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The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Vol 2

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Vol 2

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Sections

  • 1. Akarakarabha (Rt.)
  • 2. Akshoda (Cotldn.)
  • 3. Amrata (St.Bk.)
  • 4. Apamarga (W.P.)
  • 5. Aparajita (Rt.)
  • 6. Ardraka (Rz.)
  • 7. Arimeda (St.Bk.)
  • 9. Bhallataka (Fr.)
  • 10. Bhringaraja (W.P.)
  • 11. Brahmi (W.P.)
  • 12. Brihati (Rt.)
  • 13. Chavya (St.)
  • 14. Dadima (Sd.)
  • 15. Daruharidra (St.)
  • 16. Dronapushpi (W.P.)
  • 17. Ervaru (Sd.)
  • 18. Gajapippali (Fr.)
  • 19. Gambhari (Fr.)
  • 20. Gangeru (St.Bk.)
  • 21. Gunja (Rt.)
  • 22. Ikshu (St.)
  • 23. Indravaruni (Rt.)
  • 24. Indravaruni (Lf .)
  • 25. Jambu (Sd.)
  • 26. Jambu (St.Bk.)
  • 27. Jayapala (Sd.)
  • 28. Jayanti (Lf.)
  • 29. Jyotishmati (Sd.)
  • 30. Kadamba (St.Bk.)
  • 31. Kakamachi (W.P.)
  • 32. Kamala (Fl.)
  • 33. Kapittha (Fr. Pulp.)
  • 34. Karamarda (St.Bk.)
  • 35. Karanja (Rt. Bk.)
  • 36. Karanja (Rt.)
  • 37. Karanja (St.Bk.)
  • 38. Karanja (Lf.)
  • 39. Karavallaka (Fresh.Fr.)
  • 40. Katuka (Rz.)
  • 41. Kokilaksha (W.P.)
  • 42. Kokilaksha (Rt.)
  • 43. Kokilaksha (Sd.)
  • 44. Kuzuppa (W.P)
  • 45. Lajjalu (W.P)
  • 46. Madhuka (Fl.)
  • 47. Matshyakshi (W.P.)
  • 48. Methi (Sd.)
  • 49. Mulaka (W.P.)
  • 50. Mulaka (Rt.)
  • 51. Mura (Rt.)
  • 52. Murva (Rt.)
  • 53. Nagakesar (Stmn.)
  • 54. Nili (Lf.)
  • 55. Nili (Rt.)
  • 56. Nimba (Lf.)
  • 57. Nimba (St.Bk)
  • 58. Palasha (St.Bk)
  • 59. Paribhadra (St.Bk)
  • 60. Pippali mula (Stm.)
  • 61. Plaksha (St.Bk)
  • 62. Prasarini (W.P.)
  • 63. Priyala (Sd.)
  • 64. Priyangu (Infl.)
  • 65. Shali (Rt.)
  • 66. Sankha pushpin (W.P.)
  • 67. Saptala (W.P.)
  • 68. Satahva (Fr.)
  • 69. Shigru (Lf.)
  • 70. Sthulaela (Sd.)
  • 71. Tejovati (St.Bk.)
  • 72. Tulasi (W.P.)
  • 73. Tulasi (Lf.)
  • 74. Vacha (Rz.)
  • 75. Vatsanabha (Rt.)
  • 76. Vidari (Tub.Rt.)
  • 77. Yava (Fr.)
  • 78. Yavasaka (W.P.)

THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.1-Nessler Cylinder.1.2.5.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.2.4.1.1.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.2. 1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.1.1-Sampling of drugs 2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.2.2-Sieves 1.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.1.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.1.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.2.2.3.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2-Thermometers 1.1.1.2.2.2.1.2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.2.1.Types of Stomata 2.1.2.1 Testing Drugs 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.2.) Desv 177 1.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.

3.2.1-Powder Fineness 2.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.2.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3.3 Limit Tests 2.3.3.3.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.1.2-Refractive Index 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.3.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.Weights and Measures 5.1.6-Sulphated Ash 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.

II would be official. Vol. In general. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). Vol. II. would be deemed to have been amended vii . It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. the Dangerous Drugs Act.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. II. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part-I. Part-I. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. accordingly. Part-I. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act.P.).I. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable.

which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. Purity and Strength . Synonyms . This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. If the odour persists to be discernible. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). if any. viii .Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents.GENERAL NOTICES Title . Italics . Ayurvedic Formulary of India. substances or processes described in Appendix. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. When the term “drop” is used. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Weights and Measures . Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. English. Mesh Number . Introductory Para . the measurement is to be made by means of a tube.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. distribution and method of collection.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. Hindi. it is described as having odour. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. Identity. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . indicated in monograph. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. Odour and Taste .

0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination.For statutory purpose. V.g. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses.Under this head. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . Purity and Strength. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. The quantitative tests e.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. micro-organisms. even by applying known reference standards. alcohol-soluble extractive. However. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. Vol. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. water. under Description. and other animal matter including animal excreta. water-soluble ash. and show no abnormal odour. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. Constant Weight .soluble extractive.) .The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. moisture content. acid-insoluble ash. wherever given. fungi. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. and Identity. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. ether-soluble extractive. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. sliminess. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given.L. Part-I. shall constitute standards. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. which he uses. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. in 100 grammes of product. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. if of equivalent accuracy.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. statements appearing in the API. the expression per cent (%). with one of the four meanings given below. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. Standards . ix . mould or other evidence of deterioration. total ash. Percentage of Solutions . Constituents . pests. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition.C. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations.In defining standards. according to circumstances. is used. However. colour. arsenic and heavy metals. pesticides. those of definition of the part and source plants. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend.

a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. are intended to apply at that temperature.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.000 parts x . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. all solutions are prepared with purified water.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. Solubility . such as fragment of filter papers. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15.000 parts More than 10. thermometric scale. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10.56 oC. at a stated temperature. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Temperature . are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Reagents and Solutions . it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. and dust particles. fibres.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. Statements of solubilities. Percentage of alcohol . Solutions .The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices.

mm. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. IN. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . cm. Fam. g.I.1 N. mg. 0. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. TS. ml. unless otherwise stated.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. Part –I and Part-II. PS. Kg. µ. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are.5 N. 0. 1M. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m.P. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. l.

St.Sansk. Beng. Mar. Ht. Rt. Ori. Kan. Tam. Rz. Wd. Rt. Wh. Pl. Kash. St. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Bk. Assam. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Wd. Fr. Sd. Tel. Lf. Punj. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. xii . Mal. Guj. Eng. Tub. Bk.

odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. 1. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. 7-15 cm in length. Asteraceae).8 µ in width. Akarakarabha (Rt. Akarakara Akkaraka. external surface rough. cylindrical. tracheids and xylem parenchyma.37-28. parenchymatous cells. cambium 2-5 layered. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex.231 µ in 1 . a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. slightly aromatic. vessels pitted. taste. Akallakara.2 . Akalakarabha. brown. 53. tapering slightly at both ends. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. thin-walled. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. xylem fibres thick-walled. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. characteristically astringent and pungent. b) Microscopic Root . on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. an annual. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. bark upto 3 mm thick.1. elongated. shrivelled. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. Akravu Akkalakara.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. not easily separable. (Fam. more and wider vessels found towards peripery.

uniseriate rays very rare. CONSTITUENTS .2.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. Powder . áotha. Appendix 8 percent. IDENTITY. 2. áv¡sa. bi to tri and multiseriate. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. Svedakara. secondary phloem and medullary rays. Appendix 10 percent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma.2. áukrala. secondary phloem. K¡sa. Pittahara.length having narrow lumen. of the drug in powder form. radially elongated. Buddhivardhaka.7. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. V¡jikara. shows vessels having scalariform thickening.Ash coloured.2. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. also gives positive tests for inulin. D¢pana. 2. Grdhras¢. Appendix 2 percent. Aj¢rna. NaÀ¶¡rtava. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.2. 2. medullary rays numerous. 2.0. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.5 -1 g. Appendix 2. secondary phloem and medullary rays. á£laroga.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ray cells thick-walled.4. 2 .Kum¡ry¡sava.3. Udararoga. Danta¿£la DOSE . N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . PakÀ¡gh¡ta. Appendix 22 percent.2. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex.Prati¿y¡ya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. Kaphahara. running straight.2. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡.

broken pieces. followed by more or less compressed. irregularly corrugated. taste. endosperm mostly single layered. radially elongated.) large deciduous. parenchymatous cells. Akshoda (Cotldn. creamish-brown. under this. Cotyledon . small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Sailabhava. not distinct. oily sweet. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. thin-walled. collapsed. slightly curved. (Fam.Shows 1-2 layered. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m.Cream coloured. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. Juglandaceae). parenchymatous cells. coriaceous. thin-walled. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles.2. Powder . abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. odour. 3 .

CONSTITUENTS .5 percent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Appendix 2.7.10 .2. KÀaya. ViÀ¶ambhi.4. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.IDENTITY. V¤Àya.0 percent. Sara. Appendix Not more than 0.2. 2.6.25 g.Walnut oil and Tannin. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. V¡taroga.2. Appendix Not less than 7.2. 2. áukral. B¤´ha¸a. 4 . 2.0 percent. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. Kaphakara. Balya. Appendix Not less than 10.2.KÀata.2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .3.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. DOSE .

Anbalamu. Anacardiaceae). Mampuiti. and 5 . f. non Gamble (Fam.Bk. parenchymatous.5 m in girth. internal surface reddish-yellow. S. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Ambadam Amratakamu. a few outer cells exfoliated. Amvara -Mampusli. upto 27 m high and 2. Stem Bark. Ambalam. Amra. Amrata (St. Ranambo Ambada.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. mangifera Willd. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. tangentially elongated. Kurz. Ambado. with reddish-brown contents. thin. thin-walled cells.. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. acuminata Roxb. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. Ambazham. Jangli Aam Ambate.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. a small aromatic. Wild Mango Ambeda. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Jangali Ambo. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. laminated. parenchymatous cells. deciduous tree. S. Syn. grey having lenticels. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. fracture. external surface smooth. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Ranamba. Amra Indian Hog Plum. consisting of tangentially elongated.3. curved. radially arranged. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled.

L. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.7. KÀaya. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. THERAPEUTIC USES .33.75-14 µ in dia. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. 6 . Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. Appendix 2. Rucik¤t. shows cork cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.2. 2. 0.87 (blue) and 0.33. thick-walled. stone cells.96.(greyish brown). ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. lignified.4.C.C.2. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.40 and 0.5-10 g.KÀata. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands.2. D¡ha DOSE .2. 0. T. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent.2. Powder .L.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Under U. 0. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. Pittakara. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.6.96 (blue). 2. 0.. Not more than 1 per cent. containing rosette crystals and starch grains.87 (all greyish brown). Ka¸¶hya. Raktapitta. CONSTITUENTS . simple. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. 2.2. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres.3. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. 0. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.Light brown. of the drug in powder form for decoction.V. IDENTITY. V¡tahara.

3-0.1-1. gradually tapering. two celled. branched. Kharamaµjar. cylindrical. obovate. Stem . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .0 cm in thickness.) Amaranthaceae). connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. opposite. opposite. stamens 5.9 m high herb. sessile.4. greenish-white. perianth segments 5.3 . 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. filament short. anther. subsessile.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. the perianth lobes. (Fam. hollow when dry. numerous. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. rough due to presence of some root scars. erect.free. one spine lipped. odour. a stiff. actinomorphic. slightly ribbed.5 cm in cut pieces.0. bisexual. erect. 0. decussate. secondary and tertiary roots present.Simple. solid.Cylindrical tap root. yellowish-brown. yellowish-brown. Leaf . exstipulate. hypogynous. contorted or quincuncial. wavy margin. hairy. PratyakpuÀpa. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. Apamarga (W. bracteate with two bracteoles. Flower . May£raka.P. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. 7 . not distinct. dorsifixed. membranous. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes.0.

vessels annular. demarcating the xylem rings. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. vessels simple pitted. style.Sub-cylindric. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. followed 8 . lignified. single. b) Microscopic Root .Shows crescent-shaped outline. either separate throughout or found in some cases. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. xylem composed of usual elements. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. Seed . thin-walled cork cells.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. thin-walled cork cells. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. thin layers of cambium. LeafPetiole . oval to rectangular. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. perianth and bracteoles. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. unilocular with single ovule.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. composed of parenchymatous cells. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. Fruit . rectangular. stigma. brown. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. spiral. on both surfaces. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. 3-4 celled stalk. ovary superior. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. truncate at the apex. tangentially elongated. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. cortex 6-10 layered. syncarpous. fibres being absent. round at the base. elongated. cortical and pith cells. 2-5 celled.gynoecium bicarpellary. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. fibres pitted. present in pith. epidermis single layered. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. Midrib . secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. Stem . parenchymatous cells. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. capitate.Shows a single layered epidermis. endospermic. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. two medullary bundles. scalariform and pitted. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled.7.0 on lower surface. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues.5-9. Powder . 2. stomatal index 4.0-11.2.Shows single layered. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.0-20. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. spiral. 9. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. Udara Roga. of the drug for decoction.3. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. Chedana. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent.Light yellow. scalariform and pitted thickening. 2.4. vessels with annular. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Ar¿a. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. vein islet number 7-13 per sq.2. IDENTITY. slightly elongated in upper. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Appendix 2.2. Tikta Sara. Medohara. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. non-lignified cells. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. V¡tahara. Lamina . Medoroga DOSE .6. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. thin-walled epidermal cells.2. V¡maka. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.0 on upper surface. 9 .Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra.á£la. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .2. rectangular. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. P¡cana. aseptate fibres. shows fragments of elongated. mm. palisade ratio 7. Gu·apippali. 2.2. Kaphahara. Apac¢. Ka¸·u. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .20-50 g. 2.

a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. bitter. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. lightbrown. 1-5 mm in thickness. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. cylindrical. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. fibrous. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. medullary 10 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. taste. very long. fracture.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. colour. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. Aparajita (Rt. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. a few showing slit-like pits. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. b) Microscopic Root . a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. thin-walled. vessels pitted with oblong.5. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. polygonal. Fabaceae).) perennial climber with slender downy stem. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. a few solitary fibres also present. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. (Fam.

2.Tannin. Starch. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.79 (both yellow). Kaphahara.L.6. 2.rays 1-5 cells wide.Yellowish-brown. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L. ViÀahara. Buddhiprada.2. found in secondary cortex. 0. áotha. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.2.7.1 . shows simple and compound starch grains. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. 2.3 g. 2. Appendix per cent. M£traroga. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. 0. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia.4.2. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. Appendix 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. Tikta. T. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Medhya.79 (blue). Appendix per cent.á£la. phloem and xylem parenchyma. Vra¸a DOSE . IDENTITY. 11 . oblong and pitted. of the drug in powder form.3. Under U. 2.79 (grey). Taraxerol & Taraxerone.2.2.79 (dull yellow) in visible light..V. 0. Powder . 0. V¡tahara. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf.54 and 0. Resin.C. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. KuÀ¶ha. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.C..Mi¿raka Sneha.

ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. Ardraka (Rz. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells.6. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. fracture. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. Allam.5 cm thick. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. oblique branches on upper side. buds and roots are removed and washed well. radially arranged cells of inner cork. (Fam.Shows a few layered.) Zingiberaceae). thin-walled. pieces 5-15 cm long. short with projecting fibres. widely cultivated in India. lakottai.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1.5-6. irregularly arranged. Inji Allamu. reaching up to 90 cm in height. taste. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. isodiametric. gingery. odour. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. tangentially elongated. 1. pungent Rhizome . Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. Ale -Adi. each having a depressed scar at its apex. Adrak Injee. colourless. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations.

0. Under U.6. 0. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. 2. collateral.2. free from starch. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.35 (light violet). endodermis single layered.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.08 (violet). Appendix 8 per cent.7. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene.63 (grey) & 0. small cells of sieve tube. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. numerous closed. 0. 0.2.C. larger bundles consists of 2.16. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.2. fibrovascular bundles of two types.L. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. CONSTITUENTS . 0.4. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. composed of xylem. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf..76.l6 (brownish violet). parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. vessels 2-5 in number. 0. 0. septate fibres with oblique. 0. Appendix 90 per cent.03. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. conjoint. Appendix 2.2. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. 0. reticulate and spiral vessels.69 (all light yellow). elongated pits on their walls.5 per cent.69 (light violet).dia. walls of oil cells suberised. 0. Appendix 2 per cent.76 (violet) & 0.63 & 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0.16. oleo-resin cells abundent.47 (light violet). IDENTITY.9 T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. filled with abundant starch grains. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. Appendix 5 per cent. 0. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. 0. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene.69.63 (light violet).92 (all yellow). 0.83 & 0. 2. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. vessels showing reticulate.13.69 (grey).C. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.7 vessels. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin.63.3.35. 0.L. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. 2. 0.92 (violet).2.2.08.2. 0. 0. phloem. 2. Appendix 1 per cent. Powder -Light yellow.47.35. 0. 0. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. 13 .16 (blue).V. 2.

áopha.á£la. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Svarya. 14 .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. RukÀa. Ën¡ha. H¤dya.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vibandha. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. V¡tahara.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. Rocana. Bhedana. Kaphahara. Ka¸tharoga. V ¤Àaya. DOSE .

hard. rough. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. consisting of sieve elements. secondary phloem wide. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. phloem fibres thin-walled. Sadabala -Haramibaval. (Fam. Velvelam. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. exfoliating in irregular scales. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. Pilobaval.Bk. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. lignified. all traversed by medullary rays. characteristic of dry regions. Fabaceae). internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. incurved. upto 3 m in height. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. fracture. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. Arimeda (St. odour and taste. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes.7. thinwalled cortical cells. not distinct. square to rectangular cells. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. parenchyma. fibres and crystal fibres. with tapering 15 . fibrous. stone cells and phloem cells.5-1 cm thick. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. internally light brown to reddish-brown.

