THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

2.2.2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.2.2.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.Types of Stomata 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.2.1.3.1.2.) Desv 177 1.1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1.4. 1.1.2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.2.5.1.1.2-Sieves 1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2.1-Nessler Cylinder.1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.2.2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.2-Thermometers 1.2.2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.1.1-Sampling of drugs 2.2.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.1 Testing Drugs 2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .

3.3.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.2.3.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3 Limit Tests 2.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.3.3.3.3.1-Powder Fineness 2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.1.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.Weights and Measures 5.2-Refractive Index 2.2.3.1.

accordingly. II.P. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. II would be official. Vol.I.). Part-I. Part-I. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). Vol. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. would be deemed to have been amended vii . Part-I. the Dangerous Drugs Act. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. II. In general. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. Vol.

Italics . Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml).GENERAL NOTICES Title . Mesh Number . Identity. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . If the odour persists to be discernible. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. Synonyms . substances or processes described in Appendix. English. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Introductory Para . indicated in monograph.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. Purity and Strength . When the term “drop” is used. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. it is described as having odour. Odour and Taste .Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. distribution and method of collection. Hindi. Weights and Measures . The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. Ayurvedic Formulary of India.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. if any. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India .Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. viii .Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part.

Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. shall constitute standards.For statutory purpose. micro-organisms. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations.C. fungi. arsenic and heavy metals. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. acid-insoluble ash. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. with one of the four meanings given below. under Description.) . Constant Weight . However. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. wherever given. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. Purity and Strength. Vol.soluble extractive. sliminess.g. colour.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. the expression per cent (%). water-soluble ash. The quantitative tests e. is used. pests.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. even by applying known reference standards. Constituents . the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. those of definition of the part and source plants. Percentage of Solutions . will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. ix . the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. total ash. water.Under this head. and show no abnormal odour. However.In defining standards.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. and Identity. ether-soluble extractive. which he uses. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . pesticides. according to circumstances. mould or other evidence of deterioration. Part-I. moisture content. in 100 grammes of product.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. statements appearing in the API. V. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement.L. if of equivalent accuracy. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. and other animal matter including animal excreta. alcohol-soluble extractive. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. Standards .

When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.000 parts x . are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). and dust particles.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Reagents and Solutions . Solutions . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. all solutions are prepared with purified water. at a stated temperature.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. fibres. are intended to apply at that temperature. thermometric scale. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Percentage of alcohol .56 oC.000 parts More than 10. Statements of solubilities. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Temperature .All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. Solubility . unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. such as fragment of filter papers. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices.

PS. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. cm.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. 0. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally.I. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. 1M. µ. Part –I and Part-II. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. 0. Fam. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . IN. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents.P. TS. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. mg.1 N. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. l. mm. unless otherwise stated. Kg.5 N. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. g.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. ml.

St. Mar. Tel. Kan. Rt. Rt. Pl. Tam. Guj. Punj. Tub. Ori. xii . Pseudo-bulb Rt. Assam. Rz. Wd. Wh. Sd.Sansk. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Wd. Mal. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Lf. Bk. Eng. St. Fr. Kash. Beng. Bk. Ht.

(Fam.231 µ in 1 . with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. cambium 2-5 layered. b) Microscopic Root . more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. an annual. Akalakarabha. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. thin-walled.1. characteristically astringent and pungent. Akarakarabha (Rt. elongated. tapering slightly at both ends.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. external surface rough. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. slightly aromatic.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells.8 µ in width. Asteraceae). Akallakara. brown. vessels pitted. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 1. 53. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. taste. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. xylem fibres thick-walled. bark upto 3 mm thick. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. Akarakara Akkaraka. parenchymatous cells. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. cylindrical. Akravu Akkalakara. shrivelled. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. odour. 7-15 cm in length. not easily separable. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.2 .37-28.

3. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent.2. also gives positive tests for inulin.2. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. IDENTITY.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin).Prati¿y¡ya. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. D¢pana.0. K¡sa. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. V¡jikara. radially elongated. 2. Kaphahara.4. 2.7. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. of the drug in powder form. running straight. medullary rays numerous. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa.Ash coloured.5 -1 g. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.6. Appendix 2 percent.2.2. secondary phloem and medullary rays. NaÀ¶¡rtava.2. Aj¢rna. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.length having narrow lumen. Grdhras¢.2. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. á£laroga. uniseriate rays very rare. bi to tri and multiseriate. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix 10 percent.Kum¡ry¡sava. 2. Appendix 8 percent. áotha. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. secondary phloem and medullary rays. áukrala. áv¡sa. Udararoga. Powder . secondary phloem. Appendix 22 percent. 2 . Danta¿£la DOSE . Buddhivardhaka. Svedakara. Pittahara. ray cells thick-walled.

found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. odour. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. Akshoda (Cotldn. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Juglandaceae). oily sweet. taste. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. irregularly corrugated. 3 . monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. broken pieces. Powder . small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. under this. collapsed. slightly curved. coriaceous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. followed by more or less compressed.Cream coloured.Shows 1-2 layered. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. Cotyledon . (Fam. endosperm mostly single layered. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. not distinct.2. Sailabhava. parenchymatous cells.) large deciduous. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. creamish-brown. thin-walled. radially elongated.

V¤Àya. Balya. KÀaya. Appendix Not more than 0.Walnut oil and Tannin.4.10 .2. Appendix Not less than 10.7. 2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. CONSTITUENTS . áukral.IDENTITY. Appendix 2. Sara. Kaphakara.2.2. 4 . DOSE .2. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. V¡taroga.5 percent.2.0 percent.0 percent. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.KÀata. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.25 g. 2. Appendix Not less than 7.6. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. ViÀ¶ambhi. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.3. B¤´ha¸a.2.

) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn.Bk. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. parenchymatous. fracture. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. Ambazham. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled.3. consisting of tangentially elongated. mangifera Willd. S. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. laminated. non Gamble (Fam. Jangali Ambo. Jangli Aam Ambate. thin. Wild Mango Ambeda. Ranamba. with reddish-brown contents. S. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Kurz. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. radially arranged. Stem Bark. Anbalamu. upto 27 m high and 2. acuminata Roxb.. Anacardiaceae). Amra Indian Hog Plum. Ranambo Ambada. and 5 . Amvara -Mampusli. grey having lenticels. Ambadam Amratakamu. thin-walled cells. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Amra. parenchymatous cells. a few outer cells exfoliated. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Ambalam. internal surface reddish-yellow. Mampuiti.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. curved. deciduous tree. Syn. f. Ambado. tangentially elongated. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Amrata (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. a small aromatic. external surface smooth.5 m in girth.

Under U. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. 0. CONSTITUENTS .96 (blue).KÀata. prominent lysogenous cavities are present.2. shows cork cells. Raktapitta.2.. Ka¸¶hya. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Pittakara.2. 0. D¡ha DOSE . phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. 2. lignified. 6 . 0.96. Not more than 1 per cent.2.33.(greyish brown). containing rosette crystals and starch grains.2.Light brown. 2. Appendix Not more than 0.C. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.5 per cent. Appendix 2.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES .40 and 0. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.7. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.87 (all greyish brown). 0. stone cells.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres.6. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.33.5-10 g.87 (blue) and 0. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. 0. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. thick-walled. Rucik¤t. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.2. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width.75-14 µ in dia. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.L.L. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder .V.4. simple. of the drug in powder form for decoction. T. V¡tahara. 2.C. KÀaya. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands.3. 2. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.

erect. Stem . found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. subsessile. hypogynous. (Fam.) Amaranthaceae). Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. dorsifixed. May£raka. numerous. solid. membranous. anther. Apamarga (W. not distinct. cylindrical. yellowish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. yellowish-brown.1-1. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . bisexual.0.0. two celled. sessile. 0. the perianth lobes. perianth segments 5. PratyakpuÀpa.Cylindrical tap root. opposite. opposite. rough due to presence of some root scars.3-0. wavy margin. hairy.0 cm in thickness.free. 7 . erect. secondary and tertiary roots present. hollow when dry. stamens 5. decussate. Leaf . bracteate with two bracteoles.5 cm in cut pieces. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. Flower .Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. contorted or quincuncial. exstipulate. filament short. slightly ribbed. a stiff.Simple. actinomorphic.9 m high herb. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. odour. greenish-white. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. one spine lipped.3 . obovate. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs.4. branched.P. 0. gradually tapering. Kharamaµjar.

small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. brown. thin layers of cambium. spiral. rectangular.Shows crescent-shaped outline. single. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. present in pith. two medullary bundles. vessels annular. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. followed 8 .Mature root shows 3-8 layered. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. oval to rectangular. stigma. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. thin-walled cork cells. Midrib . tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. b) Microscopic Root . endospermic. vessels simple pitted. truncate at the apex. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. style. demarcating the xylem rings. capitate. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. 3-4 celled stalk. xylem composed of usual elements. epidermis single layered. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. unilocular with single ovule. LeafPetiole . lignified. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. composed of parenchymatous cells. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. 2-5 celled. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. Stem . Seed . ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. thin-walled. either separate throughout or found in some cases. scalariform and pitted. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. perianth and bracteoles. cortex 6-10 layered.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. fibres being absent. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. round at the base. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cork cells. ovary superior.Sub-cylindric. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. cortical and pith cells.Shows a single layered epidermis. on both surfaces. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. Fruit . parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. syncarpous. elongated. fibres pitted.gynoecium bicarpellary.

Gu·apippali.0 on upper surface.0-20.5-9. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Tikta Sara. 9 .3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Udara Roga.4. slightly elongated in upper. 2. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. Lamina . Chedana. palisade ratio 7. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. V¡maka. Medohara. Medoroga DOSE .2. Powder . Appendix 2. Apac¢. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells.á£la. mm.Shows single layered.2. scalariform and pitted thickening. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. rectangular.2. of the drug for decoction. 2.6. non-lignified cells.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara. shows fragments of elongated. Ar¿a. vessels with annular. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.7. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent.0 on lower surface. aseptate fibres.2.2. stomatal index 4. Ka¸·u. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. thin-walled epidermal cells.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled.2. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Kaphahara.0-11. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. IDENTITY. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. 2.20-50 g. 9. spiral.Light yellow. P¡cana. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface.

b) Microscopic Root . Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. colour.5. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. taste. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. a few solitary fibres also present. Aparajita (Rt. thin-walled.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. vessels pitted with oblong. bitter.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. fracture. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. cylindrical. polygonal. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. medullary 10 . found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. 1-5 mm in thickness. very long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. lightbrown. Fabaceae). a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. a few showing slit-like pits. (Fam. fibrous. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres.

7.. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3.1 . CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.2. KuÀ¶ha. T. Resin. Medhya. 0.V. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. oblong and pitted. M£traroga.2.4.79 (blue). Buddhiprada. 2. ViÀahara. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya.rays 1-5 cells wide. phloem and xylem parenchyma.á£la. Powder . of the drug in powder form. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. Appendix per cent. 2.54 and 0. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.2. 2. 11 . measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Tikta. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 0.L.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components.L.C. Vra¸a DOSE . V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .6. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.C. found in secondary cortex.Yellowish-brown. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. Under U. 2. shows simple and compound starch grains..2. Appendix per cent.3 g.Mi¿raka Sneha.79 (dull yellow) in visible light.79 (both yellow).79 (grey). Kaphahara. áotha. Starch. IDENTITY.Tannin. V¡tahara.

pieces 5-15 cm long. colourless. Inji Allamu. lakottai. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. (Fam. gingery. short with projecting fibres.Shows a few layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. odour. Allam. each having a depressed scar at its apex. buds and roots are removed and washed well.5-6.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. fracture. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. reaching up to 90 cm in height. tangentially elongated. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal.6. Ardraka (Rz. taste. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. pungent Rhizome . Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic .5 cm thick. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. Ale -Adi. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. widely cultivated in India. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. oblique branches on upper side. Adrak Injee. thin-walled. radially arranged cells of inner cork.) Zingiberaceae). irregularly arranged. isodiametric. 1.

0. Appendix 2 per cent.63 & 0. Appendix 90 per cent. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. 13 .03. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. Under U. 0. 0. Powder -Light yellow. vessels 2-5 in number.7 vessels. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.5 per cent. 2. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.9 T. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.L. walls of oil cells suberised. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele.16 (blue). filled with abundant starch grains. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.76.3. septate fibres with oblique. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.2. 0. composed of xylem. 2. 0. oleo-resin cells abundent.2.69 (all light yellow). small cells of sieve tube.92 (all yellow).08. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.L. 0. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.2. 2. 0. 2. elongated pits on their walls.63 (light violet).C. 0.l6 (brownish violet). On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.2. Appendix 5 per cent.7. 0. 0.16. 0. fibrovascular bundles of two types.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.35. vessels showing reticulate.69 (grey).2. 2.63.13.63 (grey) & 0. 0. conjoint. numerous closed.. 0. larger bundles consists of 2. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. 0.6. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. Appendix 8 per cent. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.83 & 0.dia. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. free from starch.4. 0. collateral. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. Appendix 2. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene.08 (violet). those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. endodermis single layered. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.16. phloem. Appendix 1 per cent. 0.V.47. reticulate and spiral vessels. 0. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.47 (light violet).35 (light violet).92 (violet). 0.35.69 (light violet).C.69. 0. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. 0.2. 0.76 (violet) & 0.2. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.

14 . V¡tahara.á£la. áopha. Rocana. Kaphahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Vibandha. Ka¸tharoga. RukÀa.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. Ën¡ha. H¤dya. V ¤Àaya.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Bhedana. THERAPEUTIC USES . S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Svarya.

(Fam. fracture. characteristic of dry regions. phloem fibres thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. Arimeda (St. parenchyma. exfoliating in irregular scales. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. with tapering 15 . Vi·khadir -Guyababla. Sadabala -Haramibaval.5-1 cm thick. rough.Bk. consisting of sieve elements. odour and taste. stone cells and phloem cells. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. not distinct. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. lignified. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. hard.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. Pilobaval. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. Velvelam. Fabaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. fibrous. internally light brown to reddish-brown. secondary phloem wide.7. incurved. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. square to rectangular cells. fibres and crystal fibres. thinwalled cortical cells. all traversed by medullary rays. upto 3 m in height.

On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.2.39 and a spot at Rf. 2. Appendix 11 per cent. crystal fibres elongated.2.ends. Meha.2. ViÀajavra¸a.0.3-5 g in powder form. Meda¿oÀaka. composed of thin-walled. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. Appendix 1 per cent.78 and 0.0 to 0. Udardapra áamana DOSE .6.3. β -Amyrin. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka.L. fibres. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Ka¸·u. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Mukharoga. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES .áopha.e. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. 2. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. 0.LC.n-Hexacosanol. 2. Dantaroga.7.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). Powder .Reddish-brown. Appendix 13 per cent. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. sclereid. Visarpa. K¡sa. KuÀ¶ha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.91 (both blue). Appendix 14 per cent.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. 0 to 0. Atis¡ra. 0.91 (yellow). radially elongated cells.C. Appendix 2.39 and a spot at Rf. IDENTITY. shows groups of cork cells. 16 .40 g for decoction. T.2. P¡¸·u.2.2. K¤mi. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.

rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . companion cells. (Fam. P¡rtha. Mathichakke. flat. Arjuna. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha.) Combretaceae). transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. recurved. Sajada Arjuna Matti. a large deciduous tree. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. curved. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Torematti Arjuna. Bilimatti.2-1. Neermatti. Vellamaruthi. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. in the middle and outer phloem region. 0. short in inner and laminated in outer part. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. bitter and astringent. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu.Bk. traversed by phloem rays.5 cm thick. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. taste. consisting of sieve tubes. Mattimora. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. Arjuna (St. channelled to half quilled. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish.8. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey.& A. Kellemasuthu. fracture.

Vra¸an¡¿ana. Appendix 1 per cent. T¤À¡. shows fragments of cork cells. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. Kaphahara. measuring 260-600 µ in dia.in dia.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. elliptic. 2. Pittahara.2.3.Reddish-brown. alternating with fibres.2. DOSE . Appendix 25 per cent. starch grains.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. starch grains simple and compound. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 18 .. alata). a few rhomboidal crystals.2. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. 2. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. compound of 2-3 components. 2.6.Medoroga. uniseriate phloem rays. 2. µ Powder .. Appendix 20 per cent. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. round to oval. Prameha.. round to oval. H¤droga. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. Vra¸a.4.2. elliptical.7. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. KÀatakÀaya. sometimes upto 5 components. of the drug in powder form.2.2. Arjuna Gh¤ta. Vya´ga. mostly simple. IDENTITY.3-6 g. H¤dya. fibres. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. 4-12 cells high. Appendix 20 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .

a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. Nallajidiginga Baladur. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. obliquely ovoid. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. mesocarp and endocarp. mesocarp a very broad zone.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. (Fam. smooth. nut 2.) Anacardiaceae). dark brown. 19 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. Scramkotati Nallajidi. shining with residual receptacle.9. Fruit . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. Bhallataka (Fr. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. 30-40 layers thick. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki.5-3 cm long. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. drupaceous.

Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.Ar¿a. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.1. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in Ksirapaka form.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.6. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Appendix 4 per cent.3. innermost prismatic. Appendix 0. Note . Bhedi. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2 g. DOSE . 2. being highly thickened. Snigdha. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana..Dark-brown. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 2.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A.4. Graha¸¢. Appendix 11 per cent. Tikta.2. Chedi. Kaphahara. KuÀ¶ha. P¡cana. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.2.7. very much elongated radial walls. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. IDENTITY.2.F. CONSTITUENTS . Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Krimi.2. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). 2.I. Ën¡ha.5 per cent. ether. Ka¶u.2.. Appendix 5 per cent. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance.2. Powder . chloroform. Appendix 2.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Gulma. V¡tahara.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Part-I 20 .

(Fam. 1. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. greenish. Asteraceae). a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sub-acute or acute. disc flowers 21 . rough due to oppressed white hairs. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces.Opposite. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. not toothed. erect or prostrate. Stem . occasionally rooting at nodes.P.Solitary or 2.5 cm long. white. spreading. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. Bh¤´ga. cylindrical or flat. occasionally brownish. Gurugada. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni.Well developed. Knnunni Bhangra. Kesuriya. strigosely hirsute. cylindrical. sessile to subsessile.2.10.. 30 . usually oblong. herbaceous. greyish. Soppu. ligule small.3 cm wide. Karisalanganni. much branched. Karisalai Guntakalagara. sub-entire. Bhringaraja (W. lanceolate. upto about 7 mm in dia. Bhringiraja. often rooting at nodes. ovate.) herbaceous annual. strigose with oppressed hairs.2 . Leaf . obtuse or acute. Keshavardhana. Kesari -Bhangaro. Flower . branched. scarcely as long as bracts. Tekar¡ja.50 cm high. together on unequal axillary peduncles.2 . a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m.8. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. M¡rkava. Bhangro Bhangara. ray flowers ligulate. involucral bracts about 8.Herbaceous. node distinct. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. 2.

generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. ray cells pitted.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. 1-5 celled. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays.Achenial cypsella. drum-shaped. found scattered throughout wood. Seed . warty.0. stamen 5. vessels numerous. fibre tracheids. filaments epipetalous. covered with striated cuticle. cuneate. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends.tubular.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. free. pistil bicarpellary. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. in macerated preparation vessels small. uniseriate. trichomes of two types. simple.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. with very pointed tips. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. covered with warty excrescences. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. 0. externally covered with cuticle. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. pitted. dark brown. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. xylem composed of vessels. brown.25 cm long. phloem rays broader towards periphery. epidermis followed by cortex. unilocular with one basal ovule. traversed by xylem rays. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. corolla often 4 toothed. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles.2 . run straight in tangential section. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . rarely slightly oblique. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. pappus absent. epidermis followed by wide cortex. Leaf- Petiole . secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. one seeded. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled.0. non-glandular. with a narrow wing. Fruit . tangentially elongated cells. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening.1 cm wide. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. Midrib . fibres and xylem parenchyma. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. and with pointed apical cell. fibre tracheids. hairy and non endospermic. consisting of rounded cells. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. ovary inferior. b) Microscopic Root . xylem ray distinct.

epidermis single layered. wide at the base.5 -26. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. more abundant on lower surfaces. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. stomatal index 20. the cork where formed. some elongated with simple perforations. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. xylem fibres with wide lumen. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. pointed tips and pitted walls. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. hairs stiff. while the section cut at apical region.8 -4. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. pitted with spiral thickening. trichomes entire or in pieces. palisade ratio 3. pericyclic fibres distinct. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. peg-like outgrowth. secondary cortex composed of large. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. normally biseriate and uniseriate. vascular bundles in a ring. endarch.5 on upper and 23.Dark green.collenehymatous cells on both sides. xylem consists of large number of vessels. collateral. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes.5.0 on lower surface. externally covered with cuticle. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. arranged in tangential strands. mesophyll traversed by number of veins.0-22. middle cells longest. Lamina . in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. warty. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. 23 . uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. septa thick-walled. pointed. Powder . Stem . 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. externally covered with cuticle.shows a dorsi ventral structure. about 3 celled. uniseriate. a few often bifurcate and a few other large.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CakÀusya. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. P¡¸·u.6 ml of the drug in juice form. áirah á£la. Appendix per cent.3. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. Dantya. V¡tahara.36 g. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. 2.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. Appendix per cent. Tvacya.2. Appendix per cent. DOSE .4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. Tekar¡ja marica.2. 2.7. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Tikta RukÀa. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix 2.2.2. K¡sa. CONSTITUENTS .áotha. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. Ras¡yana.Alkaloids. 24 .3 . Yak¤droga. Appendix per cent. K¤miroga.2.6. áv¡sa. H ¤droga. 2. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . 12 . ViÀahara.IDENTITY. Ke¿ya. Ëmahara.

) H. Stem .Simple. soft. green. Brahmi. 1-2 cm long. slightly bitter. Brahmi (W. taste. 25 . Syn. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . glabrous. branched creamish-yellow.. Leaf . axillary and solitary. (Fam.) Wettst. Scrophulariaceae).& K.Small. bracteoles shorter than pedicels.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi.Thin. Flower . Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. obovate-oblong. Fruit . Herpestis monnieria (LiM. small.11. slightly bitter.Capsules upto 5 mm long.Thin. succulent. a glabrous. decussate. wiry. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. found throughout India in wet and damp places. taste. opposite. nodes and internodes prominent. small. sessile. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. about 1-2 mm thick. prostrate or creeping annual herb. ovoid and glabrous. pedicels 6-30 mm long. green or purplish green. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi.P. Valabrahmi.B. Ondelaga. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢.

round and oval starch grains. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. Appendix per cent. endodermis single layered. Appendix per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . respectively. ËyuÀya.Yellowish-brown.2..2. b) Microscopic 26 . Appendix per cent. Stem . and 8.6.4. Svarya. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent.2.0 µ in dia. glandular hairs. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter.2. 2. vascular ring continuous. 2. Praj¡sth¡pana.Shows a single layer of epidermis. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. 2. IDENTITY. cortex having large air cavities. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. no distinct midrib present.0 x 2. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. round to oval. Ras¡yana. measuring 4-14 µ in dia.0-14. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. 2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre.2.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. Matiprada. Appendix 2. glandular hairs sessile. starch grains simple. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers.7. simple. Medhya. endodermis single layered. pericycle not distinct. V¡tahara.5-9. ViÀahara. Appendix per cent.Root . Tikta.3. Powder .

27 . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ratnagiri Rasa.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Jvara. Prameha. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.1-3 g in powder form. áopha. THERAPEUTIC USES . M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . S¡rasvata C£r¸a. P¡¸·u.

Badikateri Kirugullia..Shows thin cork composed of 5 . Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed.9 layers of thin-walled. fracture. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. thin-walled. (Fam. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. traversed by phloem rays. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. oval and tangentially elongated cells. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. cork cambium single layered. Putirichunda Dorli. parenchyma and stone cells.15 layers of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root .5 cm in dia. short and splintery. upto 1. 1-2. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. a very prickly. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. Solanaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. phloem parenchyma much abundant. Brihati (Rt. Ubhibharingani. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. woody.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. long. tangentially elongated. varying greatly in shape and size. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . secondary cortex composed of 5 .12. much branched perennial under shrub. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. cylindrical. pale yellowish-brown. Heggulla. ribbed.8 m high. Papparamulli. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Chichuriti. no distinct odour and taste.

V¡tahara. measuring 5. Jvara.10-20 g. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.5 -11. DOSE .5 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.6 µ in diameter.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.2. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. all elements being lignified.á£la. Appendix 2.4. fibres and xylem parenchyma. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. Kaphahara. IDENTITY. thick-walled.2. vessels with simple pits. P¡cana. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . measuring 5. shows groups of thin-walled. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. phloem and medullary rays.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder . 2. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. Appendix Not more than 6. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. tracheids.7. H¤dya.11..3. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. 2. áv¡sa. cells radially elongated and pitted. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. aseptate fibres. 29 .Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.2.2. CONSTITUENTS . rounded to oval starch grains. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. xylem rays uni to biseriate.5 per cent.6.2. 2.Cream coloured. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. Agnim¡dya. parenchymatous cells. 2. H¤droga.6 µ in diameter. traversed by xylem rays. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.2. of the drug for decoction.

short. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . greyish-brown. taste. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. a glabrous. oval to rectangular. consisting of round.13. cork cambium not distinct.5-2. (Fam.. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. brownish cells. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. acrid. peppery.0 cm in width. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. thin-walled. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. b) Microscopic Stem . surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Chavya -Kattumulaku. tracheid. P. secondary cortex a wide zone.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. nodes and internodes distinct. cultivated mainly in Southern India. officinarum DC. Piperaceae). fleshy climber. odour. plenty of simple starch granules present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. chaba Hunter non Blume.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Syn. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. endodermis single layered. Chavya (St. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. P. fracture.

2.Alkaloids. D¢pana. Pl¢h¡ Roga. 31 . Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES .Greyish-brown.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. round to oval starch grains.5 per cent. á£lal DOSE . 2. medullary rays multi seriate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. shows fragments of vessels. Gulma. RukÀa. Appendix 2. 2.6.7. Kaphahara. cells thin walled. Appendix 3 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . filled with simple. 2. Krimi. fibres and simple. Appendix 1.4. Glycosides and Steroids.2.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. P¡cana. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.1-2 g.2. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. Powder .Ar¿a. round to oval.pitted and reticulate thickenings.3. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. Appendix 10 per cent. Recana. Appendix 6 per cent. starch grains. IDENTITY.2. Udara Roga. 2. of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Ën¡ha.2.

thin walled.1-0. containing a few oil globules. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. Madalam Danimma Anar. endosperm absent. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Punicaceae). cotyledons coiled. simple. starch grains present in testa.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. round to oval.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. angular. triangular and rectangular. round. oil globules. Dadima (Sd. LohitapuÀpa. 0.14. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. wedge-shaped. Powder . 32 . beneath this.Reddish-brown. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. shows stone cells. Maadalai. oval. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. parenchymatous cells. found growing wild in the warm valley. 0.2 cm wide. Seed . consisting of oval to polygonal. reddish-brown pigmented layer present.5-0.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. (Fam. taste.6 cm long. sweetish-sour.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

ciliate. stout herb.Yellowish-green. nodes and internodes distinct.5 cm across. 10 dentate with a villous throat. globose. subacute. corolla. crowded in dense. long with numerous wiry. 1-2. lanceolate. taste. more or less pubescent.16. about 0. Gumma. fibrous. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. hairy on upper part. scaberulous. smooth.Sessile. crenate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 1-2. zig-zag. Inflorescence . white. fracture. fine rootlets. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. Leaf .Light greenish-yellow.9 m in high. tubular. characteristic. 1. about 2-3. slightly bitter. slightly curved. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. ovate or ovate. glabrous in lower part. white. Stem . calyx. taste. hairy.35 cm wide. surface rough.5 cm wide. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. taste. size variable.Cylindrical. acute. pungent. erect. Dronapushpi (W.25 cm long. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. thin. 1.6-0.7-2 cm 37 . serrate.2-1.5 cm long and 0. 3-9 cm long.lanceolate.) Lamiaceae).P. an annual. upto 4 mm thick.3-0.

Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. Lamina . followed by round to oval parenchyma. brown. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. consisting of barrel shaped.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface.3 cm long and 0.7 layered. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. vascular bundles 4.1 cm wide. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular.shows a single layered epidermis. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root . 3-4 layers towards upper surface. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. irregular.vascular bundle arc-shaped. thin-walled. endoderm is single layered. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. oblong. thin-walled cells. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. palisade single layered. parenchymatous cells. Seed . dark brown. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements.Schizocarpic carcerule. Stem . bilipped. smooth. cortex consisting of single layered. vessels long with spurs. parenchymatous cells. some having simple pits. Leaf- Petiole . pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. 4 .long. upto 8 cells high. present in centre. tracheids. lateral lobes small. upper lip about 4 mm long. tracheids.tangentially elongated. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. fibres and xylem parenchyma. composed of oval to rectangular. trigonous. xylem consists of vessels. Fruit .shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. secondary xylem consists of vessels. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Midrib . consists of a single layered epidermis. wooly. thin-walled cells. round to angular collenchyma. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. thin-walled 38 . vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening.0. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. nutlets 3 mm smooth. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. tangentially elongated.

2.cells. aseptate fibres.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. Pittakara. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. pitted and spiral vessels.2.áotha.2.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. a few veins present in this region. Ka¶u Guru. stomata diacytic. Bhedani.3. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. 16. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7 on upper surface.7.6-30. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.2. stomatal index 16. 2.2. K¡sa. RukÀa. Powder . ViÀamajvara DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.4. 2. Agnim¡ndya.2. IDENTITY. Lava¸a. K¡mal¡. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.6. 39 . V¡takara. THERAPEUTIC USES .Alkaloid.Dull yellow.5 on lower surface. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tamaka áv¡sa. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Glycoside. palisade ratio 7-9. 2. CONSTITUENTS . present on both surfaces. Appendix 2.6-40.

shows stone cells. glossy. straight. Karka¶¢. Hastipani. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. creamish-yellow. 40 . cotyledons two. Cucurbitaceae).7-10 cm long. mesophyll cells thinwalled. C. cultivated in many parts of the country. 0. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. -Kakur. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. surface smooth. covered with thick cuticle. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.3-0. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. thin-walled.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. an annual creeping herb. rounded and tangentially elongated. 0. more or less ellipsoid. radially elongated to squarish. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. taste. (Fam. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri.4 cm wide. B¤hatphala. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. parenchymatous cells. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. utilissimus Roxb. Hastipani. Ervaru (Sd. parenchymatous. sweetish oily. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. Vellarika Kakadi.17.

Gulma.83.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.97 (all yellow) . 0.64.3.V.91 (blue) under U.51.97 (all grey). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.3-6 g.35. 0. Pittahara. 0.58.7.6.2. 0.51. 0.35. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.0.D¡ha. 2.C.5 per cent.0.2. T. Rucya. 0. Tikta Guru. A¿mar¢. Appendix 4 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .83. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.19. Appendix 0.26.IDENTITY. 0.77. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.26.L.91 and 0. (366 mm). 2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .0.2. 41 . Jvara.L.2. D¢pana. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0. T¤À¸¡. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 2.19.Oil & Sugars.C.2. 0. V¡takara. THERAPEUTIC USES .77. 0. Kaphakara. of seeds. Raktapitta. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent. 2. 0.91 and 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.58. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.4. 0. RaktadoÀakara.64.2.

18.0 cm in diameter and 2.4-0.0-3. odour and taste not disticnt. (Fam. shiny.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. brownish-grey. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. Orissa. greyish-brown with a dent. rough and scaly. Seed . Gajapippali (Fr. 42 . Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . odour and taste not distinct.4 cm wide.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. a large epiphytic climber. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.6 cm long.Kidney-shaped. cut surface has a central core. 0.3-0. b) Microscopic Fruit .Shows more or less loosely arranged.5 cm thick.0-3. Araceae). smooth. thin-walled. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.

L. Punarnav¡sava. pitted and with concentric striations.2-3 g.65. IDENTITY. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. 2.Glucosides viz. oval to polygonal.65. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. T. 2.6. 0.C.5 per cent. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 2. in extract (Phant) form. 0. Stanya. 0.C. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. 0.2. 2. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. CONSTITUENTS .4.Dark brown. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 43 .7. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.27.73 (both light brown) and 0.3. Ka¸¶hya. V¡tahara. 2. 2-4 layered. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.2. Powder . 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C.áiv¡gutik¡.20.73 and 0.2. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. Sugars & Fixed Oil. oval to polygonal. thick-walled.2. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.2.Atis¡ra. DOSE .93 (all yellow).65.L.Seed . 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. non-lignified. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B.93 (all blue) are visible. oval to polygonal. Appendix T. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. K¤miroga. Ka¸ha Roga. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. shows lignified.2.65 and 0.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.27.73 and 0. 0. áv¡sa. thin-walled. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.Shows a single layered.93 (brown). thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. Kaphahara. Agnivardhaka. 0. Malavi¿oÀana. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.V. Three spots appear at Rf. thick-walled.

Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. fleshy mesocarp. tangentially elongated. radially 44 . papery. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. parenchymatous cells. (Fam. 0. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb.19.A drupe. seed coat thin. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered.) unarmed tree. b) Microscopic Fruit .6 cm wide. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. taste.4-0. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. K¡¿marya. P¢takarohi¸¢. thin-walled.Seed ovate. Sr¢par¸¢. Shivani. thin-walled cells.5-2. Hannu -Kumbil.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. taste. light yellow. ovoid. crinkled. Seed . two seeded. multilayered. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree.5-1 cm long. parenchymatous cells. oily. cotyledons consisting of single layered. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . sometimes with portion of attached pedicel.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. 0. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. Gambhari (Fr. sweetish sour. black. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. surface smooth. Verbenaceae).0 cm long. 1. Seed . sometimes one seeded.

0. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.L. KaÀ¡ya Guru. 2. 0.52.2. Alkaloid. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H¤dya.2.03.94 and 0.2.42. Sara.4.08.2.3. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Resin and Saccharine.2. T.Butyric acid.C.22.6. Under U. KÀata. Ras¡yana. 0. 0. 0. T¤À¸¡. Appendix 25 per cent. IDENTITY. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains.elongated epidermal cells.98 (orange). 45 .D¡ha. 0.Blackish-brown. 0. M£trak¤cchra. KÀaya.2. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.26. Appendix 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. Rakta Pitta DOSE .03. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. shows stone cells. Ke¿ya. THERAPEUTIC USES .93 and 0. 0.7.1-3 g. 0. Amla.4 per cent. 2. oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. Appendix 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittahara.98 (yellow) in visible light.98 (all blue). 2.98 (all yellow). V¡tahara. Tartaric acid. 0. H¤droga. 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Appendix 6 per cent.12.V. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L. Powder . 2.Arvind¡sava. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 8 per cent.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.18. Medhya.

5-5 cm long. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Shows a wide cork. radially arranged cells. fibrous. a shrub 0. consisting of tangentially elongated. thin-walled. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. oval.. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 46 . secondary cortex wide. taste. (Fam.0 m high.20. moderately large in size. channelled. mucilaginous. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. external surface smooth. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. elliptical. traversed by wide phloem rays.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. rectangular. parenchymatous cells. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals.Bk. Grewia populifolia Vahl. Syn.6-1. Gangeru (St. blunt tips and moderately long in size. 1. light yellow. fracture. fibrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. a few stone cells. arranged in radial groups. consisting of 12-20 layered. Tiliaceae). b) Microscopic Stem Bark . thick-walled.) Aschers & Schwf.

2. β-amyrin etc.C. 0. 0.3. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. 2.08 (blue) 0. Amla.48.17 (light violet).48 (violet).7. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10).Vra¸a.88 (light violet). 47 . 0.35.35 (violet). Appendix per cent. 2.4. 0.V.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.35 (both light yellow) in visible light.2. 0. 0. 0. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.41. 0.L.68 & 0.17. 0.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Light yellow and fibrous.J¢rak¡di Modaka. Pittavik¡ra. 0. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. 0. 0. 2. T.35 (dark blue). Under U. 0.29 (blue).61. 0.27.2-3 g.13 (blue). of the drug in powder form.Sugar.C.).64 (blue). 0.68 (light violet) & 0. 0. IDENTITY. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.88 (all yellow). Tikta. 0. Appendix per cent.Powder . Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.08. THERAPEUTIC USES .27 (light violet). Appendix per cent. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. 0.55.55 (blue) & 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Ka¶u.2. 2.17. CONSTITUENTS . α-amyrin. DOSE . 0.6. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.2.08 (violet).2. Two spots are seen at Rf. 0.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. tangentially elongated cells. b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. gulagunja -Kunni. soft. flowering in August-September. becoming mildly bitter. bark thin. fruits ripen during winter. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. Chonotee Ratti.21. odourless. taste. most often irregularly curved. Kakananti Rati Kunch. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. Chanothee. spreading throughout the plains. simple or branched. when distinct. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. Gunja (Rt. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. slightly corky. composed of 1-2 cells wide. Fabaceae). exfoliating in small flakes. cylindrical. pitted walls. present at short intervals. feebly sweetish. light brown. Ghungchi Guluganji. Gurivinda Ghongchi.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. Kundumani Guriginga. thinwalled. some with brownish content. smaller than stone cells. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. cork cambium. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. a climber. (Fam.

2.1 . Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . groups of sclerenchymatous cells.2. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. Appendix 9 per cent.2. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. pitted walls. parenchyma thin-walled. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. 2. IDENTITY. of the drug in powder form. Mukha¿oÀa. vessels of varying sizes with thick. áula. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya.3.Greyish-brown.4. 2. Tikta á¢ta. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. Pittahara.5 -13. thin-walled and rectangular. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin).6. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. Appendix 2. xylem vessels with pitted walls. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes.Indralupta. CONSTITUENTS .diverging towards periphery. 49 . stone cells.75 µ in diameter. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. DOSE .2. numerous xylem fibres. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. Powder . shows fragments of cork.75 µ in diameter. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5.2.3 g. wood composed of narrow concentric.5-13. small groups of sclerenchyma. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.2.

rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. characteristic. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. juicy and sweet. Serdi Ikha. Ikshu (St. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. taste. scattered throughout the ground tissue. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. conjoint. b) Microscopic Stem . Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. with. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. lignified. cylindrical. smooth. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. more numerous and closer towards periphery. odour. besides the xylem and phloem elements.22. closed type of vascular bundles. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. 50 . distinct node and internode. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. Poaceae).) shrub. solid. (Fam.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi.

shows pieces of epidermis.2. Sara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.Bal¡ Taila. Appendix 2.400 ml in the juice form. 51 . Pittahara. 2. vessels and sclerenchyma.2. IDENTITY.6.3. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Not more than 2. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. M£tra KÀaya. V¤Àya. ground tissue.7.5 per cent. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa.2.Raktapitta.4.2.Sucrose. Balya. 2.Powder light brick red.Powder . Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.200 . Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.2.2. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2.

xylem forms bulk of root. lying around vessels. Paythumatti. fibres. an annual or perennial. cylindrical. Gav¡kÀ¢.) Cucurbitaceae). pitted. parenchyma and medullary rays. Tuntikai. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. 0. Indravaruni (Rt.23. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. fibres aseptate. thin walled. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. tangentially elongated cork cells. mostly simple or rarely 52 . Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. thick-walled. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. b) Microscopic Root . starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Valiya Pekkumatti.5 µ in dia. Indrayan. Indrayanalata. Indramanoa. Varithummati. intensively bitter. Indravarana Gothakakucti.2-2.5-7. Havumakke. slightly twisted. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. fracture. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. longitudinal fissures present. short. tangentially elongated. elongated with pointed ends. Tumbi Paikamatti. dull yellow. consisting of vessels. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical.5 cm thick. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. (Fam. Indravaruni. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. taste. thick walled. Bitter apple Indravaran. a few filled with dark brown contents. occurring throughout the country. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. áatakratulat¡. parenchyma and medullary rays. composed of sieve elements. parenchymatous cells. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

57 . taste. Eugenia jambolana Lam. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. Jambu (Sd.. rounded starch grains. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. a large evergreen tree. cuminii Druce. a few schizogenous cavities are also found.Brown coloured. 1 cm wide. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. oval or roundish. b) Microscopic Powder . thin-walled. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. oval. Myrtaceae). parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. E.25. Seed . rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia.. smooth. (Fam. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. brownish-black.) Skeels Syn.800 m. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. coriaceous covering. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. 1 cm long. astringent. mesophyll composed of isodiametric.

C.6. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru.IDENTITY.7.95 and 0. 0.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Glycoside (Jamboline). three spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. 2. Udakameha.3-6 g. of the drug in powder form.3.2.2.2.95 (all violet).C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.2.30 (blue). Tannin.L. DOSE . 0.Madhumeha.L. Appendix per cent. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. 2. 2. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. Appendix per cent.30 and 0. Appendix 2. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. 58 . 0.12. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .30 and 0. Amla. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.4. ViÀ¶ambhi.20. 0.20. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 0. Kaphahara. T. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U.V. Appendix per cent.95 (all yellow). Pittahara. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.

E.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. light grey to ash coloured. Jam Jammu Naaval. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu.. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. and phloem rays. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Raja Jambu Merale. stone cells.Bk. Eugenia jambolana Lam. short and splintery. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. fracture. stratified and reddish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. upper few layers thick.26.5-2.5 cm thick. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Mahamaram. Jambu (St. lower cork thin and colourless. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. Myrtaceae). Jambuda Jomuna. fibres aseptate. rough.800 m. Jamu. internal surface fibrous. cork cambium not distinct. forming a rhytidoma. Jamneralae. younger bark mostly channelled. elongated. a large evergreen tree. Neralamara -Njaval. oval to angular. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. astringent. cuminii Druce. 0.) Skeels Syn.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. (Fam. Navval Sambu. and reddish brown. taste. Jambu. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces.

2. round to oval starch grains. Appendix per cent. aseptate fibres.2. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.2. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder .7. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.2.Atis¡ra.U¿¢r¡sava. of the drug for decoction. oval to angular.Light brown.4. IDENTITY. elongated. THERAPEUTIC USES . phloem rays 1-4 cells wide.3. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Stambhaka. 2. DOSE . round to oval starch grains.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.10-20 g. Appendix 2. V¡tala.2. Appendix per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.2. Raktapitta. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. 2. 2. Kaphahara. single or in groups. Pittahara. 60 . stone cells.region. reddish-brown content.

Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. no marked odour. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. slightly bent at middle. Japala. Tinti·¢phala. found throughout tropical India. 5-7 m high. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. Euphorbiaceae). raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. consisting of an epidermal layer.Shows a hard testa. Nervala -Nervalam. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape.27.) small evergreen tree. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. Neervalam Jepal. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. ovate. consisting of a large endosperm. 61 . oblong. Jayapala (Sd. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. kernel yellowish and oily. b) Microscopic Seed . Neervalam. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. thin-walled cells. dull cinnamon-brown. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Japal beej. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. (Fam. slightly quadrangular. filled with brownish content.

White with black particles of testa.Fixed oil. 0.39. CONSTITUENTS . Resins & Phorbol esters.6-12 mg. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 0.54 (yellow).2. 0. 0. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.L.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Appendix 7 per cent.5 per cent.C. 0.3. 0. 2.34 (grey). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of the drug in powder form.2.84 (all violet).Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. 62 . T.49. 2. 0.6.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Appendix 3 per cent.2.L.29. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.7.2. Powder . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. 2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Appendix 2.34. 2.10. 0. Vibandha DOSE . 0.2. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.Jvara. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. Appendix 15 per cent. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.V. IDENTITY. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Udararoga.90 (all yellow).84 (brown). (366 nm) three spots at Rf.54 and 0. 0.63 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

Jalugu. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. a quick growing.8-6 m high. S.shows single layered epidermis. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. 0. having secretory cavities in phloem. mucronate to acuminate. glabrous. consisting of thin-walled.3-0.5 cm long. present on both surfaces. 7. very shortly stalked. short lived shrub.5-15. 1.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.3 cm long. parenchymatous cells. Karijimangai.Syn. á£kÀma patra. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . oblong. paripinnate. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. Jayanti (Lf. palisade single layered. pith small.7 layered round. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. jayata Arinintajinamgi. Arishimajingai.0-3.) Merr. Jay¡. 1. 63 . spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. (Fam. entire. linear. Atti.8 cm wide. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. aegyptiaca Pers. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. stomata anisocytic. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. Lamina .. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. polygonal.28. leaflets 6-16 pairs. opposite. -Semp. Jayanti Jaita.

Galaga¸·a.37.6.11. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.C.M£trak¤cchra.V.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. Appendix per cent.29. IDENTITY. Powder . 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0.Dull green. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. palisade ratio 3. 0.37.3.3-6 g.19. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. 0. 0. 0.19. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.48.05. 0. Appendix per cent.Protein. CONSTITUENTS .48.97 (yellow). 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. Pittahara. 0.L. Appendix per cent.29.Ratnagiri Rasa. in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0. 2.11.2. 0. 2.4. 0. Ras¡yana.2. 0. ViÀaroga. 0.97 (all yellow). 0.25-4.2. DOSE .56. 0.2. 2.29. shows spongy parenchyma.2. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. Calcium and Phosphorus. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.05.91 and 0.69.11. 2. palisade cells.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. V¡tahara.C. 0.05.56 (all pink) and 0. T.56. 0.97 (all grey).2. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. 0.19. 64 . xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .91 and 0.7.L.

followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. surface generally smooth and. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. brownish-orange.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. light to dark brown. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. collapsed. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari.35 mm in breadth.29. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. taste. Celastraceae). a large climbing shrub.5-3. (Fam. ripe seeds. odour. bitter. colour. Gangunge beeja. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. Gangunge humpu.hard. Seed . parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . unpleasant. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Jyotishmati (Sd. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. seed without aril also prescent.

Virecaka. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. 0. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. Under U. CONSTITUENTS .20. Oil and Tannins.8 IDENTITY.35. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 2. 0.3.2.63.4. Appendix 6 per cent. Appendix 2. Meddhya 66 . 0. V¡tahara. 0. 0.2.V. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.C. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. 0. dark brown. Appendix 20 per cent. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. thin-walled.L.2. Appendix 9 per cent.82. D¢pana. UÀ¸a. áirovirecanopaga. 0. stone cells. (all blue) & 0.82.54. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.V.Alkaloids.82 (pink) & 0.2. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.04. 2.89 (all yellow).Oily.2. 0.54.15.89. 2. 0. V¡maka. 0. Powder . Appendix 45 per cent.6. Kaphahara.94 (yellow). 2. 2. 0.2.5 per cent.82 & 0.54 (both blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. Tikta Sara.composed of polygonal.94 (yellow) in visible light.L.2.89 (both greenish blue).35.C. 0. Appendix 1.7. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.

Oil : 5-15 drops.Seed: 1-2 g. DOSE . ávitra. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Sm¤tidaurbalya. THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡tavy¡dh¢.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 67 .

phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. 68 b) Microscopic . Kadappai. Kadambu Needam. Kadamba (St. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. Vellai Kadambam. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. elongated cells of phloem rays. Kadamba Kadamba. (Fam. Kadamba mara. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Kadavala. Priyka Roghu. some cells contain chlorophyll. composed of thin-walled. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. traversed by uni to triseriate. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. taste.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Kadamba Nipo. bitter. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Rubiaceae).Bk. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. A. large tree. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Vellaikhadambu. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Syn.. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. a deciduous. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kadam Kadam. rectangular cells. indicus A. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Indulam. Rich.30. a few cells with brown contents.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. V¡tahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. 2. 0.phloem fibres. shows fragments of cork cells.4.2.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Appendix 1.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). 0. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.79 (grey) and 0. 2.5 per cent.2. 0. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. 0.03. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.C. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Appendix 2. phloem cells.2.2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. 0.D¡ha. Vra¸aropa¸a. cells distinct and slightly elongated. L C. 0.70 (orange yellow). Raktapitta. Vra¸a. of the drug in powder form. 0. Lava¸a. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. 69 . T. Steroids. 0. fibres.79. YonidoÀa.1.5:10) shows under U.Brown. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2.21. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. 0.2.64.L. CONSTITUENTS . DOSE .Alkaloids.90 (grey). Powder . Appendix 9 per cent. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.5 g.6.13.7.5 .0. 2.83 and 0.63 (yellowish grey).3.57.31.

Manitakkali. ovary globose. sub-umbellate. externally smooth. obtuse. anther 1. road sides and gardens. 1. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . corolla 4-8 mm long. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. five lobed. hairy at base. Flower .5 mm long. calyx 2-3 mm long. 2. slightly woody and branched. 30-45 cm high.Erect. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida.25 mm long. petiolate.5 cm long and 2. Manatakkali. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region.31. Ganikesopu. glabrous or pubescent. slender. hairy in lower part. obtuse notched at apex.5 cm wide.Small. found throughout the country in dry parts. filaments short. bark thin. Manaththakkali.) Solanaceae).2-2. thin.P. sinuate. (Fam. green. narrowed at both ends. quite common in cultivated lands. Ganikegida. pedicels 6-10 mm long. ganike. style cylindric. 70 . Kakamachi (W. Pikachia. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. 3-8 flowered cymes. white or pale violet. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. flattened. toothed or lobed.5-8. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. yellowish. peduncles 6-20 mm long. glabrous. very slender.Simple. Stem . glabrous. extra-axillary. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. a herbaceous annual weed. oblong.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. Leaf . oblong. pale brown. ovate or oblong.

two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. tangentially elongated.5-11 µ in dia.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. endoderrnis single layered.. epidermis single layered. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. bicollateral. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. compactly arranged. Stem .. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. vascular bundles-collateral. single or with two or rarely 3 components. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. embedded in perimedullary zones. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.5-8. pith large. composed of thin-walled. uniseriate. yellow. xylem rays homogenous. internal phloem. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces.. covered with striated cuticle. LeafPetiole . uniseriate. covered with striated cuticle.Discoid. smooth. arcshaped. polygonal cells.. usually accompanied by fibres. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. smooth shining Seed . slightly elongated. filled with starch grains. obtuse. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem rays uniseriate. covered with thick. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. trichomes multicellular. parenchyma 4-6 layered. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. radially elongated cells. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. cambium 2-4 layered. 6mm in dia. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. covering trichomes. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations.Shows single layered.' oval parenchymatous cells. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. but 4. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces.10 layered in angular parts. measuring 2. starch grains. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. yellow or black. measuring 2. central vascular bundle shallow. arc71 . 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells.5 mm in dia. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Midrib . b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells.Fruit . secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma.25 µ in dia. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. in small or large patches. phloem consists of thin-walled.A berry. 1. minutely pitted. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. rays composed of thin-walled. conjoint and open. slightly striated cuticle. cortex of large. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. oval to round starch grains. uniseriate.

of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. a few broken pieces of pointed.97 (all yellow). vein islet number 7-10. Appendix per cent.L. 0.7. papery epicarp. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.06. Appendix per cent.C. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . 0.4.Shows thin. epidermis with irregular outline. 2.34 (both pink). light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 034 and 0.L. measuring 2. 2. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.06 & 0.V. Appendix per cent. 2. T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5 . Fruit . present beneath palisade parenchyma. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. unicellular hairs. single.dorsiventral.06 & 0.11 µ in diameter.2. Under U.6. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. 72 . Powder .Alkaloids and Saponins.C.34 (both brown) in visible light. IDENTITY. Lamina .3. palisade single layered. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. 2.Creamish-green. 0. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.2.2. palisade ratio 2-4. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. stomata anisocytic. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present.2.2.2.

