THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1.4.2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .2.5.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.1.1. 1.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1.2.) Desv 177 1.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.3.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.Types of Stomata 2.2.2.2-Sieves 1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.1.2.1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.1 Testing Drugs 2.2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1.1.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.1.1.2.2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.2.2-Thermometers 1.2.2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.1.2.1.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.

3.3.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3.1.3.3.Weights and Measures 5.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.3.1-Powder Fineness 2.2.3.2.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.3.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.2-Refractive Index 2.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.1.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3 Limit Tests 2.

Part-I.P. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. II would be official.I. Part-I. II. II. In general. the Dangerous Drugs Act. would be deemed to have been amended vii . Part-I. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. accordingly. Vol. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments.). 1930 and the Poisons Act. Vol. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. Vol. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act.

Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order.GENERAL NOTICES Title . The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. viii . distribution and method of collection. Introductory Para . scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Italics . Purity and Strength .Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. When the term “drop” is used. Odour and Taste . indicated in monograph.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. English. Synonyms . Weights and Measures . Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Hindi. Mesh Number . as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. If the odour persists to be discernible. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). substances or processes described in Appendix.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs .The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Identity. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. if any. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. it is described as having odour.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC.

micro-organisms. the expression per cent (%).Under this head.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. which he uses.For statutory purpose. water.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1.L.g. sliminess. and show no abnormal odour. wherever given. Standards . with one of the four meanings given below. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. pesticides. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. statements appearing in the API. Part-I. if of equivalent accuracy. pests. in 100 grammes of product.C. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. V. and Identity. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. ether-soluble extractive. according to circumstances.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. Vol.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated.) . Purity and Strength. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. The quantitative tests e. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. Constituents . Constant Weight . moisture content. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. under Description. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. However. water-soluble ash. even by applying known reference standards. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. shall constitute standards. mould or other evidence of deterioration. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. and other animal matter including animal excreta. However. those of definition of the part and source plants. colour. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. alcohol-soluble extractive.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. fungi. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects.soluble extractive. is used.In defining standards. total ash. ix . arsenic and heavy metals. Percentage of Solutions . the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. acid-insoluble ash. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations.

Statements of solubilities. Reagents and Solutions .When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. fibres. Percentage of alcohol . Solubility .Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Temperature . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. Solutions .56 oC. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.000 parts More than 10.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices.000 parts x . thermometric scale. such as fragment of filter papers. and dust particles. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. at a stated temperature.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. all solutions are prepared with purified water. are intended to apply at that temperature.

Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. IN. Fam. cm.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.I. µ. 0.P.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. l.5 N. mg. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. ml. Kg. g. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. mm. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. 0. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. PS. unless otherwise stated. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. 1M. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. TS.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. Part –I and Part-II. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes.1 N.

Assam. xii . Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Punj. Bk. Wh. Tam. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Rt. Eng. Kan. Lf. Tub. Kash. Ht. Wd. Mar. St. Beng. Sd. Ori. St. Guj. Rt. Bk. Tel. Rz. Mal. Wd. Fr. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Pl.Sansk.

shrivelled. an annual. taste. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. Akarakarabha (Rt. Akalakarabha. thin-walled. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. Akravu Akkalakara. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. elongated. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara.37-28. vessels pitted. xylem fibres thick-walled. b) Microscopic Root . tracheids and xylem parenchyma. brown. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. Asteraceae). more and wider vessels found towards peripery. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka.2 .231 µ in 1 .8 µ in width. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. odour. bark upto 3 mm thick. 1. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. external surface rough. slightly aromatic. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. (Fam. not easily separable. Akallakara. 7-15 cm in length. 53. characteristically astringent and pungent. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. cylindrical. cambium 2-5 layered. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. Akarakara Akkaraka. parenchymatous cells. tapering slightly at both ends.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.1.

oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. D¢pana.Ash coloured. running straight. secondary phloem. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. K¡sa.2.Kum¡ry¡sava. bi to tri and multiseriate. Appendix 8 percent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa.7. Grdhras¢. Aj¢rna. 2 . Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ray cells thick-walled. CONSTITUENTS . á£laroga. Appendix 22 percent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. PakÀ¡gh¡ta.2.2. 2. Appendix 2 percent. 2. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. Svedakara.0. radially elongated. Appendix 10 percent. secondary phloem and medullary rays. 2.2. IDENTITY.Prati¿y¡ya. uniseriate rays very rare. áukrala. Udararoga.4. also gives positive tests for inulin. secondary phloem and medullary rays. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡jikara. of the drug in powder form.2.3.2. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. Kaphahara. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. Danta¿£la DOSE . Powder .5 -1 g. áv¡sa. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. medullary rays numerous. NaÀ¶¡rtava.6. áotha. Buddhivardhaka.length having narrow lumen. Pittahara. 2.

raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. under this. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m.2. creamish-brown. thin-walled.Cream coloured. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. not distinct. radially elongated. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. thin-walled. Powder . abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. taste.Shows 1-2 layered. odour. parenchymatous cells. oily sweet. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. 3 . (Fam. Sailabhava. Akshoda (Cotldn. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. slightly curved. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. followed by more or less compressed. Cotyledon . irregularly corrugated. collapsed. endosperm mostly single layered. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present.) large deciduous. broken pieces. coriaceous. Juglandaceae). parenchymatous cells.

H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. 2.5 percent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. áukral. Balya. B¤´ha¸a. ViÀ¶ambhi. Appendix Not more than 0. V¤Àya. 2. Appendix Not less than 10.2.0 percent.IDENTITY.6.2. Sara. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.10 . 2.0 percent. CONSTITUENTS .3. KÀaya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. V¡taroga. Appendix 2.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. DOSE .Walnut oil and Tannin.2. 4 .2. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. 2.25 g. Kaphakara.7. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix Not less than 7.2.KÀata.

radially arranged. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. mangifera Willd. Anbalamu. and 5 . secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Jangali Ambo. parenchymatous. deciduous tree. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. Anacardiaceae). S. S. Ambalam.5 m in girth. Amrata (St. Kurz. Wild Mango Ambeda. Stem Bark. Amra Indian Hog Plum. grey having lenticels. a small aromatic. consisting of tangentially elongated. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Syn. Amra. Ambazham. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. a few outer cells exfoliated. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. parenchymatous cells. which are thick-walled towards periphery.3. Ranamba. upto 27 m high and 2. thin. Jangli Aam Ambate. non Gamble (Fam.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Mampuiti. curved. Ranambo Ambada. with reddish-brown contents. tangentially elongated. external surface smooth. f. internal surface reddish-yellow. acuminata Roxb. Ambado. fracture. laminated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. Amvara -Mampusli.Bk. thin-walled cells. Ambadam Amratakamu.. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells.

ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.2. lignified.5-10 g.3.33. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.33. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Rucik¤t. Pittakara.2.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. V¡tahara. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. 0.4. 2. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Appendix Not more than 0.7.C. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. 0.C. THERAPEUTIC USES . prominent lysogenous cavities are present. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . containing rosette crystals and starch grains. 6 .40 and 0. Ka¸¶hya. 2. Appendix 2.L.6. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. D¡ha DOSE . shows cork cells.Light brown.V.2. 0. CONSTITUENTS .2. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf.96 (blue).2. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.96.75-14 µ in dia.2.L.87 (blue) and 0. of the drug in powder form for decoction.KÀata. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.. 0. simple.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Powder . Raktapitta. Not more than 1 per cent.87 (all greyish brown).5 per cent. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. thick-walled. 2.(greyish brown). 0. Under U. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. T. stone cells. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. 2. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. KÀaya.

hollow when dry. wavy margin.3 .) Amaranthaceae). the perianth lobes.P. bisexual. hairy. secondary and tertiary roots present.1-1. slightly ribbed. greenish-white. a stiff. 0. May£raka. perianth segments 5. 7 . erect. two celled.Simple. Kharamaµjar. opposite.9 m high herb. gradually tapering. PratyakpuÀpa. one spine lipped. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. erect. contorted or quincuncial. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn.4. odour. anther.Cylindrical tap root. branched. cylindrical. bracteate with two bracteoles. solid. obovate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. yellowish-brown.0 cm in thickness. hypogynous. subsessile. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . filament short. membranous. Flower .0. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. Leaf . 0. sessile. (Fam. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. not distinct. actinomorphic. exstipulate. yellowish-brown.0.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes.5 cm in cut pieces. Stem . numerous. decussate. rough due to presence of some root scars. Apamarga (W.3-0. opposite. stamens 5.free. dorsifixed. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs.

transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. two medullary bundles. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. followed 8 . parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. epidermis single layered. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. lignified. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. vessels simple pitted. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. perianth and bracteoles. Midrib .Shows a single layered epidermis.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. LeafPetiole .An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cork cells. brown. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. present in pith. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. cortical and pith cells.Shows crescent-shaped outline. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. spiral. thin layers of cambium. on both surfaces. syncarpous. style. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. endospermic. tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. truncate at the apex. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. xylem composed of usual elements. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. ovary superior. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. elongated. round at the base. vessels annular. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. Seed . thin-walled cork cells. oval to rectangular. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles.Sub-cylindric. 2-5 celled. demarcating the xylem rings. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. thin-walled. Stem . either separate throughout or found in some cases. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. fibres being absent. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. unilocular with single ovule. b) Microscopic Root . scalariform and pitted. rectangular. capitate.gynoecium bicarpellary. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. composed of parenchymatous cells. fibres pitted. cortex 6-10 layered. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. Fruit . covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. single. stigma. 3-4 celled stalk.

0 on upper surface.2. scalariform and pitted thickening. aseptate fibres. Kaphahara.2.0-11. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. non-lignified cells. 9 . Medoroga DOSE . vein islet number 7-13 per sq.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. thin-walled epidermal cells.0-20. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. spiral. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Lamina . IDENTITY.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. palisade ratio 7. Chedana. P¡cana. V¡maka.2. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger.Light yellow. V¡tahara. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. Medohara. stomatal index 4. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . vessels with annular. 2. rectangular. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.4. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent.á£la.20-50 g. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. 9. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. Udara Roga. Powder . Ka¸·u.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. 2. Tikta Sara. 2. slightly elongated in upper. Apac¢.7.0 on lower surface.5-9.Shows single layered. shows fragments of elongated. Ar¿a.3. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Gu·apippali.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. 2. Appendix 2. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.6. mm. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. of the drug for decoction.2. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.

fracture. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. a few showing slit-like pits. colour. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. thin-walled. very long. medullary 10 . found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. vessels pitted with oblong. Aparajita (Rt. polygonal. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. cylindrical. lightbrown. b) Microscopic Root .5. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. bitter. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. fibrous. (Fam. taste. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. Fabaceae). a few solitary fibres also present. 1-5 mm in thickness. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups.

Kaphahara. 0. M£traroga.2.6. 2.79 (both yellow).C.3 g. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.Mi¿raka Sneha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Buddhiprada. shows simple and compound starch grains. 2. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.. Appendix 2. oblong and pitted. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. Vra¸a DOSE . starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components.54 and 0. found in secondary cortex.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .2. 2. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.C.2. 0. Resin. T.2. 11 . CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . phloem and xylem parenchyma. áotha.V.á£la. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia.L. IDENTITY. 0. Under U.. 2.Tannin. Appendix per cent.2. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya.3.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.7.79 (grey).rays 1-5 cells wide. Medhya. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. 0. Taraxerol & Taraxerone.79 (blue). measuring 3-13 µ in dia. ViÀahara. of the drug in powder form.Yellowish-brown. Appendix per cent. Starch. Powder .L. Appendix per cent. KuÀ¶ha. Pittahara. Tikta.1 .

radially arranged cells of inner cork. odour. (Fam. Inji Allamu. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. each having a depressed scar at its apex. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. Adrak Injee. colourless. reaching up to 90 cm in height. isodiametric.5-6. 1. irregularly arranged.Shows a few layered. widely cultivated in India. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. thin-walled. pieces 5-15 cm long. gingery. short with projecting fibres. Rhizomes are dug in January-February.6. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. pungent Rhizome .5 cm thick. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. Ardraka (Rz. tangentially elongated. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. fracture. lakottai. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . Allam. taste. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. Ale -Adi. buds and roots are removed and washed well.) Zingiberaceae). brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. oblique branches on upper side.

63 (grey) & 0.V. phloem. Appendix 90 per cent.69. reticulate and spiral vessels. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T.C.16.08 (violet). On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf.9 T.L. conjoint. small cells of sieve tube.35. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.7 vessels.2. 0.2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. CONSTITUENTS ..7.47 (light violet).03. 0.l6 (brownish violet).13. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.92 (violet). free from starch. 0.2. 0.35 (light violet). single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. 0. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.35. 0. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. walls of oil cells suberised. 0. vessels 2-5 in number. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. composed of xylem. 0. Powder -Light yellow. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. 2. 0. Appendix 2. 0. Under U. 2. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. fibrovascular bundles of two types. larger bundles consists of 2. 0.2. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.69 (all light yellow). Appendix 8 per cent. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. Appendix 1 per cent.4. collateral.63 (light violet). 0. numerous closed. filled with abundant starch grains.76. IDENTITY. oleo-resin cells abundent. 0. 0.dia. 2. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin.16. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.63.08.69 (grey).Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.2.63 & 0. 0.6.2. vessels showing reticulate. Appendix 2 per cent. 2.L. 2.3.2.83 & 0.5 per cent. 0. Appendix 5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. septate fibres with oblique.47. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.92 (all yellow).69 (light violet). fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. 0. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 0. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. elongated pits on their walls. 0.C. 13 . endodermis single layered.76 (violet) & 0. 0.16 (blue).

2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. RukÀa. Vibandha. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Kaphahara. Rocana. Ën¡ha. V ¤Àaya. Bhedana. THERAPEUTIC USES . S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. áopha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. 14 .Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. DOSE . Ka¸tharoga.á£la. Svarya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. H¤dya.

consisting of sieve elements. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. internally light brown to reddish-brown. odour and taste. rough. (Fam.Bk. phloem fibres thin-walled. all traversed by medullary rays. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. square to rectangular cells. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. fibrous. characteristic of dry regions. not distinct. fibres and crystal fibres. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. stone cells and phloem cells. secondary phloem wide. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. upto 3 m in height. parenchyma. exfoliating in irregular scales. Arimeda (St.5-1 cm thick. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. fracture. hard. thinwalled cortical cells. Fabaceae). found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. Pilobaval. Velvelam. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. lignified. Sadabala -Haramibaval. incurved. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. with tapering 15 .7.

69 (grey) is seen in visible light. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. K¡sa.78 and 0.2.L. shows groups of cork cells. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.2. KuÀ¶ha. 0. Appendix 13 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .ends.2. Appendix 14 per cent. 2. β-Sitosterol and Tannin.2.LC. 2.91 (both blue). composed of thin-walled. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Mukharoga.0 to 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0.3-5 g in powder form. Appendix 2. Appendix 1 per cent. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. IDENTITY. radially elongated cells. T.C. 2.3.0. Udardapra áamana DOSE .áopha. β -Amyrin. P¡¸·u.39 and a spot at Rf.40 g for decoction.Reddish-brown. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.39 and a spot at Rf. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.e. Meda¿oÀaka. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Appendix 11 per cent. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. sclereid. Visarpa.n-Hexacosanol. Ka¸·u. ViÀajavra¸a.4.91 (yellow). 0 to 0. Meha.2. 16 .6.7. fibres.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga).On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.2. K¤mi. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . Atis¡ra. Dantaroga. crystal fibres elongated. 0. Powder .

Neermatti.2-1. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. Sajada Arjuna Matti. bitter and astringent.8. Vellamaruthi. recurved. Arjuna (St.5 cm thick.) Combretaceae). Bilimatti. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. Torematti Arjuna. taste. channelled to half quilled. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. P¡rtha. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. traversed by phloem rays. companion cells. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. a large deciduous tree. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . Mattimora. Arjuna. Kellemasuthu. fracture. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. short in inner and laminated in outer part. 0. Mathichakke. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. consisting of sieve tubes. in the middle and outer phloem region. curved. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. flat. (Fam. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface.Bk. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10.& A. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.

Arjuna Gh¤ta. Appendix 20 per cent.2.3-6 g. Vra¸an¡¿ana.Medoroga. H¤dya.2. sometimes upto 5 components. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. Appendix 20 per cent. uniseriate phloem rays. round to oval. 2.. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma.2. Vya´ga. H¤droga. mostly simple. compound of 2-3 components. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. KÀatakÀaya. elliptic. of the drug in powder form. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2.6. Kaphahara. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. Pittahara.3. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone.in dia. alternating with fibres. 2. Appendix 25 per cent. measuring 260-600 µ in dia.7..Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara.4. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. round to oval.Reddish-brown. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . alata). in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate.2. 2. fibres. µ Powder . starch grains simple and compound. T¤À¡. DOSE .. Vra¸a. shows fragments of cork cells. 18 . IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . a few rhomboidal crystals.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. 4-12 cells high. starch grains. Prameha. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. elliptical. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. Appendix 1 per cent.2.

some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells.9. smooth. mesocarp and endocarp. (Fam. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. Scramkotati Nallajidi. Fruit . shining with residual receptacle.) Anacardiaceae). dark brown. Nallajidiginga Baladur. 19 . mesocarp a very broad zone. nut 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara.5-3 cm long. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. drupaceous. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. obliquely ovoid. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Bhallataka (Fr. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. 30-40 layers thick.