91 (both blue).2. K¡sa.ends. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. 2.LC.0. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. 0. Atis¡ra. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7. KuÀ¶ha. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. 16 . Udardapra áamana DOSE . Meha.e. Meda¿oÀaka. Mukharoga. ViÀajavra¸a.0 to 0.91 (yellow).69 (grey) is seen in visible light. K¤mi. 2. Ka¸·u. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Appendix 11 per cent. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. Appendix 13 per cent.2.C. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka.3. 2.40 g for decoction.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.2. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. Appendix 14 per cent. Appendix 1 per cent. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. Visarpa.2. shows groups of cork cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .áopha. composed of thin-walled.78 and 0. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). crystal fibres elongated. T. IDENTITY. fibres.39 and a spot at Rf.2. 0 to 0.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . sclereid.39 and a spot at Rf.n-Hexacosanol.L.6. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES .3-5 g in powder form.2. 2.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. radially elongated cells. β -Amyrin. 0. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Powder . Appendix 2. Dantaroga. P¡¸·u.Reddish-brown.

consisting of sieve tubes. in the middle and outer phloem region. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. recurved.Bk. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. short in inner and laminated in outer part.8. taste. Bilimatti. Arjuna (St.5 cm thick. traversed by phloem rays. Kellemasuthu. companion cells. a large deciduous tree. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. bitter and astringent. fracture. Arjuna. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. P¡rtha. (Fam.2-1. flat. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width.& A. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. Vellamaruthi. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. Mathichakke. channelled to half quilled. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. 0. Torematti Arjuna. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. curved.) Combretaceae). Neermatti. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Mattimora.

of the drug in powder form..2.. uniseriate phloem rays. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a.2. round to oval. THERAPEUTIC USES .. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 18 . Appendix 20 per cent. 2. Vya´ga. H¤droga. µ Powder .Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. fibres. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter.Reddish-brown. mostly simple.2. Appendix 25 per cent. Prameha. sometimes upto 5 components.2.4. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. Vra¸a. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. Vra¸an¡¿ana. a few rhomboidal crystals. alata).Medoroga. elliptic. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . round to oval. DOSE .6. compound of 2-3 components. starch grains. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. T¤À¡. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. KÀatakÀaya. alternating with fibres. Kaphahara.7. Arjuna Gh¤ta. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. Appendix 2. Appendix 1 per cent. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. elliptical.2. shows fragments of cork cells.3-6 g. Appendix 20 per cent. starch grains simple and compound. IDENTITY.2. 2. Pittahara. 2. H¤dya. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. 2. 4-12 cells high.in dia.3.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara.) Anacardiaceae). some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. smooth. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. shining with residual receptacle. mesocarp and endocarp. 30-40 layers thick. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. (Fam.5-3 cm long. drupaceous. obliquely ovoid. mesocarp a very broad zone. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. dark brown. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. 19 . Fruit . Bhallataka (Fr.9. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. Scramkotati Nallajidi. Nallajidiginga Baladur. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. nut 2.

Appendix 0. KuÀ¶ha.I. Ka¶u. 2. Graha¸¢. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.Ar¿a. Krimi.1.2. 2. 2.5 per cent.. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Dark-brown. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.2. IDENTITY.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. ether.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Chedi. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES .2. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.F. V¡tahara. CONSTITUENTS .Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Note . Gulma. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Tikta. Kaphahara.2. Part-I 20 .2 g. 2..7. Appendix 5 per cent. being highly thickened. Bhedi. Appendix 11 per cent.3.4. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).6. innermost prismatic. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. chloroform. Appendix 2. P¡cana. Powder . lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Ën¡ha. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Snigdha.2. very much elongated radial walls.

scarcely as long as bracts. Asteraceae). involucral bracts about 8. Bhringiraja. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. Tekar¡ja.50 cm high. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. erect or prostrate. disc flowers 21 . together on unequal axillary peduncles. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. (Fam.5 cm long. occasionally brownish. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. branched. ovate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja.) herbaceous annual. Bhringaraja (W.2 . obtuse or acute. often rooting at nodes. 2.Well developed.3 cm wide. strigose with oppressed hairs. cylindrical or flat. Stem . Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja.8. Kesari -Bhangaro.P. occasionally rooting at nodes. Flower . Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. Kesuriya. M¡rkava. lanceolate.Opposite. Karisalanganni.2. 1.Solitary or 2. sessile to subsessile. much branched.2 . greyish. Soppu. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces.10.. greenish. Leaf . strigosely hirsute. herbaceous. node distinct. Knnunni Bhangra. Keshavardhana. ray flowers ligulate. sub-acute or acute. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . rough due to oppressed white hairs. ligule small. sub-entire. not toothed. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. usually oblong. spreading.Herbaceous. Bhangro Bhangara. 30 . Gurugada. Bh¤´ga. white. cylindrical. Karisalai Guntakalagara. upto about 7 mm in dia.

pappus absent. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . free. in macerated preparation vessels small. non-glandular. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. one seeded. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. with very pointed tips.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. ovary inferior. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. stamen 5. consisting of rounded cells. 1-5 celled. simple.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. pitted. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. rarely slightly oblique. vessels numerous. warty. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene.Achenial cypsella. and with pointed apical cell. with a narrow wing. cuneate. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. b) Microscopic Root . xylem composed of vessels. externally covered with cuticle. Seed . covered with striated cuticle. traversed by xylem rays. fibre tracheids. Leaf- Petiole . ray cells pitted. drum-shaped. filaments epipetalous. epidermis followed by cortex.2 .0. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. corolla often 4 toothed. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. tangentially elongated cells. brown.1 cm wide. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. found scattered throughout wood. unilocular with one basal ovule.0.25 cm long.tubular. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. dark brown. uniseriate. run straight in tangential section. hairy and non endospermic. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. 0. trichomes of two types. Midrib . pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. Fruit . phloem rays broader towards periphery. fibres and xylem parenchyma. pistil bicarpellary. fibre tracheids. epidermis followed by wide cortex. covered with warty excrescences. xylem ray distinct. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. in singles or in groups of various shape and size.

mesophyll traversed by number of veins. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma.shows a dorsi ventral structure. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. more abundant on lower surfaces. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. while the section cut at apical region.collenehymatous cells on both sides. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. peg-like outgrowth. stomatal index 20.0 on lower surface. epidermis single layered. externally covered with cuticle. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. wide at the base. pointed. about 3 celled.5 -26. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. trichomes entire or in pieces. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. xylem consists of large number of vessels. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. xylem fibres with wide lumen. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces.Dark green. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells.8 -4. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. pointed tips and pitted walls. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. hairs stiff. 23 . xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. warty. uniseriate. Stem . externally covered with cuticle. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma.5 on upper and 23. some elongated with simple perforations. septa thick-walled. the cork where formed. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. normally biseriate and uniseriate. secondary cortex composed of large. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. vascular bundles in a ring. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells.0-22. pitted with spiral thickening. collateral. Lamina . Powder . endarch. palisade ratio 3. arranged in tangential strands. middle cells longest. pericyclic fibres distinct. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side.5. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents.

Tikta RukÀa. 24 . 2. ViÀahara.2.áotha. Ëmahara.3. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. 2. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara. K¤miroga. Ecliptine and Nicotine. áv¡sa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya.6. Kaphahara. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent.36 g.Alkaloids. Tvacya. Appendix per cent. K¡sa. P¡¸·u.2.4.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. Tekar¡ja marica. 2. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix 2. Dantya. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.IDENTITY. Ras¡yana.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila.3 . Ke¿ya. DOSE . áirah á£la. of the drug in powder form for decoction.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.7. 12 . CONSTITUENTS .6 ml of the drug in juice form. H ¤droga. Appendix per cent. CakÀusya. Yak¤droga.

Syn. (Fam. opposite. about 1-2 mm thick. taste. green or purplish green. nodes and internodes prominent. Brahmi. slightly bitter.Capsules upto 5 mm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Valabrahmi. slightly bitter.) H.Simple. sessile. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi.Small. taste. Leaf . glabrous.Thin. Stem .Thin. 25 . prostrate or creeping annual herb.11.) Wettst. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. branched creamish-yellow. wiry. ovoid and glabrous. obovate-oblong..B. decussate. pedicels 6-30 mm long.P. bracteoles shorter than pedicels.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. found throughout India in wet and damp places. Brahmi (W.& K. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. Scrophulariaceae). Flower . Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. small. small. soft. Fruit . Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. 1-2 cm long. Ondelaga. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . green. axillary and solitary. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. a glabrous. succulent.

2. 2.4. IDENTITY.7. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.0 x 2. and 8.2.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. starch grains simple. Medhya.5-9. Appendix per cent.3. Stem .Shows a single layer of epidermis.6. 2. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. simple. 2. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.2. Ras¡yana. round and oval starch grains. V¡tahara.Root . Appendix per cent. glandular hairs.Yellowish-brown.. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. Praj¡sth¡pana. Appendix per cent. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. cortex having large air cavities.2. round to oval. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. 2. Matiprada. Tikta. endodermis single layered.0-14. endodermis single layered.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. respectively. Appendix 2.2. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.2. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. no distinct midrib present. Svarya. vascular ring continuous. Appendix per cent. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. glandular hairs sessile.0 µ in dia. ViÀahara. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. pericycle not distinct. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. ËyuÀya. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. b) Microscopic 26 . stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings.

Ratnagiri Rasa. Prameha. Jvara. 27 . P¡¸·u. áopha.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. THERAPEUTIC USES .1-3 g in powder form. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. S¡rasvata C£r¸a.KuÀ¶ha. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE .

surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars.5 cm in dia. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. Chichuriti. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani.. Brihati (Rt. no distinct odour and taste. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. varying greatly in shape and size. Badikateri Kirugullia.12. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. phloem parenchyma much abundant. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. a very prickly. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. woody.15 layers of thin-walled. Solanaceae). (Fam. fracture.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. ribbed. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. traversed by phloem rays. secondary cortex composed of 5 . oval and tangentially elongated cells. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. short and splintery. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. much branched perennial under shrub. cork cambium single layered.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. tangentially elongated. pale yellowish-brown. b) Microscopic Root . cylindrical. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region.8 m high. thin-walled.9 layers of thin-walled. upto 1. parenchyma and stone cells. Putirichunda Dorli. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . long. Ubhibharingani. Papparamulli. 1-2. Heggulla.

Powder . Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.á£la. tracheids. rounded to oval starch grains. H¤droga. xylem rays uni to biseriate. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 2. all elements being lignified. Appendix Not more than 6. aseptate fibres.2. fibres and xylem parenchyma.2.5 . Appendix Not more than 1 per cent.5 -11. 29 . CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.6 µ in diameter. shows groups of thin-walled. P¡cana. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . phloem and medullary rays.Cream coloured. 2. of the drug for decoction. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. Agnim¡dya.7. 2.3. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.2.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.4.11.2. cells radially elongated and pitted.6 µ in diameter. IDENTITY. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits.10-20 g. Jvara. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. traversed by xylem rays. 2. measuring 5. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent.2.6. Kaphahara. measuring 5. V¡tahara. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. 2. vessels with simple pits. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. parenchymatous cells.. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. H¤dya. thick-walled. áv¡sa.5 per cent.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. greyish-brown. taste. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. fibres and xylem parenchyma. short.. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. chaba Hunter non Blume. (Fam. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. tracheid. Piperaceae). Syn. brownish cells. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. oval to rectangular. b) Microscopic Stem .) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. fracture. peppery. consisting of round. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. thin-walled. odour. cylindrical and somewhat twisted.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. secondary cortex a wide zone.5-2. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. plenty of simple starch granules present. cork cambium not distinct. P. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . Chavya (St. a glabrous. cultivated mainly in Southern India.0 cm in width. fleshy climber. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. nodes and internodes distinct. P. acrid. officinarum DC. Chavya -Kattumulaku.13. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. endodermis single layered.

3.Ar¿a. Glycosides and Steroids. D¢pana. P¡cana. Appendix 10 per cent.pitted and reticulate thickenings. cells thin walled. Appendix 2. round to oval starch grains.Alkaloids. Recana.5 per cent. 2.4. 2. 2. Appendix 1. 31 .Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡.2.6.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. IDENTITY.2.2.Greyish-brown. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. á£lal DOSE . of the drug in powder form. shows fragments of vessels.2.1-2 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pl¢h¡ Roga. Appendix 6 per cent. Kaphahara. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. Powder . starch grains. Gulma. 2.2. Udara Roga. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. CONSTITUENTS . round to oval. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Krimi. fibres and simple. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. filled with simple. RukÀa. Ën¡ha.7. medullary rays multi seriate. Appendix 3 per cent.

wedge-shaped. Dadima (Sd. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. beneath this.1-0. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. endosperm absent. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. thin walled. 0. reddish-brown pigmented layer present.Reddish-brown.5-0. found growing wild in the warm valley. angular. Powder .6 cm long. shows stone cells.14. simple. outer hills of Himalayas between 900.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. round.2 cm wide. Madalam Danimma Anar. consisting of oval to polygonal. (Fam. sweetish-sour. 32 . 0. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. Seed . round to oval.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. LohitapuÀpa. parenchymatous cells. oil globules. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. Punicaceae). triangular and rectangular. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. oval. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. cotyledons coiled. starch grains present in testa. Maadalai. containing a few oil globules. taste.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

1.lanceolate. nodes and internodes distinct. serrate. taste. fibrous. crowded in dense. smooth.5 cm across. thin.) Lamiaceae). quadrangular with four prominent furrows. slightly bitter. white. corolla. glabrous in lower part. scaberulous. ovate or ovate. fine rootlets. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. slightly curved.7-2 cm 37 . fracture. globose. subacute. Inflorescence . surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. more or less pubescent. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Leaf . hairy. white.Light greenish-yellow.6-0. calyx.25 cm long.P.5 cm wide. taste. erect. Dronapushpi (W. 1. tubular. size variable. Gumma. upto 4 mm thick. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. lanceolate. ciliate.2-1. 1-2.35 cm wide.5 cm long and 0. 3-9 cm long. characteristic. (Fam. stout herb. hairy on upper part.3-0.Sessile.Yellowish-green. zig-zag. taste. acute. surface rough. long with numerous wiry. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. an annual.Cylindrical. pungent. 1-2. Stem . about 2-3. 10 dentate with a villous throat.16.9 m in high. about 0. crenate.

Stem . parenchymatous cells. round to angular collenchyma. followed by round to oval parenchyma. Midrib . xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. fibres and xylem parenchyma. consisting of barrel shaped.0. secondary xylem consists of vessels. trigonous. tangentially elongated. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. bilipped. composed of oval to rectangular. tracheids. smooth. nutlets 3 mm smooth.7 layered.vascular bundle arc-shaped.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. upto 8 cells high.shows a single layered epidermis. upper lip about 4 mm long. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. Leaf- Petiole . thin-walled 38 . b) Microscopic Root . thin-walled. vessels long with spurs. cortex consisting of single layered. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. Fruit . tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. wooly. thin-walled cells. tracheids. oblong. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. palisade single layered.Schizocarpic carcerule. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. 4 . endoderm is single layered. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. present in centre. parenchymatous cells. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. dark brown. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows.3 cm long and 0. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. irregular.long. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. thin-walled cells. consists of a single layered epidermis. Lamina . parenchymatous cells. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. vascular bundles 4. some having simple pits. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.tangentially elongated. xylem consists of vessels. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. Seed . brown.1 cm wide.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. lateral lobes small. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma.

Pittakara. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. Agnim¡ndya. K¡sa. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. IDENTITY.2. Appendix 2.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. Glycoside.2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 2.5 on lower surface.2. pitted and spiral vessels. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.6-40. Lava¸a.Dull yellow.cells. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Powder . a few veins present in this region. V¡takara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. Ka¶u Guru. aseptate fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Tamaka áv¡sa.6-30. stomatal index 16. ViÀamajvara DOSE . stomata diacytic. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Bhedani. 2.6.7.4. 16. 2. RukÀa. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. present on both surfaces. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. palisade ratio 7-9. 39 .Alkaloid.2. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. K¡mal¡.3.7 on upper surface. CONSTITUENTS .áotha.2.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. 2.

Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. -Kakur. radially elongated to squarish. Hastipani. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn.17. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. surface smooth. utilissimus Roxb. covered with thick cuticle. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. Cucurbitaceae). straight. shows stone cells. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. Ervaru (Sd. sweetish oily. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. an annual creeping herb.3-0. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. rounded and tangentially elongated. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. cotyledons two. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. more or less ellipsoid. Hastipani.4 cm wide. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. mesophyll cells thinwalled. parenchymatous cells. Vellarika Kakadi. cultivated in many parts of the country. glossy. taste. B¤hatphala. creamish-yellow. parenchymatous. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. C. thin-walled. Karka¶¢. (Fam.7-10 cm long. 0. 0. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. 40 .