73 . H¤dya. Ar¿a. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Rasar¡ja Rasa. H¤droga. DOSE .5 -10 ml. Prameha. of the drug in juice form. Hikk¡. V¡tahara. Ka¸·u. Kaphahara. Jvara. Sara. Pittahara. Tikta Laghu. Svarya. THERAPEUTIC USES . KuÀ¶ha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ras¡yana.áotha. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Chardi. Netraroga.

Padma. Kalh¡ra. (Fam. 2-4 cm long. Venthamara. anther. Nymphaeaceae). androecium. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. fruit an etaerio of achenes. 1. elliptic. petals numerous. carpels many. Syn.. Chenthamara. Kanwal Kamal. comprising of calyx.4-2 cm long. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Tavaregedd -Tamara.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. finely veined. 3-5 cm long. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. dark brown. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. 74 . Aravinda. black.5-3 cm wide. extended into clavate appendages. Tavare. crimpled. Kamalam. Nelumbium speciosum Willd.3-2 cm wide. gynoceium apocarpous. membranous. a large. Kamala (Fl. embedded in a creamy. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Sarojam Kaluva. free. broken pieces also occur. Sitopala. Thamaraipoo. 1. seed hard. Kamal. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. crimp led. Naidile. aquatic herb with creeping stem. linear 1.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. starchy and large. sepals leaf-like. Aravindan. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. obtuse. yellowish-brown. gynoecium and thalamus. erect.32. corolla. Pamposh Tamarai. Paduman.

4. 2. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle.12 -24 g. angular.2. of the drug for decoction. Pittahara. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. M£tra Virajan¢ya.Dusty brown. columnar. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. having smooth exine and intine. IDENTITY.2. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.Raktapitta. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. Stamen Filament .shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS .shows four chambered anther. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. vascular bundle single. two on either sides. Sant¡pahara. 2. Visarpa. rectangular.3.7. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder .2. spore sac contains yellow. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. spherical.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. ViÀavik¡ra. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . composed of thin-walled. Tikta. followed by ground tissue of oval. Anther . anther consists of a single layer of epidermis.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. Appendix per cent. . parenchymatous cells. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara.2. 2.6.Aravind¡sava.2. 2. Appendix 2. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha.filament appears circular in outline. yellow pollen grains. parenchymatous cell. DOSE .

Pulp.Reddish-brown. odour. stone cells. taste. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. parenchymatous cells. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Powder . fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . having longitudinal ridges and furrows. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. Kapittha (Fr. found throughout the plains of India. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. stone cells. Kavataleal. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. thin-walled. sour. found in groups. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. Haminamara -Vilar maram. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. aromatic.shows irregular. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Bilvara. 76 . axillary thorns. Rutaceae). Belalu. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. straight. semicircular. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp.) Swingle. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. often cultivated in many parts of India. Syn. sharp.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha.33. reddish brown. Belada hannu. F. glabrous tree with strong. rough. slightly triangular and oval. Siwalik range and forests. hard. elephantum Correa (Faro. Balada. a deciduous.

of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.L. 2.95 (blue).2. Unripe Pulp: Amla. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.95 (violet) .12 (brown).50 (violet).2.37.50.1-3 g.V. CONSTITUENTS .2.áv¡sa. 0. Appendix per cent.C. Agnim¡ndya. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. 2.06.91 (grey) in visible light. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Pittav¡tahara.4.C.6.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. 0. Ripe-T¤À¡. Appendix per cent. Sangr¡h¢.14 (sky blue). Gr¡h¢.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. 0.2. 0. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.95 (all yellow).L.91 and 0. Vra¸an¡¿aka. 0. 2. Appendix 2. 6.91 (blue) and 0. Hikk¡. KaÀ¡ya. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. 77 . (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. Amla.37 (brown).3.Citric acid and Mucilage. DOSE . Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.12. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.IDENTITY.91 (violet) and 0. V¡mi. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Under U. Appendix per cent.2. 2. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. T.7. Lekhana. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .

met throughout India in wild state. and compound having 2-3 components. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. b) Microscopic Powder .) Apocynaceae). (Fam . tubular. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. external surface brownish-grey. measuring 3-7 µ in dia.34. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. fracture. 78 . Karamarda (St. light in weight. rough due to longitudinal striations. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. short. flat or slightly curved pieces. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. internal surface grey and smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. shows single and groups of stone cells. simple and compound starch grains. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Greyish-brown.Bk. starch grains simple. sometimes cultivated. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres.

48 g.4.2. Pittakara. 0.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .7.L.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. Appendix per cent. of the drug for decoction. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. 2.V. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.C. DOSE . 2.2.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.KuÀthahara. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.2. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C. 2.3. T.58 (both light grey). Appendix per cent.35. Appendix 2. 79 .L. 0.2. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.52 (light sky blue).90 (pink) and 0.97 (violet). CONSTITUENTS . 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.2. 2.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY. 0.

upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. 3-11 µ in dia. cells. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Fabaceae). (Fam. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja.35. fracture.. secondary phloem very wide. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. Naktam¡la. single cells of varying shape and size. P. fibrous. Karanja (Rt. Bk. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.. most of phloem 80 . secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. due to peeling off. Nakt¡hv¡.) Merr. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. a glabrous tree.) glabra Vent. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. very bitter. tangentially elongated cells. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. internally. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. traversed by phloem rays. Syn. external surface rough. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. thin-walled. tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. taste.

0.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.4.42 (sky blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. DOSE . similar to those present in secondary cortex. IDENTITY.2. 2. most of ray cells contain starch grain.2.18. ViÀaghma.V. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. 2.31 (sky blue).3. 0. Appendix 3.L. Ka¸·u.2.31. 0.37.37 (greenish yellow).98 (all yellow). Appendix 11 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Pittahara. parenchymatous cells.7. Appendix 2 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . 1-2 seriate. 0. 0.2. KuÀtha. 0.04 (blue). Appendix 17 per cent. 0. V¡tahara. mostly straight.18 (blue) 0. 0.L. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. 0. DuÀ¶avra¸a.6. Powder -Creamish-yellow. 0.80 and 0. Ka¸·£ghna. Prameha.25 (sky blue). Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.1-3 g. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Ëntravidradhi. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.13 (Sky blue). phloem rays many.47. 0. 0.Flavones Kanugin. Appendix 2.C.51 (light blue).5 per cent. cork cells. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0.2. phloem fibres. 2. 0. 0. of the drug for decoction.09. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery.K¤miroga. T. 0.47 (greenish yellow). shows thin-walled. consisting of thin-walled. 81 .08 (greenish blue). Tikta.47.51.80 (light blue).parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.2. Yoniroga.

(Fam. cells. Karanja (Rt. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Merr. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu.. Nakt¡hv¡. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga.36. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. Fabaceae).. tangentially elongated. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. light in weight. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. a glabrous tree. 1-2 seriate.) Vent. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. rough due to the presence of numerous. Syn. reddish-brown or dull brown. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. consisting of 82 . bitter. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. thin-walled. 3-11 µ in dia. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. taste. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. rounded to oval in shape. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. internally light yellow. fracture. tangentially elongated cells. Karaµjaka. P. irregularly distributed. secondary phloem a very wide zone. bark does not easily separate from xylem. bark.

fibres and parenchyma.radially elongated. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. Powder -Light yellow. Prameha. more.7.Karanjin. Demethoxy-kanugin.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.DuÀ¶avra¸a. shows fibres in singles or groups. 2. KuÀ¶ha. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Pittahara. tracheids.2. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Vidradh¢. Appendix per cent. thin-waned cells towards inner region. ViÀaghna. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. 2. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound.2. IDENTITY. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. rounded to oval in shape. Ka¸·£. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. 83 . Kaphahara.2. consisting of 2-3 components.6. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. 2. Appendix per cent. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. V¡tahara. DOSE . starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. 2.2. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely.2. tangentially elongated towards outer region. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. Vra¸a¿odhana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. Tikta.. K¤miroga.3. CONSTITUENTS .4.2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. starch grains. Yoniroga.Methylfisetin. Appendix per cent.1-2 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ëntravidradh¢. Kanugin. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form.

Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. Karanja. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.37. lenticellate pieces. slightly quilled. Karanja (St. composed of rectangular.) Merr. thin-walled. taste. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. phloem fibre and stone cells.. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu.2-1 cm thick. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. bitter. usually 0. Nakt¡hv¡.Bk. traversed by medullary rays. more or less smooth. Syn. unpleasant. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. 84 .) glabra Vent. at some places lenticels also appear. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. phloem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. short and fibrous. b) Microscopic Bark . fracture. fibre small. thick-walled cells. filled with reddish-brown content. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. arranged in a tangential manner. P. recurved. Karaµjaka. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. alternating with stone cells. (Fam. odour. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. a glabrous tree. tangentially elongated. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Fabaceae).

B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. ViÀaghma.. 3". 5Methoxyfurano (2". and rarely.2. Powder -Yellowish-cream. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. CONSTITUENTS . Demethoxy- kanugin. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal.2.7. KuÀ¶ha. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.1-2 g. Kanugin. simple and compound starch grains. aseptate fibre and stone cells. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ëntravidradh¢. Tikta. Gamatin. elongated. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. medullary rays wavy. starch grains simple. Appendix 13 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. usually 2-4 cells wide. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 2. V¡tahara.polygonal. K¤miroga. 2. present in secondary cortex. Pongapin. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex.2.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. 2. IDENTITY. 85 . thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. Appendix 18 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 2. Prameha. THERAPEUTIC USES . thin-walled and aseptate. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem.5 per cent. Ka¸·u.2. Kaphahara. Ka¶u.3. 2. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. Appendix 1.6.2.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Pittahara. oil globules found in secondary phloem only.4. Yoniroga DOSE . It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. Appendix 3 per cent. rounded to oval. Pinnatin. Vidradh¢. 3" 7 : 8). oil globules. of the drug in powder form.

Ungu. traversed by xylem rays. (Fam.5-0. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Syn. Karanja. leaflets 2-3 pairs. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. Hulagilu -Pungu. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Nakt¡hv¡. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. petiolule short. 86 . Karanja (Lf.3 cm wide. Fabaceae). parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. dark green. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cortex consisting of angular. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Kanajo Karuaini. consistig of tabular cells. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. Pongana Ganuga. xylem vessels arranged radially. P.9-8. Karaµjaka.38. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. arcshaped. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. covered with cuticle. 6. consisting of xylem and phloem. epidermis single layered. 0. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja.circular in outline. vascular bundle single. Unu. isodiametric. a glabrous tree.5 cm long and 3.2 .8 cm. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. Dithouri Honge.) Merr.11..) Vent.

5) .6. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. Ka¶u.(4". 2. . K¤imihara.2. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Appendix 11 per cent. Appendix 2. consisting of tabular cells. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Powder -Green. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. palisade ratio 3. present in lower surface.6. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.5-50. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.6. vascular bundle.3. cortex consists of round to oval. shows spiral xylem vessels. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square.5-20.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". Tikta. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. 2.6.shows single layered epidermis.A new Furanoflavone -3' . 2.5". phloem and pith.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. stomata anisocytic.7. 7) -flavone. Appendix 16 per cent.5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. stomatal index 12. mesophyll cells.4. Appendix 10 per cent. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 .Mid rib .methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. 5".2. Ka¸·ughna. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. palisade two layered.2. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Pittavardhaka. collateral.2. 5" . V¡tahara. Appendix 3. 2. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".2. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. Kaphahara. covered with thick cuticle.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ka¸·au. KuÀ¶ha.K¤miroga. 88 . THERAPEUTIC USES .For external use only. DOSE . Vra¸a.J¡ty¡di Taila.

3.2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. 2. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.4.39. Appendix 28 per cent. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation.2.6 per cent. pendulous. 3 valved at the apex when mature. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. extremely bitter. Kakiral. Nil Appendix 8. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. (Fam. Varivall¢.Fr.7.6. oblong. Karavallaka (Fresh. 2. Appendix 0.5 . ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. Kathilla.2.2. Appendix 2. IDENTITY.25 cm long.2.5 per cent. surface rough. 2. 2. upto an altitude of 1500 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. Appendix 6 per cent. K¡ravall¢.2. taste. fusiform. usually pointed or beaked.) Cucurbitaceae). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 .

RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. KuÀ¶ha.46.03. K¤miroga. Prameha.75.C.98 (red & sky blue). K¡mal¡.C. 0.81 and 0. 0.15 ml.V.áv¡sa. 0. 0. 0.17. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.L.98 (all blue).Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 0. Jvara.23 (red). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.50. Raktavik¡ra.L. P¡¸·u.T. 0. 0. 0.98 (all yellow). (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.67 and 0. T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. juice of fresh drug. DOSE . 0. K¡sa. 90 . CONSTITUENTS .96 (sky blue). Aruci.60.34. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .16. 0.43. 0. 0. D¢pana.10 . V¡tahara. H¤dya.61 (light sky blue).

cork cambium 1-2 layered. inner surface black with whitish xylem.2. Katki. Kauka. 0.40. b) Microscopic Rhizome . bitter. Kav¢. short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. mostly attached with rhizomes. Kaurohi¸¢.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. pleasant. cylindrical. subcylindrical. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. Root . kaur Katuka rohini. Rhizome is cut into small pieces.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. Katuku rohini. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Tiktarohi¸¢. short. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. fracture. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Rohi¸¢. Sutiktaka. suberised cells. externally greyish-brown. bitter. Katuka (Rz. fracture. odour. . Scrophulariaceae). straight or slightly curved.1 cm in diameter. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . cortex single layered or absent. Katuka rohini Kutki. (Fam. taste. 5-10 cm long. dusty grey. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. pleasant. a perennial.05-0.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick.Thin. taste. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. odour. primary cortex persists 91 .

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. tracheids. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. thick-walled cells of endodermis.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. thick-walled. vessels have varying shape and size. thick-walled.17. some cylindrical with taillike. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.2. 0. 0. starch grains. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. 0. tapering ends. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. abundantly found in all cells. 0. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape.41 and 0. Appendix 2.7.2.05. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres.62. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. consisting of oval to polygonal. parenchyma.Dusty grey. measuring 25 .10. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. shows groups of fragments of cork cells.84 (all yellow). 0. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.104 µ in diameter. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. 0. 0. 0. Powder .L. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. Appendix per cent.C. parenchymatous cells.6.05 (blue). 0.41.2. 0.30 (blue) and 0.3. 0.. hypodermis single layered. starch grains. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs.in some cases. parenchyma and fibres. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. 2. 0. simple round to oval.17.72 and 0. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. 0.C. tracheids. simple round to oval. Appendix per cent. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends.37.2.21. 92 . thick-walled. 0. secondary phloem poorly developed. cambium 2-4 layered.10.2. 0.4. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. Appendix per cent. cortex 8-14 layered. 2.L. tracheids long.35 (green).21.30. 2. lignified. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. 2. 0. secondary xylem consists of vessels.84 (all brownish grey). thick-walled. fibres aseptate. T. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered.30. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres.V. IDENTITY. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.

