CONSTITUENTS .7.2.

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