41 .35. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.C.L.7.51. Appendix 10 per cent.77.D¡ha. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .L.91 and 0.26. 0. A¿mar¢. 2.2.C.97 (all yellow) . 0.3.6. 2. of seeds.2.3-6 g. 0. (366 mm).19.V.64. Appendix 2. Appendix 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. 2.64. 0.51. 0. Rucya. Jvara. CONSTITUENTS .2. 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡takara. 0.0.5 per cent. D¢pana. 0. 0.2. Kaphakara.19. T¤À¸¡.91 (blue) under U.35. RaktadoÀakara.58. Pittahara. T. Tikta Guru.77.83. Gulma.58. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.IDENTITY. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.26. 0.83.91 and 0. 0. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0.0. 0.4.97 (all grey). Appendix 5 per cent.2.Oil & Sugars. Raktapitta.2.0.

(Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. 42 . Araceae). Orissa. thin-walled. brownish-grey. odour and taste not distinct.0-3. shiny.18. b) Microscopic Fruit .Shows more or less loosely arranged.0-3.4-0. a large epiphytic climber. odour and taste not disticnt. Seed . surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.6 cm long. cut surface has a central core. smooth. 0.5 cm thick.3-0.Kidney-shaped. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. Gajapippali (Fr. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.4 cm wide. greyish-brown with a dent. rough and scaly.0 cm in diameter and 2. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . 0. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal.

CONSTITUENTS . Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. oval to polygonal. Agnivardhaka. 0.65.2-3 g.L. Sugars & Fixed Oil. 43 . 2. 0. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. oval to polygonal. 0. Three spots appear at Rf.27. 0. 0. Stanya.3.93 (all blue) are visible. 0. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. thin-walled. thick-walled. 2.Dark brown.20. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.2. IDENTITY. shows lignified. DOSE . On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. Ka¸ha Roga.2.27. Kaphahara. T. Ka¸¶hya. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. V¡tahara. non-lignified. thick-walled. 0.73 and 0.93 (brown).93 (all yellow). THERAPEUTIC USES .C.65.2. 2.Seed . Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.Glucosides viz. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.4.áiv¡gutik¡.2. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.L. áv¡sa. 2-4 layered. pitted and with concentric striations. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.Shows a single layered. in extract (Phant) form.65.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. K¤miroga. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Powder . oval to polygonal.7. 0. Malavi¿oÀana.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.73 (both light brown) and 0. 2.6. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.73 and 0. Appendix T.Atis¡ra. 0.V. 0.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. 2.5 per cent.2.65 and 0. Punarnav¡sava.

K¡¿marya. Hannu -Kumbil. oily. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. ovoid. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered.0 cm long. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. taste. (Fam. light yellow.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp.5-1 cm long.6 cm wide. fleshy mesocarp.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. sometimes one seeded. taste. multilayered.) unarmed tree. thin-walled cells. tangentially elongated. Gambhari (Fr. 1. Seed .5-2. black. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. thin-walled. Verbenaceae). crinkled. sweetish sour. radially 44 . Shivani.4-0. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Fruit . Sr¢par¸¢. papery. parenchymatous cells.A drupe. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. P¢takarohi¸¢. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells.Seed ovate. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. cotyledons consisting of single layered. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. Seed . Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. two seeded. 0.19. seed coat thin. 0. surface smooth.

0. 0. oil globules and aleurone grains.98 (yellow) in visible light. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2.Arvind¡sava. H¤droga. M£trak¤cchra. Medhya. of the drug in powder form.08.03.94 and 0. shows stone cells. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Sara.22.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.D¡ha.4. 0.98 (all yellow). Powder . Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.Butyric acid.2. 0. IDENTITY. T¤À¸¡. 0.2.26. V¡tahara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.V. 0. Alkaloid. Appendix 8 per cent.2.. 0.98 (all blue). 0.42. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. Appendix 25 per cent.6. Ke¿ya. Under U.98 (orange). KÀata.2. 0. Appendix 2. Pittahara.C. Resin and Saccharine. Appendix 6 per cent. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains.2. CONSTITUENTS .C. 0. 45 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.52.93 and 0. 0. Amla. 2.4 per cent. H¤dya. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Appendix 0. 2.3.2.18. 0.03. THERAPEUTIC USES .elongated epidermal cells. 0. T.L.7. Rakta Pitta DOSE . KÀaya. 2.Blackish-brown. Tartaric acid.1-3 g. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ras¡yana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.12. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.

Bk. channelled. (Fam. parenchymatous cells.Shows a wide cork.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. fracture. arranged in radial groups. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. radially arranged cells. a shrub 0. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. thick-walled.0 m high. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. mucilaginous. external surface smooth. taste. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. light yellow.20. fibrous. Syn. consisting of tangentially elongated. Tiliaceae). rectangular.6-1. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few stone cells. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. 1.5-5 cm long. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. elliptical. consisting of 12-20 layered.. Grewia populifolia Vahl. 46 . b) Microscopic Stem Bark . cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. fibrous. thin-walled. traversed by wide phloem rays. oval. moderately large in size. Gangeru (St.) Aschers & Schwf. blunt tips and moderately long in size. secondary cortex wide.

08 (blue) 0.17 (light violet).2. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles.Light yellow and fibrous. 0. 0. 0. 0.27. CONSTITUENTS . T. 0. 47 . KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. Two spots are seen at Rf. Appendix per cent.55 (blue) & 0. 0.08. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). Under U. Appendix 2. 2.). Appendix per cent.35 (violet).68 (light violet) & 0.08 (violet). IDENTITY. β-amyrin etc.48 (violet). 2.2. DOSE .35 (both light yellow) in visible light.48.2. of the drug in powder form. 0. 0.3.Vra¸a.88 (light violet).61. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. Pittavik¡ra.13 (blue). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Amla.L.68 & 0.Powder . 0.55. 0. 0.2.35.J¢rak¡di Modaka. 0.V.17.7. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. 2.C.64 (blue).4. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.C. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.35 (dark blue). 0.41. Ka¶u.29 (blue). 0.L.88 (all yellow).2-3 g. 0. Tikta.17.Sugar. 0.6. 0.27 (light violet).2. α-amyrin. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.2.

comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. Chonotee Ratti. simple or branched. Ghungchi Guluganji. light brown. gulagunja -Kunni. taste. pitted walls. fruits ripen during winter. thinwalled. slightly corky. (Fam.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. becoming mildly bitter. odourless.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. Gurivinda Ghongchi. Fabaceae). Gunja (Rt. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. present at short intervals. bark thin. Chanothee. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. spreading throughout the plains. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. cylindrical. some with brownish content. feebly sweetish. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. a climber. smaller than stone cells. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick.21. exfoliating in small flakes. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. cork cambium. flowering in August-September. soft. Kakananti Rati Kunch. when distinct. b) Microscopic Root . Kundumani Guriginga. tangentially elongated cells. most often irregularly curved. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . composed of 1-2 cells wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡.

tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. Powder . groups of sclerenchymatous cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. wood composed of narrow concentric.7. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma.4. parenchyma thin-walled. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. vessels of varying sizes with thick.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. IDENTITY. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. numerous xylem fibres.5-13. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral.2. stone cells. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.5 -13. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches.diverging towards periphery.75 µ in diameter. 2. Appendix 9 per cent.Greyish-brown. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. CONSTITUENTS .Indralupta. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. thin-walled and rectangular. Appendix 2.3.2. pitted walls.6.75 µ in diameter. shows fragments of cork.3 g. Appendix 10 per cent. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5.2. áula. xylem vessels with pitted walls.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.2. DOSE . 2.2. Pittahara. Mukha¿oÀa. THERAPEUTIC USES . 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. Tikta á¢ta. small groups of sclerenchyma.5 per cent. Appendix 2.2.1 . 49 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. of the drug in powder form.

thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. more numerous and closer towards periphery.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. 50 . Serdi Ikha. taste. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. Poaceae). each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. odour. scattered throughout the ground tissue. Ikshu (St. b) Microscopic Stem . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. juicy and sweet. (Fam. characteristic. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. solid. smooth. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. lignified. besides the xylem and phloem elements. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. cylindrical.) shrub. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. distinct node and internode. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled.22. with. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. closed type of vascular bundles. conjoint.

2. THERAPEUTIC USES .3. 2. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.6. 51 . Balya.5 per cent. Appendix 2.2. V¤Àya.Bal¡ Taila.400 ml in the juice form. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. DOSE . Sara. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. Kaphahara.200 . 2.2.Sucrose. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent.2.Raktapitta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. shows pieces of epidermis. M£tra KÀaya. IDENTITY. 2. V¡tahara.7.2. ground tissue.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Powder .2.Powder light brick red. Appendix Not more than 2. Pittahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. vessels and sclerenchyma. 2.

Gav¡kÀ¢. Indrayanalata.5 µ in dia. cylindrical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. 0. parenchymatous cells. mostly simple or rarely 52 . lying around vessels. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell.2-2. Valiya Pekkumatti. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. parenchyma and medullary rays.5-7. a few filled with dark brown contents. Tuntikai. tangentially elongated. Havumakke. xylem forms bulk of root. taste. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Indravarana Gothakakucti. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. longitudinal fissures present. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. composed of sieve elements. elongated with pointed ends. Indravaruni. fibres. slightly twisted. dull yellow.) Cucurbitaceae). Tumbi Paikamatti. Indramanoa. fibres aseptate. Varithummati.5 cm thick. áatakratulat¡. an annual or perennial. parenchyma and medullary rays. short. occurring throughout the country.23. (Fam. Indravaruni (Rt. thick-walled. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. Bitter apple Indravaran. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. b) Microscopic Root . thick walled. intensively bitter. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. consisting of vessels. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. Paythumatti. Indrayan.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. tangentially elongated cork cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. fracture. thin walled. pitted.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

taste. cuminii Druce. brownish-black. oval or roundish. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. 1 cm long. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. smooth. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. astringent. oval. 1 cm wide.Brown coloured.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. rounded starch grains.800 m. 57 . b) Microscopic Powder . compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. a large evergreen tree. Eugenia jambolana Lam. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Seed . thin-walled.25. coriaceous covering. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. E.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. Jambu (Sd. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds.. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. (Fam. mesophyll composed of isodiametric..) Skeels Syn. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. Myrtaceae). Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3.

2.3. 0.L.3-6 g. 0.6.V. 58 . On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.Madhumeha. 2.95 and 0. Appendix per cent. DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. THERAPEUTIC USES .30 (blue).2.Glycoside (Jamboline). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.95 (all violet). 0.95 (all yellow). T. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. ViÀ¶ambhi.30 and 0. Pittahara.C. 2. Kaphahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. 2.4. Appendix per cent.7. Tannin.L. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.30 and 0. Appendix 2. Amla.2. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Appendix per cent. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.C. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .12. of the drug in powder form.20.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.2. three spots appear at Rf.2.IDENTITY. 0. Appendix per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.20.2. 0. Udakameha.

Raja Jambu Merale.800 m. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. and phloem rays. Navval Sambu. a large evergreen tree. Jam Jammu Naaval. cuminii Druce. and reddish brown. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Jambu.. Jambu (St.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Neralamara -Njaval. fibres aseptate. taste.) Skeels Syn. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. (Fam. Mahamaram. rough. light grey to ash coloured. cork cambium not distinct. upper few layers thick. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. Myrtaceae). stone cells.5-2. Eugenia jambolana Lam. lower cork thin and colourless. astringent. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. fracture.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.5 cm thick. younger bark mostly channelled. internal surface fibrous. forming a rhytidoma. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Jambuda Jomuna. short and splintery. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu.Bk. 0. elongated. stratified and reddish-brown. E. Jamu. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . oval to angular.26. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. Jamneralae.

Appendix 2.region. DOSE . shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. aseptate fibres. round to oval starch grains. elongated. 60 . of the drug for decoction. Pittahara. 2.10-20 g.2. single or in groups.6. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. Appendix per cent.4. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide.2. oval to angular. 2.Atis¡ra.2. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. reddish-brown content. V¡tala. IDENTITY. 2.7. Kaphahara. round to oval starch grains.2. Stambhaka. stone cells. Appendix per cent.Light brown.U¿¢r¡sava. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. Appendix per cent.2.3.2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Raktapitta. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Japal -Japolota Nervalam. b) Microscopic Seed . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. consisting of an epidermal layer. thin-walled cells. slightly bent at middle. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. ovate. slightly quadrangular. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. (Fam. oblong. Tinti·¢phala. 5-7 m high. kernel yellowish and oily. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo.Shows a hard testa. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Neervalam. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. consisting of a large endosperm. Euphorbiaceae). Japala.) small evergreen tree. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. no marked odour. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. dull cinnamon-brown. filled with brownish content.27. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. 61 . Nervala -Nervalam. found throughout tropical India. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Neervalam Jepal. Jayapala (Sd. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Japal beej.

CONSTITUENTS .49. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. 0. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. Appendix 0.84 (all violet). On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.29.C. 0. Appendix 7 per cent.34. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. 0. Appendix 3 per cent.63 and 0.6-12 mg.5 per cent. of the drug in powder form.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .54 (yellow). Vibandha DOSE . On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.Jvara. Udararoga. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.C.90 (all yellow).84 (brown).10. 0. Resins & Phorbol esters.4.2.34 (grey). 2. Powder .2. 0. 0.White with black particles of testa.L.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 2.54 and 0. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. 62 .39. Pittahara.L.V. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY. 0.2. T.Fixed oil.3.2. Appendix 15 per cent.7. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.6. 0. 0. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.

Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. Atti. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. a quick growing.5-15.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. (Fam. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Jalugu.3 cm long.3-0.8 cm wide. paripinnate. present on both surfaces. Jayanti (Lf. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢.0-3. entire. opposite.5 cm long. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings.shows single layered epidermis. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. oblong. Arishimajingai. 0. -Semp. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet.8-6 m high.) Merr. Jayanti Jaita. very shortly stalked. linear.28. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Jay¡.. 1. Fabaceae). spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. Karijimangai. S.Syn. parenchymatous cells. consisting of thin-walled. jayata Arinintajinamgi. leaflets 6-16 pairs. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. stomata anisocytic. short lived shrub. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . mucronate to acuminate. 7.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. palisade single layered. having secretory cavities in phloem. á£kÀma patra. Lamina . -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. glabrous. 1. aegyptiaca Pers.7 layered round. polygonal. 63 . pith small.

2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.C. 0.2. 0.37. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa.Ratnagiri Rasa. V¡tahara.29. Appendix per cent. 0. 2. Ras¡yana.3-6 g. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.56.19. 0.11. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. 0. DOSE .48.6. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent.37. Appendix 2. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. palisade ratio 3.48. 0. shows spongy parenchyma. palisade cells. 2.C. 0. 0. 0.Protein.2.19.05.11.56 (all pink) and 0.05. Galaga¸·a. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. 0. 0. 2. T.19. 0.56. Pittahara.L. 0.97 (all grey).25-4.97 (yellow). 0.7.69.91 and 0.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0.29. 0.M£trak¤cchra. in powder form.2.V.05. Appendix per cent.2. ViÀaroga.29. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.4. THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. CONSTITUENTS . 0. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. 64 . 0. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .91 and 0.L. Powder .97 (all yellow).3.11. 0.Dull green.2. 0. Calcium and Phosphorus.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.2.

hard. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. collapsed. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. bitter. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. light to dark brown. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.5-3. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. Seed .35 mm in breadth. colour. a large climbing shrub. Jyotishmati (Sd. taste. brownish-orange. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. seed without aril also prescent. Celastraceae). Gangunge humpu. ripe seeds. surface generally smooth and. (Fam. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried.29. Gangunge beeja. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. unpleasant. odour.

V¡maka. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 2.V. Appendix 2. 0. D¢pana.2.8 IDENTITY.20.89 (both greenish blue). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 6 per cent. áirovirecanopaga.82.94 (yellow) in visible light. Appendix 45 per cent.82 & 0.2. 0. Appendix 1. 0.63. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.94 (yellow). Under U. 2.15. 0.2.2. Powder . 0.54 (both blue).35.54.C. 2.04. Appendix 9 per cent. 0. Oil and Tannins.composed of polygonal.2.Oily. 0.82. V¡tahara. thin-walled. 0. 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Tikta Sara. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. Meddhya 66 .6. stone cells.L. 0.2. 0. dark brown. UÀ¸a. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. 0.7.89. 2.35. Virecaka. 0. (all blue) & 0. 0.82 (pink) & 0. 0.Alkaloids.2. 2.V. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.5 per cent. Kaphahara.54. Appendix 20 per cent. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.3.L.89 (all yellow).4.C.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ávitra. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.V¡tavy¡dh¢.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.Seed: 1-2 g. Oil : 5-15 drops. Sm¤tidaurbalya. 67 .

a few cells with brown contents. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Kadappai. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. taste. Vellai Kadambam. a deciduous. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. large tree. Syn. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Kadamba (St. Priyka Roghu. Vellaikhadambu. elongated cells of phloem rays. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadamba Nipo..30. traversed by uni to triseriate. Rich. some cells contain chlorophyll. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. indicus A. rectangular cells. Kadambu Needam. composed of thin-walled. 68 b) Microscopic . (Fam. Kadam Kadam. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Kadavala.Bk. Kadamba mara. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Rubiaceae). inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Kadamba Kadamba. bitter. A. Indulam. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam.

2. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.4. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.L. Appendix 9 per cent. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. shows fragments of cork cells.phloem fibres. Vra¸aropa¸a. Lava¸a. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 . 69 .6. Powder .70 (orange yellow). 2. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). Steroids.13.79 (grey) and 0. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.2.83 and 0.3. fibres.0. T.2.64. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.D¡ha. 0. 0. 0. L C.31. 0.21.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Raktapitta.57. YonidoÀa.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Alkaloids. of the drug in powder form. 2. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.1. Appendix 3 per cent. 0.2. 0.79. phloem cells. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. 0.03. cells distinct and slightly elongated. Appendix 2. V¡tahara.2. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. Appendix 1. 2.7.Brown. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13.63 (yellowish grey). CONSTITUENTS .2. DOSE . 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Vra¸a.90 (grey). Appendix 5 per cent.2. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.5 g. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .C. 0.5:10) shows under U. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. 0.5 per cent.

filaments short. five lobed. 30-45 cm high. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. 1. hairy at base. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. ganike. obtuse notched at apex. Kakamachi (W. ovary globose. narrowed at both ends. slender.5-8. (Fam. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. pedicels 6-10 mm long.5 mm long. 3-8 flowered cymes. hairy in lower part. glabrous.Erect. Manaththakkali. sinuate. oblong. bark thin. very slender. Stem . thin. petiolate. road sides and gardens.Small.5 cm long and 2.P.2-2. white or pale violet. Ganikegida. obtuse. 2. glabrous or pubescent. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. calyx 2-3 mm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . flattened. ovate or oblong. sub-umbellate. Ganikesopu. glabrous.25 mm long.5 cm wide. slightly woody and branched. corolla 4-8 mm long. pale brown. a herbaceous annual weed. Leaf . Manatakkali. toothed or lobed. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. quite common in cultivated lands. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. found throughout the country in dry parts. 70 . Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. Flower . Manitakkali.) Solanaceae). oblong. green.Simple. style cylindric. yellowish. peduncles 6-20 mm long. externally smooth.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. extra-axillary. anther 1.31. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. Pikachia.

usually purplish-black but sometimes red. covering trichomes. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole.5-11 µ in dia. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres.. LeafPetiole . conjoint and open.A berry. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. composed of thin-walled. in small or large patches. polygonal cells.' oval parenchymatous cells. trichomes multicellular. slightly elongated. phloem rays uniseriate. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma.Shows single layered. parenchyma 4-6 layered. usually accompanied by fibres. smooth.Fruit . secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. covered with striated cuticle.. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. covered with striated cuticle.. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. compactly arranged. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. yellow. slightly striated cuticle. tangentially elongated.25 µ in dia. 1. epidermis single layered. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. Stem . embedded in perimedullary zones. smooth shining Seed .5 mm in dia. cambium 2-4 layered. single or with two or rarely 3 components. xylem rays homogenous. measuring 2.5-8. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. radially elongated cells. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. uniseriate. measuring 2. vascular bundles-collateral. pith large. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. obtuse. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. minutely pitted. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. bicollateral. central vascular bundle shallow. but 4. cortex of large. arcshaped. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. starch grains. phloem consists of thin-walled. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4.10 layered in angular parts. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. arc71 . Midrib . internal phloem. endoderrnis single layered.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. rays composed of thin-walled. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. uniseriate. uniseriate. yellow or black. 6mm in dia.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells.Discoid. oval to round starch grains. filled with starch grains. covered with thick.. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.

06 & 0.2.Alkaloids and Saponins. 2. Powder . a few broken pieces of pointed. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. Fruit .5 . palisade ratio 2-4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.06 & 0. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis.06.34 (both pink).dorsiventral. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present.2. 0.3. a few vessels with spiral thickenings. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. Appendix 2. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. CONSTITUENTS .L. single.34 (both brown) in visible light. Under U. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. 034 and 0. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.7. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit.6. 0. measuring 2.97 (all yellow). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. T.2. Appendix per cent.C. stomata anisocytic. papery epicarp.11 µ in diameter. Appendix per cent. 2. unicellular hairs.Creamish-green. 0.2.V.L.C. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. epidermis with irregular outline. vein islet number 7-10.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. 2. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. 72 . 2. Lamina . light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. palisade single layered. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent.Shows thin. present beneath palisade parenchyma.4.2. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.

Netraroga. 73 . Kaphahara. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Chardi. Tikta Laghu. Ka¸·u. of the drug in juice form. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa.5 -10 ml.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. H¤dya. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . Hikk¡. Pittahara. V¡tahara. Jvara. Ras¡yana. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Sara. Svarya. Ar¿a. H¤droga.áotha. Prameha. KuÀ¶ha. DOSE .

finely veined.5-3 cm wide. starchy and large. black. Kalh¡ra. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. linear 1. Kamala (Fl.32. Sitopala. aquatic herb with creeping stem. corolla.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. Kanwal Kamal. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. carpels many. sepals leaf-like. comprising of calyx. crimpled. Padma. broken pieces also occur. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. obtuse. 1. Tavare. embedded in a creamy. petals numerous.3-2 cm wide. gynoceium apocarpous. 3-5 cm long. seed hard. Kamalam. Tavaregedd -Tamara.4-2 cm long. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. gynoecium and thalamus. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Kamal. Paduman. 2-4 cm long. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. Syn. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. elliptic. Nymphaeaceae). Pamposh Tamarai.. yellowish-brown. crimp led. extended into clavate appendages. 1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. free. membranous. erect. a large. Naidile. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. Thamaraipoo.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Aravinda. 74 . androecium. Chenthamara. anther. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Sarojam Kaluva. (Fam. Aravindan. Venthamara. dark brown.

2. composed of thin-walled.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. 2. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.b) Microscopic Flower Petal .shows four chambered anther. 2. . T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. ViÀavik¡ra. rectangular. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. 2. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. Appendix per cent. Powder . angular. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues.7. vascular bundle single.6.Aravind¡sava. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. Sant¡pahara. 2. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. of the drug for decoction. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.12 -24 g. DOSE . Visarpa. Appendix per cent.3. Appendix per cent. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. IDENTITY. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.2. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara.2. Anther . followed by ground tissue of oval.Raktapitta. spore sac contains yellow.4.Dusty brown.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). parenchymatous cells. columnar. THERAPEUTIC USES . spherical. having smooth exine and intine.2. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.filament appears circular in outline. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. Tikta. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. two on either sides. M£tra Virajan¢ya. yellow pollen grains. parenchymatous cell. Stamen Filament . Appendix 2.

with concentric striations and narrow lumen. sharp. axillary thorns. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. F. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. reddish brown. taste. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Powder . aromatic. stone cells. Kavataleal. Syn. 76 .33. sour. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. stone cells. rough. Kapittha (Fr. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. Belada hannu. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . elephantum Correa (Faro. Belalu. found in groups. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. thin-walled. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content.) Swingle. Haminamara -Vilar maram.shows irregular. hard. found throughout the plains of India. glabrous tree with strong. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. straight. Pulp. Bilvara.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. Siwalik range and forests. a deciduous. often cultivated in many parts of India.Reddish-brown. Rutaceae). Balada. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. slightly triangular and oval. odour. semicircular. parenchymatous cells.

0. Gr¡h¢.6.1-3 g.L. V¡mi.95 (blue).Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Lekhana. Agnim¡ndya. 6.50. Pittav¡tahara.C. KaÀ¡ya. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Sangr¡h¢.91 (grey) in visible light.Citric acid and Mucilage.37 (brown).L. 0.2. 2.95 (violet) . 0. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.12 (brown).91 and 0.2. 77 . DOSE .14 (sky blue). CONSTITUENTS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.91 (violet) and 0.95 (all yellow). T.2.7.37.2. 0.áv¡sa.V. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. of the drug in powder form. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. Vra¸an¡¿aka. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.C.06. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.91 (blue) and 0.2. Appendix per cent. 2. Unripe Pulp: Amla. Amla.4. Ripe-T¤À¡. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. 0. Under U. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.12. 2. Hikk¡. 2.50 (violet). 0. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.IDENTITY. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya.3.

rough due to longitudinal striations. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. simple and compound starch grains. shows single and groups of stone cells. measuring 3-7 µ in dia.34. 78 .Bk. short. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. and compound having 2-3 components. external surface brownish-grey. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. met throughout India in wild state. (Fam . a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. fracture. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma.Greyish-brown. sometimes cultivated.) Apocynaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. b) Microscopic Powder . Karamarda (St. flat or slightly curved pieces. tubular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. light in weight. starch grains simple. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. internal surface grey and smooth.

IDENTITY.90 (pink) and 0. 2. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 79 .2.6. Appendix per cent.2. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. 0.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V.L. 0.KuÀthahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.97 (violet). Appendix per cent.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.Marma Gu¶¢k¡.4. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent.58 (both light grey). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. 2.35. 2.C.52 (light sky blue).C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. 0.3. CONSTITUENTS .2.2. Pittakara. Appendix 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. T. 2.48 g. DOSE .L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.7.

Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. secondary phloem very wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. 3-11 µ in dia.) Merr. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. Karanja (Rt. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. P. external surface rough. fracture. Naktam¡la. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. internally. very bitter. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. taste. thin-walled. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Nakt¡hv¡. a glabrous tree.) glabra Vent. fibrous. Fabaceae). Bk. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. due to peeling off. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. tangentially elongated. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. tangentially elongated cells. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular.35. (Fam. traversed by phloem rays. cells. most of phloem 80 . of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. Syn. single cells of varying shape and size.. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite..

2.31 (sky blue). T. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0.80 (light blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0.51 (light blue).L. IDENTITY.37.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. Ka¸·u. KuÀtha.3. 0. ViÀaghma.98 (all yellow). Powder -Creamish-yellow. 0. parenchymatous cells.37 (greenish yellow). Appendix 17 per cent. phloem rays many. Prameha. 2. 2.31. Yoniroga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.08 (greenish blue). V¡tahara. 0. cork cells. shows thin-walled.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.4. DOSE . Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.09. 0. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L.47. Ëntravidradhi.K¤miroga.2. 0. consisting of thin-walled.18 (blue) 0.V.5 per cent. 0. 2. 81 . Ka¸·£ghna. Appendix 3.80 and 0. of the drug for decoction.47. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.42 (sky blue). Appendix 2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .04 (blue). similar to those present in secondary cortex. most of ray cells contain starch grain. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. Tikta. 0.6. Appendix 2 per cent.1-3 g.C.7. Appendix 11 per cent. 0.13 (Sky blue).18. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf.2. 1-2 seriate. Pittahara.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.47 (greenish yellow). 0. 0. 0. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0.Flavones Kanugin. mostly straight.25 (sky blue). phloem fibres.51. 0.C.2. DuÀ¶avra¸a.

and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. Fabaceae). Karaµjaka. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. consisting of 82 . cells. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. a glabrous tree.. Syn. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. tangentially elongated cells. secondary phloem a very wide zone.. Nakt¡hv¡. bark. 3-11 µ in dia. light in weight. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. (Fam. irregularly distributed. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.) Vent.) Merr. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. internally light yellow. reddish-brown or dull brown. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. thin-walled. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. bitter. rounded to oval in shape. Karanja (Rt.36. bark does not easily separate from xylem. fracture. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. P. taste. tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. rough due to the presence of numerous. 1-2 seriate. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size.

and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. Prameha. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.4. ViÀaghna. shows fibres in singles or groups. 2. rounded to oval in shape. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. KuÀ¶ha. Powder -Light yellow.2. more.radially elongated.3. 2. Ëntravidradh¢. IDENTITY.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Vra¸a¿odhana. Tikta. Appendix per cent.7. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. starch grains. DOSE . Vidradh¢. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS . fibres and parenchyma. thin-waned cells towards inner region. tracheids. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. Pittahara.2. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. tangentially elongated towards outer region.Karanjin. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. Appendix per cent. Ka¸·£. Kaphahara. Demethoxy-kanugin. of the drug in powder form.. 2. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .DuÀ¶avra¸a. consisting of 2-3 components.2. Appendix 2.1-2 g. 2. K¤miroga.Methylfisetin. Appendix per cent. Yoniroga. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. Kanugin.6. 83 .2. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

filled with reddish-brown content. odour. unpleasant. phloem parenchyma. thick-walled cells. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. tangentially elongated. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. more or less smooth. composed of rectangular. b) Microscopic Bark . outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured.) Merr.2-1 cm thick. Nakt¡hv¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. P. phloem fibre and stone cells. bitter. at some places lenticels also appear. fracture. alternating with stone cells. Karanja (St. Karaµjaka. taste. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. thin-walled.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. arranged in a tangential manner. Syn. fibre small. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. short and fibrous. a glabrous tree. (Fam. Karanja. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu.. Fabaceae). traversed by medullary rays. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.Bk. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. recurved.) glabra Vent. usually 0. parenchymatous cells. slightly quilled.37. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. lenticellate pieces. 84 .

present in secondary cortex. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. Appendix 18 per cent.. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. IDENTITY. 2. Demethoxy- kanugin. oil globules. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. starch grains simple. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Prameha. Appendix 2. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. usually 2-4 cells wide. K¤miroga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. aseptate fibre and stone cells. Pongapin.2. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin.2. Powder -Yellowish-cream. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Ka¸·u. elongated. simple and compound starch grains. Kaphahara. Ëntravidradh¢. Kanugin. Tikta. and rarely. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II.6. Appendix 13 per cent. 85 .Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. Vidradh¢. CONSTITUENTS . 5Methoxyfurano (2". 2. KuÀ¶ha. 3" 7 : 8).3.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Ka¶u. V¡tahara. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate.polygonal.1-2 g. ViÀaghma.2. Pittahara.4. 3". thin-walled and aseptate.DuÀ¶avra¸a. 2. Yoniroga DOSE . medullary rays wavy.5 per cent. rounded to oval. Pinnatin. Gamatin. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. Appendix 1.7. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.2. of the drug in powder form. 2. Appendix 3 per cent.2.

5 cm long and 3. leaflets 2-3 pairs. cortex consisting of angular. Kanajo Karuaini. Nakt¡hv¡. 6. Ungu. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Karanja (Lf. a glabrous tree. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Karanja. xylem vessels arranged radially.circular in outline. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . 0.. traversed by xylem rays. Karaµjaka. vascular bundle single. (Fam. arcshaped. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Fabaceae). epidermis single layered. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. Unu.2 . petiolule short. 86 .5-0. Syn. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai.9-8. consisting of xylem and phloem.8 cm. Pongana Ganuga.) Vent.) Merr.11. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate.38. P. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. covered with cuticle. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Dithouri Honge. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.3 cm wide. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Hulagilu -Pungu. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. dark green. isodiametric. consistig of tabular cells.

5-20.7. Ka¸·ughna.A new Furanoflavone -3' . Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". cortex consists of round to oval. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. Appendix 3. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.6. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.2.Mid rib .2.6. . K¤imihara.shows single layered epidermis.(4". 2.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. Kaphahara.5 per cent.6. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 2. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. 7) -flavone. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.2.5-50. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. 5".5) . pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". stomatal index 12. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Powder -Green.6. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. vascular bundle. CONSTITUENTS . shows spiral xylem vessels. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. palisade two layered. Appendix 2. Appendix 16 per cent. palisade ratio 3. Ka¶u.2.2. Pittavardhaka. collateral. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . 5" . mesophyll cells. stomata anisocytic. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. Tikta. 2. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. present in lower surface. consisting of tabular cells. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.2.4. Appendix 11 per cent.5". covered with thick cuticle. phloem and pith.3.

For external use only. 88 .K¤miroga. Ka¸·au.J¡ty¡di Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. Vra¸a. DOSE .

25 cm long. Karavallaka (Fresh. IDENTITY. oblong. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . pendulous. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. 2. Varivall¢. extremely bitter. Nil Appendix 8.2. 3 valved at the apex when mature.6. 2.2. Appendix 6 per cent.2. Appendix 2. Appendix 28 per cent.Fr. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. (Fam.5 .2. 2. Appendix 0.2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. Kakiral. 2.6 per cent.5 per cent. upto an altitude of 1500 m.2. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.) Cucurbitaceae). K¡ravall¢. fusiform. taste. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles.4. usually pointed or beaked. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds.39. surface rough.7.3. Kathilla.

0.V. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.61 (light sky blue). Prameha.81 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.98 (all yellow). DOSE . 0. 0. 0.50.15 ml. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.áv¡sa. P¡¸·u.23 (red).Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.60.46. K¡mal¡. KuÀ¶ha. K¡sa.16. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .75. Jvara.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 0.96 (sky blue). 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. juice of fresh drug. 90 .T. 0.98 (red & sky blue). H¤dya.67 and 0.C.L.43. 0.10 . T. CONSTITUENTS .98 (all blue).03. 0. 0.17. 0.L. Kaphahara. Raktavik¡ra. V¡tahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. D¢pana.34. 0.C. Aruci. K¤miroga. 0.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. Kauka. b) Microscopic Rhizome . 0. Tiktarohi¸¢. Katki. Scrophulariaceae). at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. pleasant. Katuka (Rz. kaur Katuka rohini. inner surface black with whitish xylem. a perennial. (Fam. cylindrical. Kalikutki Katuki Karru.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. odour. taste. 5-10 cm long. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. Katuku rohini.Thin. dusty grey.05-0. subcylindrical. bitter. Kav¢. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. mostly attached with rhizomes. straight or slightly curved. Kaurohi¸¢. suberised cells. cork cambium 1-2 layered.40. Rohi¸¢. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. . Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . short. cortex single layered or absent. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Root . Katuka rohini Kutki. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. fracture. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini.2. Sutiktaka. pleasant. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. externally greyish-brown. short. taste.1 cm in diameter. primary cortex persists 91 . fracture. bitter.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. odour.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick.

2. abundantly found in all cells. 0. 0. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. 0.in some cases. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. 2. 0. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. thick-walled. secondary phloem poorly developed. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. 0. 0. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. lignified. some cylindrical with taillike. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. thick-walled.6. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. secondary xylem consists of vessels. thick-walled.41. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. fibres aseptate. T.30. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.62. 0. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.2. 2.7. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. starch grains.. vessels have varying shape and size. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. simple round to oval.17. 92 . 0. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. cambium 2-4 layered.V. tapering ends.2.05. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. Appendix per cent. tracheids. tracheids long. 0. thick-walled. 0. Powder .35 (green).4. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs.17.2. consisting of oval to polygonal. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. hypodermis single layered.10. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. Appendix per cent. tracheids. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres.C.C.05 (blue). xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. 2. 0.2. 0. Appendix per cent. parenchyma.21. IDENTITY. parenchyma and fibres.10.84 (all yellow).41 and 0. simple round to oval. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. measuring 25 . 1-2 layers of cork cambium.37. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. thick-walled cells of endodermis. cortex 8-14 layered.104 µ in diameter. Appendix per cent. starch grains.L. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. 2.L. 0.84 (all brownish grey).30 (blue) and 0.30.Dusty grey.3. parenchymatous cells. 0. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. Appendix 2.72 and 0.21. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered.

áv¡sa. KuÀ¶ha. D¡ha. Bhedin¢.CONSTITUENTS . Arocaka. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. ViÀamajvara. D¢pan¢. Pittahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). Sarvajvarahara Lauha. of the drug in powder form. Jvara. DOSE . K¡mal¡. THERAPEUTIC USES . 93 . Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1 . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta.3 g.

Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . second pair 94 . didynamous. with long white hairs. common in water logged places throughout the country. a spiny.2 cm long.6 cm long. Kalsunda --Golmidi.Anders (Fam. sub-quadrangular.Greenish-brown. subsessile. bracts about 2. Nirchulli. swollen at nodes. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura.Acanthaceae). 1-7 cm long. externally greyish-brown.5-1 cm wide. entire and hairy. Kokilaksha (W.Yellowish-brown. no characteristic odour and taste. stout. Nirguvireru. Kolarind. no characteristic odour and taste. Flower .41. Hygrophila spinosa T. corolla 3. widely 2 lipped. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes.Mostly adventitious. Vayalculli Talikhana. upper sepal 1. which are 1. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. Syn. fasciculate.Usually unbranched. lanceolate. stamens 4. broader than the other three. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. Kolavankal ---. annual herb. acute. Culli. tube 1. whitish to brown.5 cm long. Leaf . abruptly swollen at top. all linear-lanceolate.3 cm long. calyx 4-partite. Kettu.6-2 cm long.P. Stem . IkÀuraka. 0.

a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. Stem . where these cells are mostly radially elongated. vessels angular. scattered throughout the phloem region. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. variable in size. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. subequal. arranged radially.Two celled. phloem narrow. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. round. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. Seed . cortical cells thin-walled.15 cm wide. single or in groups of 2-3. 0. inner cells smaller.2-0. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. light brown. arranged in radial rows. stigma simple. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. a few thick-walled. radially arranged. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. xylem present in a ring.1 . oblong.larger. truncate at the base. brownish cells. anthers two celled. consisting of round to polygonal cells. capsule about 0. rectangular to cubical. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. pointed.8 cm long. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong.0. b) Microscopic Root . flat or compressed. polygonal cells. pubescent. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. ray cells thin-walled. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. vessels with spiral thickenings. radially elongated in secondary xylem. glabrous. broader towards centre. pith large. compressed. style filiform. having small intercellular spaces. Fruit . medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. composed of transversely elongate. involute with a fissure on upper side. 4seeded. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. moderately thick-walled. peripheral ones larger.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. thin-walled. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. endodermis single layered. thin-walled cells.25 cm long and 0. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. filament quite glabrous. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. phloem fibres thick-walled. fibres thick-walled.Ovate. ray cells thin walled. hairy but appearing smooth. linear-oblong. 95 . with a number of large air cavities. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. fibre walls uniformly thickened. radially elongated in xylem region. composed of polygonal. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct.

rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.7.LeafMidrib .Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. .25-15. Fruit .75. lignified.78. Amla. covered with thick cuticle.2.3. sclerenchymatous cells. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.2.2. M£trala. shows aseptate. palisade.4. Appendix 2. collenchyma 2-5 layered. Appendix per cent.2. parenchymatous cells. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. Lamina . vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. unicellular hairs and globules. Rucya.2. 2. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. thick-walled. 2. V¤Àya. stomata diacytic. oval to hexagonal.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. elongated fibres. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. V¡jikara. parenchymatous. Powder . 2. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. palisade 1-2 layered. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. IDENTITY. palisade ratio 6. thin-walled. tangentially elongated cells.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. 2. composed of thin-walled.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .24-30. Appendix per cent. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. Seed . vein islet number 17-42. Tikta Picchila.Shows concavo-convex outline. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Light brown.2. stomatal index 17. Appendix per cent. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate .

of the drug in powder form. 97 .3 -6 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .T¤À¸¡. DOSE . Ëmav¡ta áotha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). V¡tarakta.

secondary phloem narrow. Anders (Fam. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. 98 . thin-walled. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. whitish to brownish. IkÀuraka. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. Culli --. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Nerugobbi. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. the size of these cells. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. Hygrophila spinosa T. thinwalled cells. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex.42.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Kolavankae -Vayalculli.Acanthaceae). Syn. a spiny. Root-Appears circular in outline. consisting of small. Kokilaksha (Rt. Kokil¡kÀ¢. slightly transversely elongated. polygonal cells. common in water logged places throughout the country. stout. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Kolavulike. branches on nodes. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. annual herb. no characteristic odour and taste.

Light brown to ash coloured.2. V¡tahara. ray cells thin-walled. 2. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Amla. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. 99 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.3 -6 g. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. 2. 2.7.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. radially elongated in the xylem region. 2. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent.3.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells.2. M£trala. A¿ma¤¢. fibre walls uniformly thickened. Appendix per cent. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . scattered throughout the phloem region.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex.4. each group composed of 2-6 cells. Tikta Picchila. having spiral thickening. vessels with spiral thickening. Appendix per cent.2.6.2.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. angular.2. lignified fibres. Powder . broader towards centre. V¡tarakta. shows fragments of pitted. of the drug for decoction.Ëmav¡ta áotha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.

43.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees.8 -10. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. shows hairs and oil globules. Syn. IkÀuraka. b) Microscopic Seed . The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. common in water logged places throughout the country. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. stout. Swelling Index . embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Kokilaksha (Sd. the 100 . thinwalled. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder.Greyish-brown. a spiny. (Fam. white. annual herb. Acanthaceae). 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. taste. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. truncate at the base. Powder . hairy but appearing smooth.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. flat or compressed. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Maradarishana. Hygrophila spinosa T. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. Daruhuladur Darhald. oil globules present in this region. light yellowish-brown. Anders. Maradarishina -Maramannal. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra.

Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Protease and an Alkaloid.03 (light brown). Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. including any sticky mucilage. 0.áotha. 0. 0. Kaphahara.. 0. DOSE .38 (light brown).6. 0. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. 0.41 (light blue).C.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. Appendix per cent.31 (dark brown). 101 .72 (all yellow).2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.24.03. 0. 0. of the drug in powder form.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.93 (sky blue). 0.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.3 -6 g.2. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. 0. T.24 (red). Appendix per cent.10 (light brown). enzymes like Diastase.2.76 (sky blue) and 0. Add 25 ml of water. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.38.An yellow semi-drying oil. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.2.L. V¡tarakta.3. Appendix 2. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. 0. 2. Pitt¡¿mar¢.24 (dark brown).2. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. CONSTITUENTS . 0.V. V¤Àya.C.2.52 (dark brown) and 0. 0. 2. 0. related to 1 g of seeds. Lipase.17 (light brown). 0.17. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.55 (light blue).72 (dark brown). Appendix per cent.52 and 0.L. Santarpa¸a.31.

Kuzuppa (W.4 cm long. sepal 0. swollen at the nodes. Kozhuppa. cuneiform. smooth and greenish-brown.1 to 0.44. at terminal heads. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 102 .4 cm long. odour.1 to 0. 50 cm long. 0. an annual succulent. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Peddapavila Kura. Moti Luni Khursa. stamens 8-12. branched. Doddagoni Soppu. Fruit .5 cm long. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. 0. Kozuppa. 0. short. less in number. dehiscing above the base. rounded and truncate at the apex. surface smooth. spathulate. Loni. sub-sessile. found throughout the country. Kozhuppu Pappukura. Ghola -Lonak. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. brownish-grey. 3-4 leaves. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Chhotalunia. characteristic. Gho¶ik¡.Almost cylindrical. fracture. style 5-6 fid. oblong.Simple.P) Portulacaceae). short. Loni -Koricchira. 0.Cylindrical. subtended by an involucre.5 cm long and 0.3 to 2.35-0. bright yellow. very delicate and soon falling off. fracture. oblique. Loni. 0. petals obovate. Paruppukkeerai. Badi Lona Dudagorai. Leaf . Payilikura. Baranunia Garden Purslane. Badanuni.An ovoid capsule. small. root hairs abundant in upper region.2 cm in diameter.A few. secondary roots. prostrate herb.25-0. ribbed. Kulfa.6 cm wide. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Khurfa. (Fam.3 cm long. Pulikkirai. Stem . Lonika. Kwfa Pasalai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. Flower . -Baraloniya.

parenchyma abundant. pitted and spiral vessels. Appendix per cent.2.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. tracheids and parenchyma. oval cells. covered externally with a thick cuticle. secondary xylem composed of vessels. IDENTITY. b) Microscopic Root . Appendix per cent. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents.Greyish-brown. measuring 6-14 µ . Stem .3.06-0.7.. pericycle fibre present in patches. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. phloem and xylem parenchyma. Appendix per cent.Wavy in outline. black. tracheids. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. parenchymatous cells.2.Seed -Numerous. reniform. vessels. shows groups of oval to polygonal. 2. having intercellular spaces. fragments of cork cells. Appendix 2. tracheids and parenchyma.4.6.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. 2. minute. 0. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. having 2-3 components. stomata paracytic type. . xylem parenchyma and ray cells. palisade single layered. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. thin-walled. 2. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. thick-walled with wide lumen. as well as compound. arranged in radial rows. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. secondary xylem consists of vessels. simple as well as compound. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. having simple pits and spiral thickening.07 cm across. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. solitary or in groups of 2-5. present in mesophyll cells. Appendix per cent.2. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. phloem.2. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. 2. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. measuring 6-14 µ in dia.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. dark brown. Lamina . ray cells and pith. oval. Powder . parenchymatous cells. LeafMidrib .2.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis.

T.68. CakÀuÀya. Gulma. Ar¿a. 0. Pittakara.68 (yellow) and 0. 0.Marma Gu¶ik¡.Agnim¡ndya.76 and 0.76 (all pinkish red). 0. 0. áotha. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.C.10. Carbohydrates.10.61. 104 .08. Under U. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.6 g. 0.L. (both green).68 and 0. 0. 0.10. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.C.76 (green) in visible light.50. 0.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .T. Prameha. 0. 0. 0. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.41.V. of the drug in powder form.Protein. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 0.52 (both faint green).L.3 . V¡tahara.08.41.. Vra¸a DOSE .52. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. RukÀa. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.

Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. bark fibrous. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. Lajavanti. (Fam. nearly glabrous. upto 2. sensitive to touch. internal cut surface grey.3-0. covered with long. odour. Fabaceae). Adamalati Lajaka. 105 . external surface light brown. stipulate. petiolate. Lajjalu (W. woody. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. yellowish-green. rependant . 25-50 cm high. linear lanceolate. obliquely narrow or linear oblong.Cylindrical. fracture hard. 0. with secondary and tertiary branches. sparsely prickly. Machikegida.Cylindrical. Stem . upto 2 cm thick. obliquely rounded at base. Lajamani Chhuimui. easily separable from wood.5 cm in dia.4 cm broad.week bristles longitudinally grooved. varying in length.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. Leaf . acute.6-1. bark fibrous. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. distinct. alternate. hairy pinnae. Lajauni Muttidasenui. cut surface of pieces pale yellow.P) diffused undershrub. tapering. Var¡kr¡nt¡.2 cm long.45. taste. greyish brown to brown. slightly astringent. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sessile. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. 0. leaflets 10-20 pairs.

tangentially elongated to oval.4-0. thick-walled. scattered throughout secondary xylem.3 cm long. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. 0. brown to grey. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. consisting of large. calyx very small. respectively. dry. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. filled with reddish-brown contents. simple. parenchymatous cells. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. ovules numerous. glabrous. phloem fibres single or in groups.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. crystal fibres elongated. scattered throughout. 106 . tangentially elongated cells. ovate oblong. lobes 4. thick-walled. fibres. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. oval-elliptic. ovary sessile. spreading bristle at sutures. fibres of two types. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. Seed . 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate.Lomentum. in globose head. 1-1.Compressed. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. phloem rays uni to multiseriate.6 cm long. 2. parenchyma.Pink. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. fibres single or in groups. rarely multiseriate. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia.Flower . radially elongated. 3-25 chambered. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. straw coloured.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. corolla pink.3 long. 2-3 seriate more common. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. peduncles prickly. secondary cortex wide. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. phloem rays thick-walled. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. a number of lignified. 0.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. stamens 4. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. xylem rays radially elongated. b) Microscopic Root . pith consisting of polygonal. Stem . arranged in tangential bands. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. starch grains. 0. much exserted. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. thick-walled. crystal fibres thick-walled. Fruit . moderately thick-walled.

shaggy hairs. vascular bundle single. one in each wing. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. pericycle arranged in a ring.81 (bluish-pink). a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. shows.69 (all blue) and 0.3 components IDENTITY. with 2 . spongy parenchyma. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. branched. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.C. 2. crystal fibres. Appendix 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. single and compound starch grains.6. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.35. endocarp of thick-walled.2.2. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. thin-walled. palisade single layered.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. 0. Fruit . lignified cells followed by single layered. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally.Leaf- Petiole .L. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. covered with thin-cuticle. 2.shows epidermis on both surfaces. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. 2. pericycle same as in petiole. spongy parenchyma single layered. parenchymatous cells.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. parenchymatous cells Seed . cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled.V. Appendix per cent. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. Midrib . Powder . rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. branched. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells.Reddish-brown. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. pitted vessels. reticulate. Appendix per cent.2. 0.4. shaggy hairs.shows single layered epidermis. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf.3. T. fibres. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. Appendix per cent.62. Lamina . upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade.2.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular.7. Appendix per cent.L.2. 0. palisade cells non glandular.

0. KuÀ¶ha. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.35 (orange). THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a.spots appear at Rf. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapita DOSE . KaÀ¡ya Laghu.35 and 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. áv¡sa.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. Vra¸a. 108 . Atis¡ra.áopha. CONSTITUENTS . Yoniroga. D¡ha. Kaphahara. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Ku¶aj¡valeha.

5-2 cm long.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Madhuka. Iluppa. and also cultivated. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. Madhuka (Fl. (Fam. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9).Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. followed by thin-walled. b) Microscopic Corolla . epipetalous and arranged in two series.Gmel. Syn. Halippe. Mahawash tree Mahudo. Sapotaceae) . Ippa. epipetalous. lanceolate. latifolia (Roxb. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). short. ovate lanceolate. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Mahua Katiluppai. Androecium . M. reddish-brown. basifixed. tabular.) Macbride. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. sweet. Bassia latifolia Roxb.46.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. erect 0. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. Ilippa. Hippe. a few 109 . Eppimara -Irippa. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand.F. corolla fleshy. Hippenara. taste. anther sub-sessile. Kattu Iluppai.

shows fragments of epidermal cells.2. Appendix 70 per cent.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KÀaya.2. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.2. Pittakara.2. 2. Balya. tapetum not distinct. lignified cells.2. KÀata. spherical. oval shaped. unicellular hairs.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . pollen grains single or in groups. Powder . T¤À¸¡. áramahara. 2. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac.unicellular hairs present on one side. Ah¤dya. 2. of the drug. endothecium composed of radially elongated. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Dark brown. D¡ha.6. Appendix 10 per cent. El¡di Modaka. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 5 per cent.Madh£k¡sava.10 .4. árama DOSE .2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. Appendix 0. Appendix 2.3. 110 . 2.5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. round. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. Appendix 25 per cent.15 g.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. 2.áv¡sa.

. A. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. A. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. sessile. fracture.Herbaceous. or elliptic. Matsy¡duni.Cylindrical. 0.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. cream to grey. fracture. A. 2.) R. linear-oblong. denticulata R.. obtuse or subacute. triandra Lam..3-2 cm wide.1. Bahli. nodiflora R. Stem . white often tinged with pink. no characteristic odour and taste. bracteoles 111 . nodes and internodes distinct. Br. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. internodes 0.5 cm long. weak. non Link. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .P. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. no characteristic odour and taste. Amaranthaceae). with spreading branches from the base. Leaf . yellowish-brown to light-brown. short.3-7.. repens Gmel. no characteristic odour and taste.. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets.47.6 cm diameter. Br. A. short. Gandal¢.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds.1-0. Br. Matshyakshi (W. Syn. Flower . often rooting at lower nodes.5 cm wide. (Fam.5-5 cm long. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. 0.

1. radially arranged cork cells. single layered. parenchymatous cells.2 cm long. isodiametric. Lamina . isodiametic cells. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. open and exarch.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. round or oval. present in the centre. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. no characteristic odour and taste. 112 . parenchymatous cells. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. with anomalous secondary growth. xylem tissues lignified. shows wavy or undulate. each consisting of xylem and phloem. style very short. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. parenchymatous cells.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. with are conjoint. pith distinct.5-3 mm long. numerous. consistig of thin-walled. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. round to oval. sepals ovate. bicollateral. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. ovary obcordate. vascualr bundles radially arranged. palisade 2-3 layers. Stem . more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. ovate. thin-walled round or oval. thin-walled. stomata paracytic. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. irregular. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. pith consisting of thin-walled. 1. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. b) Microscopic Root . Fruit . covered wtith striated cuticle. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. vascular bundles three. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. compressed. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. collenchymatous cells.dorsiventral. consisting of thin-walled cells. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. compressed with thickened margins. orbicular.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. Leaf- Midrib .Utricle. no characteristic odour and taste. acute. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. composed of thin-walled.5 mm long. capitellate. perianth 2. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. thin. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. palisade ratio 3-5. scarious. parenchymatous cells. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. secondary cortex narrow.

CONSTITUENTS .Olive green.25. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0.Sugar. 2. 0. of the drug in powder form.6. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . Appendix 19 per cent. 0..59. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.16.33.2. Pittavik¡ra.4.44. 0.C. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.L.V. Appendix 2.44 (all green). palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2.16.94 and 0.35. 0. 2. V¡tahara. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.2.2 -3 g. 0. IDENTITY. T.33 and 0.KuÀ¶ha. paracytic stomata.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. 0. 0. 2.81. 0.68 (all red).L.44.C. Kaphahara.5 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 113 . On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.7.2. 0. Tikta.54 and 0. 0. Under U.3.96 (all yellow).18. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.Powder .

columnar palisade. Fabaceae).2-0. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. several layers of thin walled. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. 114 .35 cm broad. thin-walled. smooth. covered externally with thick cuticle. mucilaginous cells. 0. cells flat at base. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water.walled. annual herb. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.5 cm long. Methi (Sd. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. parenchymatous cells. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.) aromatic. 30-60 cm tall. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. bitter.Seed shows a layer of thick. taste. (Fam.15-0. varying in size. cultivated throughout the country. b) Microscopic Seed . long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region.48. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. pleasant. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. very hard. 0. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. dull yellow.

Appendix 2.Alkaloid.Yellow. 2. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. aleurone grains. Sapogenins and Mucilage. Appendix 0. Rucya. CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll.3. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.6. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. Aruci DOSE .Graha¸¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. 115 . Powder . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Jvara.3-6 g. Appendix 5 per cent.Mustak¡riÀ¶a.4.2. Prameha. of the drug in powder form. 2. 2.2. oil globules.2. Appendix 4 per cent.2. Kaphahara.

bright green.3 cm long. blade obovate. an annual or biennial bristly herb.1-1.. not distinct. sub-marginate at the apex. bisexual.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. yellowish-green. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. Muli. hollow.Root cylindrical.Flower in long terminal raceme.49. Leaf . (Fam.P.5-10 cm long. complete 1-2 cm long. having a few longitudinal striations. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . Rakhyasmula Mulaka.0 cm in dia.Lower leaves hairy.Slender. oblong. regular. pedicel with scattered hairs. Mulaka (W. variable size and thickness. sometimes brown red. cylindrical. seplas 6. odour. Flower . cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. upper most leaves simple. compressed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. sub-linear but narrowed at the base.) Brassicaceae).7-2.2 cm long. petals 1. taste. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. Stem . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . lyrate. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. slightly pungent. petiole 5-5. 0. coarsely toothed.

1. endodermis at some places. 1-2 chambered. Fruit .appears biconvex in outline. solitary or ingroups. erect. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends.dorsiventral. ovary superior. present in cortex. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. cork cells. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. sometimes flattened. Stem . medullary rays 1-3 cells wide.Reddish-brown. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. vascular bundle three in number. parenchymatous cells.Siliqua. greenish-yellow. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. parenchymatous cells. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. hairs unicellular. traversed by phloem rays. starch grains simple. present only on upper side. single layered. b) Microscopic Root . phloem.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. 2 mm wide. green or brown-purple. medullary rays four to many cells wide. one central and two lateral. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end.4 cm thick. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres.8. taste. 10-12 ovuled. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. Midrib .appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. pith a wide zone of polygonal. occasionally pale purple. Seed . secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. round to oval. Leaf- Petiole . 2-4 mm long. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. round to oval. 117 .12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. Lamina .purple vein. epidermis followed by 6. continuous or more or less constricted. traversed by xylem rays. irregularly globose. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. style about 4 mm long. 3-9 cm long and 0. palisade 2-3 layers. longitudinally sulcatus. parenchymatous cells. covered with thick cuticle. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. cylindrical. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. elliptical. stamen 6 in two whorls. present in cortex and phloem. two outer smaller and four inner longer. oily. thin-walled. radially arranged. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. epidermis single layered. thin-walled.

spiral vessels. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. 2. Ar¿a. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. H¤dya. Pittahara.4.2. of columnar cells. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Gandhaka Va¶¢.3. Appendix 2.6. 2. Appendix per cent. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. Powder . Rucya. tangentially elongated.Shows a single layered epidermis.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. Appendix per cent.M£lakakÀ¡ra.2. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Svarya. P¢nasa. 118 . 2. covered with a thin-cuticle. parenchymatous cells present. reddish-brown. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . parenchymatous cells. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Yellowish-green. P¡cana.2. thinwalled.Agnim¡ndya. DOSE . Gulma. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Tikta Laghu.Fruit .2. straight cuticle.7. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. Seed . covered with thin. Ud¡varta.40 ml. thin-walled. shows aseptate fibres. IDENTITY.Glucoside.2. of the drug in juice form.20 . 2.

taste.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Appendix per cent. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Appendix 2. cylindrical.2. 2.6. 2. Visra. white in colour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. fusiform.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Appendix per cent. Brassicaceae). Appendix per cent. Mullangi. Appendix per cent. variable in size.50.2. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth.2. Saleya. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent.7.4. (Fam.3. rarely sweet. Mulaka.2. Mula Muli Moolangi.2. 2. Mulaka (Rt. usually 25-40 cm in length. slightly or strongly pungent. Rakhyasmula Mula. Moclangi gadde. 2.2. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. 119 . an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.

0. Ud¡varta DOSE . of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. Vrana.Agnim¡ndya. P¡cana. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .09.49 & 0. Gulma.09 (both blue). 0. Tikta Laghu. Netraroga. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.04.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . H¤dya. K¡sa. Svarya. Jvara.T. Pittahara. Kaphahara. of the drug in the juice form 120 .Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. 0.C. Dadru. 0.V. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.Glucoside. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . P¢nasa.69 (all yellow).L.04 & 0.34. Ar¿a. 0.15-30 ml. Rucya. áv¡sa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. T. Galaroga. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.04.09 & 0.LC.

) DC. rectangular cells. a perennial herb. thin-walled cells. dull brown. Apiaceae ). found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . (Fam.2. traversed by phloem rays. thin-walled cells.3 . inner cells thin-walled. odour.1.42000 m. 0. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. taste. aromatic.4 m tall. colour. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated.6 . vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. fibres and parenchyma. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. traversed by xylem rays. tenuifolium Wall. cambium 2-4 layered. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Gandhakuti. S. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige.51.Shows 10 . Root . roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. Mura (Rt. Syn. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. tangentially elongated. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. 6-12 cm long and 0. consisting of tangentially elongated. Daitya. slightly bitter. secondary cortex composed of rounded. secondary phloem shows wide zone.

2. secondary xylem and medullary rays.7. fibres aseptate. somewhat oval cells. Appendix 3.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. secondary phloem. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Brown.1-3 g. secretory canals numerous. 2. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. 122 . Tikta. present in secondary cortex. oil globules and simple starch grains.áv¡sa. short with blunt ends.2. D¡ha.Arvind¡sava.4. Ka¶u.having spiral thickenings. Appendix 17 per cent. xylem parenchyma. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . measuring 7-55 µ in dia. distributed throughout secondary cortex. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. xylem and phloem rays. parenchymatous cells. starch grains simple. Appendix 9 per cent. 2. Sucrose and Mannitol. shows groups of cork cells. Bhrama. 2.2. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. Powder .2.3. Appendix 2.5 per cent. secretory canals. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . 2. secondary phloem. M£rchha. of the drug in powder form.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin).2. CONSTITUENTS . Jvara. composed of radially arranged.6. round to oval. IDENTITY. Appendix 9 per cent.. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents.

b) Microscopic Root . stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. twining shrub. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. odour. phloem fibres absent. Madhusrava. indistinct.52. tangentially elongated. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. Koratige. Halukaratige.5-3 cm thick. & Am. (Fam. Murva (Rt. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. similar to those present in secondary cortex. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Kallu Shambu. some filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. fracture. Jartor Koratige Hambu.) Asclepiadaceae). rectangular cells. bark easily separable from wood.Shows a cork. slightly bitter. taste. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. a large stout. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. resin cells present irregularly in this region. phloem rays 1 123 .

consisting of small tangential. of the drug for decoction. fibres.5-22 µ dia. 5. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. tracheids.2. Tikta Guru.Ar¿a. fibres. T¤Àn¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Ka¸·£. IDENTITY. starch grains simple.. measuring 5. Medoroga. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 7 per cent. Pittahara.tracheids. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. vessels with pitted walls. V¡tahara.7. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. Appendix 5 per cent.2..22 µ in diameter. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening.4.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma.2-6 g. K¤miroga. Raktapitta. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. of the drug in powder form.5 per cent. fibretracheids.2. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . elliptical to spherical with central hilum. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 . H¤droga.6. Meha.Light brown. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder . Jvara. composed of vessels. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 124 . 2.2.2.3 cells wide. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. 2. fragments of cork. DOSE .3. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. Appendix 0. simple and compound starch grains. 10-20 g. Appendix 2. Prameha Mihira Taila. 2. shows a number of stone cells.2. Mukha áosa. Appendix 14 per cent. present in parenchymatous tissues. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. vary in shape and size with borderd pits.

0 cm long. Nagachampakam. consisting of thin-walled. thick-walled.8 . coppery or golden brown. b) Microscopic Androecium . filiform.) evergreen tree. Nagakesar (Stmn. Pilunagkesar. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. fragrant. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. Naugaliral. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. filament 0. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. N¡gapuÀpa. N¡ga. slender. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. anther about 0. an Ke¿ara. containing pollen grains. Nagakesari -Nangaa. Nahar Nageshvara.Brown. often buttressed at the base. odour. Assam. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. distinct protuberances on walls. Nagchampa. Powder .9 cm long. 125 . connective not visible with naked eye. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. soft to touch. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring.5 cm long. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. each stamen 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. exine and intine distinct. Nauga. shows elongated cells of filament. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. Konkan. connective and filament. quite brittle. more or less twisted. Nagppu. (Fam. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. Guttiferae). about 15-18 m high with short trunk. Bengal. Veluthapala. linear. Peri. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall.1. astringent. basifixed.9-1.Anther shows golden-brown. parenchymatous cells. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. Hem¡. taste. yellowish and thin-walled.53. Sachunagkeshara. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances.

Kaphahara.2. Appendix per cent.1-3 g.2. áopharoga.2. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. Appendix per cent.3. V¡tarakta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Raktapitta. 2. of the drug in powder form. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. Var¸ya.2. CONSTITUENTS .IDENTITY.4. 126 . Vastiroga DOSE .Essential oil and Oleo-resin. Appendix 2.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.7.6.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.2. Tikta. 2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. 2. Kum¡ry¡sava.

leaflet 1-2. N¢l¢n¢.3-1. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Nili (Lf.5 cm long and 0. 127 . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip.1. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. (Fam. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. pale green to greenish-black. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring.2. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.8 m high. pith composed of round to oval.2 cm wide. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region.54. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 1. Fabaceae). vascular bundles collateral and three in number. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. no characteristic odour and taste. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.) shrub.

Appendix 7.5 per cent. K¤imiroga..2. 2.2.4. Udararoga. Ke¿ya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. of decoction. CONSTITUENTS .Ëmav¡ta.. cuticle and hair. Appendix 2. Appendix 25 per cent. similar as in petiole and midrib. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. 2. 128 . Appendix 2 per cent.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.3.50-100 g. 2. V¡tahara. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.2.Midrib . Pl¢haroga.2.shows epidermis. IDENTITY. Gulma. V¡tarakta.6. similar as in petiole. K¡sa. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara..7. shows groups of mesophyll cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. vascular bundle single. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. palisade 2-3 layers. Appendix 10 per cent. epidermis. cuticle and hair. pitted vessels.shows dorsiventral structure.Glycoside (Indican). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. collateral and crescent shaped. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .2. Lamina . paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .Greenish-grey.2. aseptate fibres. Ud¡varta. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.

slightly bitter. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Karunili. Neeligida. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. rectangular. woody. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. Nil. 129 . hard.) shrub..5 cm thick. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. Fabaceae).2-1. Neeli Nili. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. consisting of usual elements. Nili Chettu.10 layers of tangentially elongated. Nila Nili.8 m high. with lenticels.1 -1. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. Rangapatr¢. Nili. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. Nili (Rt. Nila -Neel Avuri. 1. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. Olleneeli -Amari. taste. thin-walled cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces.55. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Gari Nili Kadunili. Indian Indigo Gali. odour not distinct. group of fibres. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. cylindrical. secondary cortex a narrow zone. (Fam. 0. thin-walled cells.

2. 0. 0.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.91 (all yellow). 0. 0. 0.47 (blue).21. 0. 2.91 (all grey).. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.58 (blue).33. shows aseptate fibres.80. 0.50.0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. 0.2.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.30 (bluish green). 0.86 (green) and 0. Pl¢h¡roga. Powder . 0. 0. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.75.58. simple and compound starch grains. 0. K¡sa. 0.75 (blue). 0. T. 0. 0.40.2.86.Creamish-brown.6.50. 0.27.63 (bluish green). (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. IDENTITY. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .06.7 per cent.63.14 (blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.L.Gulma. Appendix 4 per cent. Ud¡varta.V. 2. Ëmav¡ta. Appendix 0. 0. DOSE . V¡tarakta.10. ViÀavik¡ra.. 0. 0.91 (blue).10. 0.48 g. 0.C. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.06. 0. 0. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.2. Appendix 3 per cent.Arvind¡sava. Ke¿ya. Appendix 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . phloem. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.0.L. pitted vessels.2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0.2. and 0.14. round to oval. V¡tahara. 0.40. Appendix 6 per cent.75.2. Recan¢. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. K¤imiroga.40 (blue).86 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.14.C. present in cortex.33.58. 0.3.81 (blue). of drug for decoction. 2. 130 . starch grains simple.81. Udararoga.7.27.63.4. xylem parenchyma and rays.

Kohumba Nim. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. serrate. 7-8. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a.0-1. 0. odour. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. leaflets with oblique base. Bakayan. Nimba Nimba.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Limbado. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Nimba (Lf. alternate. taste. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. acute. Veppu. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. slightly yellowish-green. (Fam. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Kahibevu. Nimbam. Nim Vemmu. opposite.5 cm long and 1. indistinct. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Melia azadirachta Linn. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Meliaceae).56. exstipulate. Bakan. Veppan Vemu. Bevu. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Veppa Balantanimba. Limado. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. crystals also present in phloem region. 131 . rachis 15-25 cm long. Juss Syn. Limba. lanceolate.1 cm thick. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Bevinama -Veppu. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Nim. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Oilevevu.Compound. Arulundi. Aryaveppu.7 cm wide.

rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. palisade single layered. Appendix per cent. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction.5 on upper surface. traversed by a number of veins. Ëma¿otha. V¡tal¡.2.1-3 g.3. palisade ratio 3. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. composed of thin walled. shows vessels.2.2. K¤miroga. Prameha.6. Vrana.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.5 on lower surface and 8. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha.2. ViÀarogas DOSE . Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. CONSTITUENTS . 2.Green. 132 .Jvara. IDENTITY.7. Appendix per cent. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .Lamina . fibres.shows dorsiventral structure.0-14. of the drug in powder form. tangentially elongated cells.0-11. epidermis on either surface. thin-walled cells. covered externally with thick cuticle. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. Appendix per cent. stomatal index 13. 2.5. KuÀ¶ha. 2.0-4. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. Netraroga.2. Powder . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2.4. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. 2.Triterpenoids and Sterols.

fissured and rusty-grey. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Oilevevu -Veppu. characteristic. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Nimb Bevu. Meliaceae). Nimba. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 .Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Vembu Vemu. Kahibevu. taste. (Fam. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. Aruveppu Balantanimba. a moderate sized to fairly large. extemal surface rough. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Syn. odour. Limba Nimba Nim. Juss. Nimba (St. fibrous. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. woody.57. Melia azadirachta Linn. considerably thick in older barks. Kadunimb. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Bakam Veppai. Nimba. fracture. evergreen tree.

2. ViÀaghna. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. Appendix 5 per cent. 0.20.2.L. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. having wide lumen and distinct striations. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5 per cent. lignified rectangular to polygonal.2. Powder . Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. 2.outer surface. stone cells mostly in groups.L.90 (green).63 and 0. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.2. simple.2. measuring 2. Pittahara. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. Kaphahara. IDENTITY. round with central hilum. secondary cortex absent in most cases. Appendix 1.6. 2. cork cells. CONSTITUENTS . 0.75-5 µ in diameter.Reddish-brown.3.2.90 (all blue).7. 0.V.86 (blue). shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. T. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. Appendix 7 per cent.4. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna.72 (blue). within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.45. starch grains. 0. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Appendix 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.measuring 2. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.C.C. simple starch grains. Appendix 6 per cent. and 0.

Prameha. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . KuÀ¶ha. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Rakta Pitta. Jvara.. Ka¸·u. Decoction should be used externally.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. 135 . Vra¸a DOSE . Nimb¡di C £r¸a.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.D¡ha.2-4 g. K¤miroga.

Tesu Muttug. Dhak. greyish to pale brown. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. dark brown.15 m high with irregular branches. 0. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. 5-10 or more layered. moderately thick-walled. except in very arid parts. Palasha (St.Bk) Fabaceae).) Kuntze (Fam. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. thin-walled. having brown colour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. fracture. internal surface rough. Camata. often in groups. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. Plas. exposing light brown surface. cork cells. Muttala -Plasu. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha.58. Khakharo. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Tesu Purasu. Paras Moduga. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. slightly astringent. 12 .5 . Chettu Dhak. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. dark-brown. Modugu. Khakhapado Dhak.2 cm thick usually peels off. taste. tanniniferous cells. rectangular 136 .1 cm thick. pale brown. rectangular. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. Muttuga. Palash. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. curved. rhytidoma 0.

0. Appendix 2.50 cells in height.C.67 (all yellow).2.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.13. measuring 2. Appendix 12 per cent.V.3..48 and 0. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.12 cells wide. phloem parenchyma. 0. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. T. 2.C. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . 0.48. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. 7 .48 and 0.2. Powder . phloem fibres. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.4. thin-walled cork cells. dark brown coloured cells.2. companion cells. Appendix 1. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .5 per cent.65 (all blue).7. 0. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma.L. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.75 µ in dia. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. 0.10.67 (all violet). in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.4 layers of sclereids. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. Appendix 14 per cent.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. CONSTITUENTS .. traversed by phloem rays.2. 137 . Appendix 10 per cent.2.6. 2. 2.10. crystal fibres. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly.18.75 . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. 0.3 components. 2. straight.Reddish-brown.10. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.cells followed by a zone of 2 . sclereids mostly in groups. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.2.L. 0.

KaÀ¡ya Sara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta.Ar¿a. Vra¸a. Agnid¢paka. K¤miroga. 138 . S¡raka . Gulma. DOSE .Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form for decoction.5-10 g. Graha¸¢. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila.

inner bark fibrous. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. (Fam.5-2. Pangara Hongar. Paribhadra (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka.59. yellowish to cream coloured. medium sized. stone 139 . b) Microscopic Stem Bark . also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. tangentially elongated to squarish. exfoliating in narrow strips.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. parenchymatous cells. smooth. radially arranged and thin-walled.Bk) Fabaceae). distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. quick growing tree. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones.0 cm thick. Mulmurumgai Badisa. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. secondary cortex consists of large.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

of drug in powder form. Balak¤t. V¤Àya. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.CONSTITUENTS .V¡tarakta. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Volatile Oil. V¡taroga DOSE .Alkaloids... Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 148 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru.2-4 g.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.

Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. Piyar. followed by remnants of disorganised. b) Microscopic Seed .63. taste. large. Priyalam. thick-walled. funicle stout. (Farn. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. micropyle superior. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. B.3-0. Priyala (Sd. odour. Saraparuppu Sara. Syn. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima.4-0. Shalichokha Piyal. collapsed cells of integument. 0.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. occurring mostly in groups. Chowl. 0. pitted.6 cm long. linear. Korka. pleasant. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. creamish-brown. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed.) Anacardiaceae). cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. sweetish-oily. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. Satdhan -Charal. mottled with darker brown lines. sclerenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. which are of various size. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. hilum present at the apex of round edge. latifolia Roxb.5 cm wide.

54. KÀaya. Priy¡la Taila.94 and 0.2. and oil globules.type. 0.C. áukrakara. 0. 2.54. Appendix 7 per cent.98 (all yellow).72 and 0.D¡ha. 0.98 (all violet).L.91. 2.94 and 0.2.72. Appendix 0. shows numerous mesophyll cells.C. 150 . Sara. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5-5. V¤Àya. 0. Balya.P£gakha¸·a.A creamish-brown paste. KÀata. 0.27. DOSE .2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.0 µ in dia.5-5.4. 2.27. Bhagnas¡dhaka.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara.20 g. Appendix 2. procambium bundles. V¡tahara.08. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. H¤dya.2. and sclerenchymatous cells. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells.3.84. Kaphakara.5 per cent. Oil and Starch. Raktapitta. THERAPEUTIC USES .94 (blue).6. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. 2. 0.08. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. 0. Pittahara. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. of the drug in powder form.V.91. BrÆha¸a.0 µ in dia. 0.L.measuring 2.10 . filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. Powder .Albuminoids. 0. 0.72. IDENTITY. 0. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf.7. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent.2. T.

Cymose. tubular. bell-shaped. basifixed. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres.4 m high shrub. parenchymatous cells. ovary 2-4 celled.0. brown. densely clothed with wooly hairs. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. hairy. densely hairy. stamens 4. b) Microscopic Peduncle . peduncle cylindrical. (Fam.2. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. and abundant in Bengal plains. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .5 cm long. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. 1. Priyangu (Infl. Flower . stigma minutely capitate. thin-walled. anther ovate. calyx.) Verbenaceae). brown.5 cm across. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. an erect. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal.2. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. epipetalous. equal in size. 1. corolla. long. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. 4 lobbed spreading. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . filament very long. style.5-7.64.5 .Shows more or less wavy outline.3 mm in dia.

2. elliptical. Terpenes. Jvara. aseptate fibres.1-3 g. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.7.2. 152 . CONSTITUENTS . groups of thin-walled. Kanaka Taila. M£travirajan¢ya. Appendix per cent. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. DOSE . Resin and Saponin.2. Rakta-Pitta.2. xylem consists of usual elements. 2.3. Rakta. IDENTITY. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour.fibres. fibres aseptate. Appendix per cent. spiral vessels. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. Appendix per cent.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . El¡di C£r¸a. Pakv¡tis¡ra.2. Ku´kum¡di Taila. Powder . V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form.D¡ha.2. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs.Brown. 2. Phenolic compound. 2. Sandh¡n¢ya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vra¸aropa¸a. (Mukharoga). Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Pras¡dana.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡.6.Glycosides. Daurgandhyahara.4. Appendix per cent. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. Sved¡dhikya. N¢lik¡dya Taila.

Nellu. sclerenchymatous cells. Odalu. Dhana. Vr¢hi. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Dhan Rice. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. both consisting of round to oval.) cultivated throughout India. 5-15 cm in length and 0. (Fam. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Coke Chaval. smooth. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Corava. Akki -Ari. Bhatta. cortex differentiated into three zones. Sali.05-0. pitted vessels and 153 . Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Dhana Bhatto. Cala. b) Microscopic Root . Bhata. Biyyamu Chaval. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. an annual herb. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Nivara -Chaval. sclerenchymatous cells. Shali (Rt. thin.Greyish-cream. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Nelver Dhanyamu. soft.65. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Nellu Tandulamul. composed of thick-walled. Paddy Shalichokha. thick-walled.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. Powder .1 cm thick with a few rootlets. cylindrical. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Poaceae). Jhona Arishi. exodermis 1-2 layered. Dhanarmul. Damgara. Dh¡nya. Chawl.

2.2.2. BrÆha¸a. Appendix per cent. Laghu. Var¸ak¤t.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. H¤dya.2. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara. Rucya. Svarya. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittahara.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. of the drug for decoction.4. Appendix per cent. CakÀuÀya.50 g. Balya. Kaphahara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. M£trala. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.7. 2. IDENTITY. Appendix 2.StanyakÀaya. 2. KaÀ¡ya Guru.2.3. 154 . Baddh¡lpavarcasa. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

4 cm thick. acute. linear-lanceolate. 0. sepals narrowly. ovary superior and bicarpellary. 1-5 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Leaf .1-0. hairy. free. stamen 5. about 0. Shankhapushpi. Shankhavela. sub-erect. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. 0.5 cm broad. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡.White or pinkish.1-0. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.) Convolvulaceae).Usually branched.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. Kakkanangudi. sparsely hairy. Sankha pushpin (W. cylindrical.5-2 cm long and 0. found throughout the country. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. inserted deep in the corolla tube.Shortly petiolate. Sankhapuspi. Sankhahuli Kakattam. hairy on both surfaces. spreading. perennial herb with a woody root stock. light green.66. alternate with the petals. light green. 155 . áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. linear-lanceolate. corolla shortly discoid. Karakhuratt. epipetalous.Slender.P. cylindrical. yellowish-brown to light brown. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. Flower . a prostrate. Stem .

mm. covered with thick cuticle. present on both surfaces. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. Seed . at places unicellular hairs present.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. mm. fibres and tracheids. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.Capsule. fibres and parenchyma. both having round to oval. thick-walled cells. xylem consisting of usual elements.8 µ in dia. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. Powder . fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. .Shows single layered epidermis. xylem rays and parenchyma.walled cells. 13. pale brown pericarp. endoderrnis single layered. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. measuring 3 .Light yellowish-green. simple and compound starch grains. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. present in cortex. palisade two layered. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. minutely puberulous. unicellular hairs. starch grains solitary or in groups. secretory cells present in this region. Lamina . lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.Brown. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. elongated. covered with thick cuticle. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. tanniniferous.Appears nearly circular in outline. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. oblong globose with coriaceous. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. round to oval in shape. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits.0. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. phloem. palisade ratio 6-9. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. hairs unicellular. 156 . LeafMidrib . phloem composed of sieve elements. cortex differentiated in two zones.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. thin. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin.. phloem a narrow zone. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. xylem consists of vessels.8-17. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Stem .Fruit . b) Microscopic Root . simple and composed of 2-3 components. elliptical. vein islet number 21-25 per sq.. vascular bundle bicollateral. epidermis single layered.

ËyuÀya.2.3-8 g.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pittahara. Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent. Br¡hma. Tikta. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix per cent. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Agastyahar¢tak¢.6. 2.4. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Kaphahara. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . 2.2. Ras¡yana.7. Clitoria ternatea Linn.IDENTITY.2.2.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Appendix per cent.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Medhya. 2. Appendix 2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.2. 2.M¡nasaroga.

lanceolate or linear oblong. odour and taste not distinct. 158 . found throughout India in the plains and low hills. Chagulputputi Satala. 1 mm long. 0. filament pubescent. short. fracture. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. 4-5 cm long.P. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. Flower . odour and taste indistinct. Bilikalli. linear. (Fam. subacute.2-0. glabrous outside and pubescent inside.) Euphorbiaceae).celled with or without attached pedicel. sessile. Leaf . Siju. trilocular. style. shortly 2-fid at the apex. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . gland semilunate.Small. annual herb. Saptala Kangi Tillakada.1. 3.67. smooth.Involucre broadly campanulate. ribbed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. 3-4 mm in dia.Capsule. ciliolate. having a few secondary roots. Fruit . Joyachi. sub-sessile. lobes short. pale brown. 20-40 cm high. a much branched. solitary.8 cm wide. Saptala (W.7-7 cm long. horned. Carmas¡hv¡. 2. gradually tapering. cylindrical.5 mm across at the mouth. ovate.5-2 mm thick. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. greenish-yellow. free to the base.

Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. tangentially elongated elliptical. fibres elongated and aseptate. with wide lumen present in this region. parenchymatous cells. some rounded. secondary xylem composed of vessels. fibres. simple. stone cells oval to elongated. rarely a few oil globules also present. covered externally with thick. tracheids and medullary rays. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. thickwalled and lignified. parenchymatous cells. starch grains simple. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. elliptical. traversed by numerous xylem rays. single layered epidermis.Seed . circular to oval. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. elliptical. parenchymatous cells. 159 . thick-walled lignified.75 µ in dia. Stem . endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. 2. all elements thick-walled and lignified. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. secondary xylem consists of vessels. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. fibres and vessels having simple pits.25 µ in diameter.Young root shows exfoliated. palisade single layered present on both sides. solitary or in groups. rectangular. epidermis single layered. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. flattended. Leaf- Midrib . ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. tangentially elongated cells. grooved at one side. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. mature root shows thin walled cork. rounded to oval.shows slightly convex outline. found scattered in phloem region. consisting of thick-walled. secondary cortex consists of 4. rounded to oval.5-19. filled with yellowish-brown content. composed of sieve elements.3 mm long. rounded at the base.6 layers of oval. leprous tuberculate testa. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. b) Microscopic Root . groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. endodermis not distinct. centre occupied by a pith. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. measuring 5. all elements. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. striated cuticle. vessels having simple pits. fibres and tracheids. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. secondary phloem narrow. lignified cells with wide lumen.

2. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .50 g. Appendix per cent.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).57 (all yellow).C. Appendix per cent. of the drug for decoction. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.04 and 0. simple. Udararoga.L.0. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. elliptical.Light yellow.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. lignified with wide lumen. Appendix 2.Ën¡ha. Vibandha. Pittahara. aseptate fibres.C. V¡tal¡. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.46. Ud¡vartta. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. Mi¿raka Sneha. shows vessels with simple pits. CONSTITUENTS . RukÀa. Visarpa.V. and 0. RaktadoÀahara. 2.87 (violet).04.4.46 (brown) and 0.6. Appendix per cent.2. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. 160 . Gulma.67.L.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. rounded to oval starch grains. IDENTITY.Powder . Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.3. stone cells thick-walled. 2.2. 2. T.7. oval to elongated. 2.2.

endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. akin to caraway. (Fam. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. sowa Roxb. filiform and incospicuous. glabrous. graveolens DC. 4 mm long.. Apiaceae). Satahva (Fr. slightly raised. mericarps usually separate and free. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. parenchymatous. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. often stalk attached. var.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. dark brown. mesocarp. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. Syn. odour.68. A. Shulupa. vittae.. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. ex Flem.. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. brown. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. Sulpha. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. and a warm. graveolens Benth. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. P. slightly sharp taste. a tall. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. yellowish membranous wings. graveolens Linn. Shepa. A. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. glabrous. dorsal 161 . b) Microscopic Fruit .

parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.costae three. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. Appendix 1.68 (violet).2. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.2. IDENTITY.6. V¡tahara. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.59 and 0.4. Appendix 14 per cent.Brown. 2.2.7. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. 2. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 15 per cent. shows spiral vessels. of the drug in powder form. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent.10 T. 162 . Jvara.2. Appendix 2. cellulosic.5 per cent.3.2. Vra¸a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Kaphahara.37 (pink) 0. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. carpophore split. Appendix 3 per cent.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.Essential Oil. 0.C. 2.L. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. Netra Roga DOSE . endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. CONSTITUENTS .2.2. Atis¡ra. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.68 (all yellow).á£la. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 4 per cent.59 (blue) and 0. Powder . 2.3-6 g.C. 2.L. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. each costae with vascular strands. 0.

entire. slender. palisade single layered. Leaflet . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Munga. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Mocaka -Sajina. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. Mungna Neegge. leaflet 1. parenchymatous cells. Shewgachi pane Sajana. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Sajna. Bahala. odour and taste not distinct. Sekato. Muringa. ovate or obovate. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo.2-2 cm long and 0. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Tishnagandha. Saragavo Parna Shajoma.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure.5-1 cm wide. Segata. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. AkÀ¢va. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Moringaceae). oval to elliptical. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered.69. thin walled. parenchymatous cells. Shigru (Lf. Muringa Elai Sevaga.) Gaertn. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. vascular bundle collateral. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. central region 163 b) Microscopic . a small or medium sized tree. pith and phloem parenchyma. pericycle forming a broken ring. Segata pana. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. (Fam. Syn. and articulated at the base. commonly cultivated throughout the country. elliptic. Rachis . spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. Nugge ele -Murinna. thickened.

collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. V¡tahara.18.46 (both blue). palisade ratio 6-11.Carbohydrate. 2. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. 2. 0. spiral vessels.46 (dark green) & 0. Appendix per cent. 0.2.59 (blue). rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.82 (yellow) and 0.V. 0.0. IDENTITY. 0. 0.69 (blue) and 0. 0. Powder -Greyish-green.30 (pink). Under U. 0. 2. 0. (all green).94 (yellow) in visible light. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.36. 0.2. Appendix 2.26. K¤mihara. 0. palisade cells.87 (blue). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. T.46 (green).05.18. Medohara. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.L.26 (all green). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.94 (blue). Sirovirecaka 164 . 0. vein islets number 50-65.6.4. áukra N¡¿aka.C.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. Protein.36 (green).2. B ¤Æhana. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. 0.20. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.05.52 (green).26. Appendix per cent. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.C. Appendix per cent.7.2. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. Appendix per cent. Pittahara.38.2. RukÀa.05.46 (all red) & 0.36 (yellowish green).94 (violet).69 (yellow).53 (yellow). unicellular hairs with blunt tip. 0. 0. 0.3. 0. 0. 0. stomata anornocytic.2. 0. 0. 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.occupied by a crescent-shaped.

10 .20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. DOSE .Ratnagiri Rasa. Medoroga. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .áopha. Gulma. 165 . K¤miroga. ViÀatinduka Taila. Galaga¸·a. Pl¢haroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vidradhi.