Note . Ën¡ha.5 per cent. Snigdha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.2.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. very much elongated radial walls. 2.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. KuÀ¶ha. Bhedi. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Graha¸¢.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. 2.I. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder .4.. Kaphahara.2.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. Appendix 4 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .Ar¿a.3.F. V¡tahara.2. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Chedi.2.7. innermost prismatic. chloroform.1. Appendix 11 per cent.Dark-brown. being highly thickened. Part-I 20 . 2. Ka¶u.2. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.2 g. DOSE . IDENTITY. Krimi. Appendix 0.6.2. P¡cana. Appendix 2. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. ether. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. Gulma. Tikta. 2. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.

herbaceous. M¡rkava. Bhringiraja. strigose with oppressed hairs.5 cm long.Solitary or 2. upto about 7 mm in dia. often rooting at nodes.. usually oblong. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. Gurugada. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces.3 cm wide. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. Kesari -Bhangaro. node distinct. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. ray flowers ligulate. sessile to subsessile. Knnunni Bhangra. occasionally brownish. Karisalai Guntakalagara. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. Karisalanganni. white. Kesuriya. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. involucral bracts about 8. strigosely hirsute. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. much branched. branched. erect or prostrate. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. (Fam. Leaf . disc flowers 21 . ligule small. lanceolate.Opposite. sub-entire. cylindrical. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. Bhringaraja (W. ovate. together on unequal axillary peduncles.50 cm high.Well developed. Stem . scarcely as long as bracts. Bhangro Bhangara.2.) herbaceous annual. sub-acute or acute. obtuse or acute. greenish. not toothed. Keshavardhana.P. spreading. Tekar¡ja.2 . Asteraceae). cylindrical or flat. 1. Bh¤´ga. greyish.8. rough due to oppressed white hairs. 30 . Soppu.Herbaceous. Flower . occasionally rooting at nodes.10.2 .

pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. filaments epipetalous. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. free. drum-shaped.Achenial cypsella. brown. in macerated preparation vessels small. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. rarely slightly oblique. corolla often 4 toothed. epidermis followed by cortex.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. run straight in tangential section. Fruit . xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found.2 . consisting of rounded cells.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. pistil bicarpellary. trichomes of two types. covered with striated cuticle. cuneate. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. ray cells pitted. fibre tracheids. externally covered with cuticle. uniseriate.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. one seeded. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side.1 cm wide. covered with warty excrescences. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. fibre tracheids. stamen 5. dark brown. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. b) Microscopic Root .25 cm long. hairy and non endospermic. tangentially elongated cells. traversed by xylem rays. found scattered throughout wood. ovary inferior. xylem composed of vessels. epidermis followed by wide cortex.0. unilocular with one basal ovule. in singles or in groups of various shape and size.0. simple. vessels numerous. and with pointed apical cell. 1-5 celled. fibres and xylem parenchyma. xylem ray distinct. 0. with a narrow wing. phloem rays broader towards periphery. with very pointed tips.tubular. Seed . anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. Midrib . except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. non-glandular. warty. pappus absent. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. pitted. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. Leaf- Petiole . stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle.

section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. xylem fibres with wide lumen. externally covered with cuticle. warty. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. pointed.5 -26. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. stomatal index 20.0-22. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. Lamina . while the section cut at apical region. peg-like outgrowth. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. palisade ratio 3. some elongated with simple perforations. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. a few often bifurcate and a few other large.8 -4. externally covered with cuticle.0 on lower surface. xylem consists of large number of vessels. endarch. arranged in tangential strands. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. hairs stiff. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells.5 on upper and 23. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. epidermis single layered.collenehymatous cells on both sides. more abundant on lower surfaces. Stem .5. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. secondary cortex composed of large. trichomes entire or in pieces. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. normally biseriate and uniseriate. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. vascular bundles in a ring. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. middle cells longest. about 3 celled. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. Powder . uniseriate. pitted with spiral thickening. collateral. pointed tips and pitted walls. the cork where formed. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. septa thick-walled.Dark green. 23 . a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. wide at the base.shows a dorsi ventral structure. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. pericyclic fibres distinct.

Tikta RukÀa.2. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. CONSTITUENTS . Ras¡yana. P¡¸·u. V¡tahara. K¡sa. Tvacya. Yak¤droga.6. áirah á£la. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. Appendix per cent. DOSE . Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. 24 . áv¡sa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6 ml of the drug in juice form. K¤miroga. Appendix 2. Ke¿ya. Kaphahara. 12 .2.2.2. Appendix per cent. H ¤droga. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila.Alkaloids. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.36 g.IDENTITY.2. CakÀusya. 2. Tekar¡ja marica. of the drug in powder form for decoction.4. THERAPEUTIC USES .áotha. Dantya. 2.3.3 .2. 2. Ëmahara. 2. Ecliptine and Nicotine. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. ViÀahara.

a glabrous. decussate. Flower .. Stem . wiry. small.P.Simple. soft.& K. Ondelaga. Leaf . Fruit . Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. 25 . succulent. small. (Fam. sessile.Thin. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. opposite. Valabrahmi.11.B. taste. ovoid and glabrous. Brahmi.) Wettst. green. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. Brahmi (W. pedicels 6-30 mm long. slightly bitter. glabrous.Small. green or purplish green. obovate-oblong. Syn. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. 1-2 cm long.Capsules upto 5 mm long. about 1-2 mm thick.) H. prostrate or creeping annual herb.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Scrophulariaceae). taste. nodes and internodes prominent. slightly bitter. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. found throughout India in wet and damp places. branched creamish-yellow. axillary and solitary. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢.Thin. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .

2.2. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. endodermis single layered. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.Root . Svarya. ËyuÀya.. IDENTITY. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. glandular hairs. respectively. 2.Shows a single layer of epidermis.Yellowish-brown. b) Microscopic 26 . present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. no distinct midrib present. starch grains simple. Powder . endodermis single layered. Stem . Appendix per cent. Praj¡sth¡pana. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath.6.5-9.2. round and oval starch grains. cortex having large air cavities. Matiprada. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.0-14. Appendix per cent. pericycle not distinct. Ras¡yana. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. ViÀahara. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings.7. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent. 2. vascular ring continuous. Tikta. Appendix 2.4.2. Appendix per cent.3. Medhya. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. round to oval. glandular hairs sessile. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle.2. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. 2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2.2.0 x 2. and 8.0 µ in dia. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. simple.

Jvara. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . 27 .1-3 g in powder form. áopha. P¡¸·u. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. THERAPEUTIC USES .KuÀ¶ha. Ratnagiri Rasa. Prameha. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

a number of secondary roots and their branches present. traversed by phloem rays. long. oval and tangentially elongated cells.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. thin-walled.5 cm in dia. Solanaceae). phloem parenchyma much abundant. Heggulla. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. Ubhibharingani. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. ribbed. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. parenchyma and stone cells. Putirichunda Dorli. short and splintery. no distinct odour and taste. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. cylindrical. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide.9 layers of thin-walled.15 layers of thin-walled. (Fam. cork cambium single layered. Papparamulli. woody. varying greatly in shape and size. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. a very prickly.8 m high.. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. upto 1. tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Root . pale yellowish-brown. secondary cortex composed of 5 . mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Chichuriti.12. much branched perennial under shrub.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . fracture. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. Brihati (Rt. Badikateri Kirugullia. 1-2.

tracheids. 2. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. IDENTITY.2.3. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . measuring 5. H¤dya. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. H¤droga. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.5 per cent. Kaphahara.7. of the drug for decoction. áv¡sa.6 µ in diameter.á£la.4.. 2. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. Powder . V¡tahara. Appendix Not more than 6. vessels with simple pits.6. P¡cana. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.5 -11. 2.2. rounded to oval starch grains. all elements being lignified. xylem rays uni to biseriate.Cream coloured. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. parenchymatous cells. CONSTITUENTS .2. Jvara. DOSE . cells radially elongated and pitted. Agnim¡dya. traversed by xylem rays. 2. Appendix 2. measuring 5.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.2.6 µ in diameter.10-20 g.2. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. thick-walled.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.2. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. phloem and medullary rays. 29 . Appendix Not more than 1 per cent.11. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.5 . shows groups of thin-walled. fibres and xylem parenchyma. aseptate fibres.

peppery. short. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. endodermis single layered. cylindrical and somewhat twisted.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. P. greyish-brown. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. acrid. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. officinarum DC. fibres and xylem parenchyma. tracheid.13. oval to rectangular. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. b) Microscopic Stem . surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. thin-walled. Syn. Chavya (St.. brownish cells. chaba Hunter non Blume. a glabrous. P.0 cm in width. taste.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. (Fam. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. Piperaceae). plenty of simple starch granules present. cork cambium not distinct. fleshy climber. nodes and internodes distinct. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. fracture.5-2. consisting of round. cultivated mainly in Southern India. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . secondary cortex a wide zone. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. Chavya -Kattumulaku. odour.

fibres needle and spindle-shaped.6. Powder . IDENTITY. Udara Roga. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Gulma.2. shows fragments of vessels.Alkaloids.2. Appendix 3 per cent.2. medullary rays multi seriate. fibres and simple. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Kaphahara. Krimi. Appendix 6 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. Recana.Ar¿a. Appendix 2. 2.2. starch grains.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. round to oval. Ën¡ha.7. of the drug in powder form. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS . á£lal DOSE . Appendix 10 per cent. P¡cana. 2. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. 31 .5 per cent. RukÀa. filled with simple. Appendix 1. D¢pana.3. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.1-2 g. Glycosides and Steroids. cells thin walled. round to oval starch grains.4.2. 2. Pl¢h¡ Roga.Greyish-brown. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.pitted and reticulate thickenings.

0. oval.Reddish-brown. Punicaceae). Powder . found growing wild in the warm valley. consisting of oval to polygonal. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. shows stone cells.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. Madalam Danimma Anar. round.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. Maadalai.6 cm long. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. cotyledons coiled. triangular and rectangular. taste.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn.5-0. endosperm absent.1-0. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. starch grains present in testa. 0. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. simple. angular. sweetish-sour. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. round to oval. containing a few oil globules. 32 . beneath this. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.14. Seed . wedge-shaped. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. thin walled.2 cm wide. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. LohitapuÀpa. (Fam. Dadima (Sd. oil globules.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

fine rootlets. crowded in dense. fracture. more or less pubescent. tubular. quadrangular with four prominent furrows.Light greenish-yellow. Leaf . surface rough.35 cm wide. lanceolate. taste. Gumma. hairy. 1-2. Stem . globose.6-0. ciliate. fibrous. nodes and internodes distinct. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. Dronapushpi (W. taste.3-0. pungent. serrate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . characteristic. erect. calyx. slightly bitter. (Fam.Yellowish-green. Inflorescence . Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng.5 cm long and 0. 10 dentate with a villous throat.25 cm long. corolla. taste. 1.) Lamiaceae).16. hairy on upper part.5 cm wide. about 0. white. ovate or ovate. upto 4 mm thick. 1-2.2-1. slightly curved. thin.7-2 cm 37 . zig-zag. an annual. long with numerous wiry. 3-9 cm long. white. smooth. scaberulous. stout herb. about 2-3.5 cm across.lanceolate.Sessile. size variable. crenate. 1.P. glabrous in lower part.9 m in high. subacute. acute.Cylindrical. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country.

7 layered. composed of oval to rectangular.0. parenchymatous cells. lateral lobes small. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. present in centre. upper lip about 4 mm long. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. secondary cortex 5-9 layered.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. thin-walled 38 .1 cm wide. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. tracheids. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. Seed . uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. irregular. endoderm is single layered.long. followed by round to oval parenchyma. trigonous. some having simple pits.shows a single layered epidermis. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. dark brown. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. xylem consists of vessels. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. vessels long with spurs. parenchymatous cells. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. oblong. brown. thin-walled. nutlets 3 mm smooth. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls.Schizocarpic carcerule. Fruit . lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. smooth. thin-walled cells. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. consists of a single layered epidermis. b) Microscopic Root . oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. tracheids. Lamina . fibres and xylem parenchyma. tangentially elongated. Stem .Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. secondary xylem consists of vessels.vascular bundle arc-shaped. cortex consisting of single layered. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of barrel shaped. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. palisade single layered. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres.tangentially elongated. vascular bundles 4. thin-walled cells. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. 4 . upto 8 cells high.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. round to angular collenchyma. bilipped.3 cm long and 0. Leaf- Petiole . wooly. parenchymatous cells. Midrib .

2. IDENTITY. Agnim¡ndya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. V¡takara. ViÀamajvara DOSE .cells. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Bhedani. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. pitted and spiral vessels.2. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Powder . CONSTITUENTS .2.2.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. aseptate fibres. 39 . Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. RukÀa. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. 2. K¡sa. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent.6-30.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. Lava¸a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Appendix 2. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.7 on upper surface. palisade ratio 7-9.6.Alkaloid.3. Tamaka áv¡sa. Glycoside. a few veins present in this region. Pittakara. stomatal index 16. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. K¡mal¡. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent.6-40.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.5 on lower surface.7.Dull yellow.4. 2.áotha.2. 16. stomata diacytic. present on both surfaces.2. Ka¶u Guru.

glossy. -Kakur. (Fam. parenchymatous. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. straight.7-10 cm long. Ervaru (Sd. more or less ellipsoid. radially elongated to squarish. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. covered with thick cuticle. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. B¤hatphala. surface smooth. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. utilissimus Roxb.17.4 cm wide. Vellarika Kakadi. thin-walled. Cucurbitaceae). consisting of single layered epidermal cells. C. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. parenchymatous cells. creamish-yellow. taste. an annual creeping herb. 0. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. 0. Hastipani. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. 40 . followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. mesophyll cells thinwalled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. rounded and tangentially elongated. sweetish oily. Hastipani. Karka¶¢.3-0. shows stone cells. cultivated in many parts of the country. cotyledons two.

Tikta Guru. CONSTITUENTS .3-6 g. 0.2. 0. 0.91 and 0.5 per cent.0. (366 mm). 0. 0.0. Appendix 0.19.19. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. Raktapitta. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2.35.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 2.58.D¡ha. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .97 (all grey). 2. RaktadoÀakara. T.IDENTITY. 2.6.C. 0.7. Pittahara. 0. T¤À¸¡.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. Appendix 10 per cent. D¢pana. 2.77. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. V¡takara.97 (all yellow) . On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. of seeds.2.91 (blue) under U.V.83.2. Appendix 4 per cent. A¿mar¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Jvara.4. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.35.2.91 and 0.C.Oil & Sugars.51. Rucya.64. 0.L. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.0.51. 41 . Gulma.83.77.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.L. Kaphakara.64. 0.26.58. 0.26. Appendix 5 per cent. 0.3. 0. 0.

Araceae).3-0. 0. Seed . 0. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. odour and taste not disticnt. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands.6 cm long. thin-walled.4-0.Shows more or less loosely arranged. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. shiny.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. a large epiphytic climber.0-3. Gajapippali (Fr. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. smooth.0-3. b) Microscopic Fruit . rough and scaly. odour and taste not distinct. cut surface has a central core. brownish-grey.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. Orissa. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . 42 .Kidney-shaped.18.4 cm wide. greyish-brown with a dent.5 cm thick. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam.0 cm in diameter and 2. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.

2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. Kaphahara.áiv¡gutik¡. 0. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.L.7. 0. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. oval to polygonal.2-3 g. shows lignified. 0.65 and 0. Agnivardhaka.Dark brown. 2. 0.V. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. 0.C. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. non-lignified. thin-walled.3.C.73 and 0. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.2.93 (all blue) are visible.73 (both light brown) and 0. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.Glucosides viz. áv¡sa. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B.Shows a single layered. IDENTITY. K¤miroga. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.2. Appendix T. Ka¸ha Roga.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U.93 (all yellow). Three spots appear at Rf. thick-walled. 2-4 layered. Malavi¿oÀana. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.27. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf.Atis¡ra. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.L. 2.93 (brown).2. pitted and with concentric striations. 0. 0. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.4. Powder . On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C.65.65. oval to polygonal. Sugars & Fixed Oil.Seed . numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.2. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 43 . Stanya. in extract (Phant) form. Punarnav¡sava. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent.6. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.2. Ka¸¶hya. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. T. 0.65. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. oval to polygonal.5 per cent.20. V¡tahara.27. 0. DOSE . 0.73 and 0. 2. thick-walled. 2. CONSTITUENTS .

radially 44 . Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. cotyledons consisting of single layered. Verbenaceae). fleshy mesocarp. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. parenchymatous cells.A drupe. Seed . sweetish sour. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. Sr¢par¸¢.Seed ovate. Seed . planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. sometimes one seeded. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. 0. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. 1. black. Shivani.19. P¢takarohi¸¢. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. thin-walled. crinkled. (Fam. seed coat thin. parenchymatous cells. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . Gambhari (Fr.6 cm wide. 0. taste. ovoid. oily.0 cm long. multilayered. b) Microscopic Fruit . surface smooth. papery. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. two seeded. light yellow.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. tangentially elongated. K¡¿marya.) unarmed tree.5-2. taste. thin-walled cells.5-1 cm long. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Hannu -Kumbil.4-0.