KuÀ¶ha. Arocaka. Jvara.1 . D¢pan¢. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. ViÀamajvara.3 g. of the drug in powder form.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. 93 . D¡ha.áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¡mal¡. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Bhedin¢. Pittahara. Sarvajvarahara Lauha.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. DOSE .CONSTITUENTS .

stout. stamens 4.Greenish-brown. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees.3 cm long. Hygrophila spinosa T. Kettu. which are 1. Syn. whitish to brown. swollen at nodes. creamishbrown in cut surfaces.41.Yellowish-brown. common in water logged places throughout the country. corolla 3. Stem . didynamous.5 cm long.Mostly adventitious. 1-7 cm long.2 cm long. Nirguvireru. with long white hairs. second pair 94 . widely 2 lipped. fasciculate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Nirchulli. broader than the other three. externally greyish-brown. Flower . covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes.Acanthaceae). a spiny. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .6 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste. 0. subsessile. Kalsunda --Golmidi. acute. Culli.P. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node.6-2 cm long.Usually unbranched. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. lanceolate. annual herb. all linear-lanceolate.Anders (Fam. abruptly swollen at top. bracts about 2. calyx 4-partite. tube 1. upper sepal 1. entire and hairy. Leaf .5-1 cm wide. no characteristic odour and taste. sub-quadrangular. IkÀuraka. Kolavankal ---. Kolarind. Vayalculli Talikhana. Kokilaksha (W.

involute with a fissure on upper side. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. filament quite glabrous. vessels with spiral thickenings. brownish cells. radially elongated in secondary xylem.25 cm long and 0. b) Microscopic Root . light brown. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. broader towards centre. scattered throughout the phloem region. inner cells smaller.0. moderately thick-walled. radially elongated in xylem region.1 . 95 . pubescent. vessels angular. xylem present in a ring. thin-walled cells. thin-walled. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex.8 cm long. 4seeded. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. cortical cells thin-walled. round. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. linear-oblong. arranged in radial rows. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. flat or compressed. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. composed of polygonal. variable in size. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. having small intercellular spaces. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. single or in groups of 2-3. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres.larger. 0. phloem narrow. peripheral ones larger.Two celled. phloem fibres thick-walled. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. endodermis single layered. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. fibres thick-walled. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. anthers two celled. Fruit . most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers.Ovate. pointed. ray cells thin walled. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. stigma simple. radially arranged. glabrous. hairy but appearing smooth. ray cells thin-walled. oblong.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. consisting of round to polygonal cells. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. with a number of large air cavities. truncate at the base. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. rectangular to cubical. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs.2-0. fibre walls uniformly thickened. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. capsule about 0. subequal. a few thick-walled. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct.15 cm wide. polygonal cells.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. arranged radially. Stem . compressed. composed of transversely elongate. pith large. style filiform. Seed .

Appendix 2. 2. Fruit . sclerenchymatous cells.2.2. thick-walled.75. Seed . tangentially elongated cells. stomatal index 17.25-15.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. Tikta Picchila. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. Powder . spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. Appendix per cent. palisade. Appendix per cent. elongated fibres. parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. lignified. stomata diacytic. V¤Àya. unicellular hairs and globules. parenchymatous.78. Amla. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.6. 2.2.7. covered with thick cuticle. 2. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.LeafMidrib .2. V¡jikara. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. palisade ratio 6. vein islet number 17-42. Rucya. shows aseptate. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. oval to hexagonal. thin-walled. . parenchymatous cells containing oil globules.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate .24-30. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. M£trala.2. Appendix per cent.Shows concavo-convex outline. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.2. composed of thin-walled. Lamina .Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. collenchyma 2-5 layered.4.Light brown. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. palisade 1-2 layered. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle.3.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3 -6 g.T¤À¸¡. DOSE . Ëmav¡ta áotha. 97 . THERAPEUTIC USES .P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). V¡tarakta. of the drug in powder form.

thinwalled cells. no characteristic odour and taste. Kolavulike. IkÀuraka. branches on nodes. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. Kokil¡kÀ¢. Culli --. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Anders (Fam. annual herb. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. a spiny. Kokilaksha (Rt. thin-walled. secondary phloem narrow. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. common in water logged places throughout the country.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Syn. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex.Acanthaceae). a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Hygrophila spinosa T. whitish to brownish. slightly transversely elongated. stout. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex.42. consisting of small. Nerugobbi. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. the size of these cells. Root-Appears circular in outline. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. polygonal cells. 98 .

each group composed of 2-6 cells.2. fibre walls uniformly thickened. 2. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region.3.6.7. having spiral thickening.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. ray cells thin-walled. Appendix 2. shows fragments of pitted.2. V¡tahara. Tikta Picchila. Amla.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. vessels with spiral thickening. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. angular.2. lignified fibres. M£trala. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . broader towards centre. scattered throughout the phloem region. 2. 2. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent.3 -6 g. 99 . A¿ma¤¢.2. 2. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.2. radially elongated in the xylem region. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells.2. V¡tarakta. of the drug for decoction. THERAPEUTIC USES .4.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Ëmav¡ta áotha. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. Appendix per cent.Light brown to ash coloured.

taste. slightly bitter and odour not distinct.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.43. shows hairs and oil globules. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti.Greyish-brown. IkÀuraka. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. Kokilaksha (Sd. thinwalled. white. stout. Hygrophila spinosa T.8 -10. Anders. Maradarishana. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. b) Microscopic Seed . the 100 . a spiny.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Syn. truncate at the base. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. hairy but appearing smooth. common in water logged places throughout the country. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Daruhuladur Darhald. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Maradarishina -Maramannal. Powder . when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. flat or compressed. Acanthaceae). Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. light yellowish-brown. (Fam. oil globules present in this region. parenchymatous cells. Swelling Index . annual herb.

2. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .17 (light brown). 0. Pitt¡¿mar¢.2. Appendix per cent. DOSE .24 (red).93 (sky blue).17.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. V¡tarakta.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.03. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. 2.. Kaphahara. Add 25 ml of water. enzymes like Diastase. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. 0.áotha.2. 0.55 (light blue). 0.38 (light brown). including any sticky mucilage. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.2. 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.41 (light blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.3 -6 g.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.An yellow semi-drying oil. related to 1 g of seeds. 0.10 (light brown).31. Lipase. 0.L. 0.4.52 and 0.72 (dark brown).76 (sky blue) and 0. 0.72 (all yellow). Protease and an Alkaloid. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Appendix per cent. 101 . 2. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.24 (dark brown).L. 0. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .38. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.6.V. 0.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.03 (light brown). 2.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.31 (dark brown). T.3. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. 0.24. 0. Santarpa¸a.C. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form. CONSTITUENTS . 0.52 (dark brown) and 0. 0. V¤Àya. IDENTITY.

ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. characteristic. an annual succulent. surface smooth. sub-sessile. Gho¶ik¡. Peddapavila Kura. Kulfa.4 cm long. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. small. 102 .3 cm long.Almost cylindrical.44. spathulate. ribbed.2 cm in diameter.P) Portulacaceae). short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. odour. oblique. Chhotalunia. 0. oblong. Payilikura. Kozuppaccira Kurfah.5 cm long. petals obovate. Kozuppa. brownish-grey. (Fam. rounded and truncate at the apex. very delicate and soon falling off. 0.Cylindrical.25-0. 0. found throughout the country. Leaf . Moti Luni Khursa. Baranunia Garden Purslane. Stem . at terminal heads. root hairs abundant in upper region.35-0. smooth and greenish-brown. cuneiform. prostrate herb.1 to 0. dehiscing above the base.An ovoid capsule. subtended by an involucre.6 cm wide. Lonika. short. stamens 8-12.Simple. 50 cm long. sepal 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Fruit . swollen at the nodes.A few. 3-4 leaves. style 5-6 fid. less in number.5 cm long and 0. Badi Lona Dudagorai. fracture. Doddagoni Soppu. Kuzuppa (W. Kozhuppa. Loni -Koricchira. Badanuni. Khurfa.1 to 0. Loni. Flower . Ghola -Lonak. secondary roots. 0. Kwfa Pasalai. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6.3 to 2. bright yellow. Loni. 0.4 cm long. Common Indian Purslane Luni. -Baraloniya. Kozhuppu Pappukura. Paruppukkeerai. branched. fracture. Pulikkirai.

having intercellular spaces. oval. ray cells and pith. black. tracheids and parenchyma. measuring 6-14 µ . stomata paracytic type. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres.Greyish-brown.07 cm across. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.2. oval cells. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells.Seed -Numerous. Appendix per cent. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. palisade single layered. covered externally with a thick cuticle. Lamina . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. secondary xylem consists of vessels. present in mesophyll cells. having 2-3 components. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. arranged in radial rows. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled.3. fragments of cork cells. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening.6.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. parenchyma abundant. solitary or in groups of 2-5. LeafMidrib .2. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent.2. having simple pits and spiral thickening. as well as compound. phloem and xylem parenchyma.Wavy in outline. Appendix per cent. pericycle fibre present in patches. Stem . spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. Powder .Shows 5-15 layers of cork.2. phloem. Appendix per cent. pitted and spiral vessels. 0. parenchymatous cells. thick-walled with wide lumen. IDENTITY. 2. b) Microscopic Root . xylem parenchyma and ray cells. minute. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells.4. measuring 6-14 µ in dia.2. dark brown. tracheids. simple as well as compound. 2. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. tracheids and parenchyma.7. with reddish-brown content in a few cells.2.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. parenchymatous cells. 2. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Appendix 2. reniform. Appendix per cent. secondary xylem composed of vessels. vessels.. thin-walled.06-0. shows groups of oval to polygonal.

50.41.L.V.08. 0. 0. CakÀuÀya. Under U. Gulma. Prameha. 104 . 0. áotha.C.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .C. Pittakara.Marma Gu¶ik¡. (both green).10. Carbohydrates.08. 0. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. V¡tahara. 0.T.68 and 0.52 (both faint green).76 (all pinkish red). Ar¿a. THERAPEUTIC USES .68 (yellow) and 0. Vra¸a DOSE . On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0.6 g. 0.76 and 0. 0. of the drug in powder form. 0. 0. 0. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Agnim¡ndya.10. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.. RukÀa.68.61.3 .41.52. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.Protein.10. 0.76 (green) in visible light. 0. T.L. 0. 0.

rependant . obliquely rounded at base. upto 2 cm thick.week bristles longitudinally grooved. varying in length. Adamalati Lajaka. Lajavanti. sessile.5 cm in dia. petiolate. fracture hard.Cylindrical. greyish brown to brown. Leaf . cut surface of pieces pale yellow. external surface light brown. Lajauni Muttidasenui. leaflets 10-20 pairs. slightly astringent. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn.6-1.3-0. nearly glabrous. 0. bark fibrous. taste.Cylindrical. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. sensitive to touch. distinct. Lajjalu (W. Fabaceae). internal cut surface grey.45. Stem . easily separable from wood. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. bark fibrous. (Fam. tapering. 105 .4 cm broad. upto 2. covered with long. woody. 25-50 cm high.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani.2 cm long. odour. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. hairy pinnae. sparsely prickly. yellowish-green. obliquely narrow or linear oblong.P) diffused undershrub. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. alternate. Lajamani Chhuimui. Machikegida. Var¡kr¡nt¡. stipulate. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. acute. with secondary and tertiary branches. linear lanceolate. 0. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .

starch grains. stamens 4. straw coloured.Pink. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. filled with reddish-brown contents. ovate oblong. a number of lignified.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. 2. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. 0. much exserted. thick-walled. Fruit . crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. pith consisting of polygonal. peduncles prickly. respectively. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. ovary sessile. brown to grey. arranged in tangential bands. xylem rays radially elongated.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. thick-walled. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. spreading bristle at sutures. calyx very small. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. tangentially elongated cells. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. secondary cortex wide. corolla pink. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. crystal fibres thick-walled. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. lobes 4. oval-elliptic. thick-walled. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. consisting of large.6 cm long. fibres.4-0. parenchyma. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. dry. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. tangentially elongated to oval. 2-3 seriate more common.Compressed.Lomentum. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. Stem .3 long. rarely multiseriate.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. moderately thick-walled. Seed . phloem rays thick-walled.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. in globose head. ovules numerous. scattered throughout. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. phloem fibres single or in groups. b) Microscopic Root . wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. 0.3 cm long. glabrous. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. 106 . fibres single or in groups. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. 1-1.Flower . parenchymatous cells. crystal fibres elongated. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. scattered throughout secondary xylem. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. fibres of two types. simple. 0. radially elongated. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. 3-25 chambered.

covered with thin-cuticle.L. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. 2. parenchymatous cells Seed . On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .6. 2.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.62. lignified cells followed by single layered. crystal fibres.2. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. fibres. branched.C.Leaf- Petiole . Appendix per cent.2. pericycle arranged in a ring. shows.Reddish-brown.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U.69 (all blue) and 0. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells.shows single layered epidermis. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. endocarp of thick-walled. pericycle same as in petiole. spongy parenchyma. 0.2.shows epidermis on both surfaces. Fruit . Midrib . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. branched.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled.3. 2. 0. Appendix 2. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. T.C. palisade cells non glandular. palisade single layered. pitted vessels. 2. Powder .3 components IDENTITY. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. parenchymatous cells. 0.2. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. shaggy hairs.2.35. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. thin-walled.V. shaggy hairs.81 (bluish-pink). mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region.7.4. one in each wing. single and compound starch grains. spongy parenchyma single layered. reticulate. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. with 2 . vascular bundle single. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. Appendix per cent. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.L.2. Lamina .

Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . áv¡sa. 108 . B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.35 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . Ku¶aj¡valeha.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Vra¸a. Atis¡ra. Raktapita DOSE . 0.spots appear at Rf.35 (orange).10-20 g of the drug for decoction. D¡ha. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a.áopha. 0.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Yoniroga. Kaphahara. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.

a few 109 . Sapotaceae) . lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). anther sub-sessile. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. epipetalous and arranged in two series. Ippa. Hippe. Ilippa.F. ovate lanceolate.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. b) Microscopic Corolla . M. Madhuka (Fl. Halippe. epipetalous.Gmel. Androecium . and also cultivated. Kattu Iluppai. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. sweet. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium.) Macbride. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. short. erect 0. taste.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Mahua Katiluppai. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. latifolia (Roxb. lanceolate. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle.5-2 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. basifixed.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Mahawash tree Mahudo. Madhuka. Hippenara. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Syn. Iluppa. (Fam. followed by thin-walled. corolla fleshy.46. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. tabular. reddish-brown. Eppimara -Irippa.

2. Balya. Appendix 70 per cent. 2. 2. Ah¤dya.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. T¤À¸¡. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. 110 .unicellular hairs present on one side. Appendix 10 per cent. of the drug. round.Dark brown. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. Appendix 0. oval shaped. unicellular hairs.2. tapetum not distinct. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY.10 . Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. V¡tahara.áv¡sa. lignified cells. shows fragments of epidermal cells.2. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.15 g. Appendix 5 per cent.6. Pittakara.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. Powder . El¡di Modaka. Appendix 2. KÀata. endothecium composed of radially elongated.4. pollen grains single or in groups.3. áramahara. D¡ha.Madh£k¡sava.2.2. KÀaya. Appendix 25 per cent. árama DOSE .2. 2. 2. spherical.7.

. nodiflora R. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. fracture. A. white often tinged with pink. obtuse or subacute. triandra Lam. 0. yellowish-brown to light-brown. Stem ..3-7.P.47. Br.3-2 cm wide. nodes and internodes distinct. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. repens Gmel.. A. no characteristic odour and taste. often rooting at lower nodes. A. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .6 cm diameter.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. Matsy¡duni.5 cm long. or elliptic.1-0. Amaranthaceae). weak. Leaf . internodes 0. Br. Br. Matshyakshi (W.Herbaceous.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. linear-oblong. no characteristic odour and taste. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. Syn. denticulata R.. Flower . short. bracteoles 111 . no characteristic odour and taste.1. fracture.. 0. cream to grey. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha.Cylindrical. 2.5 cm wide. non Link. A. sessile. Gandal¢. Bahli. (Fam. short.) R. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. with spreading branches from the base.5-5 cm long.

a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. with anomalous secondary growth. secondary cortex narrow. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. Lamina . thin-walled.1. composed of thin-walled.5 mm long. shows wavy or undulate. parenchymatous cells. bicollateral. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. ovate. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. round or oval. covered wtith striated cuticle. acute. parenchymatous cells. ovary obcordate. pith consisting of thin-walled. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. present in the centre. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. consistig of thin-walled. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. palisade ratio 3-5. vascualr bundles radially arranged. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. no characteristic odour and taste.dorsiventral. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. each consisting of xylem and phloem. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. irregular. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. pith distinct. compressed. 1. compressed with thickened margins. parenchymatous cells. radially arranged cork cells.Utricle. Stem . there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. thin. round to oval. consisting of thin-walled cells.2 cm long. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. xylem tissues lignified. parenchymatous cells. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. no characteristic odour and taste. scarious. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. vascular bundles three. numerous. stomata paracytic. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. 112 . perianth 2. orbicular. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays.5-3 mm long. with are conjoint. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. Leaf- Midrib . Fruit . xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. sepals ovate.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. isodiametric. thin-walled round or oval. open and exarch. single layered. palisade 2-3 layers. capitellate. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. isodiametic cells.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. b) Microscopic Root .Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. style very short. collenchymatous cells. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round.