70. parenchymatous cells. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. sclerenchymatous.3 cm wide. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. 0.) Zingiberaceae). (Fam. Sthulaela (Sd. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. brown to dark brown. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. membraneous aril. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. odour. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock.4 cm long. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. perispenn encloses the 166 . Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. taste. thin-walled. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. spicy pungent. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. thin walled. Beraelam.. perisperm consists of polygonal. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. aromatic. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb.

rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. simple.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Note . Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form. both composed of polygonal. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. Mukharoga. DOSE .Light brown. Tikta Laghu. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 5 per cent. H¤ll¡sa. Mukha¿odhaka. Powder . K¡sa.2.2. (Seed).(Seed). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 -1 g.áv¡sa. 167 .endosperm and embryo. thin-walled.10 CONSTITUENTS . oil globules. rounded to oval. V¡tahara.5 per cent. 2. parenchymatous cells. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. T¤À¸¡.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole).Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.6. 2. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. polygonal.2. Appendix 2.2. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Chardi. rich in protein. shows fragments of testa.4. Ka¸·u.2.S¡rivady¡sava. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. 2.0. Appendix 14 per cent.7. 2. Rocaka. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. perisperm cells.2.3. Appendix 4 per cent. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. Appendix 1. thin-walled. 2. RukÀa.

thick-walled cells. phloem fibres thickwalled. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. (Fam. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. lignified. internal surface smooth. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. Z. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. Tumburudra. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. thin-walled.0. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. brownish. armed with long. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. parenchymatous cells. Tejovati (St. Jimmi. taste.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. Tumbura. stem and branches. stone cells found in 168 . aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. rather deeply furrowed. Thumbooni. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. odour.Bk. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels.1-0. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC.71. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. Syn. aromatic. aromatic pungent. Rutaceae).2 cm thick. external surface pale brown. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high.) Roxb. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . short. light yellow to pale brown. sharp prickles. fracture.

Appendix 2. starch grains round and oval. IDENTITY.3.5 per cent. Kaphahara.6. 169 .2. 2. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.7. K¡sa. measuring 2.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. Appendix 13 per cent.10-20 g.75 . Hikk¡. áv¡sa. 2. DOSE .5 per cent. 2.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 12 per cent. Appendix 1. THERAPEUTIC USES .tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. oil globules and starch grains. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.13. Medhya. a Volatile Oil and Resin. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ëmav¡ta.2. 2.2. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem.4.75 .13. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. shows fragments of cork cells. Appendix 8.Aruci. Rucya.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. P¡cana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Mukharoga.2. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.75 µ in diameter. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high.75 µ in diameter. aseptate fibres. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug for decoction. stone cells. Powder . round and oval measuring 2.Yellowish-brown.

5-5 cm long 1.2 cm wide. pedicels longer than calyx. small in close whorls. externally purplish-brown to black. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. Flower . Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. pubescent on both sides. shortly apiculate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . violet internally.72.Purplish or crimson coloured.3.2. herbaceous. petiole thin. annual herb. fracture. odour faintly aromatic.Thin. lower lip 170 . pubescent. Thulasi. branched. Lamiaceae). K¤À¸atulas¢. wiry.P.Erect. elliptic oblong. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. internally cream. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. coloured. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. blackish-brown externally and pale. much branched.5-3 cm long hairy. Tulasi (W. Stem . Shree Tulasi. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. branched. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. obtuse or acute. (Fam. woody. sub quadrangular. 30 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. entire or serrate. hairy. aromatic. taste.) an erect. odour. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. hairy. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. slender. about 1. soft. found throughout the country.6 . characteristic. Leaf . Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi.60 cm high.

shows somewhat cordate outline. pitted with pointed ends. tracheids. each with one seed. measuring 22-27 in dia. three vascular bundles situated centrally. taste. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. pungent. corolla about 4 mm long.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. occasionally a few cells collapsed. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. odour. round to oval polygonal. filled with brown content. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. vessels pitted.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. found scattered in phloem. in groups and rarely in singles.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. thin-walled. slightly notched at the base.1 cm long. pubescent. long. Fruit . fibre tracheides. parenchymatous cells. pungent. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. 171 . fibres and parenchyma. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. phloem consisting of sieve elements. pungent. parenchymatous cells. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. phloem consists of sieve elements. no odour. vessels pitted. fibres with pointed ends. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. rectangular.A group of 4 nutlets. parenchymatous cells. taste. Seed . thin-walled. elongated. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. brown. mucilaginous when soaked in water. taste. membranous. b) Microscopic Root . lateral two short and central two largest. Midrib . Leaf- Petiole . odour. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. xylem surrounded by phloem. 0. nearly smooth. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. aromatic. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. slightly mucilaginous.epidermis. glandular trichomes short. middle one larger than other two. thin-walled. thin-walled. Stem .Rounded to oval. aromatic. xylem consists of vessels. veined calyx. enclosed in an enlarged. slightly compressed.

35. parenchymatous cells.5 per cent.minutes Under observation. rounded to oval. oil globules.2.2. Durgandhihara 172 . caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. Appendix 1. in thoroughly vanillin .6. T. Appendix 2. Rucya.2.L. thin walled fibres.Essential Oil.2.7. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.2. IDENTITY. 2. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. V¡tahara. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.15 .7.C. Rf. Tikta.L. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.3. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). slightly raised above the level of epidermis. vein islet number 31 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C.1. Appendix 8 per cent. Record Rf. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .2. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. 2. value 0. On cooling spray.8. a few containing reddish brown contents.Greenish: shows thin-walled. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.Lamina . both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.4. Kaphahara. Pittavardhin¢. CONSTITUENTS . simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. Powder . Appendix 4 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. H¤dya. palisade ratio 3.16 on lower surface. Appendix 10 per cent. RukÀa.

Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . Chardi. Netraroga. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). K¡sa. KuÀ¶ha. Hikk¡.A¿mar¢.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . áv¡sa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. K¤miroga. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. 173 .

taste. found throughout the country. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. 174 b) Microscopic . middle one larger than the other two. LeafPetiole . upper epidermis. much branched annual herb. Lamiaceae). consisting of xylem and phloem. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. aromatic. balloon-shaped head. odour. K¤À¸atulas¢. obtuse or acute. (Fam. an erect. Tulasi (Lf. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. glandular trichomes short. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. hairy.5-3 cm long. three vascular bundles situated centrally. covering trichomes multicellular. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. measuring 22-27 µ dia. entire or serrate. petiolate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. pubescent on both surfaces. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. thin.5-5 cm long..) 30-60 cm high. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil.shows cordate outline. and 2-8 celled. elliptic-oblong. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. rarely slightly reflexed at tip.2 cm wide. characteristic. Holy Basil Tulasi. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan.6-3. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. 1. petiole 1.73.

12. Under U. Appendix per cent. 0.88 and 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.54 (blue).83. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 2.85 (blue).93 (all0 yellow). stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.3. shows fragments of polygonal. 0.).75.6. Caryophyllene. 0.75 (violet).93 (both light green).2.08 (both green).98 (blue).V. 0. 0. 0.98 (blue).C.45.12 (light green). 0.33 (both green) 0. IDENTITY. vein islet number 31-33. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.12 (light violet). CONSTITUENTS . 0.21. 0.04. Appendix per cent. 0.08. 0.21.93 (violet) and 0.93 (pink) & 0.45. 175 . 0.21 (brown). 0.Essential Oil (Carvacrol..L. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.2. 0. Appendix 2. Nerol and Camphene etc.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. Appendix per cent.33. 0.54.03 (dark green).04. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.04.C.2. 0.L. 0.Light-green. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. Appendix per cent. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.85 & 0.epidermis.83 (all pink) 0. 0. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.30. 0. 0. 2.8. 2.83 (blue).2.2. 0.4. 0. 0.08 (violet). T. anomocytic and diacytic stomata. palisade and spongy parenchyma.45 (yellowish green). less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.7. palisade ratio 3. 2.33. Lamina .2.Midrib .45 (violet). 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. Powder .33 (violet). 0.

Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. RukÀa. of the drug in powder form. K¤miroga. Pittahara.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Prati¿y¡ya. Hikk¡. Tikta. H¤dya. K¡sa. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Aruci. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. KuÀ¶ha. áv¡sa. 176 . Kaphahara.2-3 g.

Rhizome . Gora-bach Baje. smaller. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. Ghodavaca Vasambu.Shows single layered epidermis. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. upper side marked with alternately arranged. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long.5-1. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. triangular. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. Vacha (Rz.5 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. pungent and bitter. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. Araceae). âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. Ghodvach Bach. aromatic. and 0. large.) semiaquatic herb.74. taste. odour. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. buff coloured intemally. (Fam. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. Vekhandas -Varch. thin-walled cells of various sizes. cells towards periphery. Ugr¡. short. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . broadly. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. enclosing large air spaces. fracture. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. somewhat collenchymatous. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes.

Appendix 2.6. Appendix per cent. 178 .Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. 2.2. Petroleum ether-No change ii.7. 2. 0. present in cortex and ground tissue. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS .L. shows fibres. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). measuring 3-6 µ in dia.2. 2. endodermis distinct. spherical. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. reticulate. stele composed of round.C.2.10 T.C. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. 2. Extracts in i. Chloroform-Light green iii. Appendix per cent.region. Powder . Powder as such: . Starch and Tannin. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.2.Yellowish-cream b.2. Methanol-Yellowish green iv.L. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.14 (violet) and 0. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. Appendix per cent.3. Benzene-No change IDENTITY.2..73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. 2. Eugenol and Asarone).2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.Buff coloured. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. starch grains simple. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains.4.

áv¡sa. V¡tahara. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Kar¸a Sr¡va. Apasm¡ra. Vibandha. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Ka¸¶hya. K¤mihara.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. S¡rasvata.á£la. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. DOSE . Sm¤ti daurbalya. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. THERAPEUTIC USES . Medhya. Unm¡da. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. 179 . 1.2 g. Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Khadir¡di Va¶¢.Vac¡di Taila. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Tikta Laghu. Ëdhm¡na. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . C£r¸a. K¡sa.

cartilaginous. without or with a few intercellular spaces. papillose on outside. Sth¡varaviÀa. small portions of stem sometimes attached. Mithalelia. parenchymatous cells. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Mahura. Vatsanabhi. rough due to root scars. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m.) (Fam. roots are generally collected late in September. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. perennial herb. Naabhi Bachnak. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Nabhi. 0. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. rarely 5 cm long. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Vatsanabha (Rt. Bachhnaag. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 .8 cm thick. Beesh. 2-4.75. Mithatelia Vasanaavi.1. Meethabisha. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Teliya Bish Basanalli.4 . fracture. tapering downwards to a point. odour indistinct. thin-walled. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. ovoid. dark brown to blackish-brown. Vatsanabha.5 cm. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Basanaag Bisa. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. Ranunculaceae). ViÀa Vajran¡ga. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. occasionally separated due to breakage. poisonous. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. suberised. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. conical. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Vatsanabhi. plant is an erect. taste.

Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. Appendix 2.2. CONSTITUENTS .74 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. RukÀa.4. IDENTITY. metaxylem vessels met in centre. xylem exarch. Anandabhairava Rasa. containing a few groups of phloem strands. Appendix 8 per cent.2. Sv®dala.2.endodermis.20. Appendix 24 per cent. 2. Viyav¡yi. Laghu. 0. S £tasekhara Rasa. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring.Light grey. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. ÙikÀ¸a. 2. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa.L. Powder . 0. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. 0.7.C.2.10.3.5 per cent. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. 2. Appendix 2 per cent.2.39 and 0. 2.6.96 (both orange). phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. 0. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. occupying more than half the radius. 0. consisting of round to oval cells. inner bark parenchymatous. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. shows vessels. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.39. T. some scattered. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. present in cortical cells. often forming 'V' shaped ring.C. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Trid°Àahara. UÀ¸a.L. a few aseptate fibres. Appendix 5. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions.2.56. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . 0. cambium having 6 10 angles. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

DOSE . V¡takaphajvara. Sannip¡ta. Kanharoga. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.THERAPEUTIC USES .30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Jvar¡tis¡ra.15 .V¡taroga. 182 .

smooth except for protuberances at some places. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. Gumadi belli. Nelagumbula. cut surface creamish-brown. Nelagumbala. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Eagio. (Fam. Fabaceae). -Mudakku Bhuikohala. outer surface reddish-brown. Bhumikusmanda. thin-walled cells. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . but pliable. thinwalled. taste.76.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. usually does not break. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. Bhoikolu. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Vid¡rik¡.Rt. Vidari (Tub. sweetish. Bhonykoru. starchy and somewhat porous. Bhuikumra Vidari. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. stone cells moderately thick-walled.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular.

DOSE . Appendix 4. Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. Powder . Var¸ya. lignified with narrow lumen. Angmarda.7.2. Stanyada.2. Ras¡yana. measuring 5.4.Gluconic and Malic acids. Raktapitta. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. 2. distributed throughout this region. 184 .5 .75 µ in dia.6. Appendix 2.5 . Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.13.13. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .and pits. Daurbalya.. 2. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. having central hilum and striations.D¡ha.2. Svarya. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. of the drug in powder form.3. somewhat round.Marma Gu¶ik¡.Buff coloured. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells.75 µ in dia. and also rarely in stone cells. Appendix 24 per cent.2. V¡tahara.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . a few latex duct also present. IDENTITY. Appendix 17 per cent. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. M£trala. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.3-6 g. Pittahara. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. J¢van¢ya. highly thickened. angular to oval. áoÀa. 2. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. present in all parenchymatous cells. 2.2. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. phloem fibres much elongated. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. fragments of cork.5 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. radially elongated cells. CONSTITUENTS . Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta.

H. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . square or quadrilateral. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. round to oval wavy walled cells. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. Jav Barley Cheno. thick-walled.3 cm wide. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. pale-greenish-yellow. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. smooth. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. seed coat appears as a colourless line. odour.77. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. 50-100 cm high. about 1 cm long and 0. erect herb. Yava (Fr. (Fam. polygortal inner epidermal cells. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. followed by more or less.) Poaceae). an annual. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. oblong. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. taste. sclerenchymatous fibres. cultivated chiefly in North India. sativum Pers. not distinct. spongy parenchymatous cells. followed by 2-3 layers. sweetish-acrid. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. elliptic. Syn.2-0.

0.16. 0.5 per cent.68.22. Var¸ya 186 . 2.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.10.72 (all pink.44. Medahara. 0. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. endosperm divided into two zones. Appendix 2. Orientoside. Pittahara.45.83 and 0.68.4.C. 0. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.56. Appendix 5.92 (yellow).31. Appendix 4 per cent. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz.narrow lumens. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. Svarya. Kaphahara.92 (all grey). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. starch grains simple. sclerenchymatous fibres.2.5 per cent. 2. 2.V. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Appendix 1. Lekhana. and the rest starch layers.22. 0. Vitexin etc. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. round to oval. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Powder .2. Fats.2.06.5 2. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. 0. 0. 0.31.Creamish-white. Globulin. 0.C.53. 0. 0.65 & 0. 0.L.) CONSTITUENTS .2.2.Starch. IDENTITY.83 (all violet) and 0.24.7 T. V¡tak¤t. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. 0. 0. Orientin.36. V¤Àya. Sugars. 0. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.6.14. M£trahara.10.31.5 per cent.3. Appendix 4 per cent.2. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. 0. Sthairyakara. 0. 2. Proteins (Albumin.2. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. simple starch grains. Pur¢Àak ¤t. Appendix 2.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Medoroga. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. P¢nasa. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Prameha. THERAPEUTIC USES .100 . of the drug. El¡dya Modaka. Tvagroga DOSE .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Gandharvahasta Taila. Kanharoga. K¡sa.áv¡sa. Urustambha. Dh¡nvantara Taila. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.200 g. T¤À¸¡. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. 187 .

5-0.7 cm broad. glabrous. Desv.Simple. 0. stipules green. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. terete. nearly 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated.2-1 cm thick. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. Javasa. extipulate. slightly rough at basal region with slender. 20-30 cm long and 0. secondary cortex almost 188 . branched. Stem . Punjab. filled with reddish-brown contents. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . gradually tapering. (Fam. hard. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. glabrous. short. 0. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat.5-1 cm long.P. oblong. alternate. drooping. fracture. Duralabha -Venkatithura. no taste and odour. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Leaf . secondary and tertiary root absent. striate.Well developed. sharp axillary spines upto 3. ballidurabi. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. mucronate obtuse. dark brown. Neladangara.8 cm long. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri.Cylindrical.) Fabaceae).78. elliptical. Y¡sa. radially arranged cork cells. cork cambium single layered. opposite. a small thorny shrub. Yavasaka (W.1-1 cm thick.

cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. parenchyma and fibres. filled with tannin. thin-walled. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. present throughout the region. vascular bundle collateral. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. starch grains simple.Greenish-brown. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. 5. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. a few with thick wall and simple pits. Leaf- Petiole . 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. parenchymatous cells. xylem situated above phlome. filled with tannin. phloem composed of sieve elements. tanniniferous cells. fibres. tracheids. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll.appears biconvex in outline. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded.5-14.absent. tangentially elongated cells. angular. hypodermis 2-3 layered. Lamina . rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. covered with cuticle.5. hypodermis 1-2 layered. Stem . fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. elongated.75 µ in dia. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. pitted vessels. tracheids. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. some cells filled with tannin.75 µ in diameter.appears circular in outline. Powder . pericycle present in form of fibre groups. tracheids and fibres. rounded to oval. thin-walled. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. Midrib . xylem fibres. xylem consists of vessels.14. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. xylem consists of vessels.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. 3-45 cells long. pith composed of a few thin-walled. 189 . covered externally with thick cuticle. phloem composed of sieve elements. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. simple. epidermis single layered. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled.

T¤À¸¡.5 per cent. Appendix 2.2. D¢pana. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Visarpa DOSE .2. K¡sa. Appendix 2 per cent. Invert Sugars).2. CONSTITUENTS . Tikta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Sucrose.2.IDENTITY. Raktapitta. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Kaphahara. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. V¡tarakta. Arimed¡di Taila.2. 2. Jvara.5 per cent.4. 2.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.50 g.20 . 2. 190 .7. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 13.6. 2.2.Chardi. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. THERAPEUTIC USES .Sugars (Melizitose.3.

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