0. CONSTITUENTS .18.2.Butyric acid. Appendix 25 per cent. Appendix 0. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.3. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. T¤À¸¡.98 (all yellow). Sara.12. M£trak¤cchra.42.98 (orange). Medhya.1-3 g.08. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.L. Rakta Pitta DOSE .98 (all blue). Alkaloid. shows stone cells. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.V.elongated epidermal cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Powder .Arvind¡sava. 0.26. IDENTITY. 2. Ras¡yana. H¤droga.03. 0. T.4.03.. 0. Pittahara. Resin and Saccharine. 2. 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.C.4 per cent. 2. KÀaya. 0. Under U.98 (yellow) in visible light. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.22.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. 0. Amla.6. 45 .2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. Appendix 8 per cent.7. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .52. 0. 0. 0.2. V¡tahara. 0.C.93 and 0. 2.D¡ha. oil globules and aleurone grains. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.2. Tartaric acid. 0.94 and 0. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2. Ke¿ya.Blackish-brown. Appendix 6 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Guru. H¤dya. KÀata.L.

) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. light yellow. oval. radially arranged cells. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. elliptical. 46 . mucilaginous. thin-walled.20. thick-walled. arranged in radial groups.0 m high. rectangular. traversed by wide phloem rays. fibrous. a shrub 0. secondary cortex wide. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of 12-20 layered.) Aschers & Schwf. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. channelled. Grewia populifolia Vahl. Tiliaceae). external surface smooth. Syn. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. moderately large in size. a few stone cells.. 1. parenchymatous cells. fibrous. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. blunt tips and moderately long in size.Bk. fracture. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals.Shows a wide cork. Gangeru (St. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.5-5 cm long. taste. consisting of tangentially elongated. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam.6-1. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled.

0. 0. 0. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles.4. T. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.C.17.2. 0.Sugar.2. 2.35 (dark blue).Light yellow and fibrous.2.7. 47 .27 (light violet).35 (violet). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .88 (light violet). IDENTITY.L. 0. 0.88 (all yellow).08 (violet). Amla. Appendix per cent.48 (violet).J¢rak¡di Modaka. 0. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.17.2.2. DOSE . 0. Pittavik¡ra. Appendix per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. 2. Under U.13 (blue).29 (blue). 0.17 (light violet). Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.48. 0.6.68 & 0. Tikta. 0. β-amyrin etc.Vra¸a.08 (blue) 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0.27. 0. Appendix per cent. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.35. Appendix 2. 0.68 (light violet) & 0.2-3 g. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS .). of the drug in powder form. 2. α-amyrin. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). 0.41.L.55 (blue) & 0. 0.08. 0. Two spots are seen at Rf.64 (blue).V. 0.C. Ka¶u.55.35 (both light yellow) in visible light.61. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.3. 0.Powder . KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara.

most often irregularly curved. a climber. thinwalled.21.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. pitted walls. soft.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. smaller than stone cells. light brown. Ghungchi Guluganji. exfoliating in small flakes. slightly corky. becoming mildly bitter. simple or branched. b) Microscopic Root . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. fruits ripen during winter. Gurivinda Ghongchi. Chanothee. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. gulagunja -Kunni. cylindrical. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . (Fam. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. when distinct. Chonotee Ratti. odourless. Kundumani Guriginga. Kakananti Rati Kunch. spreading throughout the plains. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. present at short intervals. taste. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. flowering in August-September. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. composed of 1-2 cells wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. some with brownish content. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. cork cambium. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. Gunja (Rt. tangentially elongated cells. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. bark thin. Fabaceae). followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. feebly sweetish.

cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood.2.4. 2. DOSE . Tikta á¢ta.2.7. Appendix 9 per cent. 2.1 . Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.2. numerous xylem fibres. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region.5 per cent.6. vessels of varying sizes with thick. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.3. Appendix 4 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5.2. 2. Mukha¿oÀa. THERAPEUTIC USES . 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.5 -13.Indralupta. wood composed of narrow concentric. Appendix 2. pitted walls. shows fragments of cork. parenchyma thin-walled.75 µ in diameter. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. 2. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. áula.diverging towards periphery. small groups of sclerenchyma. stone cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. Pittahara.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin).N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. Powder . thin-walled and rectangular. Appendix 10 per cent. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. xylem vessels with pitted walls. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.75 µ in diameter.3 g. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. 49 .Greyish-brown. of the drug in powder form. IDENTITY.2.5-13. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays.

Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. odour. characteristic. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. solid. 50 . shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. besides the xylem and phloem elements. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. Ikshu (St. Poaceae). Serdi Ikha.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. distinct node and internode. smooth. cylindrical. b) Microscopic Stem . lignified. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. taste. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. scattered throughout the ground tissue. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. (Fam.) shrub. conjoint. with. juicy and sweet. more numerous and closer towards periphery.22. closed type of vascular bundles. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn.

2.5 per cent. Sara. ground tissue.400 ml in the juice form.4. 51 .2. V¤Àya.2.Sucrose. shows pieces of epidermis. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. Balya.3. Appendix Not more than 2.2. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. Kaphahara.200 .7.Bal¡ Taila.2. 2. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. DOSE .2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. 2.Powder light brick red. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M£tra KÀaya.Powder .Raktapitta. 2.6. Pittahara. vessels and sclerenchyma.

short. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. taste. xylem forms bulk of root. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. Tumbi Paikamatti. Indravarana Gothakakucti.23. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. thick walled. Indramanoa. intensively bitter. lying around vessels. Indravaruni. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical.5 cm thick. Gav¡kÀ¢. thin walled. parenchyma and medullary rays. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. tangentially elongated. Indrayan. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long.2-2. thick-walled.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Paythumatti. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. elongated with pointed ends.) Cucurbitaceae). occurring throughout the country. Indrayanalata. fibres aseptate. Havumakke. slightly twisted.5-7. fibres. parenchyma and medullary rays. áatakratulat¡. tangentially elongated cork cells. Indravaruni (Rt. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. dull yellow. consisting of vessels. Tuntikai. fracture. an annual or perennial. Varithummati. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. cylindrical. pitted. mostly simple or rarely 52 . longitudinal fissures present. b) Microscopic Root . 0. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. parenchymatous cells.5 µ in dia. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. a few filled with dark brown contents. Valiya Pekkumatti. Bitter apple Indravaran. composed of sieve elements. (Fam.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia..800 m. smooth.Brown coloured.. rounded starch grains. taste. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Seed . Eugenia jambolana Lam.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. oval. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. cuminii Druce. 1 cm long. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. thin-walled. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. E. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. Jambu (Sd. (Fam.6 m with a bole up to 15 m.25. brownish-black. astringent. coriaceous covering. mesophyll composed of isodiametric.) Skeels Syn. b) Microscopic Powder . Myrtaceae). 1 cm wide. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. 57 . a large evergreen tree. oval or roundish.

ViÀ¶ambhi.2.12. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form.3-6 g.V.Glycoside (Jamboline).2.95 and 0. Appendix per cent. Tannin. Pittahara. 0.IDENTITY. 2. KaÀ¡ya Guru.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.6.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.3. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 58 .L.2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 0.30 (blue). THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 2. three spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.20. 0. 0. Udakameha.Madhumeha. Appendix per cent.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.7. T.30 and 0.95 (all yellow).2. 2. Amla.C.2.30 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U.95 (all violet). Kaphahara. DOSE .20. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C. Appendix 2. 2. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid.L. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.

forming a rhytidoma. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Jamu. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. and reddish brown. (Fam. stone cells.. E. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu.5 cm thick. cuminii Druce.) Skeels Syn. 0. stratified and reddish-brown.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. astringent. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. younger bark mostly channelled. Raja Jambu Merale. cork cambium not distinct. internal surface fibrous. fibres aseptate. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. fracture.5-2. Jamneralae. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. oval to angular. Neralamara -Njaval. upper few layers thick.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. Jambu. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. Jam Jammu Naaval. taste.Bk. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. and phloem rays. a large evergreen tree. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Navval Sambu. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. Jambuda Jomuna. Myrtaceae). lower cork thin and colourless. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. short and splintery. light grey to ash coloured. elongated.800 m. Jambu (St.26. rough. Mahamaram.

V¡tala. Appendix per cent. elongated. 60 . shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.2. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. Kaphahara.Atis¡ra.7.4. reddish-brown content. round to oval starch grains. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.region.3.Light brown. Pittahara. Raktapitta. single or in groups. of the drug for decoction. Appendix 2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . oval to angular. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Stambhaka. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder .2.U¿¢r¡sava. 2. DOSE .6. aseptate fibres. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . round to oval starch grains.2. 2. measuring 5-11µ in diameter.10-20 g. stone cells. 2. IDENTITY.2.2.

about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Euphorbiaceae). kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. 61 . upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Neervalam Jepal. Japala. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. Nervala -Nervalam. slightly quadrangular. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. (Fam. slightly bent at middle. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. 5-7 m high. kernel yellowish and oily. b) Microscopic Seed . Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal.27. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. oblong. Neervalam. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface.) small evergreen tree. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Jayapala (Sd. ovate. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. consisting of an epidermal layer. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. no marked odour.Shows a hard testa. found throughout tropical India. consisting of a large endosperm. Japal beej. thin-walled cells. Tinti·¢phala. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. filled with brownish content. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. dull cinnamon-brown.

3.84 (all violet). 0. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.54 and 0.6. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 2.2.54 (yellow). oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder . 0. Udararoga. 2. Appendix 0. 0. Appendix 7 per cent. Resins & Phorbol esters.49. Appendix 15 per cent.84 (brown).White with black particles of testa. IDENTITY.Fixed oil. 0.2.29.2. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.5 per cent.2. 0.63 and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.Jvara. Pittahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.2.39.2. Appendix 2.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES .34 (grey).endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.L. T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 0. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. 0.34. 0. CONSTITUENTS .90 (all yellow).V.4. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 3 per cent. 2. 0. 2.10.L. 62 . (366 nm) three spots at Rf.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6-12 mg. Vibandha DOSE .

palisade single layered. parenchymatous cells. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. polygonal. glabrous. S.7 layered round. Fabaceae). Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. consisting of thin-walled. entire. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis .Syn. Arishimajingai. a quick growing. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. jayata Arinintajinamgi. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. Karijimangai. Atti. stomata anisocytic. short lived shrub. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells.28. Jayanti (Lf.3 cm long. 1. opposite. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee.5-15.3-0. linear. oblong.8 cm wide. Jalugu. -Semp. leaflets 6-16 pairs. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. 1. having secretory cavities in phloem.) Merr. 0. mucronate to acuminate. á£kÀma patra.8-6 m high. present on both surfaces. Jay¡.shows single layered epidermis. paripinnate.5 cm long. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Jayanti Jaita. 7.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. 63 . (Fam. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound..0-3. aegyptiaca Pers. very shortly stalked. pith small. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Lamina .

palisade ratio 3.4.Ratnagiri Rasa. shows spongy parenchyma. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .37. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.11. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. Appendix per cent. 0. DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.97 (all yellow). 0. Appendix per cent. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. Appendix per cent. ViÀaroga.19.56 (all pink) and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.69.11.2.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2.Protein. 2. 0.M£trak¤cchra.56. 0. Powder . stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. Appendix per cent.2. 0. 0. 0. 0.11. 0.91 and 0.7.3-6 g. 0.19.91 and 0. Ras¡yana. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. 0. 0.29. 0.2.6.19. Pittahara. 0.Dull green. 64 .05.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.05. 0.L.25-4.29.97 (yellow). (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. 2.2.29. Galaga¸·a.37.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 0. palisade cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.C.3.97 (all grey). T. 0. in powder form.V. 0. Calcium and Phosphorus. V¡tahara. 0. 2.48. 0. 0.C. 2.2.56.48. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.05.

35 mm in breadth. collapsed. Seed . light to dark brown. seed without aril also prescent. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. surface generally smooth and. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. a large climbing shrub. brownish-orange. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. ripe seeds. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side.5-3. Jyotishmati (Sd. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. odour. (Fam. unpleasant. Celastraceae). mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. Gangunge humpu. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. taste. Gangunge beeja.hard. bitter. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic .Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. colour.29.

light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.2. dark brown.35.V. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). Virecaka. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 2. Powder . 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.C. 0.2.C.L.2.54. áirovirecanopaga. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.7.89 (all yellow). 0.V. 0.6.2. 0. Appendix 1.8 IDENTITY. Oil and Tannins. Tikta Sara. Appendix 20 per cent.54 (both blue).5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .94 (yellow). 2. Appendix 45 per cent.L.89 (both greenish blue).composed of polygonal.94 (yellow) in visible light. Appendix 2.15. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. Appendix 6 per cent.4. 0.35. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. stone cells. thin-walled. 2. D¢pana. UÀ¸a. 0. 0.2. 0. Appendix 9 per cent. 2.82 (pink) & 0. 0. V¡maka. 0. Kaphahara.54. 0.Oily. Meddhya 66 . embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. (all blue) & 0. 2. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tahara. 0.82 & 0. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.89.82. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.2. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.Alkaloids.82.20.2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Under U.3.63. 0. 0.04.

Sm¤tidaurbalya. Oil : 5-15 drops. THERAPEUTIC USES .Seed: 1-2 g. DOSE .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. 67 .V¡tavy¡dh¢. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. ávitra.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Kadamba (St. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. a few cells with brown contents. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Priyka Roghu. 68 b) Microscopic . exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Kadamba mara.. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. large tree. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. some cells contain chlorophyll. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kadamba Nipo. Vellaikhadambu. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. composed of thin-walled. Rubiaceae). (Fam. Indulam. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Rich. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. traversed by uni to triseriate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa.30. elongated cells of phloem rays. Vellai Kadambam. A. Kadamba Kadamba. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam.Bk. indicus A. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. taste. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. Syn. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. Kadappai. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. a deciduous. Kadavala. phloem composed of sieve tubes.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. bitter. Kadambu Needam. rectangular cells. Kadam Kadam.

T. CONSTITUENTS . fibres. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. DOSE . 0.79 (grey) and 0. Appendix 9 per cent. 0. 2.1. Appendix 3 per cent. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).phloem fibres. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.63 (yellowish grey). Lava¸a. 0. Steroids. 0.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.2. 0. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. 2. V¡tahara.90 (grey). 2. YonidoÀa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0. shows fragments of cork cells.03. 0. Raktapitta. 2.21. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form.5 per cent.31. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13.5:10) shows under U.Alkaloids. Appendix 5 per cent. Vra¸a. 69 . phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.64. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7.57. 0. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. Vra¸aropa¸a. 0.70 (orange yellow).D¡ha. 0. phloem cells.L.2.Brown.C. Appendix 1.83 and 0. Appendix 2. L C.6.3. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.13.5 g.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.4. Powder .5 .0.2. cells distinct and slightly elongated.79.2.

Small. Manitakkali. sub-umbellate.25 mm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . very slender. flattened. Manaththakkali. 30-45 cm high. slender.Simple. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. ovary globose. extra-axillary. obtuse. externally smooth. (Fam. found throughout the country in dry parts. filaments short. pedicels 6-10 mm long. style cylindric. anther 1. obtuse notched at apex. glabrous or pubescent. Ganikegida. Stem . slightly woody and branched. bark thin. Pikachia. white or pale violet. thin. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. ovate or oblong. hairy in lower part. green. Manatakkali. petiolate. pale brown. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. sinuate. 2. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. ganike.5-8. 3-8 flowered cymes.P. oblong. Ganikesopu.2-2.) Solanaceae). Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. 70 . road sides and gardens. 1.5 cm long and 2. toothed or lobed. glabrous. a herbaceous annual weed. peduncles 6-20 mm long. hairy at base. narrowed at both ends.Erect. five lobed. Flower .31. oblong. Kakamachi (W. quite common in cultivated lands. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. Leaf . corolla 4-8 mm long. yellowish. calyx 2-3 mm long.5 cm wide. glabrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region.5 mm long.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots.

composed of thin-walled. radially elongated cells. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. covered with thick. pith large. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. parenchyma 4-6 layered. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells.25 µ in dia. epidermis single layered. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. single or with two or rarely 3 components.Discoid. oval to round starch grains.5-11 µ in dia. slightly striated cuticle. usually accompanied by fibres. measuring 2. conjoint and open. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. LeafPetiole .' oval parenchymatous cells. compactly arranged. 6mm in dia. xylem rays homogenous..Fruit .. internal phloem. trichomes multicellular. bicollateral. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. arc71 . in small or large patches. measuring 2. starch grains. smooth shining Seed . a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. cambium 2-4 layered. central vascular bundle shallow. Stem . thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. filled with starch grains. uniseriate.5-8. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. Midrib . uniseriate. but 4. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations.10 layered in angular parts. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells.5 mm in dia. embedded in perimedullary zones. uniseriate. usually purplish-black but sometimes red.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. cortex of large. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round..A berry. endoderrnis single layered. smooth. phloem rays uniseriate. covered with striated cuticle. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. polygonal cells. vascular bundles-collateral. obtuse. covered with striated cuticle. covering trichomes. slightly elongated. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. rays composed of thin-walled. 1.Shows single layered. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. yellow. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. phloem consists of thin-walled. tangentially elongated. arcshaped. yellow or black. minutely pitted.

2. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation.06 & 0. 0. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces.L. palisade ratio 2-4. papery epicarp. vein islet number 7-10. stomata anisocytic.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. palisade single layered. Powder .dorsiventral. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.11 µ in diameter. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.97 (all yellow).34 (both pink). Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.Alkaloids and Saponins.C.7.Shows thin. single.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally.2.2.5 .2. IDENTITY. 2. unicellular hairs.2.Creamish-green. measuring 2.06.34 (both brown) in visible light. Appendix 2. 2.C. Lamina .6.V. Fruit . 0. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle.06 & 0. Appendix per cent. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. 2. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.2. epidermis with irregular outline. a few broken pieces of pointed. CONSTITUENTS . present beneath palisade parenchyma. T. 72 . 0. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. 034 and 0.4.3. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. Under U. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.L.

Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. V¡tahara. KuÀ¶ha. 73 . Ar¿a.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Netraroga. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Tikta Laghu. of the drug in juice form.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara.5 -10 ml. Prameha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Rasar¡ja Rasa. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. Ras¡yana. Ka¸·u. H¤droga. Jvara. H¤dya. Hikk¡. Svarya. Sara.áotha. DOSE . Chardi.

gynoecium and thalamus. yellowish-brown. (Fam. Tavaregedd -Tamara.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. black.. a large. Kalh¡ra. crimpled. Nymphaeaceae). entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 3-5 cm long. crimp led. 2-4 cm long. elliptic. Aravindan. sepals leaf-like. 1. free. Kamalam. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja.4-2 cm long. fruit an etaerio of achenes. linear 1. 1. dark brown. obtuse. Naidile. Kanwal Kamal. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. erect. Kamala (Fl. Sarojam Kaluva. anther.32. broken pieces also occur. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. petals numerous.3-2 cm wide. Kamal. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Chenthamara. finely veined. comprising of calyx. Syn.5-3 cm wide. corolla. aquatic herb with creeping stem. seed hard. membranous. embedded in a creamy. Tavare. extended into clavate appendages. Sitopala. Thamaraipoo. 74 . Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. starchy and large. Padma. androecium. Paduman. gynoceium apocarpous. carpels many. Venthamara. Pamposh Tamarai. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Aravinda.

IDENTITY. parenchymatous cell.filament appears circular in outline. columnar. rectangular. having smooth exine and intine. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.2. composed of thin-walled. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. THERAPEUTIC USES .shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6.2. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.12 -24 g. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.2.Dusty brown. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.4. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. spherical. Appendix 2. vascular bundle single.2.3. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle.Raktapitta. 2. parenchymatous cells.7. Sant¡pahara. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. angular. Appendix per cent. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. ViÀavik¡ra. of the drug for decoction. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. two on either sides. yellow pollen grains.shows four chambered anther. Pittahara. followed by ground tissue of oval. 2. 2.b) Microscopic Flower Petal .Aravind¡sava. 2. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). Visarpa. Tikta. . Stamen Filament . Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara.2. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. Anther . Powder . spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle.2. spore sac contains yellow. M£tra Virajan¢ya. DOSE .

glabrous tree with strong. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. found throughout the plains of India. reddish brown. odour. Kavataleal. Balada. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. aromatic.) Swingle. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. Haminamara -Vilar maram. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. F. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. stone cells. Powder . often cultivated in many parts of India.Reddish-brown. rough. elephantum Correa (Faro. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . axillary thorns. Belalu. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. Pulp. Siwalik range and forests. parenchymatous cells. semicircular.shows irregular. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. slightly triangular and oval. sour. stone cells. a deciduous. hard. found in groups. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. 76 . a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. thin-walled. Belada hannu. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. sharp. Kapittha (Fr. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Syn.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. straight. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Bilvara. Rutaceae).33.

7.50 (violet).2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.3. T.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 6. 0. 2. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. 0.L.14 (sky blue). Appendix 2. 77 .12 (brown).06. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.4. Hikk¡. KaÀ¡ya.91 (grey) in visible light. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. CONSTITUENTS .91 (blue) and 0.6. 2.IDENTITY. Vra¸an¡¿aka. Amla.95 (blue).C. Gr¡h¢. 2. 0. 0. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. of the drug in powder form.37.áv¡sa. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. Unripe Pulp: Amla. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent.2.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. DOSE . 0. Under U. 0.2. Appendix per cent. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.12. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.1-3 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.91 and 0. Sangr¡h¢.91 (violet) and 0.2.95 (violet) . Ripe-T¤À¡.Citric acid and Mucilage. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. 0. Agnim¡ndya. V¡mi.37 (brown). Pittav¡tahara. Appendix per cent.2.95 (all yellow). Lekhana.50. 0. 0.

78 .34. and compound having 2-3 components. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places.Bk. met throughout India in wild state. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. rough due to longitudinal striations. b) Microscopic Powder . shows single and groups of stone cells. internal surface grey and smooth. flat or slightly curved pieces. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. (Fam . fracture. tubular. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn.Greyish-brown. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. starch grains simple. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. external surface brownish-grey.) Apocynaceae). cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. light in weight. sometimes cultivated. simple and compound starch grains. Karamarda (St.

0.KuÀthahara.6. Appendix per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.L. Appendix per cent.90 (pink) and 0. 0. T. 0. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2.7. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.97 (violet). 2.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.L. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.48 g. 79 . 2.C. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. Pittakara. 2.C. Appendix 2.3. Appendix per cent. 0. DOSE .52 (light sky blue). of the drug for decoction.2.Marma Gu¶¢k¡.58 (both light grey). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.4.35. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.V.2.2.IDENTITY.

P. secondary phloem very wide. thin-walled. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. (Fam. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. internally. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. fibrous. 3-11 µ in dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. tangentially elongated. most of phloem 80 . Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular.35. fracture. Naktam¡la. tangentially elongated cells. due to peeling off. taste. external surface rough. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. single cells of varying shape and size.) glabra Vent. Fabaceae). upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. Nakt¡hv¡. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. Karanja (Rt. a glabrous tree.. Syn. Bk. cells. traversed by phloem rays. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite.. very bitter.) Merr.

0. 81 . IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. 0. ViÀaghma.2. 0.09. 0. 0.C. similar to those present in secondary cortex. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.37 (greenish yellow). 0. 0. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Appendix 17 per cent. shows thin-walled.4. phloem fibres.2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .7. consisting of thin-walled. phloem rays many. Appendix 2. 0.51.Flavones Kanugin. cork cells. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.6. 2. Appendix 11 per cent.L.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.25 (sky blue). Yoniroga.18.K¤miroga.C. Pittahara.08 (greenish blue). Appendix 3.80 and 0. 0. parenchymatous cells.42 (sky blue).13 (Sky blue). 2.31.2. V¡tahara. 0. Powder -Creamish-yellow. Appendix 2 per cent. Ëntravidradhi. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0. Ka¸·£ghna. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. of the drug for decoction. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.04 (blue).V. T. Ka¸·u.2. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.47. 2.2. 0. most of ray cells contain starch grain. 1-2 seriate. mostly straight. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.47. DOSE . 0. KuÀtha. 0.18 (blue) 0. DuÀ¶avra¸a. Prameha.80 (light blue).47 (greenish yellow). CONSTITUENTS . 0.37.1-3 g.51 (light blue). 0.98 (all yellow).3.31 (sky blue).2. 0.L.5 per cent. Tikta.

reddish-brown or dull brown. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. secondary phloem a very wide zone. rough due to the presence of numerous. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. (Fam.. P. Syn.) Vent. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels.36. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. a glabrous tree. 3-11 µ in dia. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. cells. Fabaceae). Karanja (Rt. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. irregularly distributed. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. light in weight. internally light yellow. Karaµjaka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. bark does not easily separate from xylem. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. bitter. tangentially elongated cells. consisting of 82 . thin-walled. Nakt¡hv¡. rounded to oval in shape. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga.) Merr.. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. fracture. bark. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. taste. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. tangentially elongated. 1-2 seriate.

CONSTITUENTS . K¤miroga. Appendix per cent. tangentially elongated towards outer region. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells.2.1-2 g.radially elongated. consisting of 2-3 components.. Ëntravidradh¢. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. Appendix per cent. Prameha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. Pongachromene & Tetra-O.7. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. V¡tahara. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Kanugin. Kaphahara. 2. thin-waned cells towards inner region. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Demethoxy-kanugin. fibres and parenchyma. Yoniroga. shows fibres in singles or groups.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Ka¸·£. Appendix 2. rounded to oval in shape.Karanjin.2. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. Powder -Light yellow. 2.2. Tikta. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled.2. KuÀ¶ha. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Vidradh¢. DOSE . 83 .4. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Pittahara.Methylfisetin. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. ViÀaghna. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. of the drug in powder form. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. more.6. starch grains. IDENTITY.2.3.DuÀ¶avra¸a. tracheids. Vra¸a¿odhana.

recurved. Nakt¡hv¡. fibre small. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. short and fibrous.. 84 . Fabaceae). unpleasant. phloem parenchyma. filled with reddish-brown content. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. lenticellate pieces.2-1 cm thick. fracture. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. bitter.) Merr. b) Microscopic Bark . arranged in a tangential manner. at some places lenticels also appear. phloem fibre and stone cells. Karanja (St. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. Karanja.37. Karaµjaka.) glabra Vent. usually 0. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. taste. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. a glabrous tree. P. composed of rectangular. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. thick-walled cells. tangentially elongated.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. (Fam. alternating with stone cells. odour. more or less smooth.Bk. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. slightly quilled. thin-walled. Syn. parenchymatous cells. traversed by medullary rays.

3" 7 : 8).2. Yoniroga DOSE . 2. Ka¶u. IDENTITY. Appendix 13 per cent. of the drug in powder form.6. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Ëntravidradh¢.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. simple and compound starch grains. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. ViÀaghma. Kanugin. Powder -Yellowish-cream. and rarely. medullary rays wavy. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin.2.7. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. elongated. present in secondary cortex. Kaphahara. starch grains simple. oil globules. usually 2-4 cells wide.2. V¡tahara. Appendix 3 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. Appendix 18 per cent. 3". Pittahara.5 per cent. Pongapin. THERAPEUTIC USES .3. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 1. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. Pinnatin.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Vidradh¢. Gamatin. aseptate fibre and stone cells. rounded to oval.. Tikta.1-2 g. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape.2. K¤miroga. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 2. Prameha.4. Appendix 2.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 85 . Demethoxy- kanugin. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. KuÀ¶ha. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .polygonal. 5Methoxyfurano (2". thin-walled and aseptate. 2. Ka¸·u. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. 2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.

9-8. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . a glabrous tree. 86 . a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Karaµjaka. leaflets 2-3 pairs.2 . Unu. 0. petiolule short. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. Kanajo Karuaini.. arcshaped. Syn.) Vent. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. (Fam.38. Ungu.11. consistig of tabular cells.) Merr. Dithouri Honge.3 cm wide. Pongana Ganuga. Karanja (Lf. covered with cuticle.8 cm. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. dark green. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Karanja. Hulagilu -Pungu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Nakt¡hv¡. consisting of xylem and phloem. vascular bundle single. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.5-0. isodiametric. Fabaceae).5 cm long and 3. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. P.circular in outline. 6. xylem vessels arranged radially. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. cortex consisting of angular. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. epidermis single layered. traversed by xylem rays. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.

Ka¸·ughna. Tikta. stomata anisocytic.5) . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Kaphahara.A new Furanoflavone -3' .Mid rib .7. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. 5" . a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. V¡tahara. Appendix 16 per cent.5-20. 2.6.6. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Ka¶u. Appendix 11 per cent.2. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. phloem and pith.2. collateral. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.4. Appendix 10 per cent. consisting of tabular cells. mesophyll cells. covered with thick cuticle. . 7) -flavone. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".5 per cent. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square.5". central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . 2. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring.6.3.shows single layered epidermis. Appendix 2.6. vascular bundle. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.2. 5". CONSTITUENTS . palisade ratio 3.5-50. shows spiral xylem vessels.2.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. 2.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. Appendix 3.(4". 2. Pittavardhaka.2. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.2. Powder -Green. stomatal index 12. palisade two layered. present in lower surface. cortex consists of round to oval. K¤imihara.

For external use only.K¤miroga. Vra¸a. 88 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES .J¡ty¡di Taila. Ka¸·au. DOSE .

2. Karavallaka (Fresh. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. Kakiral. 2. 2. 3 valved at the apex when mature.6 per cent. pendulous. Appendix 2.6. Kathilla. IDENTITY.2. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa.2. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. Appendix 28 per cent. extremely bitter.2.25 cm long.5 . Appendix 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. K¡ravall¢.2.4.Fr.5 per cent.2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. Nil Appendix 8.39. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . usually pointed or beaked. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. Appendix 6 per cent. taste. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. oblong.2. 2. Varivall¢.3. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. surface rough.7.) Cucurbitaceae). fusiform. upto an altitude of 1500 m.

96 (sky blue). K¡mal¡.03. Jvara. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktavik¡ra.98 (red & sky blue). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Aruci.67 and 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .áv¡sa. Kaphahara. 0.34.75.17.46.98 (all yellow). 0.81 and 0. 90 .60. KuÀ¶ha. V¡tahara.98 (all blue). 0. D¢pana.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. 0. 0.50. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. T. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. K¤miroga.16. 0. CONSTITUENTS .61 (light sky blue).C. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. Prameha. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.10 .L. 0. 0. 0. H¤dya. 0. P¡¸·u.V. 0.L.43. K¡sa.23 (red).T. DOSE . 0. juice of fresh drug.15 ml.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides.C.

Katuka (Rz. pleasant.1 cm in diameter. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. Kauka. taste. dusty grey. cylindrical. Root . fracture. bitter. Katuka rohini Kutki. Rhizome is cut into small pieces.05-0. 5-10 cm long. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . short. short. subcylindrical. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. Rohi¸¢. odour. (Fam.40. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. externally greyish-brown. taste. Scrophulariaceae). suberised cells. cork cambium 1-2 layered. Kaurohi¸¢. . Katuku rohini. a perennial. kaur Katuka rohini. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. odour. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. cortex single layered or absent.2. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. primary cortex persists 91 . Katki.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.Thin. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. pleasant. straight or slightly curved. b) Microscopic Rhizome . bitter. fracture. inner surface black with whitish xylem. 0. mostly attached with rhizomes. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. Tiktarohi¸¢.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Sutiktaka. Kav¢.

L. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. 0. parenchyma.7. measuring 25 . secondary phloem poorly developed.V. Appendix 2. secondary xylem consists of vessels. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. some cylindrical with taillike. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. 0.2.30 (blue) and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.41 and 0. 0. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.84 (all yellow).41. cortex 8-14 layered.21. thick-walled. starch grains. tapering ends. 0. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. 0. 2.104 µ in diameter. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. vessels have varying shape and size.2. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation.35 (green). T. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. 2.in some cases.6.L.3. 0. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. thick-walled cells of endodermis. IDENTITY. 0. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. 0. parenchymatous cells.10.17. simple round to oval. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. thick-walled. thick-walled. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork.2. shows groups of fragments of cork cells.17. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.2. 92 . 1-2 layers of cork cambium. 0. Appendix per cent. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells.84 (all brownish grey).37. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. parenchyma and fibres. hypodermis single layered. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex.2. 0. 0. 0. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Appendix per cent.30.4.Dusty grey. consisting of oval to polygonal. simple round to oval. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent.62. 0.. Appendix per cent.10. 2. 0. starch grains.2.05 (blue).05. fibres aseptate. 0. lignified.72 and 0.30. thick-walled.21. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. tracheids. tracheids. Powder . abundantly found in all cells. cambium 2-4 layered. 0.C. 2.C. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. tracheids long.

CONSTITUENTS . K¡mal¡.áv¡sa. D¢pan¢. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. 93 . of the drug in powder form.3 g.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). DOSE . Jvara.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. ViÀamajvara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Bhedin¢. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. Pittahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Tiktaka Gh¤ta. KuÀ¶ha.1 . Arocaka. D¡ha.

Stem . common in water logged places throughout the country. calyx 4-partite. subsessile. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. acute.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. Syn. bracts about 2.Anders (Fam.Usually unbranched. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. lanceolate. Culli. fasciculate. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. entire and hairy. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. 0. Kettu. externally greyish-brown. which are 1. Nirchulli. corolla 3.Yellowish-brown. all linear-lanceolate. Nirguvireru. Kolavankal ---. tube 1. whitish to brown. broader than the other three. Flower .5 cm long. swollen at nodes. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins.2 cm long. stamens 4. IkÀuraka.6-2 cm long. a spiny.3 cm long.Greenish-brown. didynamous. no characteristic odour and taste. upper sepal 1.Mostly adventitious. Hygrophila spinosa T.Acanthaceae).5-1 cm wide. stout. 1-7 cm long. annual herb. no characteristic odour and taste. widely 2 lipped. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. Kokilaksha (W.6 cm long. Kalsunda --Golmidi.41. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . with long white hairs. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. Leaf . Vayalculli Talikhana.P. abruptly swollen at top. sub-quadrangular. Kolarind. second pair 94 .

having small intercellular spaces. moderately thick-walled. thin-walled. pubescent.1 . cortical cells thin-walled. single or in groups of 2-3. compressed. style filiform.larger. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. brownish cells.25 cm long and 0. flat or compressed. glabrous. radially elongated in secondary xylem. 95 . fibres thick-walled. with a number of large air cavities. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. ray cells thin walled.2-0. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. linear-oblong. 0. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. thin-walled cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. endodermis single layered. capsule about 0. filament quite glabrous. polygonal cells. Seed .Ovate. rectangular to cubical. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. phloem fibres thick-walled.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. round. inner cells smaller. ray cells thin-walled. Fruit . consisting of round to polygonal cells.0. b) Microscopic Root . phloem narrow. vessels angular. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. radially elongated in xylem region. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. xylem present in a ring. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. pointed. involute with a fissure on upper side. oblong. broader towards centre. radially arranged. hairy but appearing smooth. composed of polygonal. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. fibre walls uniformly thickened. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. arranged in radial rows. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. light brown. arranged radially. anthers two celled. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. variable in size. Stem . stigma simple. peripheral ones larger. subequal.Two celled.8 cm long.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled.15 cm wide. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. pith large. 4seeded. scattered throughout the phloem region. composed of transversely elongate. truncate at the base. a few thick-walled. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. vessels with spiral thickenings. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers.

Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. shows aseptate. Rucya. 2.Shows concavo-convex outline. Appendix per cent. elongated fibres. Appendix per cent.2. lignified.2.2.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. parenchymatous. vein islet number 17-42. Powder .Light brown.6. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.2. Appendix per cent. 2. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. covered with thick cuticle. thin-walled. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. palisade. palisade ratio 6. Appendix 2. Lamina .25-15. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . V¡jikara. stomata diacytic. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. 2. . Amla.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. stomatal index 17.2. thick-walled. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.7.3.24-30.75.4. tangentially elongated cells. IDENTITY. composed of thin-walled. V¤Àya.2. parenchymatous cells.LeafMidrib . collenchyma 2-5 layered. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. 2.78. palisade 1-2 layered. Tikta Picchila.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. oval to hexagonal. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. unicellular hairs and globules. Appendix per cent. Seed . Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. M£trala. sclerenchymatous cells. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Fruit .

of the drug in powder form.3 -6 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ëmav¡ta áotha.T¤À¸¡.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). DOSE . 97 . V¡tarakta.

most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. Syn. Anders (Fam. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. consisting of small. 98 . Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex.Acanthaceae). Culli --. whitish to brownish. thin-walled. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. polygonal cells. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong.42. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. common in water logged places throughout the country. branches on nodes. stout. annual herb.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Root-Appears circular in outline. Kokil¡kÀ¢. the size of these cells. Kolavulike. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. secondary phloem narrow. IkÀuraka. slightly transversely elongated. thinwalled cells. Kokilaksha (Rt. Hygrophila spinosa T. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. Nerugobbi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. a spiny. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. no characteristic odour and taste. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces.

2. Appendix per cent.3 -6 g. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. Powder . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent.2. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. of the drug for decoction.6. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 99 .2.2. shows fragments of pitted. 2.2.4.2. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.3. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. THERAPEUTIC USES . radially elongated in the xylem region. V¡tahara.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. each group composed of 2-6 cells. broader towards centre. Appendix per cent. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. IDENTITY. M£trala. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. A¿ma¤¢. Pittatis¡ra DOSE .Light brown to ash coloured. Appendix per cent. angular.7. scattered throughout the phloem region. fibre walls uniformly thickened. having spiral thickening. vessels with spiral thickening. V¡tarakta. Amla. 2. lignified fibres. Appendix 2. 2. Appendix per cent. Tikta Picchila. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. ray cells thin-walled.Ëmav¡ta áotha. secondary xylem forms continuous ring.

Daruhuladur Darhald. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Kokilaksha (Sd. oil globules present in this region. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. the 100 . when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Hygrophila spinosa T. taste. stout. IkÀuraka. Syn. parenchymatous cells. flat or compressed.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. common in water logged places throughout the country.8 -10. Anders. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. (Fam. thinwalled. Swelling Index . embryo composed of oval to polygonal. shows hairs and oil globules. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. white. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. a spiny. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. truncate at the base. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi.43. Acanthaceae). Maradarishana. Powder . Maradarishina -Maramannal. b) Microscopic Seed . The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. hairy but appearing smooth. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. light yellowish-brown.Greyish-brown. annual herb. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra.

24.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.31.55 (light blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.17 (light brown). 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. including any sticky mucilage. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.38. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.17.2. 0.03.3 -6 g.10 (light brown). 0.C. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.6.L. Appendix per cent. 0.24 (red).2.72 (all yellow). Pitt¡¿mar¢. 0.52 and 0..31 (dark brown).áotha. 0. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. V¤Àya. related to 1 g of seeds. Kaphahara.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. 2.76 (sky blue) and 0. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.An yellow semi-drying oil.03 (light brown). of the drug in powder form. Protease and an Alkaloid. Lipase. CONSTITUENTS .52 (dark brown) and 0. DOSE . Appendix per cent.38 (light brown).2.72 (dark brown). 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .41 (light blue).L. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. enzymes like Diastase.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Appendix per cent. 2. 0. V¡tarakta. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. T. IDENTITY.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.2. 0.2. 101 .V. 0. 0.4. 0. 0. 0.24 (dark brown). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. Santarpa¸a.C. 0. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Appendix 2. Add 25 ml of water. 0.93 (sky blue). 0.

ribbed. dehiscing above the base. 50 cm long. Loni. subtended by an involucre. Payilikura. oblique. Kuzuppa (W. odour.44. style 5-6 fid. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. -Baraloniya. 3-4 leaves. Badi Lona Dudagorai. characteristic. sub-sessile. Baranunia Garden Purslane. short. cuneiform. Chhotalunia.5 cm long. Common Indian Purslane Luni.Almost cylindrical. Kozuppa. less in number. at terminal heads. Ghola -Lonak. fracture. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Leaf .35-0.25-0. Badanuni. 0.3 cm long. Kozhuppa. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Lonika. Doddagoni Soppu.6 cm wide. stamens 8-12.A few. 102 . spathulate. Kulfa. secondary roots.5 cm long and 0.3 to 2. brownish-grey.2 cm in diameter. found throughout the country. bright yellow. Peddapavila Kura.4 cm long.4 cm long.Simple. small. Kozhuppu Pappukura. 0. short. 0. Kwfa Pasalai. Moti Luni Khursa.An ovoid capsule. surface smooth. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Loni -Koricchira. sepal 0. swollen at the nodes. Loni. 0. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. Paruppukkeerai. Flower . fracture.Cylindrical.P) Portulacaceae). Pulikkirai.1 to 0. an annual succulent. rounded and truncate at the apex. petals obovate. root hairs abundant in upper region. 0. Gho¶ik¡. (Fam. very delicate and soon falling off. Stem .1 to 0. smooth and greenish-brown. Khurfa. branched. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . oblong. Fruit . prostrate herb.

arranged in radial rows. Appendix 2. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. 2. Appendix per cent. b) Microscopic Root . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled..2. vessels. tracheids and parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. thick-walled with wide lumen. Appendix per cent. 2. tracheids. 2.06-0. Powder . reniform. dark brown.Wavy in outline.3.7. phloem and xylem parenchyma. measuring 6-14 µ in dia.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. phloem. 0. Stem . secondary xylem composed of vessels. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled.Greyish-brown.Seed -Numerous. oval cells. Appendix per cent. fragments of cork cells.2. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. simple as well as compound. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. solitary or in groups of 2-5. thin-walled. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. pericycle fibre present in patches. parenchymatous cells. present in mesophyll cells. parenchyma abundant. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. palisade single layered. parenchymatous cells. measuring 6-14 µ . Lamina . Appendix per cent.2. as well as compound. black. stomata paracytic type. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. covered externally with a thick cuticle. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. tracheids and parenchyma.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. secondary xylem consists of vessels. minute. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening.6.07 cm across.4. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. .2. shows groups of oval to polygonal. 2.2. having simple pits and spiral thickening.2. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. ray cells and pith. pitted and spiral vessels. having intercellular spaces. oval. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. having 2-3 components. IDENTITY. LeafMidrib .

CakÀuÀya.08.10. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.61.50. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . áotha. of the drug in powder form. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.6 g. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.08. Under U. 0.76 (all pinkish red).68 (yellow) and 0. 0. 0. Gulma.41.76 and 0.C. 0..Marma Gu¶ik¡. 0.41. 0. (both green).Protein.52. RukÀa.Agnim¡ndya. Prameha.68 and 0. 0. V¡tahara.C. 0. 0.10. 0. 0. Vra¸a DOSE .98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .V. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.L.76 (green) in visible light. 0. 0.3 . Ar¿a. T. 0. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.10.L.T.68. Pittakara.52 (both faint green). 0. Carbohydrates. 104 .

upto 2 cm thick. slightly astringent. acute. 105 . greyish brown to brown. woody. upto 2. sessile. sparsely prickly. stipulate.2 cm long. covered with long. with secondary and tertiary branches. yellowish-green.Cylindrical. Leaf .45. Stem . varying in length. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata.P) diffused undershrub.week bristles longitudinally grooved. 0. tapering. bark fibrous. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. fracture hard. internal cut surface grey. rependant . 25-50 cm high. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi.Cylindrical. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. distinct. linear lanceolate. Fabaceae). hairy pinnae.5 cm in dia. odour. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. Lajauni Muttidasenui. easily separable from wood. external surface light brown. (Fam. nearly glabrous.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. petiolate. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country.3-0. bark fibrous. obliquely rounded at base. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. Lajjalu (W. Machikegida.6-1. alternate. Lajamani Chhuimui. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. sensitive to touch. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 0. taste. leaflets 10-20 pairs.4 cm broad. Adamalati Lajaka. Lajavanti. Var¡kr¡nt¡.

Compressed. fibres of two types. tangentially elongated to oval.Lomentum. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. 0. 1-1. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. 0.6 cm long.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. phloem rays thick-walled. lobes 4.4-0. 2-3 seriate more common. scattered throughout. radially elongated. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. consisting of large. parenchyma. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. oval-elliptic. much exserted. 2. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. ovate oblong. brown to grey. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. secondary cortex wide. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. starch grains. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. crystal fibres elongated.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face.3 long. filled with reddish-brown contents. 106 . fibres. Fruit . fibres single or in groups. simple. crystal fibres thick-walled. stamens 4. respectively.Pink. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. 0. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. glabrous. calyx very small. straw coloured. rarely multiseriate. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. a number of lignified. xylem rays radially elongated. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. in globose head.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. moderately thick-walled. phloem rays uni to multiseriate.3 cm long. 3-25 chambered. tangentially elongated cells. parenchymatous cells. phloem fibres single or in groups. corolla pink. scattered throughout secondary xylem. spreading bristle at sutures. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. pith consisting of polygonal. dry. peduncles prickly. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. ovules numerous. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. Stem . thick-walled.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. ovary sessile. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia.Flower . crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. thick-walled. thick-walled. arranged in tangential bands. Seed . b) Microscopic Root .

Reddish-brown. measuring 6-25 µ in dia.3. Powder . cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .3 components IDENTITY. thin-walled. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. parenchymatous cells Seed .81 (bluish-pink). parenchymatous cells. 0. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U.L. shaggy hairs. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. Appendix per cent. 2.V. 0.35. Lamina .Shows single layered radially elongated cells.7. one in each wing. crystal fibres. lignified cells followed by single layered.L. T.2. pericycle same as in petiole. spongy parenchyma. Appendix per cent. embryo straight with short and thick radicle.C. 2. palisade cells non glandular.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular.69 (all blue) and 0. spongy parenchyma single layered. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. shaggy hairs.C.4. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. fibres. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Leaf- Petiole . rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. pitted vessels.62.2.shows single layered epidermis. Fruit .2. Appendix per cent. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. vascular bundle single. palisade single layered. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. reticulate. single and compound starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. shows. Midrib .2. Appendix per cent. branched.2.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.6. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.shows epidermis on both surfaces. branched. with 2 . mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.2. 2. endocarp of thick-walled. pericycle arranged in a ring. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. parenchymatous cells. covered with thin-cuticle. Appendix 2.

spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.áopha. D¡ha. 0.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. 0. Atis¡ra. áv¡sa.35 and 0. Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS . Vra¸a. Yoniroga.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. THERAPEUTIC USES .35 (orange). 108 . KuÀ¶ha. Ku¶aj¡valeha. Raktapita DOSE .

Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Hippe. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues.F. Mahawash tree Mahudo. epipetalous and arranged in two series. Bassia latifolia Roxb. anther sub-sessile. tabular. basifixed. Syn. Mahua Katiluppai. and also cultivated. Madhuka. short. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. ovate lanceolate. Sapotaceae) . (Fam. sweet.) Macbride. Halippe. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. Eppimara -Irippa. corolla fleshy. Iluppa. Ippa. reddish-brown. latifolia (Roxb. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. erect 0. b) Microscopic Corolla . M. taste. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. lanceolate.5-2 cm long. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. epipetalous. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). Ilippa. followed by thin-walled. Hippenara. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Androecium . Madhuka (Fl.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Kattu Iluppai.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers.Gmel.46. a few 109 .

V¡tahara. spherical. 110 . pollen grains single or in groups. 2. árama DOSE .10 . Appendix 10 per cent. oval shaped. unicellular hairs.15 g. Appendix 5 per cent. of the drug. KÀata. shows fragments of epidermal cells. 2.2.4.7. Appendix 25 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. Balya.3.áv¡sa. lignified cells.Madh£k¡sava. áramahara. Appendix 70 per cent.2. 2.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. tapetum not distinct. KÀaya. IDENTITY.6.5 per cent. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. 2. 2.unicellular hairs present on one side. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.Dark brown.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . El¡di Modaka.2. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. round. Ah¤dya. Pittakara.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Powder .2. endothecium composed of radially elongated. Appendix 0. D¡ha. T¤À¸¡.

no characteristic odour and taste.Herbaceous.1-0.5 cm wide. Syn. repens Gmel.P. A.Cylindrical. short. or elliptic. Matsy¡duni. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. no characteristic odour and taste..) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.5-5 cm long. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. A..) R. fracture. 0. A. Flower .3-2 cm wide.. 2. internodes 0..Flower in small axillary sessile heads. Stem . short. bracteoles 111 . Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . no characteristic odour and taste.5 cm long. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. non Link. weak. yellowish-brown to light-brown. often rooting at lower nodes. Amaranthaceae). cream to grey. obtuse or subacute. nodes and internodes distinct.6 cm diameter. linear-oblong. Leaf . Bahli. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. 0.1. Gandal¢. Br. nodiflora R. with spreading branches from the base. fracture. white often tinged with pink. triandra Lam.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. Br. A.3-7. Br.47. denticulata R. Matshyakshi (W. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. sessile. (Fam.

cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. parenchymatous cells. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. palisade ratio 3-5. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. b) Microscopic Root . sepals ovate. 1. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. ovary obcordate. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. radially arranged cork cells. bicollateral. each consisting of xylem and phloem. ovate. irregular. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. with anomalous secondary growth. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. covered wtith striated cuticle. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. compressed. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. isodiametric.Utricle. with are conjoint.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. parenchymatous cells. open and exarch. perianth 2. parenchymatous cells. style very short. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. round or oval. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. compressed with thickened margins. vascualr bundles radially arranged.dorsiventral. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. round to oval. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. orbicular. Fruit . no characteristic odour and taste. parenchymatous cells. palisade 2-3 layers. secondary cortex narrow. single layered. consistig of thin-walled. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. composed of thin-walled. no characteristic odour and taste. isodiametic cells. shows wavy or undulate. pith distinct. pith consisting of thin-walled. numerous. Leaf- Midrib . each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. acute.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. Lamina . capitellate.1. consisting of thin-walled cells. Stem . vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. thin-walled round or oval. scarious.5-3 mm long. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. vascular bundles three. collenchymatous cells.2 cm long. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin. thin-walled. 112 . present in the centre. stomata paracytic. xylem tissues lignified.5 mm long.

113 . Pittavik¡ra.2. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.68 (all red).2.4. 0.44.54 and 0.16.59.7. Under U. 0. 2. CONSTITUENTS .94 and 0.96 (all yellow). 2.33 and 0. Appendix 10 per cent. 0.16. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES .44. 2. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . Appendix 3 per cent. 0.44 (all green).Sugar. Tikta.L. 0. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. 0. V¡tahara. 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.5 per cent.2. Kaphahara. IDENTITY.35. T. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.6.2 -3 g. 0.2. 0. Appendix 19 per cent.33. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.3.25. 0.KuÀ¶ha. 2.2. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.V.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. paracytic stomata. Appendix 2. 0.81. of the drug in powder form.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.Powder .Olive green. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.L..18. Appendix 4.C.

pleasant. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. Fabaceae). odour. Methi (Sd. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings.) aromatic. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex.5 cm long. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. columnar palisade. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. covered externally with thick cuticle. b) Microscopic Seed . taste. 114 .48. cultivated throughout the country.walled. parenchymatous cells. mucilaginous cells. smooth. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. 0. thin-walled. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. cells flat at base. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.35 cm broad. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. (Fam. bitter. very hard. 30-60 cm tall. dull yellow. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part.Seed shows a layer of thick. several layers of thin walled. annual herb.15-0. varying in size. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated.2-0.

Sapogenins and Mucilage.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. CONSTITUENTS .2. of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. Rucya. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.3-6 g. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. Aruci DOSE . Kaphahara. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. oil globules.2.Alkaloid. 2. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. Prameha.5 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 5 per cent.Graha¸¢.6.3.Yellow. IDENTITY. Appendix 0. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. THERAPEUTIC USES . 115 .2.2. 2. Jvara. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. Powder .4. Appendix 2.2. aleurone grains.

compressed. bisexual. hollow. Stem . upper most leaves simple. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. coarsely toothed. 0.1-1. taste. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.7-2.Root cylindrical. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. Muli. sometimes brown red. having a few longitudinal striations.) Brassicaceae). Mulaka (W. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally.3 cm long. Flower . smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. variable size and thickness. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. an annual or biennial bristly herb.Flower in long terminal raceme. (Fam.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . blade obovate. seplas 6. not distinct.P.. complete 1-2 cm long.Lower leaves hairy.5-10 cm long. slightly pungent. petals 1. pedicel with scattered hairs. Leaf . petiole 5-5. oblong.0 cm in dia. yellowish-green. sub-marginate at the apex. odour. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .2 cm long.Slender. cylindrical.49. lyrate. bright green. regular.

8.Siliqua. 1-2 chambered. oily. present only on upper side. erect.dorsiventral. 10-12 ovuled. one central and two lateral. elliptical. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends.Reddish-brown. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. taste.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. cylindrical. 3-9 cm long and 0. traversed by xylem rays.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. two outer smaller and four inner longer. Fruit . hairs unicellular. parenchymatous cells. round to oval. single layered. vascular bundle three in number. 2-4 mm long. present in cortex and phloem. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. 2 mm wide. pith a wide zone of polygonal. green or brown-purple. b) Microscopic Root . cork cells. traversed by phloem rays. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. medullary rays four to many cells wide.appears biconvex in outline. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. thin-walled. sometimes flattened. greenish-yellow. thin-walled. Stem . covered with thick cuticle. parenchymatous cells. stamen 6 in two whorls. starch grains simple. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. phloem. epidermis single layered.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. present in cortex. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. irregularly globose. Seed . Leaf- Petiole . Midrib . epidermis followed by 6. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. Lamina . secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. palisade 2-3 layers. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. solitary or ingroups. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. round to oval. ovary superior. longitudinally sulcatus. occasionally pale purple.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. continuous or more or less constricted. 117 . endodermis at some places. parenchymatous cells.4 cm thick.purple vein. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. radially arranged. style about 4 mm long.1. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers.

Appendix per cent. shows aseptate fibres.Agnim¡ndya. straight cuticle.2. Appendix per cent.7. spiral vessels. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. tangentially elongated. Appendix per cent. P¡cana. Svarya. Kaphahara. Rucya. 2.20 . covered with thin. Appendix per cent. Gulma. Gandhaka Va¶¢. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. thin-walled. IDENTITY. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells. CONSTITUENTS .Fruit . thinwalled. of the drug in juice form.40 ml. measuring 3-14 µ diameter.Glucoside. 118 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. 2.2.M£lakakÀ¡ra.4.Shows a single layered epidermis. Ud¡varta. 2. of columnar cells. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Yellowish-green. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. 2. Appendix 2. reddish-brown. Pittahara. Ar¿a.2.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells.2. Seed . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. H¤dya.3. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . covered with a thin-cuticle. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. Powder .2. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. parenchymatous cells present. DOSE .6. P¢nasa.2. Tikta Laghu.

sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. IDENTITY. Mullangi.2. 2. usually 25-40 cm in length. Appendix per cent. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula.2. Brassicaceae). Appendix per cent.6. Appendix 2. white in colour. variable in size. Appendix per cent. slightly or strongly pungent.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. having a few lateral fibrous roots.7. 2. 119 . Mula Muli Moolangi.2. (Fam. fusiform. Saleya. Mulaka.2. 2.) annual or biennial bristly herb. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.4. Mulaka (Rt. rarely sweet. taste.3. Visra.50. Appendix per cent. cylindrical. Rakhyasmula Mula. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy.2. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.2. Moclangi gadde.

H¤dya. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.09 & 0.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Ud¡varta DOSE .34.09 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Kaphahara.Glucoside. Vrana. Tikta Laghu. of the drug in the juice form 120 . Galaroga. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.69 (all yellow). Dadru. Gulma. Rucya.LC. áv¡sa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ar¿a. 0. 0.09.04. P¢nasa.Agnim¡ndya. 0. K¡sa.T.04 & 0. 0. Jvara. 0. Netraroga. Pittahara.04. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .L. P¡cana.V.15-30 ml. 0.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .C. T.49 & 0. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. Svarya. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

slightly bitter. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. rectangular cells.51. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. Daitya. (Fam. Root . dull brown.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . Mura (Rt. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. inner cells thin-walled. a perennial herb.4 m tall. tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi.) DC.Shows 10 . colour. aromatic. Apiaceae ). secondary phloem shows wide zone. traversed by xylem rays. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. odour. taste. traversed by phloem rays. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige.1. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. 0.2. consisting of tangentially elongated. Syn. 6-12 cm long and 0. tenuifolium Wall. Gandhakuti. fibres and parenchyma. S. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. thin-walled cells. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated.6 . thin-walled cells.42000 m. cambium 2-4 layered. secondary cortex composed of rounded.3 .5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths.

Sucrose and Mannitol. shows groups of cork cells.áv¡sa. of the drug in powder form. Ka¶u.2. Powder .7.5 per cent.Arvind¡sava. Appendix 17 per cent.Brown. Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara.4. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .having spiral thickenings. fibres aseptate.2. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .6. Appendix 9 per cent. D¡ha. somewhat oval cells. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . short with blunt ends. secondary phloem. secretory canals. Tikta. secondary phloem. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter.2. CONSTITUENTS . secretory canals numerous. round to oval. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. starch grains simple. composed of radially arranged. Jvara. Appendix 3. present in secondary cortex. xylem parenchyma.3. 2.2. 2. Bhrama. oil globules and simple starch grains. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. distributed throughout secondary cortex. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. parenchymatous cells. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. 122 .2.. IDENTITY.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). secondary xylem and medullary rays. xylem and phloem rays. M£rchha. Appendix 9 per cent. 2.2. 2.1-3 g.

Koratige. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. b) Microscopic Root . fracture.Shows a cork. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. a large stout. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. & Am. Halukaratige. indistinct. phloem fibres absent. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. some filled with reddish-brown contents.) Asclepiadaceae). growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. (Fam. twining shrub. slightly bitter. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size.5-3 cm thick.52. rectangular cells. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. phloem rays 1 123 . Jartor Koratige Hambu. taste. tangentially elongated. similar to those present in secondary cortex. Madhusrava. bark easily separable from wood. odour. resin cells present irregularly in this region. Kallu Shambu. Murva (Rt.

shows a number of stone cells. Prameha Mihira Taila. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. simple and compound starch grains.Light brown. fibres. 2. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.2. measuring 5. Ka¸·£.6.tracheids. Raktapitta. fibretracheids. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. tracheids. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 0. Appendix 14 per cent. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 .. Mukha áosa. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. present in parenchymatous tissues. Appendix 2. composed of vessels. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T¤Àn¡. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. 2.3. of the drug for decoction. Appendix 7 per cent. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. Meha. Medoroga. 10-20 g. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. 2. Tikta Guru.4.22 µ in diameter.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2. starch grains simple. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . elliptical to spherical with central hilum. fibres.2. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. DOSE .Ar¿a. vessels with pitted walls. Pittahara.7..3 cells wide. 124 .5-22 µ dia. V¡tahara. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations.2. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. Appendix 5 per cent. 5.2. K¤miroga. H¤droga. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. Jvara. fragments of cork. Powder . of the drug in powder form.2. consisting of small tangential.5 per cent.2-6 g.

N¡gapuÀpa. N¡ga. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall.Anther shows golden-brown. astringent. Nagakesar (Stmn. taste.8 . connective not visible with naked eye. Assam. Bengal. Hem¡. odour. basifixed. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. containing pollen grains. soft to touch. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. Veluthapala.5 cm long. Powder . anther about 0. often buttressed at the base. Sachunagkeshara. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Naugaliral. shows elongated cells of filament. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Nagchampa. more or less twisted. connective and filament.0 cm long. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Peri. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. an Ke¿ara. fragrant. Konkan. yellowish and thin-walled.53. thick-walled.) evergreen tree.9 cm long. (Fam. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh.Brown. Nagppu. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. coppery or golden brown. Nagachampakam. Guttiferae). Pilunagkesar.9-1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. Nagakesari -Nangaa. b) Microscopic Androecium . linear. filament 0. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. filiform. Nahar Nageshvara. quite brittle. distinct protuberances on walls. parenchymatous cells.1. 125 . Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. exine and intine distinct. Nauga. each stamen 0. consisting of thin-walled. slender.

THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Raktapitta. Vastiroga DOSE . of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent. Kum¡ry¡sava.6. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. 126 .1-3 g. 2.2.2.2. V¡tarakta. 2. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. Tikta. 2.2. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY. Appendix 2. áopharoga. Var¸ya.2. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. 2.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. CONSTITUENTS .7.Essential oil and Oleo-resin.3.4.2. Appendix per cent.

pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. leaflet 1-2. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. 1. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.8 m high. N¢l¢n¢.5 cm long and 0.) shrub.1. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (Fam. pale green to greenish-black. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip.2 cm wide. Fabaceae). a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. Nili (Lf. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu.3-1. pith composed of round to oval. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.54. 127 . no characteristic odour and taste. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings.2.

both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. 2. Appendix 10 per cent.2.. Appendix 7. Appendix 25 per cent.2. K¡sa. 2. K¤imiroga. Pl¢haroga.. palisade 2-3 layers. similar as in petiole and midrib. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 2. Lamina .2. V¡tahara. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma.2.shows epidermis. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . vascular bundle single. epidermis. Ke¿ya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.Greenish-grey. collateral and crescent shaped. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. Jvara.Ëmav¡ta. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.shows dorsiventral structure. 2. cuticle and hair. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells.2.Glycoside (Indican). Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Gulma. 2. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . IDENTITY. 128 .. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. similar as in petiole.6.4. pitted vessels.50-100 g. Appendix 2 per cent.7. V¡tarakta. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. CONSTITUENTS . cuticle and hair.3.5 per cent. shows groups of mesophyll cells. aseptate fibres. Udararoga.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. Ud¡varta. of decoction.Midrib . ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .

(Fam. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. Gari Nili Kadunili. Nili Chettu. Rangapatr¢. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.5 cm thick. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. slightly bitter. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. odour not distinct. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels.) shrub. taste. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. Neeligida.55.10 layers of tangentially elongated. Nil. 1. cylindrical. Neeli Nili. Nili (Rt. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown.8 m high. 129 .. Olleneeli -Amari. woody. group of fibres. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. Indian Indigo Gali. 0. thin-walled cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. Nila Nili. hard. with lenticels. Nila -Neel Avuri. consisting of usual elements. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. secondary cortex a narrow zone.2-1. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. thin-walled cells. Karunili. rectangular. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. Nili.1 -1.

of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. V¡tarakta.80. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0. 0.58 (blue). 0. V¡tahara. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.14 (blue). pitted vessels. 0.Gulma. K¤imiroga. Ud¡varta.33. xylem parenchyma and rays. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. 2. 0. T. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. 2. ViÀavik¡ra. starch grains simple.L.50. of drug for decoction.40.63.0. Ke¿ya.48 g.7.06. 0. Appendix 0. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .58. 0. simple and compound starch grains. Powder .47 (blue). 0.2. 0.0.33.10. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. IDENTITY. and 0. 0.21.6. Appendix 6 per cent. 0.. present in cortex. 0. round to oval. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.91 (all yellow).40. 0.75.Creamish-brown.40 (blue). 0. 0. 0. 0.81 (blue). 0.2.75 (blue). shows aseptate fibres.58. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C.14. 0. Appendix 3 per cent.06.. 0. DOSE . CONSTITUENTS . Pl¢h¡roga. 0. 0. 2.7 per cent.27. 0. 0.75. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.91 (all grey).30 (bluish green).2. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.2. Recan¢. phloem.86 and 0.81. K¡sa. Appendix 2.2.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf.4.3. Udararoga.50.86 (green) and 0.Arvind¡sava. 0.10.63 (bluish green).91 (blue). 130 .63.14.86.V.L.C. Ëmav¡ta. 0.2.27.

Veppu. Bevu.56. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Arulundi. Veppan Vemu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. lanceolate. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Limba. exstipulate. Nimba (Lf. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Veppa Balantanimba. slightly yellowish-green.Compound. Limbado.5 cm long and 1. Nim. Kahibevu. Melia azadirachta Linn. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Aryaveppu. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. rachis 15-25 cm long. 0. opposite. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Juss Syn. serrate. Kohumba Nim.7 cm wide. Bakayan. Bakan. alternate. Limado. Oilevevu. acute. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. 7-8. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. 131 .0-1. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. Meliaceae). occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Nimba Nimba. Bevinama -Veppu. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. leaflets with oblique base. Nimbam. taste. indistinct. odour. (Fam. crystals also present in phloem region.1 cm thick. Nim Vemmu.

Powder .2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. stomatal index 13. of the drug in powder form.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.5 on lower surface and 8. epidermis on either surface. palisade single layered. traversed by a number of veins. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.2. composed of thin walled. Ëma¿otha.3. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. palisade ratio 3. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only.2. 2. Prameha.Lamina . fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.0-14. IDENTITY.1-3 g.Triterpenoids and Sterols.5 on upper surface. fibres. Appendix per cent. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. 132 . ViÀarogas DOSE . spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. thin-walled cells. Netraroga. shows vessels.2. KuÀ¶ha.Jvara. tangentially elongated cells. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction.2. Appendix per cent.Green. 2.0-11.7. K¤miroga. covered externally with thick cuticle. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix 2. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Vrana.5.6. V¡tal¡. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.2.shows dorsiventral structure.4.0-4.

extemal surface rough. considerably thick in older barks. fibrous. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Juss. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. taste. Kadunimb. Nimba. odour. Nimb Bevu. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Vembu Vemu. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. Nimba. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken.57. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. fracture. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. a moderate sized to fairly large. fissured and rusty-grey. Limba Nimba Nim. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Melia azadirachta Linn. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. evergreen tree. Nimba (St. (Fam. Syn. characteristic. Oilevevu -Veppu. Kahibevu. woody. Meliaceae). Bakam Veppai. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents.

Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.2.L. Pittahara. measuring 2. IDENTITY. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.C. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem.72 (blue). 0. Appendix 5 per cent.V. cork cells. 0.2. 2. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder . starch grains. and 0.5 per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. Kaphahara. 2. Appendix 2. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. secondary cortex absent in most cases. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . CONSTITUENTS .90 (green). Vra¸a¿odhanakara.4. 0. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. 2.2. simple.outer surface.75-5 µ in diameter. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.63 and 0.86 (blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. Appendix 7 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent.2.measuring 2. 0. round with central hilum.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.L. stone cells mostly in groups. having wide lumen and distinct striations.90 (all blue).C. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.45.20. 2.7.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands.Reddish-brown. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. simple starch grains.6. lignified rectangular to polygonal. T. Appendix 1.2. ViÀaghna.3.

. KuÀ¶ha. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Rakta Pitta. Vra¸a DOSE . Decoction should be used externally.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pa´canimba C£r¸a.D¡ha. Prameha. Ka¸·u. Jvara. K¤miroga.2-4 g. 135 .

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Khakhapado Dhak. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone.Bk) Fabaceae). commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. having brown colour. rectangular. 5-10 or more layered. exposing light brown surface. Tesu Purasu. Dhak. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. Chettu Dhak. Paras Moduga. often in groups. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. dark brown. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Tesu Muttug. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. curved. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. rectangular 136 . pale brown. slightly astringent.15 m high with irregular branches. Camata. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. Plas. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. internal surface rough. Palasha (St. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. 12 . and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. Muttuga. greyish to pale brown. fracture. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. thin-walled. dark-brown.58.) Kuntze (Fam. Palash. Muttala -Plasu. rhytidoma 0. Modugu.5 . taste. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged.2 cm thick usually peels off. 0.1 cm thick. Khakharo. except in very arid parts. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. cork cells. tanniniferous cells. moderately thick-walled.

Appendix 10 per cent.65 (all blue).3 components.Reddish-brown. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. 2. Appendix 14 per cent.2.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. companion cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.10. T.75 µ in dia.2.10. thin-walled cork cells. 2. Appendix 12 per cent.48 and 0.75 . numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.2. straight. Appendix 2.10.V.18.7.5 per cent. dark brown coloured cells.12 cells wide.3. 2. phloem fibres.48. 7 .13.. CONSTITUENTS . in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C.2. sclereids mostly in groups. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath.cells followed by a zone of 2 . 0. 0.50 cells in height. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. 2. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.2.. Appendix 1. measuring 2.67 (all violet).2. Powder .4. 0. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. phloem parenchyma. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.L.4 layers of sclereids.L. phloem rays multiseriate 4 .67 (all yellow). starch grains simple or compound having 2 .6. traversed by phloem rays. 137 .C. crystal fibres. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . 0.48 and 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.

Graha¸¢. Agnid¢paka. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. Gulma.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Vra¸a.Ar¿a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga. DOSE . S¡raka .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. KaÀ¡ya Sara.5-10 g. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. 138 . of the drug in powder form for decoction. Tikta.

Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated to squarish. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. yellowish to cream coloured. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. parenchymatous cells.Bk) Fabaceae).Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. Paribhadra (St. inner bark fibrous. Pangara Hongar. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey.0 cm thick. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. smooth. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . secondary cortex consists of large.5-2. (Fam. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. exfoliating in narrow strips. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. Mulmurumgai Badisa. stone 139 . also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. medium sized. quick growing tree.59. radially arranged and thin-walled.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. Volatile Oil. 148 .Alkaloids.CONSTITUENTS . V¤Àya. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of drug in powder form.. Balak¤t.V¡tarakta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. V¡taroga DOSE .2-4 g..

Satdhan -Charal. pitted. linear. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. funicle stout. latifolia Roxb. Korka.) Anacardiaceae). Priyala (Sd.63. B. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. Saraparuppu Sara. 0. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. occurring mostly in groups. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. pleasant. micropyle superior. sclerenchymatous cells. which are of various size. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. taste. hilum present at the apex of round edge.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. Priyalam.3-0. collapsed cells of integument. mottled with darker brown lines. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. (Farn. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. Shalichokha Piyal. sweetish-oily. followed by remnants of disorganised. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed.6 cm long. large.4-0. 0. Piyar. Syn. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. thick-walled.5 cm wide. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. b) Microscopic Seed . creamish-brown. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . Chowl. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. odour.

Appendix 7 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent.measuring 2. 0.27.98 (all violet). procambium bundles. T. 0.10 . Appendix 4 per cent.27. 0.V.2.L.A creamish-brown paste. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Powder . Bhagnas¡dhaka.72.2.72.94 and 0. 150 .0 µ in dia. 0.P£gakha¸·a.2. 0.98 (all yellow). Raktapitta.5-5. Kaphakara.5 per cent. 2. 0.L.20 g.54. and oil globules. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. Appendix 0.5-5. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. 0.08.C. H¤dya. 0. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. áukrakara.2. 2.3.94 and 0. of the drug in powder form. KÀata. 0. KÀaya.91.C.0 µ in dia. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. 2. Sara. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. shows numerous mesophyll cells.type.91.4. DOSE .72 and 0. Oil and Starch. Pittahara.6. 0. and sclerenchymatous cells. V¡tahara. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. V¤Àya. BrÆha¸a.Albuminoids.2.7.94 (blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. 0.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. Appendix 2.54. Balya.08. Priy¡la Taila.D¡ha. CONSTITUENTS .84. 0. 0.

densely clothed with wooly hairs.2. stamens 4. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. Flower . basifixed.5 cm long. anther ovate. (Fam. style. long.5 .) Verbenaceae). calyx. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . 2. tubular. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl.5-7. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. bell-shaped. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. filament very long.5 cm across. brown. and abundant in Bengal plains. 1. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. epipetalous. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. parenchymatous cells. peduncle cylindrical.2. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. 4 lobbed spreading. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . densely hairy. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. corolla. 1.Cymose.4 m high shrub.Shows more or less wavy outline.0. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. an erect. equal in size. stigma minutely capitate. ovary 2-4 celled. hairy. b) Microscopic Peduncle . Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. brown.64.3 mm in dia. thin-walled. Priyangu (Infl. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs.

D¡ha. Kanaka Taila.4. El¡di C£r¸a. fibres aseptate. Appendix 2. DOSE . Terpenes.2. V¡tahara.2. Vra¸aropa¸a.2.Brown. Appendix per cent.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Ku´kum¡di Taila. Sved¡dhikya. Appendix per cent.6. 2. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. CONSTITUENTS .2.Glycosides. Resin and Saponin. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. aseptate fibres. Powder . 2. Pras¡dana. Jvara. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya.2. Appendix per cent. N¢lik¡dya Taila. Rakta-Pitta. Rakta. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. IDENTITY.3. 2. spiral vessels. groups of thin-walled. Appendix per cent. (Mukharoga). M£travirajan¢ya.fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. of the drug in powder form.2. xylem consists of usual elements. Pakv¡tis¡ra. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.7.1-3 g. Phenolic compound. 152 . elliptical. Sandh¡n¢ya. Daurgandhyahara.

cortex differentiated into three zones. Bhatta. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Sali. Dh¡nya.1 cm thick with a few rootlets.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. Vr¢hi. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Akki -Ari. sclerenchymatous cells.05-0. Biyyamu Chaval. Powder .) cultivated throughout India. Chawl. composed of thick-walled. Dhanarmul. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Damgara. sclerenchymatous cells. Cala. thick-walled. Nelver Dhanyamu. cylindrical. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Nellu. Odalu. Nivara -Chaval. smooth. Corava. both consisting of round to oval.65. an annual herb. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Dhana Bhatto. Coke Chaval. soft. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. (Fam. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Nellu Tandulamul. pitted vessels and 153 . Shali (Rt. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Poaceae). Dhana. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Paddy Shalichokha. Bhata.Greyish-cream. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. thin. Jhona Arishi. b) Microscopic Root . exodermis 1-2 layered. Dhan Rice.

CakÀuÀya. Appendix 2. Laghu. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Var¸ak¤t. Appendix per cent. 2.StanyakÀaya. V¡tahara. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent.2. Appendix per cent. 2.3. Svarya. 154 . IDENTITY. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug for decoction.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. Appendix per cent. BrÆha¸a. Rucya.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Balya.2.2. Baddh¡lpavarcasa.7.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Kaphahara.4. M£trala. KaÀ¡ya Guru.50 g. 2. Pittahara. H¤dya.

hairy on both surfaces. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam.White or pinkish.) Convolvulaceae). Leaf .Slender. linear-lanceolate. Stem .5 cm broad. light green. Shankhapushpi. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. hairy.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. Sankha pushpin (W. light green. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu.66. epipetalous. perennial herb with a woody root stock. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Sankhapuspi. alternate with the petals.P. free.Shortly petiolate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sparsely hairy. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡.5-2 cm long and 0. sepals narrowly. linear-lanceolate. Flower . spreading. corolla shortly discoid. sub-erect. found throughout the country. Shankhavela.4 cm thick. stamen 5. 155 . 0. a prostrate.Usually branched.1-0. Karakhuratt. inserted deep in the corolla tube.1-0. about 0. ovary superior and bicarpellary. 1-5 cm long. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. cylindrical. cylindrical. Kakkanangudi. acute. yellowish-brown to light brown.

0. pale brown pericarp. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. vein islet number 21-25 per sq.Brown. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. phloem a narrow zone. Powder . fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. thin. vascular bundle bicollateral. simple and compound starch grains. at places unicellular hairs present.Appears nearly circular in outline. palisade ratio 6-9. mm. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248.walled cells.Capsule.. Lamina . composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits.8-17.Light yellowish-green. elongated. . round to oval in shape. covered with thick cuticle. simple and composed of 2-3 components. fibres and parenchyma. oblong globose with coriaceous.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. unicellular hairs. b) Microscopic Root . secretory cells present in this region. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated.Shows single layered epidermis. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. epidermis single layered. xylem consists of vessels. fibres and tracheids. both having round to oval. cortex differentiated in two zones. xylem consisting of usual elements. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. minutely puberulous. phloem. present on both surfaces.8 µ in dia. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. phloem composed of sieve elements. palisade two layered. Stem . xylem rays and parenchyma. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. 156 . medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. LeafMidrib . mm. present in cortex. elliptical.Fruit . measuring 3-8 µ in dia. endoderrnis single layered. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith.. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. starch grains solitary or in groups. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. tanniniferous. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. measuring 3 . and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. thick-walled cells. 13. hairs unicellular. covered with thick cuticle. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. Seed .appears convex in lower and concave in upper side.

Ras¡yana. Clitoria ternatea Linn.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.4. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.M¡nasaroga. 2. Tikta. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . ËyuÀya.2.2. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Ras¡yana. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Br¡hma. 2. Appendix per cent. 2. Kaphahara.3. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Medhya. Appendix per cent.7.IDENTITY.3-8 g.2. Pittahara. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Agastyahar¢tak¢. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 2. Ras¡yana.2.6. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.2. Appendix 2.

pale brown.7-7 cm long.celled with or without attached pedicel.Involucre broadly campanulate. 3. 0. having a few secondary roots. cylindrical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. Bilikalli.1. solitary. odour and taste indistinct. gland semilunate. ovate. smooth. Saptala (W. trilocular. Leaf . Fruit . Kalli -Chasma Lantha. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5-2 mm thick. Siju. Joyachi. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. lobes short. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. annual herb. ciliolate. 4-5 cm long. 0.) Euphorbiaceae).8 cm wide.P. odour and taste not distinct.5 mm across at the mouth. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate.2-0. shortly 2-fid at the apex. 1 mm long. lanceolate or linear oblong. 3-4 mm in dia. 158 . greenish-yellow. style. Flower .67.Capsule. filament pubescent. 20-40 cm high. ribbed. linear. fracture.Small. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. horned. sessile. subacute. short. free to the base. gradually tapering. Carmas¡hv¡. 2. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. a much branched. (Fam. sub-sessile. Chagulputputi Satala.

endodermis not distinct. flattended. secondary xylem consists of vessels.75 µ in dia. secondary phloem narrow. 2. simple. Leaf- Midrib .3 mm long. rounded to oval. stone cells oval to elongated. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. thick-walled lignified. elliptical. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. rarely a few oil globules also present. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. fibres and vessels having simple pits.Seed . tangentially elongated elliptical. secondary xylem composed of vessels. vessels having simple pits. all elements thick-walled and lignified. covered externally with thick. b) Microscopic Root . composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. fibres. consisting of thick-walled. circular to oval. rectangular.shows slightly convex outline. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. lignified cells with wide lumen. mature root shows thin walled cork. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct.Young root shows exfoliated. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. starch grains simple. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. centre occupied by a pith. found scattered in phloem region. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs.25 µ in diameter. rounded at the base. striated cuticle. solitary or in groups. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. parenchymatous cells. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. all elements. thickwalled and lignified. filled with yellowish-brown content. 159 . with wide lumen present in this region. palisade single layered present on both sides. single layered epidermis. tracheids and medullary rays. secondary cortex consists of 4. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. leprous tuberculate testa. Stem . parenchymatous cells. composed of sieve elements. rounded to oval. some rounded.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. fibres and tracheids. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. epidermis single layered.5-19. measuring 5. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. grooved at one side. elliptical. fibres elongated and aseptate. traversed by numerous xylem rays. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. tangentially elongated cells. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side.6 layers of oval.

Ud¡vartta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.C. lignified with wide lumen. Appendix per cent.7. 2. Appendix per cent. stone cells thick-walled.L.Light yellow. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2.2.04. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. Mi¿raka Sneha.04 and 0.0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Visarpa.V. elliptical. of the drug for decoction. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.3.L. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. oval to elongated.50 g. rounded to oval starch grains.Ën¡ha. V¡tal¡. Vibandha. and 0.67.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).2. 2.6. Udararoga. 160 . 0.46 (brown) and 0.2. Gulma. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. shows vessels with simple pits.57 (all yellow). DOSE . (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix per cent.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.Powder . IDENTITY.4. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . RukÀa.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.2. aseptate fibres. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.87 (violet). T. simple.C. RaktadoÀahara. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. 2. 0.46.

parenchymatous. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. yellowish membranous wings. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. mericarps usually separate and free. Shepa. Sulpha. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway.. and a warm. glabrous. 4 mm long. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. dorsal 161 . Apiaceae). b) Microscopic Fruit . Satahva (Fr. glabrous.. filiform and incospicuous. often stalk attached. graveolens Linn. vittae. a tall. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. Shulupa. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. slightly raised. Sova Sabasige --Badishep.. akin to caraway. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. var. ex Flem. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. brown. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. mesocarp.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. odour. Syn.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle.68. A. slightly sharp taste. graveolens Benth. sowa Roxb. A. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. graveolens DC. dark brown. P. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls.

endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. carpophore split. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. shows spiral vessels. of the drug in powder form.costae three. Powder .4. Vra¸a. Appendix 3 per cent.5 per cent.2. Appendix 4 per cent. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.3-6 g.10 T.59 (blue) and 0. 2. Appendix 2.Brown. Appendix 1.68 (all yellow). passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. Kaphahara. cellulosic. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a.2.59 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. IDENTITY.6. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3.C. 0.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. 0. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 14 per cent. 2.C.Essential Oil. 162 .2.37 (pink) 0.68 (violet).L.2. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.2. Netra Roga DOSE .á£la. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.2. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.L. Jvara. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Atis¡ra. each costae with vascular strands. CONSTITUENTS .7. 2. Appendix 15 per cent. V¡tahara.

Sajna. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green.2-2 cm long and 0.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Sekato. AkÀ¢va. Shewgachi pane Sajana. Munga. central region 163 b) Microscopic . Bahala. elliptic. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Nugge ele -Murinna. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. entire. parenchymatous cells. ovate or obovate. parenchymatous cells. Leaflet . Segata. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. a small or medium sized tree. slender. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. Shigru (Lf. Segata pana. palisade single layered. Syn. Moringaceae). followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. leaflet 1.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Tishnagandha. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. vascular bundle collateral. thickened. pericycle forming a broken ring. oval to elliptical. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Muringa. commonly cultivated throughout the country. Mocaka -Sajina. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. odour and taste not distinct.5-1 cm wide. and articulated at the base. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo.) Gaertn. Muringa Elai Sevaga.69. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. thin walled. consisting of pericyclic fibres. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Rachis . pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Mungna Neegge. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. pith and phloem parenchyma. (Fam.

36. 2. IDENTITY.26. palisade cells.2.L. 0. 0.30 (pink). 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.05. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Appendix per cent. vein islets number 50-65.Carbohydrate. 0. 0. 0. 0. T. V¡tahara.20. (all green). Pittahara.26 (all green). Appendix per cent. B ¤Æhana. 2. 0. 0. 0. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.38. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. spiral vessels. Appendix per cent.36 (green).2.0. 2. Medohara. Appendix 2.46 (dark green) & 0. 0.05.2.94 (violet).59 (blue).C. Appendix per cent.69 (blue) and 0. 0. K¤mihara. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.18.52 (green). unicellular hairs with blunt tip.2. 0.26.46 (both blue).2. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0. Powder -Greyish-green. Under U. 0. 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.05. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. 0. CONSTITUENTS .82 (yellow) and 0.36 (yellowish green).L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. Sirovirecaka 164 . 0. 0.occupied by a crescent-shaped.87 (blue).V.53 (yellow).C. 0. 2.94 (yellow) in visible light.18.4.46 (all red) & 0. 0.46 (green).2. 0.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. stomata anornocytic. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. Protein. palisade ratio 6-11.94 (blue). áukra N¡¿aka. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf.6. RukÀa.7.69 (yellow).

Medoroga. DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .áopha. Pl¢haroga. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Galaga¸·a.Ratnagiri Rasa. 165 .10 . Vidradhi. K¤miroga. ViÀatinduka Taila. Gulma.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.

b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. Sthulaela (Sd. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. Beraelam. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho.70.3 cm wide. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. perispenn encloses the 166 . Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha.. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. membraneous aril. spicy pungent. 0. thin-walled. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki.) Zingiberaceae).4 cm long. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. taste. sclerenchymatous. (Fam. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. thin walled. aromatic. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. perisperm consists of polygonal. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. brown to dark brown.

endosperm and embryo. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. 2. IDENTITY. shows fragments of testa.10 CONSTITUENTS .Light brown. DOSE .Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Appendix 2. 2. perisperm cells. Appendix 1.2. Mukha¿odhaka.5 -1 g. rounded to oval. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. K¡sa. Chardi. RukÀa. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. (Seed).5 per cent. 167 . Ka¸·u.4. Rocaka.3.2. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter.0. Mukharoga. H¤ll¡sa. simple. thin-walled. both composed of polygonal.2. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.(Seed). polygonal. Powder . T¤À¸¡. of the drug in powder form. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Note . V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. Appendix 14 per cent. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Tikta Laghu. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara.6. 2. Appendix 5 per cent. oil globules.2. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.S¡rivady¡sava.2. 2. rich in protein. Appendix 4 per cent.7. 2.

2 cm thick. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. parenchymatous cells. Tumbura. stone cells found in 168 . rather deeply furrowed. stem and branches. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. aromatic. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. Rutaceae). aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. (Fam. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .71. aromatic pungent. thin-walled. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC.Bk.) Roxb. phloem fibres thickwalled. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. fracture. armed with long. Tejovati (St. light yellow to pale brown.0. external surface pale brown. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. internal surface smooth. Jimmi. Z. brownish. sharp prickles. thick-walled cells. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. lignified. Tumburudra. short. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. Thumbooni. taste.1-0. Syn. odour.

Mukharoga. shows fragments of cork cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY.2. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.3.5 per cent.75 µ in diameter. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Hikk¡. a Volatile Oil and Resin.75 . Appendix 8. Medhya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. aseptate fibres.13. Appendix 1.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. 169 . 2. of the drug for decoction. Powder . áv¡sa. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 12 per cent. Ëmav¡ta.75 .Yellowish-brown.7.2. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high.2.6.13. CONSTITUENTS .10-20 g. starch grains round and oval. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. DOSE . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2.Aruci.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. oil globules and starch grains. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex.4. round and oval measuring 2. 2. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). Appendix 2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . stone cells. P¡cana. 2.5 per cent.75 µ in diameter. Appendix 13 per cent. measuring 2. Rucya.2. K¡sa.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.

coloured. odour. pubescent on both sides.5-5 cm long 1.Purplish or crimson coloured. blackish-brown externally and pale. sub quadrangular. odour faintly aromatic. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. branched. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. lower lip 170 .6 . branched. Shree Tulasi. violet internally. Leaf . herbaceous.60 cm high. small in close whorls.2. woody. about 1. internally cream. obtuse or acute. Tulasi (W. found throughout the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. hairy.72.Thin. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Fam. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . K¤À¸atulas¢. shortly apiculate. externally purplish-brown to black. 30 . slender. Lamiaceae).Erect.P. pedicels longer than calyx. characteristic.3. soft. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. entire or serrate. aromatic. taste. annual herb. Thulasi. fracture. much branched.5-3 cm long hairy. petiole thin. pubescent. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. bracts about 3 mm long and broad.2 cm wide. elliptic oblong. wiry. hairy. Stem . Flower .) an erect. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi.

taste. rectangular. nearly smooth. in groups and rarely in singles. fibres with pointed ends.Rounded to oval. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. parenchymatous cells. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. tracheids. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. 0. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. measuring 22-27 in dia. fibre tracheides.rarely slightly reflexed at tip.epidermis. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. thin-walled. brown. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. glandular trichomes short. veined calyx. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. odour.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. xylem consists of vessels. mucilaginous when soaked in water. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. vessels pitted. each with one seed. Leaf- Petiole . pungent. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. odour. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. phloem consisting of sieve elements. taste. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres.A group of 4 nutlets. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. pubescent. occasionally a few cells collapsed. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. enclosed in an enlarged. b) Microscopic Root . pungent. Seed . aromatic. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. parenchymatous cells. xylem surrounded by phloem. thin-walled. elongated. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. slightly notched at the base. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. no odour. fibres and parenchyma. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled.1 cm long. aromatic. filled with brown content. slightly compressed. corolla about 4 mm long. Midrib . middle one larger than other two. long. membranous. phloem consists of sieve elements. round to oval polygonal. taste. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. slightly mucilaginous. pungent. Stem . three vascular bundles situated centrally. found scattered in phloem. Fruit . lateral two short and central two largest. 171 . pitted with pointed ends. thin-walled.shows somewhat cordate outline.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. vessels pitted.

Appendix 2. Kaphahara. a few containing reddish brown contents. H¤dya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.C. oil globules. 2.Lamina .2. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.6. Pittavardhin¢. parenchymatous cells.35. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. On cooling spray.2. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.2. 2.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. in thoroughly vanillin . thin walled fibres. Powder .1. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.2. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. 2. slightly raised above the level of epidermis.Essential Oil. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. Rucya.2.16 on lower surface. Appendix 1. value 0. Record Rf.3.2.7. Appendix 4 per cent.7.8. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.5 per cent. rounded to oval.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.4. Tikta. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. palisade ratio 3.L.minutes Under observation. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. Rf. Appendix 8 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . RukÀa.Greenish: shows thin-walled. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .15 . T. V¡tahara. vein islet number 31 . IDENTITY. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. 2.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . Durgandhihara 172 . xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10).

A¿mar¢.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Chardi. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed).1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. áv¡sa. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . KuÀ¶ha. Netraroga. Hikk¡. 173 . K¡sa. K¤miroga.

5-3 cm long. petiolate.shows cordate outline. odour. elliptic-oblong. 1. three vascular bundles situated centrally. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. hairy. upper epidermis. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. aromatic. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. K¤À¸atulas¢. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. middle one larger than the other two. balloon-shaped head. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. Holy Basil Tulasi. consisting of xylem and phloem. characteristic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢.. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. covering trichomes multicellular. Lamiaceae). pubescent on both surfaces. obtuse or acute. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. LeafPetiole . Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. taste.5-5 cm long. Tulasi (Lf. and 2-8 celled. much branched annual herb. entire or serrate. found throughout the country. 174 b) Microscopic .) 30-60 cm high. petiole 1. glandular trichomes short. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. thin. (Fam.73.6-3. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes.2 cm wide. an erect. measuring 22-27 µ dia.

0. 0.98 (blue).03 (dark green).54 (blue).3.8. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.08 (both green).21.L. IDENTITY.30. shows fragments of polygonal. 0. Appendix per cent. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. T.C. 2.33. Caryophyllene. Powder . 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.12. 2. Lamina . 0.83 (blue).98 (blue). 0. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.93 (both light green). 0. 0. 0.08 (violet). 0.75.21.Midrib . palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. Under U. 0.2. 0.93 (all0 yellow).6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.2. 2. 0. 0.85 & 0.2.93 (pink) & 0.33. 0.85 (blue).08.04.83 (all pink) 0.45 (violet). Appendix per cent. 0. palisade and spongy parenchyma.33 (both green) 0.C. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.12 (light green).). trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. 0.V.21 (brown).2. 0.54.4. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0.epidermis. 0. 0. Appendix 2.45 (yellowish green). palisade ratio 3. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.45.Light-green.83. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.04. 0. 0. Nerol and Camphene etc.45.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. CONSTITUENTS . 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 175 .2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.7. 2.75 (violet)..2. 0.93 (violet) and 0. 0.04.L.88 and 0.33 (violet). 0. 0. vein islet number 31-33.12 (light violet). 0. Appendix per cent.

Pittahara.Aruci.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¡sa. V¡tahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa.2-3 g. H¤dya.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. Tikta. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. Prati¿y¡ya. K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . RukÀa. Hikk¡. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 176 . Kaphahara. áv¡sa.

Ghodavaca Vasambu. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. thin-walled cells of various sizes. short. taste. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. Vacha (Rz. Araceae). Rhizome . Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . cortex composed of spherical to oblong. smaller. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. somewhat collenchymatous. large. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. pungent and bitter. fracture. and 0. broadly. Ugr¡. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. triangular. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. aromatic. cells towards periphery. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long.) semiaquatic herb. upper side marked with alternately arranged. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally.5-1. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. enclosing large air spaces.Shows single layered epidermis.5 cm thick. buff coloured intemally. Gora-bach Baje. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. Vekhandas -Varch.74. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. (Fam. Ghodvach Bach.

3. Eugenol and Asarone). Petroleum ether-No change ii. Powder .C. present in cortex and ground tissue.2.L. 2.2. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. stele composed of round. Appendix 2. Starch and Tannin.4.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. Powder as such: .6. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. 2. 0. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.2. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. 2.. starch grains simple.2. 2. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. shows fibres.L. endodermis distinct. Appendix per cent. Extracts in i.14 (violet) and 0.10 T.2.7.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.region. spherical. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. Chloroform-Light green iii. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. reticulate. 178 . Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.Yellowish-cream b. 2.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside).Buff coloured.2.

Vibandha. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. V¡tahara. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. áv¡sa.Vac¡di Taila. 1. 179 . DOSE . V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡sa. Ka¸¶hya. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. S¡rasvata. Medhya. C£r¸a. Sm¤ti daurbalya.á£la. Apasm¡ra. Unm¡da.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Kaphahara. K¤mihara. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Tikta Laghu. Ëdhm¡na.2 g. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Kar¸a Sr¡va.

thin-walled. Naabhi Bachnak. small portions of stem sometimes attached. rarely 5 cm long.75. Bachhnaag. rough due to root scars. ViÀa Vajran¡ga.5 cm. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. tapering downwards to a point. poisonous. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. odour indistinct. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. suberised. conical. cartilaginous. fracture. papillose on outside. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . Vatsanabha. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Ranunculaceae). Sth¡varaviÀa. parenchymatous cells. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. perennial herb. Vatsanabha (Rt. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. plant is an erect. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. Basanaag Bisa. Mithatelia Vasanaavi.) (Fam. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. 0. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Vatsanabhi. roots are generally collected late in September. occasionally separated due to breakage. Teliya Bish Basanalli.1. Mithalelia. Mahura. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Beesh. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish.4 . Vatsanabhi. Meethabisha.8 cm thick. without or with a few intercellular spaces. dark brown to blackish-brown. 2-4. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Nabhi. ovoid. taste.

Appendix 2.2.Light grey.C. Sv®dala. consisting of round to oval cells. 2. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. xylem exarch. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.L. CONSTITUENTS . xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. ÙikÀ¸a. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. present in cortical cells. occupying more than half the radius. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. 0.7. often forming 'V' shaped ring. containing a few groups of phloem strands.2. UÀ¸a.2.39.74 and 0.3. 0.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. S £tasekhara Rasa. Appendix 24 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C.2. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. Trid°Àahara. Anandabhairava Rasa.2. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.56. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. metaxylem vessels met in centre. 0.L. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. some scattered. Appendix 8 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour.39 and 0.96 (both orange).10. 2.6. Laghu. Viyav¡yi. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. Appendix 5. inner bark parenchymatous. 0. RukÀa. 2. Appendix 2 per cent. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.2. 0. shows vessels. Powder .5 per cent. 0. cambium having 6 10 angles.20. IDENTITY. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.endodermis.4. T. a few aseptate fibres.

30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. 182 . Jvar¡tis¡ra.THERAPEUTIC USES . Kanharoga. Sannip¡ta. DOSE .V¡taroga.15 . V¡takaphajvara.

Eagio. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. sweetish. thinwalled. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . (Fam. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Vid¡rik¡. Gumadi belli. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. cut surface creamish-brown. outer surface reddish-brown. taste. but pliable. Vidari (Tub. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. usually does not break. Bhoikolu. Bhumikusmanda. stone cells moderately thick-walled. thin-walled cells. Bhuikumra Vidari.Rt. smooth except for protuberances at some places.76. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. Fabaceae). Nelagumbala. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. starchy and somewhat porous. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Bhonykoru.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. Nelagumbula. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size.

Appendix 4.. 2. 2. Powder . V¡tahara. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.and pits. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells.2. Appendix 4 per cent. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta.75 µ in dia. and also rarely in stone cells.13. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 17 per cent. Raktapitta. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . radially elongated cells. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. a few latex duct also present. measuring 5. phloem fibres much elongated. DOSE . sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. Svarya. of the drug in powder form. somewhat round.Buff coloured.2. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara. Var¸ya. áoÀa.3-6 g.4. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.2. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements.D¡ha. having central hilum and striations. Appendix 2. present in all parenchymatous cells. Ras¡yana.3.5 . Daurbalya. 2. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent. fragments of cork. Appendix 24 per cent.2. Manmath¡bhra Rasa.Gluconic and Malic acids. M£trala. 184 . IDENTITY.6.7.5 .75 µ in dia.Marma Gu¶ik¡. Stanyada.13. highly thickened. angular to oval. Angmarda.2. 2. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content.2. Balya. CONSTITUENTS . lignified with narrow lumen. distributed throughout this region. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. J¢van¢ya. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.

77. smooth.) Poaceae). followed by 2-3 layers. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. about 1 cm long and 0. erect herb. Jav Barley Cheno. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. cultivated chiefly in North India. Yava (Fr. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. odour. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. elliptic. thick-walled. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. sclerenchymatous fibres. H. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. spongy parenchymatous cells. not distinct.3 cm wide.2-0. 50-100 cm high. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. pale-greenish-yellow. polygortal inner epidermal cells. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. oblong. Syn. sativum Pers. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. square or quadrilateral. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. followed by more or less. (Fam. taste. sweetish-acrid. seed coat appears as a colourless line. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. round to oval wavy walled cells. an annual. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells.

45.5 per cent. Globulin.5 per cent. starch grains simple.68. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.56.10.92 (all grey). measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.L. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.2. simple starch grains.5 2.22. 0. 0.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.3. 2. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. 0.31. and the rest starch layers. 0.7 T. 0. Fats. V¡tak¤t. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. V¤Àya. 0. round to oval. Medahara. Orientin.2. Sugars. 0. 0. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.44.2.65 & 0.narrow lumens. Svarya.2. Var¸ya 186 .4. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. Pittahara.68. 2. 0.83 and 0.83 (all violet) and 0. Vitexin etc.6.Starch. 2.2. Kaphahara.06. Appendix 2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Sthairyakara.31. IDENTITY. Proteins (Albumin. sclerenchymatous fibres.C. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.L.2. 0.72 (all pink. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Pur¢Àak ¤t.22. endosperm divided into two zones. Appendix 5. Powder . 2. 0. Lekhana. 0. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Appendix 2.31. 0. 0.10.24.36.V. Appendix 4 per cent.92 (yellow). RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.Creamish-white. Appendix 1. Appendix 4 per cent.2. 0. 0.16. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. 0. M£trahara. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. Orientoside.53.) CONSTITUENTS .14. 0.5 per cent.

of the drug.áv¡sa. T¤À¸¡. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Urustambha. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. 187 .100 . Kanharoga. K¡sa. Tvagroga DOSE . B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Prameha. Medoroga. THERAPEUTIC USES .200 g.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . P¢nasa. Dh¡nvantara Taila. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. El¡dya Modaka. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Gandharvahasta Taila.

stipules green. sharp axillary spines upto 3.7 cm broad. Neladangara.2-1 cm thick. secondary and tertiary root absent. 20-30 cm long and 0.) Fabaceae).8 cm long.P. ballidurabi. alternate. branched. terete. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. oblong. mucronate obtuse. dark brown. 0. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. hard. 0. Y¡sa. secondary cortex almost 188 . (Fam. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated.Simple. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. short. Yavasaka (W. opposite. radially arranged cork cells. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. no taste and odour.78. filled with reddish-brown contents. elliptical. glabrous.5-0. cork cambium single layered. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. gradually tapering. extipulate. a small thorny shrub. nearly 0.Cylindrical. Punjab. Stem . Desv. Leaf . striate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . fracture. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. slightly rough at basal region with slender.Well developed. drooping.5-1 cm long. Javasa. glabrous.1-1 cm thick.

tanniniferous cells. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region.Greenish-brown. epidermis single layered. covered with cuticle. xylem consists of vessels. Lamina .75 µ in dia.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. hypodermis 1-2 layered. pitted vessels. Stem . parenchyma and fibres. parenchymatous cells. present throughout the region. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. tangentially elongated cells. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. elongated. parenchymatous cells. angular.5. a few with thick wall and simple pits. hypodermis 2-3 layered. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. thin-walled. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. 5. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. thin-walled. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. covered externally with thick cuticle.14. tracheids. xylem situated above phlome. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. Leaf- Petiole . parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. 189 . medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. phloem composed of sieve elements.appears biconvex in outline. tracheids. Powder . 3-45 cells long. xylem consists of vessels.appears circular in outline. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. filled with tannin. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. filled with tannin. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. tracheids and fibres. rounded to oval. phloem composed of sieve elements. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll.75 µ in diameter. fibres. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. Midrib . fibres parenchyma and xylem rays.5-14. starch grains simple. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. xylem fibres. some cells filled with tannin. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. pith composed of a few thin-walled. vascular bundle collateral. simple. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll.absent.

Chardi.20 .2. D¢pana.50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction. T¤À¸¡. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 10 per cent.Sugars (Melizitose. 2.3. Appendix 2. Sucrose. Appendix 13.7. Appendix 2.2.2.5 per cent. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Invert Sugars). THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent. Tikta. V¡tarakta. Jvara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .IDENTITY.2. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2.4. 2. Kaphahara.2.6. K¡sa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Arimed¡di Taila. Appendix 2 per cent. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Raktapitta. 190 . Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. Visarpa DOSE .2. 2.

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