Pittavik¡ra.. Under U. 0. T. 0.2. 0. Tikta.L. 0.2 -3 g.44 (all green).33. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.KuÀ¶ha. 2.16. Appendix 3 per cent. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. 2.2. IDENTITY.2.96 (all yellow). Raktavik¡ra DOSE . 0.C.2.33 and 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .81. 0. 2.V. paracytic stomata.6.C.L. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.94 and 0.68 (all red).Sugar.Olive green. 2. 113 .5 per cent. of the drug in powder form. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.54 and 0.4. 0.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. Appendix 10 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.44.Powder . 0.35. 0.59. 0. 0.2.3.18. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Kaphahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.7. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.44. V¡tahara.25.16. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 4. 0. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 19 per cent. Appendix 2.

mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. taste. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region.) aromatic.15-0.35 cm broad. 0. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. Methi (Sd. (Fam.48.5 cm long. parenchymatous cells. very hard. Fabaceae). smooth. covered externally with thick cuticle. b) Microscopic Seed . 30-60 cm tall. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.walled. pleasant. annual herb. 0. thin-walled.2-0. cultivated throughout the country. varying in size. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. cells flat at base. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. columnar palisade. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. several layers of thin walled. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. odour. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. 114 . dull yellow. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. bitter.Seed shows a layer of thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. mucilaginous cells.

Sapogenins and Mucilage. Appendix 0.2.2. 2.3. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 5 per cent. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. Jvara.Alkaloid. Powder . V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. Aruci DOSE .5 per cent.2. 2. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. oil globules. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. aleurone grains. Prameha. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. 115 . Kaphahara.3-6 g.Yellow. Appendix 2.2.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2.Mustak¡riÀ¶a.4. Rucya.Graha¸¢.6.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn.P. blade obovate. taste. Stem .Slender. regular. bright green.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. upper most leaves simple.Root cylindrical.) Brassicaceae). seplas 6. petiole 5-5. petals 1. not distinct.1-1.Lower leaves hairy. pedicel with scattered hairs. sometimes brown red. Muli.3 cm long. slightly pungent. coarsely toothed. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 0. having a few longitudinal striations. Leaf .0 cm in dia.Flower in long terminal raceme.. compressed. cylindrical. complete 1-2 cm long. Flower . odour. variable size and thickness.7-2. lyrate.2 cm long. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . sub-marginate at the apex. hollow. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. an annual or biennial bristly herb. Mulaka (W.49. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying.5-10 cm long. bisexual. oblong. (Fam. yellowish-green.

Fruit . sometimes flattened. parenchymatous cells. single layered. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. epidermis followed by 6. 3-9 cm long and 0. cylindrical. endodermis at some places. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. oily. cork cells. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. round to oval.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. 10-12 ovuled. round to oval. irregularly globose. erect. parenchymatous cells. hairs unicellular. Leaf- Petiole .Reddish-brown. 117 . epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. palisade 2-3 layers. b) Microscopic Root . 2-4 mm long. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. one central and two lateral. elliptical. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. medullary rays four to many cells wide. vascular bundle three in number. 1-2 chambered. thin-walled. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. ovary superior. present in cortex.1. Midrib . green or brown-purple. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. solitary or ingroups. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. taste. Lamina . cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. stamen 6 in two whorls. style about 4 mm long.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. covered with thick cuticle.purple vein.4 cm thick.8.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. thin-walled. phloem. Seed . greenish-yellow.dorsiventral. traversed by phloem rays.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. epidermis single layered. continuous or more or less constricted. starch grains simple. radially arranged. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. traversed by xylem rays. two outer smaller and four inner longer.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. occasionally pale purple. 2 mm wide. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. longitudinally sulcatus.appears biconvex in outline. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. parenchymatous cells. present in cortex and phloem. present only on upper side.Siliqua. pith a wide zone of polygonal. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. Stem .

2. thin-walled.Agnim¡ndya. Seed . Kaphahara. P¡cana. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.3.7. thinwalled. covered with thin.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Ud¡varta. 2. Svarya. 2. parenchymatous cells present. Gandhaka Va¶¢.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Shows a single layered epidermis. of columnar cells. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded.M£lakakÀ¡ra.40 ml. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed.Fruit . shows aseptate fibres. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Pittahara.2. of the drug in juice form. Tikta Laghu. Appendix per cent. Powder . epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. Appendix per cent. DOSE . straight cuticle. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. Appendix 2. P¢nasa. H¤dya. 118 . Gulma.Yellowish-green.6. tangentially elongated. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. reddish-brown. Rucya.Glucoside. Ar¿a.2. spiral vessels.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells.2. parenchymatous cells. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. 2.2. covered with a thin-cuticle.20 . IDENTITY. containing aleurone grains and oil globules.

an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. Brassicaceae).2.2. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Appendix per cent. (Fam. usually 25-40 cm in length. fusiform. Appendix per cent. taste.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent.4.3. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Appendix 2.7. variable in size.2. 2. IDENTITY. Mulaka (Rt. Moclangi gadde. Appendix per cent. 119 . Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. Rakhyasmula Mula. having a few lateral fibrous roots.6. slightly or strongly pungent. 2.2. 2. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Saleya. cylindrical. Mullangi. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. 2. Mulaka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. Mula Muli Moolangi.2. white in colour. Visra.) annual or biennial bristly herb.50. Appendix per cent. rarely sweet.

T. 0. 0.04 & 0. áv¡sa. Gulma.69 (all yellow).15-30 ml. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. 0. P¢nasa. 0. of the drug in the juice form 120 . Dadru. Svarya. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Vrana.LC. 0. Galaroga. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta Laghu.09 (both blue). Ud¡varta DOSE .34. Ar¿a.04.09 & 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. H¤dya.49 & 0.Glucoside. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .09. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Agnim¡ndya. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rucya.T.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .L. 0. Kaphahara.C. Jvara. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.04. Netraroga. K¡sa. P¡cana.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Pittahara. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.V.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. S. secondary phloem shows wide zone. cambium 2-4 layered. thin-walled cells.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. colour.2. Root .Shows 10 . 0.6 . tenuifolium Wall. (Fam.4 m tall.42000 m. consisting of tangentially elongated. taste. 6-12 cm long and 0. dull brown.1. slightly bitter. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. traversed by xylem rays. aromatic. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.) DC. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . traversed by phloem rays. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. Daitya. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. Mura (Rt. Apiaceae ). odour. tangentially elongated. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC.3 . Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. inner cells thin-walled. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. rectangular cells. fibres and parenchyma.51. Syn. a perennial herb. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. thin-walled cells. Gandhakuti. secondary cortex composed of rounded.

Appendix 17 per cent. secondary xylem and medullary rays.2. present in secondary cortex. starch grains simple.7.having spiral thickenings.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). 2.4. composed of radially arranged. distributed throughout secondary cortex. Appendix 9 per cent. M£rchha.2. xylem and phloem rays. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. Tikta. round to oval. Bhrama. short with blunt ends. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .5 per cent.3. D¡ha. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. 2.Brown. xylem parenchyma. Appendix 9 per cent.áv¡sa. secondary phloem.2.2. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. Sucrose and Mannitol.6. secondary phloem. Appendix 3. 2. shows groups of cork cells.Arvind¡sava. 2. of the drug in powder form. secretory canals numerous. Ka¶u. CONSTITUENTS . measuring 7-55 µ in dia. somewhat oval cells. parenchymatous cells.1-3 g. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Jvara. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. secretory canals. fibres aseptate. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2.2. oil globules and simple starch grains.2. 122 .. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara.

secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. bark easily separable from wood. & Am. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. fracture. Kallu Shambu. tangentially elongated. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. b) Microscopic Root . secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva.52. Murva (Rt. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. similar to those present in secondary cortex. twining shrub. Madhusrava. resin cells present irregularly in this region.) Asclepiadaceae). (Fam. some filled with reddish-brown contents. slightly bitter. odour. Halukaratige. indistinct. phloem fibres absent. phloem rays 1 123 . stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. Koratige.Shows a cork.5-3 cm thick. Jartor Koratige Hambu. taste. a large stout. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. rectangular cells. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork.

5-22 µ dia. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. Appendix 7 per cent. Mukha áosa. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. Meha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .tracheids.. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. starch grains simple. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. 2. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. 2. H¤droga. present in parenchymatous tissues. Jvara. 124 . Appendix 14 per cent. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. DOSE . Raktapitta. of the drug for decoction. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Ar¿a. fibres.2-6 g. T¤Àn¡.2.2.7. tracheids. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Ka¸·£.22 µ in diameter. V¡tahara. 2. Medoroga. measuring 5.2. shows a number of stone cells.2. consisting of small tangential. of the drug in powder form.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. fibres. fragments of cork. 2. Pittahara. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. 5. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. Appendix 2.4. vessels with pitted walls.2. IDENTITY. composed of vessels. Tikta Guru. fibretracheids.3. Appendix 0. simple and compound starch grains.Light brown.6. Appendix 5 per cent. K¤miroga. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure.5 per cent.. 10-20 g.3 cells wide. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. Prameha Mihira Taila. Powder . ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 . concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. THERAPEUTIC USES . vary in shape and size with borderd pits.

soft to touch. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. Hem¡. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. Powder . connective and filament. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. parenchymatous cells. filiform. (Fam. 125 . more or less twisted. connective not visible with naked eye. yellowish and thin-walled. quite brittle.8 . N¡ga. Assam.53. basifixed. Veluthapala. an Ke¿ara. consisting of thin-walled. Nagchampa. fragrant. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. exine and intine distinct. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. Nagakesari -Nangaa. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. distinct protuberances on walls. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. shows elongated cells of filament. Peri. containing pollen grains. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. b) Microscopic Androecium . taste. filament 0. odour. Nauga. Nagppu. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. slender. Pilunagkesar. Bengal.1.Anther shows golden-brown. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. Naugaliral.Brown. anther about 0. Konkan. Nagakesar (Stmn. often buttressed at the base. coppery or golden brown. Guttiferae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh.9-1. astringent. Sachunagkeshara. N¡gapuÀpa.9 cm long. Nagachampakam. Nahar Nageshvara. linear. thick-walled. each stamen 0.) evergreen tree. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single.5 cm long.0 cm long.

2. Tikta. Kum¡ry¡sava. 2.6. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.1-3 g. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form.2. Vastiroga DOSE . Kaphahara.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.4.Essential oil and Oleo-resin.2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. 2. 126 . Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. Appendix per cent. áopharoga. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix 2.IDENTITY.Raktapitta.7.3. V¡tarakta. Var¸ya.

pale green to greenish-black. Fabaceae). vascular bundles collateral and three in number. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip.) shrub. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings.2. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili.5 cm long and 0. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. pith composed of round to oval.3-1. leaflet 1-2. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. no characteristic odour and taste.8 m high.1.54. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. (Fam. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.2 cm wide. N¢l¢n¢. 1. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. Nili (Lf. 127 . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.

shows epidermis.2. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . Ke¿ya. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.6. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma.50-100 g. Jvara..Greenish-grey. similar as in petiole and midrib. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ud¡varta. 2. pitted vessels.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Midrib .2. Appendix 25 per cent.2.shows dorsiventral structure. Appendix 2 per cent. cuticle and hair. Appendix 2. K¡sa.. collateral and crescent shaped. V¡tarakta.4. epidermis. Lamina . paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . Pl¢haroga.2. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. Gulma.. 128 . Appendix 10 per cent.2. aseptate fibres. Udararoga.7. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 7.3. 2. of decoction. IDENTITY. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. vascular bundle single. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.Ëmav¡ta.Glycoside (Indican). shows groups of mesophyll cells. similar as in petiole.2. palisade 2-3 layers. 2. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. cuticle and hair. K¤imiroga.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.

thin-walled cells.1 -1. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. Nili (Rt. thin-walled cells.5 cm thick. Olleneeli -Amari.2-1. Nila -Neel Avuri. slightly bitter. Fabaceae). Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Neeligida. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. 0. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. 1. consisting of usual elements. Nil.10 layers of tangentially elongated. odour not distinct. Indian Indigo Gali. group of fibres. Nili Chettu. woody. secondary cortex a narrow zone. Nila Nili. hard. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. Rangapatr¢. 129 . measuring 11-17 µ in dia. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo.55. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen.) shrub. consisting of rectangular to polygonal.8 m high. Neeli Nili. (Fam.. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. taste. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. Nili. with lenticels. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. Gari Nili Kadunili. Karunili. rectangular. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. cylindrical. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels.

C. K¤imiroga.L.47 (blue). Ëmav¡ta.30 (bluish green). starch grains simple. K¡sa. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .40.40. 0. 0.6.3.33.81. 0. phloem.58.80. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. 0. 0.C. of drug for decoction..75 (blue). V¡tahara. 0.58 (blue). Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. round to oval.Creamish-brown.0.91 (all yellow). IDENTITY.50.33.Arvind¡sava. Ud¡varta. Udararoga.63.91 (all grey).27.4. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. ViÀavik¡ra. 0.48 g.2. 0. 0. 0. Pl¢h¡roga.2.V.06.7 per cent. 0. 0.58.63 (bluish green).14 (blue).L. Ke¿ya.75. T. 0. 0. Appendix 2. 0. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .21. 0.2.40 (blue).2. shows aseptate fibres. 0.10. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 6 per cent. 0. Powder . present in cortex. simple and compound starch grains. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.06. 0.7.14.86 (green) and 0.63.81 (blue). xylem parenchyma and rays. DOSE .27.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.50. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. Appendix 0. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.14.86.75.Gulma. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. 0.2. 0.91 (blue).. V¡tarakta.2.10. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf.0. 130 . 0.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. 0. 0. pitted vessels. 0. 2. 0. Recan¢. 0. Appendix 3 per cent. 2. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. 0. and 0.86 and 0. 0.

parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.0-1. 0. Veppu. Meliaceae). leaflets with oblique base. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. odour.1 cm thick. Bevinama -Veppu. Veppan Vemu. 7-8.Compound. Nim Vemmu. exstipulate. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba.5 cm long and 1. Kahibevu. Limba. Bakan. Bevu. opposite. acute. Bakayan. Nimbam. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Veppa Balantanimba. lanceolate. taste. Limado. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle.56. 131 . Kohumba Nim. Juss Syn.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. slightly yellowish-green. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. crystals also present in phloem region. Melia azadirachta Linn. rachis 15-25 cm long. indistinct. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Oilevevu. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. (Fam. Nimba Nimba. Limbado. serrate. alternate. Nim. Nimba (Lf. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves .7 cm wide. Aryaveppu. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Arulundi.

Vrana.6.shows dorsiventral structure. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered.Jvara.Green. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. K¤miroga. ViÀarogas DOSE .2. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha.0-11. Ëma¿otha. 2. 132 . Appendix per cent. shows vessels.0-4.Lamina .K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.2. 2. V¡tal¡. Powder . stomatal index 13. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. Appendix per cent.2. tangentially elongated cells. Prameha. IDENTITY. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2.5 on upper surface. Appendix per cent.Triterpenoids and Sterols. thin-walled cells.5. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. covered externally with thick cuticle.7.0-14. fibres. 2.4. palisade single layered.3.1-3 g.2. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . composed of thin walled.2. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .5 on lower surface and 8. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. palisade ratio 3. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. Netraroga. traversed by a number of veins.2. KuÀ¶ha. epidermis on either surface. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .

fibrous. characteristic. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Kadunimb. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. woody. Bakam Veppai. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Limba Nimba Nim. fissured and rusty-grey. taste. a moderate sized to fairly large. Vembu Vemu. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nimba (St.57. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Picumarda Mahanim Nim. considerably thick in older barks. Meliaceae). Aruveppu Balantanimba. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. Juss. fracture. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. (Fam. Nimba. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. evergreen tree. Syn. Nimba. Oilevevu -Veppu. Nimb Bevu. Kahibevu. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. extemal surface rough.

Kaphahara. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.L. measuring 2.C. starch grains. simple starch grains. Appendix 5 per cent.C. ViÀaghna. Appendix 7 per cent. 2. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. 2.63 and 0.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . T.90 (all blue).4.Reddish-brown.86 (blue). cork cells.6.outer surface. Powder . Vra¸a¿odhanakara. IDENTITY.75-5 µ in diameter.2. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.5 per cent.3. simple. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. 0.V. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends.7. 0.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands.90 (green). Pittahara. and 0. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.2.2. having wide lumen and distinct striations. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. 0. secondary cortex absent in most cases. stone cells mostly in groups. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.2.L.2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate.20. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. lignified rectangular to polygonal.72 (blue). Appendix 2. Appendix 1.measuring 2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.45. round with central hilum. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.

Jvara. of the drug in powder form. Decoction should be used externally.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. 135 .2-4 g. KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Prameha. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Ka¸·u..D¡ha. Rakta Pitta. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Vra¸a DOSE .

Paras Moduga. Muttala -Plasu. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. 0. rhytidoma 0. Tesu Muttug. Modugu.58. rectangular 136 . Camata. Khakhapado Dhak. cork cells. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. fracture. Chettu Dhak. Tesu Purasu. having brown colour. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. dark-brown. Palasha (St. except in very arid parts. exposing light brown surface. rectangular. taste.1 cm thick. tanniniferous cells. 12 . internal surface rough. often in groups.5 . dark brown. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. pale brown. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline.2 cm thick usually peels off. Muttuga.) Kuntze (Fam. thin-walled. 5-10 or more layered.Bk) Fabaceae). RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. curved. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. greyish to pale brown. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. Plas. moderately thick-walled. slightly astringent. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone.15 m high with irregular branches. Dhak. Palash. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Khakharo. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m.

companion cells.. Appendix 2. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Appendix 1.7.C. 0.L. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . CONSTITUENTS .Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.3 components.12 cells wide.2.C. 0.4 layers of sclereids. phloem fibres.18. 137 . Appendix 12 per cent. Powder . secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.L. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.6.. 2. 0.2.2.48. 2. dark brown coloured cells.3.2. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . straight. sclereids mostly in groups.2.5 per cent. 0.10.cells followed by a zone of 2 . (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.48 and 0. Appendix 14 per cent.50 cells in height.2.10.10. 0. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.Reddish-brown. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.V. phloem parenchyma. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.48 and 0.67 (all violet). tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.75 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.65 (all blue). 0.75 . 7 . T.13. Appendix 10 per cent. crystal fibres. 2. measuring 2. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.4. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .67 (all yellow). traversed by phloem rays. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. 0. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. thin-walled cork cells. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. 0. 2.

Ar¿a.5-10 g. KaÀ¡ya Sara. K¤miroga. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. Agnid¢paka. of the drug in powder form for decoction.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Graha¸¢. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. Vra¸a. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. S¡raka .Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. 138 . Tikta. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. DOSE . Gulma.

(Fam. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. inner bark fibrous. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Pangara Hongar.0 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. yellowish to cream coloured. radially arranged and thin-walled. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India.59. stone 139 . outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture.5-2. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai.Bk) Fabaceae). whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells. medium sized. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. smooth. exfoliating in narrow strips. quick growing tree. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. tangentially elongated to squarish. secondary cortex consists of large. Mulmurumgai Badisa. Paribhadra (St.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

148 .2-4 g. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Alkaloids.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.. Balak¤t. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru.CONSTITUENTS .V¡tarakta. V¤Àya. Volatile Oil. V¡taroga DOSE . of drug in powder form.

linear. 0. odour. hilum present at the apex of round edge. Priyalam. Chowl.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. occurring mostly in groups. latifolia Roxb.3-0. (Farn. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . Syn. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng.4-0. 0. pleasant. b) Microscopic Seed . sclerenchymatous cells. creamish-brown. Piyar.63. B. thick-walled. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. pitted.) Anacardiaceae). funicle stout. Saraparuppu Sara. collapsed cells of integument. micropyle superior. taste.5 cm wide. Shalichokha Piyal. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. mottled with darker brown lines. Priyala (Sd. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present.6 cm long. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. followed by remnants of disorganised. which are of various size. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. large. Korka. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. sweetish-oily. Satdhan -Charal. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural.

DOSE .10 . filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2.91. procambium bundles. V¤Àya.Albuminoids.2. Oil and Starch. Priy¡la Taila. 2. 0.94 and 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .08.72 and 0. Bhagnas¡dhaka.54.72. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. Sara. 0. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.72.measuring 2.27. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.3. 2.P£gakha¸·a.98 (all violet).20 g. BrÆha¸a.5-5. Powder . Pittahara. 0.6. and sclerenchymatous cells.27. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5-5. 0.5 per cent. áukrakara. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. 0. Appendix 7 per cent.84. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.94 and 0. and oil globules. 0.0 µ in dia. T.2. Raktapitta.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. 0. shows numerous mesophyll cells. IDENTITY.type.54. 0. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf.L. V¡tahara. Kaphakara. KÀaya.C.91. of the drug in powder form. KÀata. 150 . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. Appendix 2. 2.L. 0.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.A creamish-brown paste.2. H¤dya.C.4.7. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.D¡ha. 0.98 (all yellow).08. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 10 per cent.V. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. Balya.0 µ in dia.94 (blue). Appendix 0. 0. 0. 0.

5 cm across.64. densely clothed with wooly hairs. (Fam.2.2. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .0. an erect.5 . Flower . Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. bell-shaped.4 m high shrub. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. parenchymatous cells. 1. 1.) Verbenaceae). anther ovate.Cymose. hairy. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam.5-7. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. thin-walled. brown. peduncle cylindrical.5 cm long. 2. Priyangu (Infl. densely hairy. tubular. filament very long.Shows more or less wavy outline. style. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. brown. and abundant in Bengal plains.3 mm in dia. stigma minutely capitate. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. epipetalous. equal in size. 4 lobbed spreading. calyx. long. corolla. stamens 4. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. ovary 2-4 celled. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. b) Microscopic Peduncle . basifixed.

7. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. DOSE .2. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Pras¡dana. (Mukharoga).2. N¢lik¡dya Taila. M£travirajan¢ya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.D¡ha. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. groups of thin-walled. elliptical.6. Ku´kum¡di Taila. Pakv¡tis¡ra.2. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. fibres aseptate. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. V¡tahara. IDENTITY.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Terpenes. El¡di C£r¸a. Kanaka Taila. of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent. Daurgandhyahara. Appendix per cent. spiral vessels. Jvara. CONSTITUENTS .fibres. aseptate fibres.2. Sandh¡n¢ya. Resin and Saponin. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Rakta.1-3 g. Sved¡dhikya. 2. Phenolic compound. Appendix per cent. Vra¸aropa¸a.Brown. Rakta-Pitta. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.Glycosides.3. Powder .4. 2. 152 . 2.2. xylem consists of usual elements.

65. Paddy Shalichokha. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Bhatta.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. both consisting of round to oval. Dh¡nya. Odalu. Cala. (Fam. Dhanarmul. cylindrical. exodermis 1-2 layered. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Shali (Rt. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Poaceae). Biyyamu Chaval. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. thin. Dhana Bhatto. Dhan Rice. Damgara. Bhata. Nellu. Nivara -Chaval. composed of thick-walled. Sali. thick-walled. an annual herb. Chawl. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. b) Microscopic Root . soft. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. sclerenchymatous cells. 5-15 cm in length and 0. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Akki -Ari. Coke Chaval. Nelver Dhanyamu.) cultivated throughout India.05-0.Greyish-cream. Corava. cortex differentiated into three zones. Jhona Arishi. pitted vessels and 153 . Nellu Tandulamul. Vr¢hi. Powder . creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Dhana. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. sclerenchymatous cells.

7.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.StanyakÀaya. Appendix per cent. Laghu. H¤dya. 154 .2. Appendix per cent.50 g. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . KaÀ¡ya Guru. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. Svarya.2. Pittahara.4. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Balya.2. 2. of the drug for decoction.3. CakÀuÀya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . M£trala. Baddh¡lpavarcasa.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. 2. IDENTITY. 2. Rucya. Kaphahara. Appendix 2.2. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. BrÆha¸a. V¡tahara. Var¸ak¤t.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

1-5 cm long. sparsely hairy. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. Sankhapuspi. Sankha pushpin (W. Stem . corolla shortly discoid. hairy. 0. ovary superior and bicarpellary. light green.1-0. linear-lanceolate.White or pinkish. Leaf . áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. stamen 5.5 cm broad. Flower .Shortly petiolate. inserted deep in the corolla tube. Shankhapushpi. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. acute.Usually branched. hairy on both surfaces. found throughout the country. linear-lanceolate. yellowish-brown to light brown. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. epipetalous.5-2 cm long and 0. light green. cylindrical. sub-erect. free.1-0. sepals narrowly. Sankhahuli Kakattam. about 0.Slender. 155 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. a prostrate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. alternate with the petals. spreading. Shankhavela. cylindrical.66. Kakkanangudi.4 cm thick.) Convolvulaceae). ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. perennial herb with a woody root stock.P. 0. Karakhuratt.

lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. phloem. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits.Fruit . b) Microscopic Root . thick-walled cells. measuring 3 . measuring 3-8 µ in dia.walled cells. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. cortex differentiated in two zones. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. LeafMidrib . mm. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. covered with thick cuticle. present in cortex. phloem a narrow zone. simple and compound starch grains. xylem consists of vessels. hairs unicellular.Appears nearly circular in outline. secretory cells present in this region. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. fibres and tracheids. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. Stem . spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. endoderrnis single layered.8 µ in dia. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.Light yellowish-green. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. pale brown pericarp. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. starch grains solitary or in groups.8-17.Shows single layered epidermis. phloem composed of sieve elements. palisade ratio 6-9. covered with thick cuticle. mm. 13. elongated. 156 . phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. epidermis single layered. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. Powder . Lamina . 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. at places unicellular hairs present. oblong globose with coriaceous. xylem rays and parenchyma. fibres and parenchyma. round to oval in shape.Capsule. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. Seed . xylem consisting of usual elements. minutely puberulous.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. tanniniferous. both having round to oval. present on both surfaces. thin..0. . strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. simple and composed of 2-3 components.Brown. vascular bundle bicollateral. unicellular hairs. elliptical. palisade two layered. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated.

2. Ras¡yana.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ËyuÀya. Br¡hma.2. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Appendix per cent.2.4. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Appendix per cent.3. Agastyahar¢tak¢.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.2. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.7. Appendix 2. Ras¡yana. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.IDENTITY. Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. 2. Medhya.M¡nasaroga. Clitoria ternatea Linn.6. Appendix per cent.3-8 g. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. 2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Kaphahara. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . 2. Tikta.2. Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent.

lobes short. short. Chagulputputi Satala. free to the base. 2. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. sub-sessile. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 0. ovate. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. smooth. a much branched.Small. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. Leaf . Carmas¡hv¡. horned. (Fam.5 mm across at the mouth.5-2 mm thick.7-7 cm long.2-0. Fruit . 20-40 cm high. cylindrical. ribbed.Capsule. Flower . Joyachi. Siju. trilocular. Bilikalli. Saptala (W. greenish-yellow.8 cm wide.Involucre broadly campanulate.P. annual herb. linear. pale brown. ciliolate. lanceolate or linear oblong. 158 . glabrous outside and pubescent inside. odour and taste not distinct. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali.1.67. having a few secondary roots. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. 3-4 mm in dia.) Euphorbiaceae). filament pubescent. gradually tapering. 3.celled with or without attached pedicel. fracture. 4-5 cm long. sessile. solitary. odour and taste indistinct. shortly 2-fid at the apex. 0. gland semilunate. style. 1 mm long. subacute.

stone cells oval to elongated.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. thick-walled lignified. b) Microscopic Root . groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. palisade single layered present on both sides. with wide lumen present in this region. parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. covered externally with thick. tangentially elongated elliptical. consisting of thick-walled. traversed by numerous xylem rays. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. rarely a few oil globules also present. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. found scattered in phloem region. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. simple. mature root shows thin walled cork. epidermis single layered. rounded at the base. leprous tuberculate testa. rounded to oval. secondary xylem consists of vessels. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. measuring 5. solitary or in groups. striated cuticle. parenchymatous cells. filled with yellowish-brown content. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. tangentially elongated cells. elliptical. composed of sieve elements. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. secondary phloem narrow. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. secondary cortex consists of 4. fibres and tracheids. Stem .Seed . spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade.Young root shows exfoliated. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs.3 mm long.shows slightly convex outline. fibres. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. grooved at one side. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. single layered epidermis. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. thickwalled and lignified. starch grains simple. some rounded.25 µ in diameter. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. secondary xylem composed of vessels. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Leaf- Midrib .5-19. lignified cells with wide lumen. tracheids and medullary rays.6 layers of oval. elliptical. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. vessels having simple pits. rounded to oval. parenchymatous cells. 159 . thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 2. rectangular.75 µ in dia. all elements thick-walled and lignified. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. endodermis not distinct. fibres and vessels having simple pits. fibres elongated and aseptate. flattended. centre occupied by a pith. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. all elements. circular to oval. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular.

Appendix per cent.87 (violet). Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. 2. 160 .4. CONSTITUENTS . Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. Pittahara.0. aseptate fibres. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.2. and 0. RukÀa.Ën¡ha. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.67. stone cells thick-walled. Udararoga. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.50 g. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Vibandha. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).2. rounded to oval starch grains.2. elliptical. DOSE . 0. 2. Appendix per cent.C. Mi¿raka Sneha. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.46 (brown) and 0. 0.Light yellow. Ud¡vartta. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.6. 2.46. Appendix 2. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. V¡tal¡.3.2. Appendix per cent.04. lignified with wide lumen.04 and 0. RaktadoÀahara.7. simple. Gulma.Powder .L.V. oval to elongated. shows vessels with simple pits. Visarpa. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.L.C. T.2. of the drug for decoction.57 (all yellow).

Peucedanum sowa Roxb. A. Syn. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. var. Satahva (Fr.. graveolens Benth. Shulupa. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. dorsal 161 . some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. 4 mm long. Shepa. slightly raised. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. filiform and incospicuous. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. odour.. dark brown. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. sowa Roxb. b) Microscopic Fruit . glabrous. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. glabrous.68.. graveolens DC. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. parenchymatous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. slightly sharp taste. brown. A. vittae. a tall. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. mesocarp. yellowish membranous wings. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. akin to caraway. often stalk attached. Sulpha. mericarps usually separate and free. and a warm. Apiaceae). graveolens Linn.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. P. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. (Fam. ex Flem.

L. Vra¸a.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. shows spiral vessels.59 (blue) and 0.C. 0. cellulosic. 2. 2.Brown.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.5 per cent. of the drug in powder form. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.L. 0.59 and 0.3.á£la. V¡tahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. 162 . Appendix 2. 2. Jvara.Essential Oil. CONSTITUENTS . passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. carpophore split.37 (pink) 0. Appendix 14 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. Netra Roga DOSE . IDENTITY. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Powder . parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. Appendix 1. 2.7. Kaphahara.costae three. Appendix 15 per cent.C. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .10 T.2.2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.4.68 (violet).68 (all yellow).2.2. Atis¡ra.2. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. each costae with vascular strands.6.2. Appendix 3 per cent. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.3-6 g.

and articulated at the base. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. Shewgachi pane Sajana. (Fam. vascular bundle collateral. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. oval to elliptical.69. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Leaflet . consisting of pericyclic fibres. Shigru (Lf. Mocaka -Sajina. odour and taste not distinct.2-2 cm long and 0. thickened. Sekato. Muringa. parenchymatous cells.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. a small or medium sized tree. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Segata.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Rachis . commonly cultivated throughout the country.) Gaertn. elliptic. central region 163 b) Microscopic . found wild in sub Himalayan tract. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. parenchymatous cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Munga. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. Segata pana. Bahala. palisade single layered. Muringa Elai Sevaga. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. AkÀ¢va. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. slender. thin walled. Moringaceae). pith and phloem parenchyma. entire. ovate or obovate. pericycle forming a broken ring. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo.5-1 cm wide. Mungna Neegge. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Tishnagandha. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. Syn. Sajna. leaflet 1. Nugge ele -Murinna.

2.18. 0.C. K¤mihara.4. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. 0.L.26 (all green). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0.36. V¡tahara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. B ¤Æhana. 0. 2. stomata anornocytic. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. 2.69 (blue) and 0.46 (dark green) & 0. 0. 0. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. 2. 0.05.52 (green).36 (yellowish green).46 (all red) & 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. Pittahara. 0.Carbohydrate. CONSTITUENTS .05.46 (both blue). Appendix per cent.82 (yellow) and 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.94 (blue). vein islets number 50-65.7.occupied by a crescent-shaped.2.38.2.69 (yellow).87 (blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. Appendix per cent.26. Carotene and Ascorbic acid.05.26. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. spiral vessels. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.18. Protein.59 (blue). 0. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.30 (pink).36 (green). ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya.2. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. 0. 0.53 (yellow).0. Sirovirecaka 164 . present on both surface but more on lower sur face. Medohara. (all green). RukÀa.2. 0. 0. Under U.46 (green).C.2. palisade ratio 6-11. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.94 (yellow) in visible light. Appendix 2.6. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. 0. 0.L.94 (violet). 2. T. IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.V. Powder -Greyish-green. 0.20. áukra N¡¿aka.3. 0. palisade cells.

Ratnagiri Rasa.10 . Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Medoroga. DOSE . ViÀatinduka Taila. K¤miroga.áopha.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. 165 . Pl¢haroga. Vidradhi. Gulma.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Galaga¸·a.

parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. thin-walled. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. membraneous aril. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. parenchymatous cells.4 cm long. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. thin walled. perisperm consists of polygonal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. 0. brown to dark brown. Sthulaela (Sd. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam.3 cm wide. (Fam. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. aromatic. Beraelam. sclerenchymatous. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened.. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. spicy pungent. odour. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells.70. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed.) Zingiberaceae). perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. perispenn encloses the 166 . Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb.

2.10 CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 5 per cent. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 1. DOSE . thin-walled. 2. IDENTITY.2.2. T¤À¸¡. Kaphahara. (Seed). Rocaka.2. Ka¸·u. Tikta Laghu. thin-walled. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. Powder . Karp£r¡dy¡rka. perisperm cells. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.5 per cent.4. rounded to oval.7.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H¤ll¡sa. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fragments of testa.3. both composed of polygonal.endosperm and embryo.2.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.2. simple. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. Mukha¿odhaka. polygonal. RukÀa. rich in protein. 2. Mukharoga. Note . V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form.0.áv¡sa. oil globules. 167 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. K¡sa. Chardi.(Seed). Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. 2. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.5 -1 g. Appendix 14 per cent.6.S¡rivady¡sava. Appendix 2. 2.Light brown. Appendix 4 per cent.

aromatic. thick-walled cells. rather deeply furrowed. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. stone cells found in 168 .2 cm thick. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. brownish. taste. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. phloem fibres thickwalled. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. Rutaceae). Tejovati (St. Jimmi. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Syn. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. sharp prickles. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. stem and branches.Bk.0. Tumbura. (Fam. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. light yellow to pale brown. lignified. short. Thumbooni. armed with long. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. external surface pale brown. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles.) Roxb. fracture.1-0.71. Tumburudra. aromatic pungent. internal surface smooth. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. odour. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. Z.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels.

7.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.75 .Aruci. a Volatile Oil and Resin. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. 2. Appendix 12 per cent. P¡cana. 169 . THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug for decoction. Appendix 8.13. stone cells. Appendix 2.5 per cent.10-20 g. áv¡sa. Appendix 13 per cent.2.2. Medhya. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.3.4. CONSTITUENTS .2. DOSE . measuring 2.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.6. starch grains round and oval.2. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. Hikk¡. Ëmav¡ta. K¡sa. Rucya.75 . 2. oil globules and starch grains. round and oval measuring 2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . aseptate fibres. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.5 per cent.13. Mukharoga.75 µ in diameter. shows fragments of cork cells. Kaphahara. Powder . IDENTITY. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.75 µ in diameter.2.Yellowish-brown. 2. Appendix 1.2. 2.

upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular.Erect. odour. (Fam.5-5 cm long 1. much branched. slender. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. fracture.2.6 . 30 . blackish-brown externally and pale. small in close whorls. Lamiaceae). K¤À¸atulas¢. wiry.2 cm wide. entire or serrate. about 1. hairy. externally purplish-brown to black. Shree Tulasi. pedicels longer than calyx.) an erect. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. soft. found throughout the country. odour faintly aromatic. herbaceous. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. pubescent on both sides. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. sub quadrangular. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. Thulasi. bracts about 3 mm long and broad.Purplish or crimson coloured. petiole thin. aromatic. woody. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . branched. Tulasi (W. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi.P. lower lip 170 . elliptic oblong. taste. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. coloured. branched. pubescent.3. Leaf . Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. shortly apiculate. characteristic. annual herb.5-3 cm long hairy. Stem .Thin. internally cream.60 cm high.72. hairy. Flower . obtuse or acute. violet internally.

fibres and parenchyma. found scattered in phloem. Seed . corolla about 4 mm long. b) Microscopic Root . consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. pungent. round to oval polygonal.A group of 4 nutlets. slightly mucilaginous. aromatic. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. fibre tracheides. lateral two short and central two largest. Leaf- Petiole . aromatic. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. thin-walled. Stem . slightly notched at the base. fibres with pointed ends. each with one seed. long. pitted with pointed ends. Fruit . nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. Midrib . thin-walled. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. brown. vessels pitted. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. middle one larger than other two.shows somewhat cordate outline. in groups and rarely in singles. parenchymatous cells. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. measuring 22-27 in dia. no odour.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. taste. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. membranous. xylem surrounded by phloem. phloem consists of sieve elements.epidermis. three vascular bundles situated centrally. rectangular. odour. pungent. taste. thin-walled. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. glandular trichomes short. taste. parenchymatous cells. mucilaginous when soaked in water. odour.Rounded to oval. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. pubescent. slightly compressed.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. veined calyx. filled with brown content. parenchymatous cells. enclosed in an enlarged. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. phloem consisting of sieve elements. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. occasionally a few cells collapsed. pungent. 171 . nearly smooth. thin-walled. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. elongated. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. tracheids. 0. xylem consists of vessels.1 cm long. vessels pitted.

Rf.Lamina . Appendix 8 per cent. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Tikta. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. 2. Pittavardhin¢.1. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. H¤dya.L.15 . Appendix 10 per cent.2. in thoroughly vanillin .epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. oil globules. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.2. rounded to oval. Record Rf. Appendix 2. parenchymatous cells. Kaphahara.3. On cooling spray.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . CONSTITUENTS .2. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. IDENTITY.C.Greenish: shows thin-walled. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. thin walled fibres. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.Essential Oil. 2.8. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.6. T.C. RukÀa. vein islet number 31 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. a few containing reddish brown contents. Appendix 1.2. Powder . xylem vessels with pitted thickenings.5 per cent. 2. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tahara.2.4. value 0.35. Appendix 4 per cent. Durgandhihara 172 .7.7. Rucya. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). 2.16 on lower surface. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. palisade ratio 3.minutes Under observation.

Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. Hikk¡. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . Netraroga. K¤miroga. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . 173 . KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Chardi. K¡sa.A¿mar¢. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. áv¡sa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form.

hairy. LeafPetiole . pubescent on both surfaces. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. petiole 1. three vascular bundles situated centrally. elliptic-oblong. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. taste.2 cm wide. Lamiaceae). and 2-8 celled. 1. K¤À¸atulas¢. covering trichomes multicellular. obtuse or acute.) 30-60 cm high. odour.73. petiolate. Holy Basil Tulasi. measuring 22-27 µ dia. an erect. Tulasi (Lf. aromatic.6-3. entire or serrate. much branched annual herb. glandular trichomes short. consisting of xylem and phloem. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil.shows cordate outline.5-3 cm long. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. thin. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. 174 b) Microscopic . characteristic. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. upper epidermis. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn.. balloon-shaped head. middle one larger than the other two. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. (Fam. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. found throughout the country. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. enclosed in a cuticular bladder.5-5 cm long. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi.

45 (violet).2.C.08.12 (light violet). 0.04.2.98 (blue).33 (both green) 0.L. 0.98 (blue).Midrib . 0.21. 0.2. 0.03 (dark green).12. 2.2.45. palisade and spongy parenchyma.08 (both green). Powder .6.08 (violet).4.V.3.. 0. T. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces. Lamina . 0. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.epidermis.). Under U. 175 .83 (blue).75.8.C.83 (all pink) 0. vein islet number 31-33. Appendix 2.04. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.12 (light green).2. 0. 2. 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.30. 0.45 (yellowish green). 0. 0.45. IDENTITY. 0. Appendix per cent.83. 0.85 (blue).33.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.85 & 0.54 (blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.7. 0. 0.93 (pink) & 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. palisade ratio 3. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.33.04. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. 2. 0. 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. 0.33 (violet). 0. 0.93 (violet) and 0. Nerol and Camphene etc.54. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. shows fragments of polygonal. 2. 0. anomocytic and diacytic stomata. 0. Appendix per cent.2.21 (brown).75 (violet).21. Caryophyllene. 0. CONSTITUENTS .Light-green. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0.L. 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.93 (all0 yellow).88 and 0.93 (both light green).

Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa.Aruci. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . KuÀ¶ha. RukÀa. K¡sa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Hikk¡.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pittahara. H¤dya. Prati¿y¡ya. THERAPEUTIC USES .M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta.2-3 g. Kaphahara. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. 176 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. K¤miroga. áv¡sa.

broadly. Rhizome . Ghodavaca Vasambu. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. somewhat collenchymatous. odour. Ugr¡. smaller. cells towards periphery.Shows single layered epidermis. Vacha (Rz. triangular. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. Vekhandas -Varch. buff coloured intemally. (Fam.5 cm thick. aromatic. Araceae). enclosing large air spaces. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. taste. pungent and bitter. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. large. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. Ghodvach Bach.) semiaquatic herb. fracture. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. Gora-bach Baje. thin-walled cells of various sizes.5-1. and 0. upper side marked with alternately arranged. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡.74. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. short.

Powder as such: . also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). Appendix per cent. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. starch grains simple.Buff coloured. 2. CONSTITUENTS .2.4. Chloroform-Light green iii. Appendix per cent.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. 2.7. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. endodermis distinct. Starch and Tannin. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. 2. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.Yellowish-cream b. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.6. reticulate. Appendix per cent. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.2. Petroleum ether-No change ii.14 (violet) and 0.2.L.2.2.10 T. Eugenol and Asarone). 0. stele composed of round..73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Extracts in i. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.3.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. 178 .C. 2.2. present in cortex and ground tissue. Appendix 2. shows fibres.L. 2.region. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Powder . spherical.C.

Kaphahara.2 g. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Ka¸¶hya. K¡sa. áv¡sa. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. S¡rasvata. Ëdhm¡na. Apasm¡ra. C£r¸a. Vibandha. 179 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kar¸a Sr¡va. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting.Vac¡di Taila. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Medhya. DOSE . K¤mihara.á£la. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta Laghu. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. 1. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Unm¡da. Khadir¡di Va¶¢.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra.4 . b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. Teliya Bish Basanalli. Mahura. dark brown to blackish-brown. Meethabisha. ovoid. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Mithalelia.) (Fam. odour indistinct. tapering downwards to a point. rarely 5 cm long. Vatsanabha. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. thin-walled. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. suberised. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. papillose on outside.5 cm. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Vatsanabha (Rt. Nabhi. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. parenchymatous cells. plant is an erect. 0. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. fracture. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Sth¡varaviÀa. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. perennial herb. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . rough due to root scars. Bachhnaag.8 cm thick. 2-4. Basanaag Bisa. without or with a few intercellular spaces.75. cartilaginous. small portions of stem sometimes attached. Ranunculaceae). Vatsanabhi. taste. poisonous. occasionally separated due to breakage. Naabhi Bachnak. Vatsanabhi. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. Beesh. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf.1. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. conical. roots are generally collected late in September.

cambium having 6 10 angles. containing a few groups of phloem strands. 2. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. occupying more than half the radius.2.L. 2. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. 2. consisting of round to oval cells. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Viyav¡yi. present in cortical cells. shows vessels. inner bark parenchymatous.74 and 0.3.56. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia.39 and 0.4.39. IDENTITY. 0. RukÀa. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . Powder .96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. ÙikÀ¸a. Appendix 24 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. xylem exarch. Appendix 2. S £tasekhara Rasa.5 per cent.10. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa.Light grey. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.6. Appendix 5. 2. some scattered. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. Anandabhairava Rasa. T.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. UÀ¸a. Trid°Àahara. Appendix 8 per cent. 0.96 (both orange). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. often forming 'V' shaped ring. 0.2. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. CONSTITUENTS . Sv®dala.C. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring.20.2. a few aseptate fibres. 0.endodermis.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa.2.2.7.2. 0. Laghu. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. metaxylem vessels met in centre. Appendix 2 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf.L.C.

Kanharoga. Jvar¡tis¡ra.THERAPEUTIC USES .30 mgs of the drug in powder form.15 . DOSE . Sannip¡ta. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. V¡takaphajvara.V¡taroga. 182 .

) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. (Fam.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Gumadi belli. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. Bhonykoru. Nelagumbula. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. taste. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Bhuikumra Vidari. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Bhoikolu. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . stone cells moderately thick-walled. cut surface creamish-brown. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. smooth except for protuberances at some places. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. Vidari (Tub. Eagio. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde.76. Nelagumbala. starchy and somewhat porous. usually does not break. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. Bhumikusmanda. thinwalled. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. outer surface reddish-brown. sweetish. Fabaceae). but pliable. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢.Rt. thin-walled cells. Vid¡rik¡. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Daurbalya. Ras¡yana. lignified with narrow lumen.2. 2. Appendix 24 per cent. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. Raktapitta. of the drug in powder form. Powder . Balya.2. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS . Stanyada.2.Marma Gu¶ik¡. áoÀa. Pittahara. 184 . xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.13. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells.13. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.3-6 g. Angmarda.Buff coloured.D¡ha. distributed throughout this region. Var¸ya. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 . 2. somewhat round.3. M£trala. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. Appendix 4 per cent. highly thickened. Svarya. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content.6. 2.7. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. 2. present in all parenchymatous cells.2.5 . and also rarely in stone cells. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. V¡tahara. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. measuring 5. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. having central hilum and striations. fragments of cork. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. DOSE .2. radially elongated cells.and pits. Appendix 4. J¢van¢ya.5 per cent. phloem fibres much elongated..75 µ in dia.Gluconic and Malic acids. a few latex duct also present. Appendix 17 per cent. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. IDENTITY.4. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5.75 µ in dia. angular to oval.

below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. 50-100 cm high. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. H. followed by 2-3 layers. smooth. an annual. (Fam. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. sclerenchymatous fibres. followed by more or less. taste. Jav Barley Cheno. not distinct. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. ovoid-and tapering at both ends.3 cm wide. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. cultivated chiefly in North India. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. seed coat appears as a colourless line. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. odour. sweetish-acrid. Syn. sativum Pers. polygortal inner epidermal cells. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. Yava (Fr. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. pale-greenish-yellow.77. round to oval wavy walled cells. elliptic. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. square or quadrilateral. about 1 cm long and 0. thick-walled. oblong. erect herb. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. spongy parenchymatous cells.) Poaceae). Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava.2-0.

83 and 0. 0.92 (yellow). Appendix 1. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. 0.L.2. 0. 0. Globulin. 2.68.2. Medahara. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.5 per cent.92 (all grey).31. Appendix 2. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. 2.10. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz.5 per cent. simple starch grains.16. Appendix 5. V¤Àya. 0. Appendix 2. Appendix 4 per cent. Var¸ya 186 . 0. Proteins (Albumin. Kaphahara.44. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.6.24. 2. round to oval.7 T.65 & 0. 0. IDENTITY.06.C. 0. 0.53. Orientoside.2.C. sclerenchymatous fibres.2. 0.Creamish-white. 0. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.45. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.2. endosperm divided into two zones. 2. 0.V. and the rest starch layers. Powder . 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. Pur¢Àak ¤t.22.31.56.3.72 (all pink. Pittahara.) CONSTITUENTS . 0.10. Svarya.22. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.68.L.2. 0.narrow lumens. 0. Lekhana.5 per cent. Sugars.83 (all violet) and 0. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. Vitexin etc.Starch.5 2. M£trahara. Fats.2. 0. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.14.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.31. 0. 0. 0.36. Orientin. Sthairyakara. starch grains simple. V¡tak¤t.

100 . Tvagroga DOSE . Urustambha. Medoroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug. Kanharoga. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Gandharvahasta Taila. P¢nasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . Dh¡nvantara Taila. 187 .áv¡sa. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. El¡dya Modaka.200 g. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Prameha. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. T¤À¸¡. K¡sa.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana.

0. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. glabrous.Well developed. Stem . yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. dark brown. Yavasaka (W.78. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. Leaf . branched. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. Neladangara.Cylindrical. mucronate obtuse.7 cm broad.1-1 cm thick. drooping. radially arranged cork cells. gradually tapering. (Fam. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. Duralabha -Venkatithura.5-1 cm long. filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary and tertiary root absent. Punjab. cork cambium single layered. Desv. a small thorny shrub. nearly 0. Javasa. Y¡sa. 20-30 cm long and 0. glabrous. 0. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. fracture. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. alternate. no taste and odour. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. striate. slightly rough at basal region with slender. terete. elliptical.2-1 cm thick. opposite. ballidurabi. short. hard.8 cm long. oblong. extipulate.5-0. secondary cortex almost 188 .P. stipules green. sharp axillary spines upto 3.) Fabaceae).Simple.

xylem consists of vessels. phloem composed of sieve elements. a few with thick wall and simple pits. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.appears circular in outline. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. parenchymatous cells. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. fibres. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. 3-45 cells long. tracheids. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. Powder . rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. present throughout the region. xylem fibres. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. pith composed of a few thin-walled. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. vascular bundle collateral. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. xylem consists of vessels. angular. tanniniferous cells. Leaf- Petiole .75 µ in diameter. hypodermis 2-3 layered. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. tracheids. parenchyma and fibres.14. tangentially elongated cells. filled with tannin. covered externally with thick cuticle. covered with cuticle. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. xylem situated above phlome. parenchymatous cells. tracheids and fibres. 189 . numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. pitted vessels.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle.Greenish-brown.75 µ in dia. epidermis single layered. 5.5-14. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. Stem . simple. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. Midrib .5. rounded to oval. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. Lamina . some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. some cells filled with tannin. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. elongated. thin-walled. thin-walled.absent. phloem composed of sieve elements. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. filled with tannin.appears biconvex in outline. hypodermis 1-2 layered. starch grains simple.

IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 190 . of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix 10 per cent. K¡sa. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.2.7.5 per cent. Visarpa DOSE . T¤À¸¡. CONSTITUENTS . Tikta. 2. Sucrose. Jvara. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Raktapitta.20 .50 g. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.3.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .4.2.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. D¢pana.Chardi. 2. 2. Kaphahara. Appendix 13. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix 2.6. Appendix 2 per cent. Appendix 2. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Arimed¡di Taila.Sugars (Melizitose.2. 2.5 per cent. V¡tarakta. Invert Sugars). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful