THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.2.2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.1.2.1.2.2.2-Thermometers 1.5.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.1.2.2.4.1.2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.1.1.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .3-Determination of Total Ash 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2. 1.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.1.1.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.2-Sieves 1.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.1-Nessler Cylinder.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.3.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1.1 Testing Drugs 2.2.) Desv 177 1.2.Types of Stomata 2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.1.2.2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.

2-Refractive Index 2.3.Weights and Measures 5.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.2.1-Powder Fineness 2.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.3.3.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.2.3.3.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.1.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3 Limit Tests 2.3.1.3.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.

If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part-I. Part-I. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. In general. would be deemed to have been amended vii . the Dangerous Drugs Act. II would be official.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Vol. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982).P. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. Vol.). the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. II. Part-I. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. accordingly. II.I. Vol.

Synonyms . Weights and Measures . Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. if any. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Ayurvedic Formulary of India.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs .The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . indicated in monograph. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. Odour and Taste .Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. Identity. When the term “drop” is used.GENERAL NOTICES Title . If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. Mesh Number . it is described as having odour. English.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Introductory Para . the measurement is to be made by means of a tube.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. viii . Italics . This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. Hindi. If the odour persists to be discernible. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. substances or processes described in Appendix. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. Purity and Strength . The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. distribution and method of collection.

Under this head. under Description. statements appearing in the API. sliminess. with one of the four meanings given below. pesticides. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. Constant Weight . In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. V. acid-insoluble ash. Constituents . Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. those of definition of the part and source plants. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests.For statutory purpose. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. and Identity. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. water. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method.C.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. if of equivalent accuracy.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. and other animal matter including animal excreta. pests. which he uses. wherever given. colour. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. and show no abnormal odour. Vol.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests .In defining standards. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”.L. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. total ash. water-soluble ash. arsenic and heavy metals. according to circumstances. moisture content. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. in 100 grammes of product. Percentage of Solutions . even by applying known reference standards. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. ether-soluble extractive. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. micro-organisms.g. is used. Standards . the expression per cent (%). However. Part-I. fungi. ix . alcohol-soluble extractive. However.soluble extractive. The quantitative tests e.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. mould or other evidence of deterioration. Purity and Strength. shall constitute standards.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated.) . Thin Layer Chromatography (T.

are intended to apply at that temperature. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. such as fragment of filter papers. Temperature . thermometric scale.000 parts x .Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. Solubility . fibres. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given.000 parts More than 10. and dust particles. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Reagents and Solutions . Statements of solubilities.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. Percentage of alcohol . Solutions . at a stated temperature. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product.56 oC. all solutions are prepared with purified water.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius).

Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Kg. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. g. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. ml. mm. Part –I and Part-II. 1M.P. l.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent.1 N. PS.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are.I. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. Fam. µ. TS. mg. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . cm. IN. 0. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. unless otherwise stated. 0. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India.5 N.

Pl. Wd. Bk. Beng. Mar. Kash. Wh. Assam. St. Ht. Rt. Tel. Ori. Guj. Eng. Tam. Mal. Bk. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn.Sansk. xii . Rt. Lf. St. Tub. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Sd. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Punj. Wd. Fr. Kan. Rz.

2 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. Akravu Akkalakara. Akarakara Akkaraka. 1. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. cylindrical. shrivelled. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.1. Akarakarabha (Rt. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. brown. vessels pitted. tapering slightly at both ends.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. not easily separable. 53. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. cambium 2-5 layered. odour. thin-walled. Asteraceae). more and wider vessels found towards peripery. xylem fibres thick-walled. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. an annual. Akallakara. characteristically astringent and pungent. parenchymatous cells. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. external surface rough. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Akalakarabha. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. b) Microscopic Root . many of which developed as sclerenchyma. elongated. tracheids and xylem parenchyma.8 µ in width. bark upto 3 mm thick. slightly aromatic.231 µ in 1 . 7-15 cm in length.37-28. (Fam. taste. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially.

PakÀ¡gh¡ta.length having narrow lumen. Appendix 10 percent.Kum¡ry¡sava. á£laroga. Appendix 8 percent. radially elongated. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Buddhivardhaka. ray cells thick-walled.2. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡.2. Svedakara.0. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. Danta¿£la DOSE . áv¡sa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. 2. 2. running straight. of the drug in powder form. 2 . secondary phloem and medullary rays. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. Pittahara.3.2. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex.5 -1 g.Prati¿y¡ya. secondary phloem. Kaphahara.4.Ash coloured. Powder . D¢pana. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. áotha.2. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2 percent. 2. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Appendix 2. V¡jikara. CONSTITUENTS . secondary phloem and medullary rays. medullary rays numerous. 2. bi to tri and multiseriate. Appendix 22 percent. also gives positive tests for inulin. Aj¢rna. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa.2. IDENTITY.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin).2. uniseriate rays very rare.6. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. Udararoga.7. Grdhras¢. áukrala. NaÀ¶¡rtava. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. K¡sa.

raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. Akshoda (Cotldn. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. parenchymatous cells. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. coriaceous. irregularly corrugated. thin-walled. slightly curved. parenchymatous cells.) large deciduous. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. not distinct. 3 . followed by more or less compressed. Sailabhava. broken pieces. radially elongated. Cotyledon . indistinct tangentially elongated cells present.2.Shows 1-2 layered. taste. endosperm mostly single layered. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. collapsed. creamish-brown. under this. Juglandaceae). Powder . Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. thin-walled. oily sweet. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. (Fam. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. shows groups of cells of cotyledon.Cream coloured.

DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .KÀata. Balya. KÀaya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.2. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. Appendix Not less than 7.2.2.2.4. 2. áukral. Appendix Not more than 0. 4 . Sara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2. Kaphakara.Walnut oil and Tannin.6. ViÀ¶ambhi.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. V¤Àya.0 percent. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.0 percent.2. V¡taroga.7.IDENTITY.5 percent. CONSTITUENTS . 2. B¤´ha¸a.25 g.10 . Appendix Not less than 10. Appendix 2. 2.2.3.

upto 27 m high and 2. f. parenchymatous. S. a small aromatic.Bk.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Stem Bark. grey having lenticels. Anbalamu. parenchymatous cells. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. external surface smooth. Amvara -Mampusli. consisting of tangentially elongated. Mampuiti.5 m in girth. acuminata Roxb. Ranambo Ambada. Ambado. S. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. with reddish-brown contents. Kurz. mangifera Willd. thin-walled cells. Ambadam Amratakamu. deciduous tree. Ambazham. non Gamble (Fam. fracture. Ranamba. tangentially elongated. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. internal surface reddish-yellow. Syn. Wild Mango Ambeda. Jangli Aam Ambate. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. radially arranged. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. thin. which are thick-walled towards periphery.3. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. Jangali Ambo. and 5 . Marka¶¡mra -Amada. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Amra Indian Hog Plum. Amrata (St. Ambalam. curved. a few outer cells exfoliated.. laminated. Amra. Anacardiaceae).

of the drug in powder form for decoction. 2.6. 0. shows cork cells.2.KÀata.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.96 (blue). alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .C.V. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.87 (all greyish brown). KÀaya. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width.(greyish brown).2.4. 0. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Pittakara. T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. Ka¸¶hya. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. 0. lignified. 6 . D¡ha DOSE .3. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. Under U. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. Raktapitta. IDENTITY. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.40 and 0. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. 2.96. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent.5-10 g.2. Powder . prominent lysogenous cavities are present.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.C.2. Rucik¤t.5 per cent. 0.87 (blue) and 0. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. stone cells. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. thick-walled.. 2.33. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.L. CONSTITUENTS .7. Appendix 2. Not more than 1 per cent. V¡tahara. Appendix Not more than 0. 0.2. simple.33. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.Light brown.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.L.2.75-14 µ in dia.

May£raka. bracteate with two bracteoles. actinomorphic. yellowish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra.) Amaranthaceae). cylindrical.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes.0.1-1. two celled. subsessile. hairy. Leaf .9 m high herb.P. erect.Simple.free. 0. erect. contorted or quincuncial.3 .0 cm in thickness. the perianth lobes. hypogynous. Apamarga (W. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. 7 . not distinct. dorsifixed. Kharamaµjar. secondary and tertiary roots present. a stiff. greenish-white. bisexual. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. one spine lipped. numerous. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. (Fam. odour. slightly ribbed. filament short. opposite. PratyakpuÀpa.3-0. wavy margin. solid. sessile.4. membranous. obovate. opposite. anther. gradually tapering.0. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. decussate. stamens 5. 0. hollow when dry. rough due to presence of some root scars. Flower . yellowish-brown. Stem .Cylindrical tap root.5 cm in cut pieces. exstipulate. perianth segments 5. branched.

cortical and pith cells. thin-walled. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. syncarpous. tangentially elongated. ovary superior. demarcating the xylem rings. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. rectangular. elongated. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem composed of usual elements. 2-5 celled. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. followed 8 . composed of parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. either separate throughout or found in some cases. 3-4 celled stalk. perianth and bracteoles. present in pith. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. single. capitate. on both surfaces. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal.Shows crescent-shaped outline. endospermic. epidermis single layered. stigma. Seed . brown. vessels simple pitted. thin layers of cambium. b) Microscopic Root . small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. scalariform and pitted. two medullary bundles. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. vessels annular. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. LeafPetiole . each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. fibres being absent. fibres pitted. spiral. thin-walled cork cells.Sub-cylindric. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. Stem . most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. lignified. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. unilocular with single ovule. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. thin-walled cork cells. Midrib . round at the base.Shows a single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. oval to rectangular. cortex 6-10 layered. truncate at the apex. style.Mature root shows 3-8 layered.gynoecium bicarpellary. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. Fruit . ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle.

rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.0-11.2. palisade ratio 7. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. 9 . Udara Roga. V¡tahara.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. non-lignified cells.2.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. Appendix 2. P¡cana. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. 2. Lamina . 9. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.2.0 on upper surface.6. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. Tikta Sara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. Ar¿a. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fragments of elongated. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Chedana. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger.Shows single layered. Ka¸·u.á£la. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. Powder . V¡maka. 2. rectangular. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. thin-walled epidermal cells. 2. Gu·apippali.2. vessels with annular. 2. slightly elongated in upper. mm. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. spiral. Medoroga DOSE . stomatal index 4.2.Light yellow. of the drug for decoction. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. IDENTITY. Apac¢.0-20.4. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.5-9.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.0 on lower surface. Kaphahara. Abhay¡ Lava¸a.3.7. aseptate fibres.20-50 g. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. scalariform and pitted thickening. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. Medohara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

) perennial climber with slender downy stem. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. (Fam. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. Aparajita (Rt. colour. medullary 10 . secondary phloem consists of usual elements. fibrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. very long. cylindrical. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. a few solitary fibres also present.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. thin-walled. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. Fabaceae). vessels pitted with oblong. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. bitter. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. 1-5 mm in thickness. a few showing slit-like pits. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. taste. polygonal. b) Microscopic Root . mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. fracture. lightbrown. secondary xylem consists of usual elements.5. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres.

3. M£traroga. oblong and pitted. 11 . Tikta. V¡tahara. found in secondary cortex.79 (blue). T. Vra¸a DOSE . of the drug in powder form. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. ViÀahara. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.2. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. Buddhiprada. Pittahara.2. 0. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf.1 .Mi¿raka Sneha. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Medhya. Appendix per cent.3 g. Starch. phloem and xylem parenchyma. 2.L..Yellowish-brown. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. Resin.4.V. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IDENTITY.7. 2. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya.79 (dull yellow) in visible light.54 and 0.2.2.á£la. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.2.Tannin..79 (grey).6.rays 1-5 cells wide.C. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. shows simple and compound starch grains. KuÀ¶ha.2.C. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Powder . CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara. 2.79 (both yellow).L. áotha. Under U.

5 cm thick. pieces 5-15 cm long.) Zingiberaceae). rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. gingery. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. isodiametric. colourless. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. Ardraka (Rz. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . Rhizomes are dug in January-February. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. widely cultivated in India. radially arranged cells of inner cork. Inji Allamu. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. short with projecting fibres.5-6. 1. irregularly arranged. Allam. fracture. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. oblique branches on upper side. buds and roots are removed and washed well. each having a depressed scar at its apex. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. Ale -Adi. taste. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. thin-walled.6. tangentially elongated. lakottai. odour. pungent Rhizome .Shows a few layered. (Fam. reaching up to 90 cm in height.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. Adrak Injee.

08.. 0. 0. small cells of sieve tube. composed of xylem. oleo-resin cells abundent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele.9 T. 0. elongated pits on their walls.2. Appendix 8 per cent.5 per cent. larger bundles consists of 2.2. Under U. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.35. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.2. 0. 0.63 (grey) & 0. 0. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.92 (all yellow).92 (violet). free from starch.69 (grey). 0. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. Appendix 2 per cent.35 (light violet). 0.2.63. greater number occurring in inner cortical region.16.76. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. Appendix 90 per cent.4.16. 0. conjoint. phloem. fibrovascular bundles of two types. 0. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.76 (violet) & 0. Appendix 2. 0. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene.08 (violet). Appendix 1 per cent.35.2.47. 0. 0. walls of oil cells suberised.dia. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. Appendix 5 per cent.3. 2.69 (light violet).69. 0. 2. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum.7 vessels. vessels showing reticulate.03.69 (all light yellow). 0. IDENTITY.13. endodermis single layered. 13 .16 (blue). 0.L. Powder -Light yellow. vessels 2-5 in number. 0. 0. 2.L. 2. 2.2.47 (light violet). cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. septate fibres with oblique.V.7.C.C. reticulate and spiral vessels.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0.6.l6 (brownish violet). 0.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. filled with abundant starch grains. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.83 & 0. collateral. CONSTITUENTS . 0. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. numerous closed. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T.63 (light violet).63 & 0.

Ka¸tharoga. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. 14 .á£la.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Bhedana. Svarya. Vibandha. Rocana. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. Ën¡ha. DOSE . áopha. RukÀa. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . H¤dya.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. V ¤Àaya.

rough. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. parenchyma. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. odour and taste. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. phloem fibres thin-walled. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. fibrous. with tapering 15 . b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. thinwalled cortical cells.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. not distinct. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. exfoliating in irregular scales. (Fam.5-1 cm thick. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. fibres and crystal fibres. consisting of sieve elements. Velvelam. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. incurved. hard. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. stone cells and phloem cells. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes.7. characteristic of dry regions. Pilobaval. Arimeda (St. all traversed by medullary rays. lignified. Sadabala -Haramibaval. fracture. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. square to rectangular cells. Fabaceae). cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. internally light brown to reddish-brown. secondary phloem wide. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. upto 3 m in height.Bk.

Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . β-Sitosterol and Tannin.2.0. 2. 2. fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 16 . Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.2. P¡¸·u.91 (both blue).2. crystal fibres elongated.ends. 0. Appendix 13 per cent. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga).Reddish-brown. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.L.n-Hexacosanol.áopha.2. Appendix 1 per cent. 0. Powder . Mukharoga.LC.7.e.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS .4. K¡sa.39 and a spot at Rf. sclereid. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. Atis¡ra. Appendix 2. Meda¿oÀaka. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka.39 and a spot at Rf.2.91 (yellow). On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. radially elongated cells. Meha. Appendix 14 per cent. Visarpa. K¤mi.2. β -Amyrin. shows groups of cork cells.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. 2. IDENTITY.78 and 0. Ka¸·u. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.C. 2.40 g for decoction. 0 to 0.3-5 g in powder form. Dantaroga.6. ViÀajavra¸a. Udardapra áamana DOSE .On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. Appendix 11 per cent. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. T.3. composed of thin-walled. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.0 to 0. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. KuÀ¶ha.

market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. Mathichakke. channelled to half quilled. companion cells. Kellemasuthu. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. Vellamaruthi. recurved. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. 0.& A. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. P¡rtha. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. short in inner and laminated in outer part.Bk. fracture. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. bitter and astringent. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. Arjuna. a large deciduous tree. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces.) Combretaceae). Sajada Arjuna Matti. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. (Fam. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. Mattimora.2-1. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. in the middle and outer phloem region. flat. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. taste.5 cm thick. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. Bilimatti. consisting of sieve tubes.8. traversed by phloem rays. Arjuna (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. curved. Torematti Arjuna. Neermatti.

Appendix 1 per cent. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. Vra¸an¡¿ana. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. starch grains simple and compound. Appendix 20 per cent. Appendix 20 per cent. Vya´ga. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. KÀatakÀaya.in dia. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum.6. starch grains.3. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. T¤À¡. uniseriate phloem rays.. 4-12 cells high. H¤droga. of the drug in powder form. alata). 18 . Appendix 25 per cent. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone.2.. 2.Reddish-brown. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Medoroga. a few rhomboidal crystals. H¤dya. Pittahara. round to oval. fibres. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. sometimes upto 5 components.3-6 g. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. compound of 2-3 components.7. elliptical. elliptic. Vra¸a.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. 2. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma.2. round to oval.4. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate..2. µ Powder . IDENTITY. alternating with fibres. Arjuna Gh¤ta. Prameha. shows fragments of cork cells. mostly simple. Kaphahara. 2. DOSE .2. Appendix 2. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara.2.

Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country.9. dark brown.5-3 cm long. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. Fruit . composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Nallajidiginga Baladur. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. shining with residual receptacle.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp.) Anacardiaceae). some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. Scramkotati Nallajidi. smooth. nut 2. mesocarp a very broad zone. 19 . obliquely ovoid. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. 30-40 layers thick. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. drupaceous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. mesocarp and endocarp. Bhallataka (Fr. (Fam. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion.

Gulma. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. IDENTITY.2. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Chedi. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.Dark-brown. Ka¶u. Snigdha.2. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Kaphahara. being highly thickened.2.2. KuÀ¶ha. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). KaÀ¡ya Laghu. DOSE . Powder . innermost prismatic. Krimi. Appendix 5 per cent. chloroform.2 g. Tikta. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. 2.7. Note .6..2. of the drug in Ksirapaka form.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. very much elongated radial walls. ether. V¡tahara.1. Graha¸¢. 2. Bhedi. Appendix 11 per cent. P¡cana.Ar¿a. 2.F. CONSTITUENTS .4.I. Appendix 0. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Ën¡ha.5 per cent.. Appendix 4 per cent.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. Part-I 20 . 2. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Appendix 2.2.

Bh¤´ga. Leaf . together on unequal axillary peduncles. cylindrical or flat.) herbaceous annual. ligule small. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. often rooting at nodes. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. strigose with oppressed hairs. Flower .. Bhringaraja (W. obtuse or acute. M¡rkava. 2. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. usually oblong. scarcely as long as bracts.2 . Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. Kesuriya. branched. upto about 7 mm in dia. lanceolate. sub-entire. ray flowers ligulate.5 cm long. disc flowers 21 . sessile to subsessile.2. Kesari -Bhangaro. occasionally brownish. greenish.2 .Opposite. strigosely hirsute. 30 . Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. rough due to oppressed white hairs. sub-acute or acute. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Karisalai Guntakalagara. Karisalanganni. involucral bracts about 8. Bhangro Bhangara.Herbaceous. cylindrical. erect or prostrate. 1.P. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. Tekar¡ja.10. ovate.50 cm high. Stem . Knnunni Bhangra. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. white. occasionally rooting at nodes.3 cm wide. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. Gurugada. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. Soppu. Bhringiraja. node distinct. herbaceous. spreading.8. greyish.Well developed.Solitary or 2. much branched. (Fam. Keshavardhana. Asteraceae). not toothed.

1-5 celled. Fruit . tangentially elongated cells.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. covered with striated cuticle. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene.1 cm wide. epidermis followed by cortex. uniseriate. externally covered with cuticle.2 . consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled.Achenial cypsella. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. and with pointed apical cell. consisting of rounded cells. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends.25 cm long. non-glandular. pappus absent. cuneate. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. covered with warty excrescences. phloem rays broader towards periphery. Seed . found scattered throughout wood. traversed by xylem rays.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. trichomes of two types. ovary inferior. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. brown. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. simple. 0. with very pointed tips. with a narrow wing. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. pitted. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. unilocular with one basal ovule. pistil bicarpellary. xylem composed of vessels. stamen 5. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped.0. one seeded. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. Midrib . vessels numerous. ray cells pitted. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. hairy and non endospermic. warty. dark brown. free. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. rarely slightly oblique.tubular. fibres and xylem parenchyma. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. filaments epipetalous.0. xylem ray distinct. Leaf- Petiole . in macerated preparation vessels small. fibre tracheids. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. b) Microscopic Root . epidermis followed by wide cortex. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . corolla often 4 toothed. drum-shaped. fibre tracheids. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. run straight in tangential section.

uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length.shows a dorsi ventral structure.5. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.0 on lower surface. epidermis single layered. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. trichomes entire or in pieces. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. pitted with spiral thickening.8 -4. uniseriate. normally biseriate and uniseriate. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. pericyclic fibres distinct. xylem consists of large number of vessels. wide at the base. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. 23 . shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides.Dark green. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. warty. about 3 celled. peg-like outgrowth.5 on upper and 23. xylem fibres with wide lumen. externally covered with cuticle. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. arranged in tangential strands. endarch. Lamina .5 -26. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. more abundant on lower surfaces. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. while the section cut at apical region. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. palisade ratio 3. the cork where formed. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. externally covered with cuticle. Stem .collenehymatous cells on both sides. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. septa thick-walled. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. middle cells longest. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. some elongated with simple perforations. stomatal index 20. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. vascular bundles in a ring. collateral. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. pointed. hairs stiff. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem.0-22. Powder . pointed tips and pitted walls. secondary cortex composed of large.

áotha. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.4. Ëmahara. 2. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila.2. Tikta RukÀa. Tekar¡ja marica. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. Tvacya. Appendix per cent. K¡sa. 2.IDENTITY.2. CakÀusya. Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent. K¤miroga. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. P¡¸·u.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila.3. áv¡sa. Dantya. H ¤droga. Ke¿ya. áirah á£la.6. 24 . Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. Appendix per cent. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Yak¤droga.2.6 ml of the drug in juice form. of the drug in powder form for decoction. CONSTITUENTS .2.36 g.7. Appendix 2. 2. 12 . 2.Alkaloids. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. ViÀahara.2. V¡tahara.3 .

green or purplish green.B. a glabrous.Thin. Brahmi. ovoid and glabrous. opposite. Scrophulariaceae). Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. branched creamish-yellow.) Wettst. nodes and internodes prominent.) H.P. 1-2 cm long. Valabrahmi.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. succulent. wiry. taste. glabrous.. (Fam. Herpestis monnieria (LiM.Thin. Flower . Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. axillary and solitary. prostrate or creeping annual herb. slightly bitter. pedicels 6-30 mm long. about 1-2 mm thick. Stem . obovate-oblong. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. decussate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Leaf . 25 .Simple.& K. Brahmi (W.11. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. Ondelaga. Fruit . green. small.Small. sessile. slightly bitter.Capsules upto 5 mm long. soft. found throughout India in wet and damp places. Syn. small. taste. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .

Ras¡yana. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. Svarya..0 x 2. Appendix per cent. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. ËyuÀya. pericycle not distinct. Medhya. cortex having large air cavities. starch grains simple.4.Shows a single layer of epidermis.0-14. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.Root . Powder . round and oval starch grains. measuring 4-14 µ in dia.6.0 µ in dia. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. glandular hairs sessile.2.2.7. 2. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. glandular hairs.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2.2. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.2.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. vascular ring continuous. and 8. 2.3. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers.2. Appendix per cent. simple. no distinct midrib present. b) Microscopic 26 . composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. Tikta. ViÀahara. endodermis single layered. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.5-9.2.Yellowish-brown. respectively. 2. IDENTITY. Praj¡sth¡pana. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . round to oval. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Matiprada. endodermis single layered. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. V¡tahara. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. Stem .

Jvara. áopha.1-3 g in powder form. S¡rasvata C£r¸a.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE .KuÀ¶ha. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. P¡¸·u. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. Ratnagiri Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . Prameha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 27 .

isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . Badikateri Kirugullia.5 cm in dia.12. long. upto 1. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. traversed by phloem rays.15 layers of thin-walled. much branched perennial under shrub. parenchyma and stone cells. tangentially elongated. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. phloem parenchyma much abundant. short and splintery. oval and tangentially elongated cells. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m.. (Fam.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . Brihati (Rt. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Papparamulli. woody. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. Chichuriti. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. Putirichunda Dorli. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide.9 layers of thin-walled. ribbed. secondary cortex composed of 5 . Solanaceae). thin-walled. a very prickly. Heggulla. fracture. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. Ubhibharingani. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. varying greatly in shape and size. b) Microscopic Root . cork cambium single layered. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. no distinct odour and taste. 1-2. cylindrical. pale yellowish-brown.8 m high.

parenchymatous cells.5 -11. V¡tahara. fibres and xylem parenchyma.5 . of the drug for decoction. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. DOSE . cells radially elongated and pitted. Appendix 2. shows groups of thin-walled. rounded to oval starch grains. traversed by xylem rays. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. measuring 5. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES ..2. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.6.Cream coloured. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. thick-walled.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. IDENTITY. phloem and medullary rays.2. vessels with simple pits.6 µ in diameter. Powder .Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.2. 2. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. xylem rays uni to biseriate. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. H¤droga.á£la.10-20 g. 2. 29 . P¡cana.4.6 µ in diameter.3. aseptate fibres. tracheids.2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. CONSTITUENTS . microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. Jvara.2. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. Agnim¡dya. all elements being lignified.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. H¤dya. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. Kaphahara. 2. measuring 5.7. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. Appendix Not more than 6.11.2. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent.5 per cent. áv¡sa.

b) Microscopic Stem . parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. nodes and internodes distinct. plenty of simple starch granules present. P. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. fibres and xylem parenchyma. thin-walled. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0.. (Fam. Chavya -Kattumulaku. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. taste. P. acrid. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. chaba Hunter non Blume.5-2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. short.13.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. Chavya (St. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . cork cambium not distinct. fracture. cultivated mainly in Southern India. Syn. tracheid. consisting of round. Piperaceae). Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. odour. officinarum DC. a glabrous. greyish-brown.0 cm in width. oval to rectangular.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. secondary cortex a wide zone. endodermis single layered. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. brownish cells. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. fleshy climber. peppery. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels.

2. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . round to oval. Gulma. Appendix 6 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. P¡cana. Recana. Udara Roga. cells thin walled. medullary rays multi seriate. Appendix 1.2.6.3. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. Powder . fibres and simple.7.Alkaloids.2. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. shows fragments of vessels. Appendix 3 per cent.Ar¿a. 2.4. of the drug in powder form. Ën¡ha. filled with simple.5 per cent. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. IDENTITY. RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.2. 2. Pl¢h¡ Roga.Greyish-brown.2. Kaphahara. round to oval starch grains.2. starch grains. D¢pana. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. Glycosides and Steroids. Krimi.pitted and reticulate thickenings. á£lal DOSE . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. 31 .1-2 g. 2.

0. thin walled.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. angular. beneath this.Reddish-brown. 0. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. Madalam Danimma Anar.1-0. round. Powder . Seed . LohitapuÀpa. taste.5-0.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. Punicaceae).Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. oval. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. endosperm absent. shows stone cells. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. containing a few oil globules. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. starch grains present in testa. Dadima (Sd. triangular and rectangular. Maadalai. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. wedge-shaped. 32 . reddish-brown pigmented layer present.6 cm long. round to oval. simple. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada.14. cotyledons coiled. oil globules. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.2 cm wide. parenchymatous cells. found growing wild in the warm valley. consisting of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. sweetish-sour.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

white. ovate or ovate. calyx. 1-2. surface rough. crowded in dense. hairy. hairy on upper part. more or less pubescent.35 cm wide. long with numerous wiry. fine rootlets. erect. about 0. upto 4 mm thick. Dronapushpi (W.9 m in high. Inflorescence .3-0. zig-zag. ciliate. 1. tubular.7-2 cm 37 .lanceolate. 1-2. taste.Cylindrical. characteristic. taste. (Fam. crenate. subacute. slightly bitter. smooth. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country.Sessile. fibrous. taste. Stem .5 cm across.) Lamiaceae). slightly curved. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . white.Yellowish-green.Light greenish-yellow.P.25 cm long. stout herb. Gumma. thin.5 cm wide. Leaf .2-1. about 2-3. serrate. corolla. pungent. acute.16. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati.6-0. size variable. lanceolate. glabrous in lower part. globose. 3-9 cm long. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. fracture. nodes and internodes distinct. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. 10 dentate with a villous throat. 1.5 cm long and 0. an annual. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. scaberulous.

secondary cortex consists of thin-walled.long. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem consists of vessels. followed by round to oval parenchyma. Stem . consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. dark brown. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. wooly. lateral lobes small. trigonous. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. parenchymatous cells. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. xylem consists of vessels.3 cm long and 0.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements.tangentially elongated. thin-walled cells. present in centre.Schizocarpic carcerule. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. Fruit . irregular. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. some having simple pits. Leaf- Petiole . Lamina . spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. nutlets 3 mm smooth.7 layered. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. thin-walled cells. composed of oval to rectangular. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. medullary rays 1-2 seriate.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. round to angular collenchyma. fibres and xylem parenchyma. tracheids. 4 . consisting of barrel shaped. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. thin-walled 38 . oblong. consists of a single layered epidermis.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. vessels long with spurs. tangentially elongated. palisade single layered. vascular bundles 4.1 cm wide.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. cortex consisting of single layered. Midrib . 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. bilipped. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root . upto 8 cells high.0.shows a single layered epidermis. upper lip about 4 mm long. thin-walled. Seed . brown.vascular bundle arc-shaped. tracheids. endoderm is single layered. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. smooth. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening.

Lava¸a. stomatal index 16. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Powder . 2. V¡takara.6-30. Bhedani. Appendix 2. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.2. ViÀamajvara DOSE . Agnim¡ndya. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. 16.2. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.6.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form.áotha.Dull yellow. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. RukÀa.5 on lower surface.7.3. aseptate fibres. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. 39 .cells.2. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. Pittakara. Ka¶u Guru. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent.2. 2. a few veins present in this region. present on both surfaces.2. pitted and spiral vessels.4. K¡mal¡. 2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6-40. Tamaka áv¡sa. K¡sa.7 on upper surface. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .Alkaloid. IDENTITY. Glycoside. palisade ratio 7-9. stomata diacytic.

7-10 cm long. Hastipani. Karka¶¢. parenchymatous. sweetish oily. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. cotyledons two. 40 . radially elongated to squarish. surface smooth. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. Hastipani. 0. more or less ellipsoid. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. shows stone cells. thin-walled. straight. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. Vellarika Kakadi. glossy. cultivated in many parts of the country. parenchymatous cells. -Kakur. (Fam. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Cucurbitaceae). containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. taste. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. mesophyll cells thinwalled. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. utilissimus Roxb. 0. rounded and tangentially elongated. C.4 cm wide. Ervaru (Sd. B¤hatphala. creamish-yellow.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. consisting of single layered epidermal cells.17. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. covered with thick cuticle. an annual creeping herb.3-0.

C. 0. 0.D¡ha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0.58.2.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.58. T¤À¸¡.V.Oil & Sugars. CONSTITUENTS .51. D¢pana.97 (all grey). 0. (366 mm).91 (blue) under U.L. Jvara.2.83.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.3. 2.0. Kaphakara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Raktapitta. 0. V¡takara. 0. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.35. 2.19.26.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.64.IDENTITY.6. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7.91 and 0. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.3-6 g. T.26. 0.64. THERAPEUTIC USES . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 0. 0.0. A¿mar¢. 0. 2.91 and 0.97 (all yellow) . 0. 0.0. RaktadoÀakara. 41 .77.77. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Appendix 2. 0.2. Gulma. Rucya.2. 0.51. Appendix 5 per cent.19. of seeds. 2.2.35. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.2.83.L. Tikta Guru.5 per cent. 0. Pittahara.4.

greyish-brown with a dent. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. brownish-grey.4 cm wide. (Fam.0 cm in diameter and 2. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .Shows more or less loosely arranged. Orissa. Araceae).0-3. smooth. 42 . thin-walled. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. cut surface has a central core.18. shiny. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.5 cm thick.4-0. rough and scaly.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2.6 cm long. 0. odour and taste not distinct.3-0.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a.0-3. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. odour and taste not disticnt. 0. b) Microscopic Fruit . a large epiphytic climber. Seed .Kidney-shaped. Gajapippali (Fr. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands.

pitted and with concentric striations. Appendix T.6. T.93 (all blue) are visible. 0.Glucosides viz. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. 0.20. 2-4 layered.Dark brown. 0. Stanya. Ka¸ha Roga. Agnivardhaka. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. oval to polygonal.áiv¡gutik¡. 0.73 and 0. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.C. 43 . sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.93 (all yellow). Powder . 0.4.2.Atis¡ra. oval to polygonal.C. K¤miroga. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 2.2.2. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.65. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. 2.V.3.7.27. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áv¡sa. 0. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. 2. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. shows lignified.Shows a single layered. thin-walled. DOSE . Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.65. non-lignified. IDENTITY.L.5 per cent.2-3 g.65.65 and 0.2. 2. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. Punarnav¡sava. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. oval to polygonal. 0. thick-walled. Ka¸¶hya. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2. 0. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. 0. Three spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.73 and 0. 2.27.73 (both light brown) and 0.L.93 (brown). oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. Sugars & Fixed Oil. Kaphahara. V¡tahara. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. Malavi¿oÀana. in extract (Phant) form. thick-walled.2.Seed .

papery. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. light yellow. thin-walled cells.5-1 cm long.Seed ovate.5-2. oily. parenchymatous cells.6 cm wide.0 cm long. cotyledons consisting of single layered. Seed .4-0. K¡¿marya. black. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. Shivani.A drupe. 0.19. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. thin-walled. Seed . parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. Verbenaceae). Gambhari (Fr. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. surface smooth. 1. two seeded.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. multilayered. ovoid. parenchymatous cells.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. taste. Hannu -Kumbil. 0.) unarmed tree. sweetish sour. tangentially elongated. taste. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. radially 44 . planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. b) Microscopic Fruit . Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. fleshy mesocarp. Sr¢par¸¢. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. seed coat thin. crinkled. P¢takarohi¸¢. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. (Fam. sometimes one seeded. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered.

7. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. 0. 0.03. 0. Rakta Pitta DOSE . filled with oil globules and aleurone grains.08. Appendix 0. 2.98 (all yellow).C. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.26.L.Blackish-brown.D¡ha.L.2. Sara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.94 and 0.12. T¤À¸¡. 2. Medhya. shows stone cells. Appendix 6 per cent.C.V. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.2.Arvind¡sava. T. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. H¤dya. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Tartaric acid.98 (yellow) in visible light.98 (orange). CONSTITUENTS . Ras¡yana. Powder . 2. 0.2. 2.98 (all blue). KaÀ¡ya Guru.52. H¤droga.6.Butyric acid. of the drug in powder form. Pittahara.1-3 g. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0.2. Appendix 2. Under U. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. KÀaya. M£trak¤cchra. Appendix 8 per cent. 0.4. 0.. THERAPEUTIC USES .18. 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.22. 45 .2.03.4 per cent. KÀata.42.2.elongated epidermal cells. 0. 0. Amla.93 and 0. Appendix 25 per cent. Ke¿ya. Resin and Saccharine. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . oil globules and aleurone grains. Alkaloid. IDENTITY.

Tiliaceae). a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of 12-20 layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. secondary cortex wide. blunt tips and moderately long in size. thin-walled. external surface smooth. (Fam. fibrous. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. Syn. traversed by wide phloem rays. Gangeru (St.Shows a wide cork. fracture. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. fibrous. consisting of tangentially elongated. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. taste. Grewia populifolia Vahl. parenchymatous cells. elliptical. 1. radially arranged cells. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. thick-walled. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals.0 m high.6-1.20. a few stone cells.) Aschers & Schwf. channelled.. moderately large in size.Bk. 46 . light yellow. arranged in radial groups. oval. a shrub 0.5-5 cm long. rectangular. mucilaginous. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate.

2.35 (dark blue).17. 2. 0.V. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). Pittavik¡ra.17.2-3 g. 2.55 (blue) & 0. 0. Under U. 0. 0. T. DOSE . 0. 0.41. α-amyrin.08 (violet). Appendix 2. 0.17 (light violet).29 (blue).68 (light violet) & 0.27 (light violet). 0.55. 0. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. 0.J¢rak¡di Modaka. 2.Powder .4.13 (blue). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. of the drug in powder form.Light yellow and fibrous. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.Vra¸a.35 (violet).08 (blue) 0. 0.08. 0.L.).C.7.2.Sugar.27. Appendix per cent. 0. Appendix per cent. Tikta. 0.48.48 (violet). under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.64 (blue). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS . 47 .L. Ka¶u.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .88 (light violet).88 (all yellow).C. 0. Appendix per cent.68 & 0. 0.2.61. IDENTITY.2. Amla. 0. Appendix per cent. 0.3. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.35.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. 0. 0. Two spots are seen at Rf. β-amyrin etc.2. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara.6. 2.

flowering in August-September. (Fam. soft. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. Chonotee Ratti. feebly sweetish. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. tangentially elongated cells. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. smaller than stone cells. odourless. Gurivinda Ghongchi. a climber. present at short intervals. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. cylindrical. fruits ripen during winter. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. Kakananti Rati Kunch. bark thin. most often irregularly curved. slightly corky. thinwalled. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 .Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. Chanothee. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. when distinct. exfoliating in small flakes. simple or branched. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. spreading throughout the plains. becoming mildly bitter. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. gulagunja -Kunni. light brown. composed of 1-2 cells wide. Kundumani Guriginga. Ghungchi Guluganji. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white.21. taste. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. pitted walls. cork cambium. some with brownish content. b) Microscopic Root . Gunja (Rt.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. Fabaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root.

Pittahara. wood composed of narrow concentric. xylem vessels with pitted walls.Greyish-brown. parenchyma thin-walled. thin-walled and rectangular. vessels of varying sizes with thick. Powder . DOSE . Tikta á¢ta. Appendix 2. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. 49 .7.5 per cent. pitted walls. Appendix 9 per cent. small groups of sclerenchyma. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. Appendix 10 per cent. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes.2.4. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.3 g.2. CONSTITUENTS . in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches.3. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form. 2. áula. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Mukha¿oÀa.Indralupta.2.2.5 -13. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.5-13.75 µ in diameter. stone cells. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.2. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. shows fragments of cork. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. 2. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. Appendix 4 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. 2.75 µ in diameter. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.1 . IDENTITY. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. 2. numerous xylem fibres.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin).diverging towards periphery.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. lignified. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. besides the xylem and phloem elements. Poaceae). rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. juicy and sweet. (Fam. Ikshu (St. Serdi Ikha. odour. b) Microscopic Stem . cylindrical. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. taste. smooth. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. more numerous and closer towards periphery. scattered throughout the ground tissue. closed type of vascular bundles. solid.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral.) shrub. conjoint. characteristic. 50 . Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. distinct node and internode.22. with. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi.

2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Sara. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2. V¤Àya. shows pieces of epidermis. 2.3. 2. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. vessels and sclerenchyma. Pittahara. Appendix 2.2. DOSE .Bal¡ Taila.2. M£tra KÀaya. Appendix Not more than 2. V¡tahara.2.7.Sucrose.Powder . Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . M£trala Not more than 2 per cent.200 . 2. IDENTITY.5 per cent. 51 . ground tissue. THERAPEUTIC USES . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.6. Kaphahara.400 ml in the juice form. Balya.4.Powder light brick red.Raktapitta. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.

lying around vessels. thick-walled. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. Indrayan. xylem forms bulk of root. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem.5-7.) Cucurbitaceae). slightly twisted.5 cm thick. cylindrical.23. (Fam. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. fracture. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Bitter apple Indravaran. fibres. Paythumatti.5 µ in dia. consisting of vessels. intensively bitter. taste. pitted. parenchymatous cells. Gav¡kÀ¢. short. thick walled. Tumbi Paikamatti. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. longitudinal fissures present. parenchyma and medullary rays. b) Microscopic Root . occurring throughout the country. tangentially elongated cork cells. Indravaruni. mostly simple or rarely 52 . starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. áatakratulat¡. an annual or perennial. composed of sieve elements. elongated with pointed ends. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. Indravarana Gothakakucti. 0. Varithummati. Indramanoa. parenchyma and medullary rays. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. dull yellow. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular.2-2. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. Tuntikai. tangentially elongated. Indrayanalata. thin walled. Valiya Pekkumatti. a few filled with dark brown contents. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. Havumakke. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. fibres aseptate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. Indravaruni (Rt. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

oval. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured.Brown coloured.25. Eugenia jambolana Lam. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Seed . 57 . shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. (Fam. a few schizogenous cavities are also found.. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. Jambu (Sd. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. Myrtaceae). astringent. 1 cm wide.. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. E. 1 cm long.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. b) Microscopic Powder . coriaceous covering. thin-walled. rounded starch grains. a large evergreen tree. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. taste. cuminii Druce.800 m. brownish-black. smooth.) Skeels Syn. oval or roundish.

30 and 0. 0. 2. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. DOSE .C.2. Appendix per cent.95 (all violet). Appendix per cent.20.2. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix per cent.4.2. 58 . light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.7. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.3-6 g.30 and 0. 2. Amla.2. three spots appear at Rf.30 (blue). Udakameha. CONSTITUENTS .Madhumeha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. ViÀ¶ambhi. 0.95 (all yellow). Kaphahara. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6. 0. Tannin.V. Appendix per cent. 2. Pittahara. T.2.2.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. KaÀ¡ya Guru. 0.IDENTITY.L.20. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U.12. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. of the drug in powder form.Glycoside (Jamboline). THERAPEUTIC USES .C. 0.L.95 and 0. Appendix 2.

Naval Jambhool Jamukoli.26. and reddish brown. E. younger bark mostly channelled. forming a rhytidoma.5 cm thick. taste. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. oval to angular. Myrtaceae). Mahamaram. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. Eugenia jambolana Lam. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. (Fam.800 m.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. cuminii Druce. internal surface fibrous.. 0. a large evergreen tree. fibres aseptate. upper few layers thick. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . rough. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. cork cambium not distinct. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. Navval Sambu. short and splintery.Bk. elongated. stone cells. and phloem rays. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. Raja Jambu Merale. Jamu. light grey to ash coloured. Jambu. Jambuda Jomuna. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. Jambu (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu.) Skeels Syn. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. Jamneralae. Jam Jammu Naaval. astringent. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. fracture. lower cork thin and colourless. stratified and reddish-brown. Neralamara -Njaval.5-2.

2.2. round to oval starch grains. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Pittahara. Kaphahara. DOSE . measuring 5-11µ in diameter. single or in groups. Raktapitta. Appendix per cent.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix per cent.4.10-20 g. Appendix 2.U¿¢r¡sava.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. oval to angular.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 60 . 2.2.region. V¡tala. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. Appendix per cent. aseptate fibres. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. Appendix per cent. 2.3.7. 2. elongated.Light brown. Stambhaka.Atis¡ra. of the drug for decoction. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. 2. round to oval starch grains.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . stone cells. reddish-brown content. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder .

kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. thin-walled cells. ovate. Tinti·¢phala. kernel yellowish and oily. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. slightly bent at middle. Neervalam. slightly quadrangular. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface.27. no marked odour. found throughout tropical India. Euphorbiaceae). dull cinnamon-brown.) small evergreen tree. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. Jayapala (Sd. Japala. consisting of a large endosperm. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. filled with brownish content. Nervala -Nervalam. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. b) Microscopic Seed . epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. 5-7 m high. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. 61 . (Fam. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. consisting of an epidermal layer. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. oblong. Japal beej. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Neervalam Jepal. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells.Shows a hard testa. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal.

2.6.2. 0. 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.Fixed oil. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa.34.39.2.5 per cent.C. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. 62 . 0. Resins & Phorbol esters. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.2. Pittahara.3.2. T. Vibandha DOSE . CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 7 per cent. 0. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.V. 2.6-12 mg. Appendix 2.84 (all violet).C. IDENTITY. 0.L.L.4. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.2. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.29. THERAPEUTIC USES .34 (grey).2.10. 0.90 (all yellow). a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. Powder . 0.84 (brown).54 and 0.White with black particles of testa. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. 0. 2.49. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. Appendix 0.63 and 0. Appendix 15 per cent. 2. Udararoga.54 (yellow).7. Appendix 3 per cent.Jvara.

shows single layered epidermis. 63 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. Jalugu. stomata anisocytic. Jayanti Jaita. present on both surfaces.5 cm long. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. aegyptiaca Pers. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. parenchymatous cells. having secretory cavities in phloem.3 cm long. palisade single layered.3-0.28. Karijimangai. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. consisting of thin-walled. Fabaceae). 7. a quick growing. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . thin-walled parenchymatous cells. mucronate to acuminate. 1. (Fam.8 cm wide. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet.. 0. opposite. 1. glabrous. paripinnate.5-15.Syn. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. pith small. S. linear. Lamina . entire.0-3. -Semp. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. leaflets 6-16 pairs. Arishimajingai. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. oblong.8-6 m high. very shortly stalked.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. polygonal. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings.) Merr. jayata Arinintajinamgi. á£kÀma patra. short lived shrub. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. Jayanti (Lf. Jay¡. Atti.7 layered round.

2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0.48.05.2.91 and 0. 2. DOSE . palisade ratio 3. 0.Protein.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.56. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.48. 0.L. V¡tahara.2. 0. Powder . Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. 0.11. 0.3. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.05.7.91 and 0. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. Appendix per cent.19. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.11. 0.37.97 (all grey). 0. Appendix per cent.29. palisade cells.2. 2.2.6.M£trak¤cchra. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.56 (all pink) and 0.56.C.29.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. IDENTITY.97 (yellow). 0. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. shows spongy parenchyma. 0. T. 0. 0.19. Galaga¸·a. THERAPEUTIC USES .L.Dull green. 0. 0. ViÀaroga. 0. 0. 0. 0. Calcium and Phosphorus. 64 .97 (all yellow). 2. Ras¡yana. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3-6 g. 2.2.4.69. 0. Pittahara. 0.Ratnagiri Rasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.25-4.29. in powder form. 0.11.V.19.C. Appendix per cent.37.05.

odour. Seed . a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. collapsed. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. surface generally smooth and. a large climbing shrub. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. light to dark brown. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. seed without aril also prescent.hard. Gangunge beeja. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. bitter. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . Jyotishmati (Sd. (Fam. Celastraceae). ripe seeds. unpleasant. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.5-3. Gangunge humpu.29.35 mm in breadth. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. colour. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. brownish-orange.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. taste.

0.5 per cent.20.63. Appendix 45 per cent. UÀ¸a. 0.89 (all yellow). 0.C.2. 2.82 & 0. Under U. Appendix 20 per cent. áirovirecanopaga.35. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.V. Appendix 6 per cent.35. V¡maka.82 (pink) & 0.3. Powder . 0. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. 0. thin-walled. V¡tahara.6. 0.7.2.2.4.82.8 IDENTITY. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. Oil and Tannins. stone cells. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix 1. D¢pana.15.2.2.L. 2. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Meddhya 66 . (all blue) & 0. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Tikta Sara. 0.89 (both greenish blue).V. Appendix 2. dark brown.04.54 (both blue). 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). 2.Oily.89.94 (yellow). Virecaka. Appendix 9 per cent. 0. Kaphahara. 0.82. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 0. 2.54. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.Alkaloids.C.L. 0. 0.composed of polygonal.94 (yellow) in visible light. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.2.54.

JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . Sm¤tidaurbalya.Seed: 1-2 g. Oil : 5-15 drops. 67 . ávitra.V¡tavy¡dh¢.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

large tree. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Vellai Kadambam. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. a few cells with brown contents. Syn. Kadavala. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Kadam Kadam. Kadamba Kadamba. traversed by uni to triseriate. 68 b) Microscopic . Rich. Indulam. Vellaikhadambu. rectangular cells. taste. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m.30. Kadambu Needam. Kadamba mara. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Kadamba (St.Bk. elongated cells of phloem rays.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. Rubiaceae). indicus A. a deciduous. some cells contain chlorophyll. A. bitter. Priyka Roghu. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. (Fam. phloem composed of sieve tubes. composed of thin-walled. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. Kadappai. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips.. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Kadamba Nipo.

21. 0. Powder .90 (grey).5 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. 2.D¡ha.2. of the drug in powder form.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. YonidoÀa. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.2.64. 0.79. shows fragments of cork cells. phloem cells.2. Vra¸a. 69 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. T. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 9 per cent. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.5:10) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. DOSE . 2. 0.70 (orange yellow). Appendix 1. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.79 (grey) and 0. Raktapitta.2. Steroids. 0. 0.L.phloem fibres.2. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.2. Appendix 5 per cent.Brown. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. 2.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.5 g. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .57. cells distinct and slightly elongated.31. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).63 (yellowish grey). Vra¸aropa¸a. 0.7. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.83 and 0.6.5 per cent. Lava¸a. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . fibres.1. 0.03. 0.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.13.Alkaloids.C. V¡tahara. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. Appendix 3 per cent.0. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.3. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal.4. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. L C. Appendix 2. 2.

oblong.5 cm long and 2. ganike. Pikachia. oblong.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. anther 1. five lobed. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. road sides and gardens. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Erect. obtuse notched at apex. found throughout the country in dry parts.) Solanaceae). ovary globose. Manitakkali. glabrous or pubescent. glabrous. Leaf . Kakamachi (W.25 mm long. slender. very slender. flattened. petiolate. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali.2-2.Simple. sinuate. Ganikegida.P. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. 30-45 cm high. extra-axillary. peduncles 6-20 mm long. pedicels 6-10 mm long. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn.31. hairy at base. (Fam. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. pale brown. toothed or lobed. Manaththakkali. 1. Ganikesopu. calyx 2-3 mm long. externally smooth. narrowed at both ends. 3-8 flowered cymes. glabrous. style cylindric. Manatakkali. white or pale violet.5 cm wide. thin. 2.Small.5 mm long.5-8. Flower . ovate or oblong. bark thin. 70 . Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. a herbaceous annual weed. quite common in cultivated lands. obtuse. green. filaments short. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. sub-umbellate. yellowish. Stem . slightly woody and branched. corolla 4-8 mm long. hairy in lower part.

5-8. obtuse.10 layered in angular parts.. xylem rays homogenous. uniseriate.. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. 6mm in dia. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem rays uniseriate. cambium 2-4 layered. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. minutely pitted. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. usually accompanied by fibres. in small or large patches. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. measuring 2.' oval parenchymatous cells. conjoint and open. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. measuring 2. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. vascular bundles-collateral. embedded in perimedullary zones. central vascular bundle shallow. starch grains. yellow or black. but 4. 1. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. smooth. internal phloem. Stem . covered with striated cuticle. tangentially elongated.A berry. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. trichomes multicellular..shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. uniseriate. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells..5-11 µ in dia. covered with striated cuticle. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. endoderrnis single layered. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. filled with starch grains. polygonal cells. compactly arranged.5 mm in dia. covered with thick. phloem consists of thin-walled. composed of thin-walled. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.Fruit . pith large. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchyma 4-6 layered. rays composed of thin-walled. oval to round starch grains. cortex of large. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. bicollateral. slightly striated cuticle. smooth shining Seed . thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces.Shows single layered. single or with two or rarely 3 components. arcshaped. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. radially elongated cells. arc71 . Midrib .25 µ in dia. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. uniseriate. yellow. epidermis single layered. slightly elongated. LeafPetiole . most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. covering trichomes.Discoid. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls.

stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. papery epicarp. Lamina .5 . palisade ratio 2-4. measuring 2. 034 and 0. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. 2.2. palisade single layered. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. a few vessels with spiral thickenings. 2. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.3. 0. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. 2. 0.2.L.34 (both brown) in visible light. IDENTITY.97 (all yellow).2.Creamish-green. Under U.Alkaloids and Saponins. CONSTITUENTS . both upper and lower epidermis single layered. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces.L.2. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Fruit . Appendix per cent. 72 . shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.4.V. 0.2.2. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.11 µ in diameter.dorsiventral.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation.34 (both pink). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. present beneath palisade parenchyma. vein islet number 7-10. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6. T. Appendix per cent.06.06 & 0.7. a few broken pieces of pointed. single.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. epidermis with irregular outline. Appendix 2. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. Powder . Appendix per cent.C. unicellular hairs.06 & 0. Appendix per cent.Shows thin. stomata anisocytic.

Hikk¡. Ar¿a. H¤dya. H¤droga. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. of the drug in juice form. KuÀ¶ha.5 -10 ml.áotha. V¡tahara. Jvara. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Netraroga. Svarya. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . Tikta Laghu.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 73 . Prameha. Sara. Pittahara. Ras¡yana.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Ka¸·u. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Chardi.

Kanwal Kamal. black. comprising of calyx.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. 74 . membranous. elliptic. Tavaregedd -Tamara. sepals leaf-like. petals numerous. Syn. androecium.32.3-2 cm wide. obtuse. carpels many. gynoceium apocarpous. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Tavare. Aravinda. crimp led. Padma. dark brown.4-2 cm long. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Pamposh Tamarai. (Fam. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. crimpled. 2-4 cm long. extended into clavate appendages. erect. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Kalh¡ra. anther. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. 1. Naidile. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Sarojam Kaluva. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. seed hard. yellowish-brown. 3-5 cm long. finely veined. Sitopala. Kamalam. starchy and large. Chenthamara. gynoecium and thalamus. Paduman. linear 1. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. corolla.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.5-3 cm wide. Aravindan. Kamal. Nymphaeaceae). Thamaraipoo. free. Kamala (Fl. Venthamara. 1. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. embedded in a creamy.. broken pieces also occur. aquatic herb with creeping stem. fruit an etaerio of achenes. a large. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja.

measuring 50-61 µ in dia. . Appendix per cent. followed by ground tissue of oval. Powder . parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled.4.Alkaloid (Nelumbine).2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.Dusty brown. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara.3. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent.2. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. Sant¡pahara. DOSE . consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. parenchymatous cells.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . IDENTITY. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. having smooth exine and intine. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. Stamen Filament . Visarpa. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. ViÀavik¡ra. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. columnar. spore sac contains yellow. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. Appendix per cent. 2. spherical.7. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. yellow pollen grains.2. two on either sides.2. Tikta. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. 2.Raktapitta.12 -24 g.6. rectangular. M£tra Virajan¢ya. vascular bundle single. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. Pittahara.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2.Aravind¡sava. angular. Anther .shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS .filament appears circular in outline. parenchymatous cell. of the drug for decoction. composed of thin-walled.shows four chambered anther. 2. 2.2.

sour. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. aromatic. often cultivated in many parts of India. parenchymatous cells. stone cells. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . axillary thorns. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. Belada hannu. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. glabrous tree with strong. Kavataleal. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. Rutaceae). Powder . found throughout the plains of India. hard. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. reddish brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. Haminamara -Vilar maram. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. a deciduous. Siwalik range and forests. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia.) Swingle. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. 76 . Balada. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. rough. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m.shows irregular. Bilvara. Pulp. semicircular. found in groups.Reddish-brown. straight. taste.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. sharp. Belalu. slightly triangular and oval. F. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Syn.33. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. odour. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Kapittha (Fr. thin-walled. stone cells. elephantum Correa (Faro. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried.

IDENTITY.37 (brown). of the drug in powder form.12 (brown). Gr¡h¢.V.C.2. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. 0.14 (sky blue). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Vra¸an¡¿aka.7. 0.37. Sangr¡h¢.50.50 (violet). 0.2.91 (grey) in visible light. 0. Pittav¡tahara. 0.L.L.2.95 (blue). Appendix per cent. 0. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. 77 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Agnim¡ndya.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. Unripe Pulp: Amla.áv¡sa. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent.91 (violet) and 0.2.4. V¡mi. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.6. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. Appendix per cent. 0. Appendix per cent.1-3 g. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf.95 (all yellow). KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 6. Appendix 2.95 (violet) . Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya.2. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. Appendix per cent. 0. T. KaÀ¡ya. 0.2. Hikk¡.12. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. 2.3. 2.C. Ripe-T¤À¡. CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.91 and 0.91 (blue) and 0.06. Lekhana. 2. Amla. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.Citric acid and Mucilage. Under U.

simple and compound starch grains. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. sometimes cultivated. external surface brownish-grey. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. starch grains simple.34. light in weight. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. short. and compound having 2-3 components. flat or slightly curved pieces.Greyish-brown. b) Microscopic Powder . (Fam . Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. Karamarda (St. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. tubular. met throughout India in wild state.) Apocynaceae). fracture. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. 78 .Bk. internal surface grey and smooth. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. rough due to longitudinal striations. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. shows single and groups of stone cells.

of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent.C. Appendix 2.L.V.IDENTITY. 2.7.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Appendix per cent. 0.2. DOSE .97 (violet). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.2.90 (pink) and 0. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.4.KuÀthahara. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.6. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.48 g.Marma Gu¶¢k¡.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.2. 79 . Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. 0.3.35. 0.C. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .52 (light sky blue). Appendix per cent. 2. CONSTITUENTS .58 (both light grey). 2.2. Pittakara.2. T. 0.

Syn. most of phloem 80 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. fibrous. P. internally.) glabra Vent. very bitter.) Merr. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. single cells of varying shape and size. Bk. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular.. (Fam. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.35. taste.. 3-11 µ in dia. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. Naktam¡la. due to peeling off. traversed by phloem rays. external surface rough. thin-walled. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. tangentially elongated cells. Karanja (Rt. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. cells. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. tangentially elongated. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. secondary phloem very wide. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. a glabrous tree. Nakt¡hv¡. Fabaceae). fracture.

Ëntravidradhi. DOSE . cork cells.04 (blue). 0. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. Powder -Creamish-yellow.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.L. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex.37 (greenish yellow). DuÀ¶avra¸a.47 (greenish yellow). Yoniroga. 2.09.Flavones Kanugin.31 (sky blue).08 (greenish blue).42 (sky blue). KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0.98 (all yellow). 2.1-3 g. parenchymatous cells. mostly straight. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 2. consisting of thin-walled. IDENTITY.2. Appendix 2 per cent.V.K¤miroga.2.7. 0. 0. most of ray cells contain starch grain. 81 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.18 (blue) 0. phloem fibres. 1-2 seriate. T. 0. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .L.5 per cent.18. THERAPEUTIC USES .80 and 0. Pittahara. KuÀtha. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. V¡tahara.80 (light blue). of the drug for decoction.C. ViÀaghma.31.3. 0. Appendix 17 per cent. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix 11 per cent. phloem rays many. 0. 0. Tikta.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Prameha.2. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. 2. 0.6. shows thin-walled. similar to those present in secondary cortex. Appendix 3.4. 0.47.25 (sky blue).13 (Sky blue). Appendix 2.51 (light blue).51. Ka¸·£ghna.37. 0. 0. 0.47.2. 0.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. Ka¸·u. 0.

3-11 µ in dia. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. bitter. tangentially elongated. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. rounded to oval in shape. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. a glabrous tree. internally light yellow. rough due to the presence of numerous. consisting of 82 . Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Nakt¡hv¡. bark.. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. fracture. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. (Fam.) Vent. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cells. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size.) Merr. Karanja (Rt. Karaµjaka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. thin-walled.. tangentially elongated cells. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. reddish-brown or dull brown. taste. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. secondary phloem a very wide zone. bark does not easily separate from xylem. Fabaceae). Syn. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. 1-2 seriate. light in weight.36. irregularly distributed. P.

tangentially elongated towards outer region.2.6.1-2 g.2. Pongachromene & Tetra-O.Methylfisetin. V¡tahara. fibres and parenchyma. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. ViÀaghna. Tikta. CONSTITUENTS . xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings.Karanjin. Pittahara. 2.3. thin-waned cells towards inner region. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vra¸a¿odhana. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled.2. Ka¸·£. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. 83 . DOSE . Kanugin. Appendix 2.. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. consisting of 2-3 components. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. K¤miroga. tracheids.radially elongated. IDENTITY. Yoniroga. starch grains.2. more. Appendix per cent. 2. of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Demethoxy-kanugin. shows fibres in singles or groups. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.7. KuÀ¶ha. Vidradh¢. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound.2.2. 2. Powder -Light yellow. Prameha.4. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. rounded to oval in shape. Ëntravidradh¢.DuÀ¶avra¸a.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells.

forming a continuous or discontinuous band. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Fabaceae). phloem parenchyma. thin-walled. alternating with stone cells. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. phloem fibre and stone cells. bitter. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Karanja. Syn. P. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. tangentially elongated. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. a glabrous tree. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga.Bk. lenticellate pieces. arranged in a tangential manner. (Fam. fracture. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. unpleasant.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. traversed by medullary rays. at some places lenticels also appear.. filled with reddish-brown content.2-1 cm thick. odour. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.) Merr. fibre small. usually 0. recurved. Karanja (St. b) Microscopic Bark . Karaµjaka. more or less smooth. Nakt¡hv¡.37.) glabra Vent. composed of rectangular. thick-walled cells. 84 . sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. taste. parenchymatous cells. slightly quilled. short and fibrous.

medullary rays wavy. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Gamatin. ViÀaghma. 3" 7 : 8). CONSTITUENTS . thin-walled and aseptate. THERAPEUTIC USES . phloem parenchyma and rays cells. oil globules. Pittahara. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Appendix 18 per cent. starch grains simple. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2".5 per cent. Ka¸·u. Kanugin.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. Vidradh¢. of the drug in powder form. Ëntravidradh¢.2. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. usually 2-4 cells wide. K¤miroga. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. aseptate fibre and stone cells. 3". Appendix 3 per cent. elongated. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. present in secondary cortex. Kaphahara.7. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. Appendix 1. Yoniroga DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. rounded to oval. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pinnatin. Demethoxy- kanugin.. V¡tahara. Prameha. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. IDENTITY.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. KuÀ¶ha.6. Appendix 2. 85 . Pongapin. Appendix 13 per cent. 2. Ka¶u. 2. simple and compound starch grains. and rarely.2. 2. 2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate.2. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube.1-2 g. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.2. Powder -Yellowish-cream.3.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.polygonal.4. Tikta. 5Methoxyfurano (2".2.2.

leaflets 2-3 pairs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Pongana Ganuga. 0. 6.) Vent. P. Ungu. consistig of tabular cells. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. cortex consisting of angular. covered with cuticle.circular in outline.8 cm. Fabaceae).3 cm wide.5 cm long and 3. (Fam. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. dark green. vascular bundle single. Karanja.5-0.9-8. Karanja (Lf. isodiametric. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces.2 . 86 . consisting of xylem and phloem.11. arcshaped. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji.38. xylem vessels arranged radially. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Nakt¡hv¡. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. petiolule short. a glabrous tree. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. Kanajo Karuaini.) Merr. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.. Syn. Dithouri Honge. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. traversed by xylem rays. Unu. Karaµjaka. epidermis single layered. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Hulagilu -Pungu. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.

Appendix 16 per cent. vascular bundle. Appendix 10 per cent.5 per cent.6. 2. cortex consists of round to oval. palisade ratio 3. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. 2.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". Ka¸·ughna.6. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.5". 5" . Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.2. Powder -Green. 5". Ka¶u. present in lower surface. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Appendix 11 per cent. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. 7) -flavone. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". stomatal index 12. K¤imihara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.6.4.6. shows spiral xylem vessels. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. 2. 2.2. stomata anisocytic. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.5-50. consisting of tabular cells. Appendix 3. covered with thick cuticle. phloem and pith. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . Kaphahara.3.5) . a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.Mid rib . collateral. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. mesophyll cells. .shows single layered epidermis.(4". palisade two layered.2.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.A new Furanoflavone -3' . CONSTITUENTS . conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. V¡tahara. Tikta. Appendix 2.7.2. Pittavardhaka. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.5-20.2.

DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .K¤miroga.J¡ty¡di Taila.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .For external use only. 88 . Vra¸a. Ka¸·au. KuÀ¶ha.

6. Appendix 6 per cent. Varivall¢. Karavallaka (Fresh. usually pointed or beaked. Kakiral.2.7. extremely bitter.2.) Cucurbitaceae). surface rough. Nil Appendix 8. upto an altitude of 1500 m. Appendix 28 per cent. K¡ravall¢. Appendix 0. fusiform. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . (Fam.2. Appendix 2.4.25 cm long. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. 2. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. pendulous. 2. 2.2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.2.5 . 2.39. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa.5 per cent. Kathilla. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.Fr.6 per cent. 3 valved at the apex when mature. IDENTITY.3.2. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. oblong.

D¢pana.67 and 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.98 (all blue). 0. 0.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. KuÀ¶ha. V¡tahara. 0. Raktavik¡ra. Prameha.61 (light sky blue). Aruci.17. juice of fresh drug.03.50.C. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 90 .34.áv¡sa.81 and 0.23 (red).46.98 (red & sky blue).15 ml.98 (all yellow).T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. K¡sa.43. 0. P¡¸·u.L. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. K¤miroga. 0.16. 0. T. K¡mal¡. H¤dya. 0.96 (sky blue).Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides.75.V. CONSTITUENTS . 0.C.10 . On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. Kaphahara.L. 0. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Jvara. DOSE . 0. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.60. 0.

Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. Rohi¸¢.1 cm in diameter. dusty grey. pleasant. suberised cells. subcylindrical. . 5-10 cm long. Kav¢. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. 0. Scrophulariaceae). straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Root . b) Microscopic Rhizome .2. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. Katuku rohini. Katuka (Rz. Tiktarohi¸¢. pleasant. straight or slightly curved. Katuka rohini Kutki. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. odour. bitter. fracture. cylindrical. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . taste. cork cambium 1-2 layered.05-0.Thin. kaur Katuka rohini. Sutiktaka. externally greyish-brown. short. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. fracture. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Katki. odour. mostly attached with rhizomes. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. Rhizome is cut into small pieces.40. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. inner surface black with whitish xylem. cortex single layered or absent. primary cortex persists 91 . short. Kauka. taste. (Fam. Kaurohi¸¢. a perennial. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. bitter.

0. vessels have varying shape and size.2. 0. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. 2. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. tracheids.10. Appendix per cent. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. 2. 2. 92 . thick-walled. parenchyma. 0. parenchyma and fibres.6. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.4.84 (all brownish grey).21. tracheids long.35 (green). simple round to oval. Appendix 2. thick-walled cells of endodermis.17. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. thick-walled. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs.2. 0. cambium 2-4 layered. starch grains. 2.2. some cylindrical with taillike. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation.30. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. lignified. thick-walled. tapering ends.10.2. 0. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape.37.104 µ in diameter.3. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. 0.L. 0.. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. IDENTITY. parenchymatous cells.V.2.05 (blue). T.C.30 (blue) and 0. thick-walled. 0.84 (all yellow). 0.62.Dusty grey. simple round to oval. tracheids. 0. consisting of oval to polygonal. hypodermis single layered. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. cortex 8-14 layered.L. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. 0.72 and 0.17. measuring 25 . starch grains. 0. secondary phloem poorly developed.30. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.41.21. Powder . mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork.41 and 0. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. abundantly found in all cells.2. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. fibres aseptate. Appendix per cent. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex.C.05.7.in some cases. secondary xylem consists of vessels.

Pittahara. of the drug in powder form. 93 .3 g. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Jvara. KuÀ¶ha. Arocaka. DOSE .CONSTITUENTS .1 . D¡ha. ViÀamajvara. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Glucoside (Picrorhizin). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. D¢pan¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡mal¡. Sarvajvarahara Lauha.áv¡sa. Bhedin¢.

Culli. stamens 4. Stem .) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. whitish to brown. calyx 4-partite. annual herb. fasciculate. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. lanceolate.3 cm long.41.5-1 cm wide. stout. 0. tube 1. no characteristic odour and taste. externally greyish-brown. entire and hairy.2 cm long.Greenish-brown. Kalsunda --Golmidi.6-2 cm long. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. a spiny. widely 2 lipped.6 cm long. bracts about 2. upper sepal 1. Flower . Kettu.Yellowish-brown. no characteristic odour and taste.Mostly adventitious. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Nirchulli. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . common in water logged places throughout the country. second pair 94 . swollen at nodes. subsessile.Acanthaceae). creamishbrown in cut surfaces. corolla 3. Syn. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. Nirguvireru. Leaf .Usually unbranched. Hygrophila spinosa T. broader than the other three. 1-7 cm long. which are 1. acute.5 cm long.Anders (Fam. abruptly swollen at top. Kolavankal ---. Kolarind. all linear-lanceolate. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara.P. didynamous. sub-quadrangular. Kokilaksha (W. with long white hairs. Vayalculli Talikhana. IkÀuraka.

a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. truncate at the base. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. round. capsule about 0. filament quite glabrous. having small intercellular spaces. Fruit . moderately thick-walled. pith large.1 . style filiform. compressed. Stem .larger. arranged in radial rows. vessels angular. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. radially arranged. arranged radially. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. thin-walled cells. radially elongated in secondary xylem. pointed. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces.2-0. b) Microscopic Root .0. glabrous. peripheral ones larger.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled.8 cm long. subequal. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. flat or compressed. radially elongated in xylem region. cortical cells thin-walled.25 cm long and 0. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. polygonal cells.15 cm wide. fibres thick-walled. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. scattered throughout the phloem region. consisting of round to polygonal cells. thin-walled. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. 95 . oblong. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. a few thick-walled. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. variable in size.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. anthers two celled. brownish cells. composed of polygonal. broader towards centre. Seed . xylem present in a ring. ray cells thin walled. ray cells thin-walled. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. with a number of large air cavities. vessels with spiral thickenings. composed of transversely elongate. linear-oblong. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. rectangular to cubical. phloem fibres thick-walled. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. phloem narrow. hairy but appearing smooth. endodermis single layered. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. 0. 4seeded. light brown. stigma simple. inner cells smaller.Two celled. fibre walls uniformly thickened. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. involute with a fissure on upper side. single or in groups of 2-3.Ovate. pubescent. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex.

tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. V¡jikara. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. 2. Lamina . vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening.2.Shows concavo-convex outline.78. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.LeafMidrib . cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. M£trala. Appendix per cent. covered with thick cuticle.2. IDENTITY.25-15.75. tangentially elongated cells. parenchymatous cells. V¤Àya. palisade ratio 6. 2. Amla. Seed . stomata diacytic. Rucya. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. .Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. sclerenchymatous cells. palisade. elongated fibres.2.7. Appendix 2. vein islet number 17-42. parenchymatous.6.3. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. 2. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.4. Appendix per cent. Fruit . Appendix per cent. oval to hexagonal. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. thin-walled. Powder . shows aseptate. 2. stomatal index 17.Light brown. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. composed of thin-walled. unicellular hairs and globules. Tikta Picchila. collenchyma 2-5 layered.2.24-30. palisade 1-2 layered. thick-walled.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Appendix per cent. lignified.2.

DOSE . Ëmav¡ta áotha.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). of the drug in powder form.T¤À¸¡. V¡tarakta. 97 .3 -6 g.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES .

most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. branches on nodes. annual herb. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions.Acanthaceae).42. common in water logged places throughout the country. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. slightly transversely elongated. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. polygonal cells. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. a spiny. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. whitish to brownish. Hygrophila spinosa T. Syn. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. thinwalled cells. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. Anders (Fam. consisting of small. stout. Root-Appears circular in outline. Kokilaksha (Rt. Culli --. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. the size of these cells. thin-walled. no characteristic odour and taste. Nerugobbi. secondary phloem narrow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. IkÀuraka. Kolavulike.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. Kokil¡kÀ¢. 98 . Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces.

6. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. A¿ma¤¢. each group composed of 2-6 cells. radially elongated in the xylem region. 99 .2. ray cells thin-walled. Appendix per cent. lignified fibres.3. M£trala. vessels with spiral thickening. broader towards centre. 2. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. angular. secondary xylem forms continuous ring.Light brown to ash coloured.2. of the drug for decoction. 2.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. 2.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3 -6 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Tikta Picchila. 2. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells.2. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.4. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. shows fragments of pitted. fibre walls uniformly thickened. Amla.2.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. V¡tarakta.Ëmav¡ta áotha. Appendix 2. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows.2.7. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres.2. IDENTITY. having spiral thickening. Powder . V¡tahara. scattered throughout the phloem region.

Powder . annual herb. white. hairy but appearing smooth. (Fam. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. common in water logged places throughout the country. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. b) Microscopic Seed . Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. a spiny. Acanthaceae).43. Hygrophila spinosa T. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Kokilaksha (Sd. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Maradarishana. Maradarishina -Maramannal. oil globules present in this region. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. flat or compressed.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled.Greyish-brown. thinwalled. Syn. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. taste. shows hairs and oil globules. parenchymatous cells. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Swelling Index . stout. IkÀuraka. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. the 100 .8 -10. Anders. truncate at the base. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. Daruhuladur Darhald.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. light yellowish-brown. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate.

L. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. 0. 0. 0. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .V. T. 0. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.31 (dark brown). 0.2. 2.03.52 and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.áotha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. Appendix 2. 2. V¤Àya. 0.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. 0. 101 .C.10 (light brown).C. related to 1 g of seeds.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.93 (sky blue).17.72 (dark brown). 0.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. DOSE . Lipase. CONSTITUENTS .24. 0. Appendix per cent. enzymes like Diastase. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Protease and an Alkaloid. Appendix per cent.6.2.24 (red).41 (light blue).3 -6 g. Santarpa¸a. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf.52 (dark brown) and 0.2. 0. Kaphahara. 0. 2. V¡tarakta. 0.31. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.38 (light brown).76 (sky blue) and 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.24 (dark brown).03 (light brown). IDENTITY. 0.3.17 (light brown). of the drug in powder form. 0.4.An yellow semi-drying oil.38.2.55 (light blue). 0.72 (all yellow).2. 0. Add 25 ml of water.. including any sticky mucilage.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. Appendix per cent. Pitt¡¿mar¢. 0.

characteristic. brownish-grey. dehiscing above the base.4 cm long. Kwfa Pasalai. root hairs abundant in upper region. stamens 8-12. prostrate herb. 0.P) Portulacaceae). an annual succulent. Payilikura.6 cm wide. branched.5 cm long and 0. sub-sessile. Leaf . 50 cm long. subtended by an involucre. Kozhuppa. rounded and truncate at the apex.1 to 0. Baranunia Garden Purslane. odour. 0.An ovoid capsule. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Moti Luni Khursa. petals obovate. at terminal heads. small.Simple. spathulate. Kuzuppa (W. fracture.3 cm long.2 cm in diameter. Loni. 0. oblong. oblique. Lonika. Badi Lona Dudagorai. secondary roots. Flower . sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6.35-0.Almost cylindrical.25-0. fracture. 3-4 leaves. Kozhuppu Pappukura. style 5-6 fid. Khurfa. cuneiform. short. Loni. 0. bright yellow. swollen at the nodes. (Fam. short.5 cm long. Fruit . Ghola -Lonak.1 to 0. 0. Stem . Common Indian Purslane Luni. Kulfa. ribbed. Loni -Koricchira. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Doddagoni Soppu. Pulikkirai.A few. Kozuppa.Cylindrical.3 to 2. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. sepal 0. found throughout the country. surface smooth. Paruppukkeerai. Gho¶ik¡.4 cm long. Peddapavila Kura. Chhotalunia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Badanuni.44. 102 . very delicate and soon falling off. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. less in number. -Baraloniya. smooth and greenish-brown.

parenchymatous cells. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. arranged in radial rows. shows groups of oval to polygonal. ray cells and pith. covered externally with a thick cuticle. present in mesophyll cells. thick-walled with wide lumen. thin-walled. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. having 2-3 components. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.Wavy in outline. Appendix per cent.2. oval. dark brown. 0.4. tracheids and parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent.06-0. minute. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. 2. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. tracheids and parenchyma.7. as well as compound.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. simple as well as compound. palisade single layered. reniform.2. tracheids. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. vessels. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. IDENTITY. Stem .2.2. measuring 6-14 µ .shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled.3. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. solitary or in groups of 2-5. 2. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem consists of vessels. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. parenchyma abundant. Appendix 2. pericycle fibre present in patches. Lamina . having simple pits and spiral thickening. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening.. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells.6. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. Powder . Appendix per cent. fragments of cork cells. . 2. b) Microscopic Root . Appendix per cent. secondary xylem composed of vessels. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. LeafMidrib .2. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. stomata paracytic type. oval cells.Seed -Numerous. phloem. phloem and xylem parenchyma. black. 2.Greyish-brown. pitted and spiral vessels.07 cm across. having intercellular spaces.2.

0. 0.10. 0. 0.L.68 (yellow) and 0.68.3 .6 g.10. Carbohydrates. RukÀa. 0.T. Gulma. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Under U. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .61. 0.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . 104 .C.Protein. Ar¿a. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.08. 0.08. (both green). T.Marma Gu¶ik¡. áotha.50. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.52 (both faint green).52. 0..C.Agnim¡ndya. Pittakara. Prameha.L.V.41.76 and 0. 0.41. 0.10. V¡tahara. 0.76 (all pinkish red). CakÀuÀya. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form. 0. Vra¸a DOSE .68 and 0.76 (green) in visible light.

found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. distinct. 25-50 cm high.6-1.week bristles longitudinally grooved. Lajauni Muttidasenui. upto 2 cm thick. easily separable from wood. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. 0.3-0. 105 . internal cut surface grey. Lajjalu (W. external surface light brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. fracture hard. stipulate. sensitive to touch. acute. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. 0. greyish brown to brown.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. alternate. Lajavanti. slightly astringent. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi.45. varying in length. petiolate. linear lanceolate. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . (Fam.P) diffused undershrub. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. taste. woody. Stem . Var¡kr¡nt¡. odour. rependant . Machikegida. sparsely prickly. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. Leaf .5 cm in dia.2 cm long. obliquely rounded at base. bark fibrous. sessile. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn.Cylindrical. Fabaceae). leaflets 10-20 pairs. nearly glabrous.Cylindrical. hairy pinnae. tapering. upto 2. Adamalati Lajaka. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. Lajamani Chhuimui. covered with long. bark fibrous.4 cm broad. with secondary and tertiary branches. yellowish-green.

crystal fibres elongated. rarely multiseriate. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. thick-walled. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. dry. oval-elliptic. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. calyx very small. 106 .5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. peduncles prickly. spreading bristle at sutures. parenchymatous cells.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. simple. xylem rays radially elongated. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high.Compressed. ovary sessile. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. straw coloured.4-0. stamens 4. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. ovate oblong.3 long. corolla pink. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Seed . lobes 4.Flower . each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a number of lignified. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. scattered throughout. moderately thick-walled. consisting of large. arranged in tangential bands. fibres of two types.6 cm long.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. thick-walled. thick-walled. radially elongated.3 cm long. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. glabrous. 2. tangentially elongated to oval. 0. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. b) Microscopic Root . starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. phloem fibres single or in groups. phloem rays thick-walled. filled with reddish-brown contents. 0. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. 0. Stem . 3-25 chambered. crystal fibres thick-walled. pith consisting of polygonal. 2-3 seriate more common. respectively. fibres. much exserted. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 1-1. Fruit . secondary cortex wide. in globose head. tangentially elongated cells. ovules numerous. parenchyma. scattered throughout secondary xylem. brown to grey.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face.Pink. fibres single or in groups.Lomentum. starch grains. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. branched. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. palisade single layered. with 2 . Lamina .3 components IDENTITY. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. parenchymatous cells.shows single layered epidermis. shaggy hairs. spongy parenchyma single layered.C.81 (bluish-pink). Appendix 2.62. Appendix per cent.shows epidermis on both surfaces. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. lignified cells followed by single layered.69 (all blue) and 0.L.Leaf- Petiole . vascular bundle single. single and compound starch grains.2. Midrib . pericycle arranged in a ring. parenchymatous cells Seed .C. covered with thin-cuticle. thin-walled. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. shows. 0.2.4.2. reticulate.7. 2. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. pitted vessels. one in each wing.6. Appendix per cent.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder . Fruit . branched. pericycle same as in petiole.L. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. Appendix per cent.2.2. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.35. palisade cells non glandular. parenchymatous cells.V.3. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. 2. crystal fibres. spongy parenchyma.2. 2. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. 0. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent. T.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. fibres.Reddish-brown. shaggy hairs. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. endocarp of thick-walled.

PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.35 and 0. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. Yoniroga. CONSTITUENTS . Ku¶aj¡valeha. D¡ha.35 (orange). Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 108 . THERAPEUTIC USES .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a.spots appear at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Raktapita DOSE .áopha.10-20 g of the drug for decoction.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. KuÀ¶ha.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Vra¸a. 0. Kaphahara. 0. Atis¡ra. áv¡sa.

tabular. Iluppa. basifixed. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Madhuka.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. and also cultivated.5-2 cm long. Sapotaceae) . Mahua Katiluppai. short. Androecium .46. corolla fleshy. Mahawash tree Mahudo.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. anther sub-sessile.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. lanceolate. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. erect 0.Gmel. epipetalous and arranged in two series. ovate lanceolate. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. Bassia latifolia Roxb. followed by thin-walled. Syn.) Macbride. Halippe. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). Madhuka (Fl. M. Ilippa. sweet. a few 109 . latifolia (Roxb. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida.F. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Eppimara -Irippa. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. Kattu Iluppai. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. Hippenara. reddish-brown. Hippe. Ippa. epipetalous. taste. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. b) Microscopic Corolla .

5 per cent. spherical. Powder . round. Appendix 0. V¡tahara.2. Appendix 25 per cent. unicellular hairs. 2.áv¡sa. Appendix 70 per cent. áramahara.15 g. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. tapetum not distinct. 110 . 2.10 . D¡ha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. IDENTITY. Appendix 2.2. 2.7. 2.3.unicellular hairs present on one side. endothecium composed of radially elongated.Dark brown. El¡di Modaka. Appendix 5 per cent. lignified cells.6.2. pollen grains single or in groups. T¤À¸¡.2.4. Appendix 10 per cent.2. of the drug. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . Balya.Madh£k¡sava. KÀata. Pittakara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. árama DOSE . 2. shows fragments of epidermal cells.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. Ah¤dya. oval shaped.2. KÀaya.

Leaf .5-5 cm long. Matsy¡duni. Matshyakshi (W. A. no characteristic odour and taste.. short.Cylindrical.6 cm diameter. A.5 cm long. short. Br. yellowish-brown to light-brown.Herbaceous.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. Br.. often rooting at lower nodes. Flower . Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .) R. (Fam.. linear-oblong. nodiflora R.. sessile. Bahli. with spreading branches from the base.5 cm wide. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. Syn.3-2 cm wide. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds..47. Amaranthaceae). cream to grey. A. A. fracture.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. Gandal¢. 2. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets.1-0. non Link. denticulata R. repens Gmel. Br. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. triandra Lam. bracteoles 111 . sometimes reaching 10 cm long. internodes 0. nodes and internodes distinct. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region.1. weak.P. 0. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. obtuse or subacute. white often tinged with pink. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. fracture. or elliptic.3-7. no characteristic odour and taste. Stem . no characteristic odour and taste.

b) Microscopic Root . scarious. compressed with thickened margins. bicollateral. thin. vascualr bundles radially arranged. irregular. parenchymatous cells. Lamina . parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem tissues lignified.5-3 mm long. with anomalous secondary growth. 112 . with are conjoint. pith distinct.Utricle. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. composed of thin-walled. each consisting of xylem and phloem. no characteristic odour and taste. collenchymatous cells. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. style very short. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. vascular bundles three. thin-walled. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side.5 mm long. Leaf- Midrib . perianth 2. palisade 2-3 layers. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. round to oval. capitellate. stomata paracytic. compressed.dorsiventral. 1. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval.2 cm long. ovary obcordate. single layered. shows wavy or undulate. numerous. palisade ratio 3-5. isodiametic cells. round or oval.1. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. orbicular. open and exarch. present in the centre. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. pith consisting of thin-walled. consistig of thin-walled. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. acute. parenchymatous cells. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. no characteristic odour and taste. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. consisting of thin-walled cells. Fruit . conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. sepals ovate. isodiametric. covered wtith striated cuticle. thin-walled round or oval. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. radially arranged cork cells. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. parenchymatous cells.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. parenchymatous cells. Stem . secondary cortex narrow. ovate.

2.59. 0. Appendix 3 per cent.C.Powder . 0.81.L.V. 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.6. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.44. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.KuÀ¶ha. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.54 and 0. of the drug in powder form.3..68 (all red). 2. Raktavik¡ra DOSE .4. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 10 per cent. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.44 (all green).7.96 (all yellow).2. 0. V¡tahara. Tikta.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.16. Pittavik¡ra.25. 0.94 and 0.Olive green. 0. Appendix 4. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Under U.33.5 per cent.2. 0. IDENTITY.C. 2.33 and 0.44. Appendix 2. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2 -3 g. 0. 0. Appendix 19 per cent. 2. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. paracytic stomata.2. Kaphahara. 2. 113 .18.Sugar.16. T.35.

walled. varying in size.5 cm long. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. (Fam. columnar palisade. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. 0. mucilaginous cells. annual herb.) aromatic. 0. smooth. thin-walled. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. 114 . very hard.Seed shows a layer of thick. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. taste. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.2-0. bitter. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. pleasant. odour. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. 30-60 cm tall. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. Fabaceae). covered externally with thick cuticle. dull yellow.48. Methi (Sd. b) Microscopic Seed . cultivated throughout the country.35 cm broad. cells flat at base. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. several layers of thin walled.15-0. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe.

2. Sapogenins and Mucilage. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. Appendix 5 per cent. Powder .Graha¸¢.2.2.2. Prameha. CONSTITUENTS . Aruci DOSE .2. oil globules. Appendix 2.5 per cent.3. 115 . 2. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa.2.Yellow. Rucya. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. IDENTITY.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. 2.Mustak¡riÀ¶a.4.Alkaloid. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. aleurone grains.3-6 g. Jvara. Appendix 4 per cent. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Muli.Lower leaves hairy. an annual or biennial bristly herb. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. blade obovate.) Brassicaceae). complete 1-2 cm long. Flower . sub-linear but narrowed at the base.1-1. petals 1. cylindrical.P. taste.7-2. hollow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula.2 cm long. petiole 5-5.Flower in long terminal raceme.5-10 cm long. compressed. slightly pungent. (Fam. having a few longitudinal striations. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. not distinct. Leaf .. bright green. upper most leaves simple.3 cm long.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. lyrate. seplas 6. odour. bisexual. regular. pedicel with scattered hairs.0 cm in dia. Stem . white or lilac with yellow or 116 . sub-marginate at the apex. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally.Root cylindrical. oblong. yellowish-green. variable size and thickness. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn.Slender. coarsely toothed. Mulaka (W. sometimes brown red. 0.49.

shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. present in cortex and phloem. Leaf- Petiole . thin-walled. Fruit . starch grains simple. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening.Siliqua. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. epidermis single layered. style about 4 mm long.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.8. 10-12 ovuled. traversed by xylem rays. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. two outer smaller and four inner longer. 2-4 mm long. stamen 6 in two whorls. Midrib . continuous or more or less constricted. 1-2 chambered. green or brown-purple. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. epidermis followed by 6. single layered. pith a wide zone of polygonal. present in cortex. solitary or ingroups. erect. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces.1. b) Microscopic Root . 117 . elliptical. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. present only on upper side.purple vein. traversed by phloem rays. round to oval.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. irregularly globose.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. medullary rays four to many cells wide. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. parenchymatous cells. occasionally pale purple. endodermis at some places.dorsiventral. covered with thick cuticle. one central and two lateral. phloem. palisade 2-3 layers. longitudinally sulcatus. parenchymatous cells. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. hairs unicellular. vascular bundle three in number. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. parenchymatous cells. radially arranged. 3-9 cm long and 0. thin-walled. taste. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. round to oval. greenish-yellow. Lamina .appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces.4 cm thick. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. ovary superior. Stem . epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. 2 mm wide.appears biconvex in outline. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. oily. cork cells. Seed . sometimes flattened.Reddish-brown. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. cylindrical.

6. Seed . of columnar cells. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. Appendix per cent. Ud¡varta.Fruit .Yellowish-green. 2. Rucya. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . 118 . covered with thin.Glucoside.M£lakakÀ¡ra. P¢nasa. 2. Gandhaka Va¶¢. IDENTITY. Gulma. straight cuticle. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Appendix per cent.7.2. Powder . spiral vessels. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. tangentially elongated.2. H¤dya. Appendix per cent. of the drug in juice form.4. Tikta Laghu. thin-walled.20 . DOSE . oil globules and round to oval starch grains. Svarya. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. covered with a thin-cuticle. P¡cana. CONSTITUENTS . epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. parenchymatous cells. measuring 3-14 µ diameter.3.2. Ar¿a. 2.2. Appendix 2.2. reddish-brown. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Shows a single layered epidermis.Agnim¡ndya.40 ml.2. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. Pittahara. shows aseptate fibres. thinwalled. 2. parenchymatous cells present. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal.

Mulaka. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn.7. fusiform.2.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Saleya. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.2. 2. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Mula Muli Moolangi. 2.3. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. Brassicaceae). Rakhyasmula Mula. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka.6. Visra. variable in size. 2.2. cylindrical. rarely sweet. slightly or strongly pungent. 119 . (Fam. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Appendix 2.2. Appendix per cent. white in colour. Appendix per cent.2. taste. Appendix per cent. Mulaka (Rt. Moclangi gadde.2. usually 25-40 cm in length. 2.4. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.50. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. Mullangi. Appendix per cent.

T.49 & 0.LC. K¡sa.09 & 0.T. Netraroga.15-30 ml. 0. Gulma. Pittahara.04. Rucya.34. 0.09. 0. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . P¢nasa. 0.Glucoside. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Ar¿a.L. 0. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ud¡varta DOSE . Kaphahara. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. H¤dya.69 (all yellow). Dadru. of the drug in the juice form 120 .04. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . Svarya.04 & 0. Galaroga. Jvara.Agnim¡ndya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vrana.V. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.C. Tikta Laghu.09 (both blue). P¡cana. áv¡sa.

secondary cortex composed of rounded. slightly bitter. 6-12 cm long and 0. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents.) DC. inner cells thin-walled. Daitya. Apiaceae ). secondary phloem shows wide zone. (Fam. 0.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. Gandhakuti.1. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Mura (Rt.4 m tall. aromatic.6 . cambium 2-4 layered. traversed by phloem rays. dull brown. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. odour.2. S. Root . colour.3 .51. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . tangentially elongated. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. a perennial herb. consisting of tangentially elongated.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. taste. Syn. tenuifolium Wall. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi.42000 m. thin-walled cells. thin-walled cells. fibres and parenchyma. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. traversed by xylem rays.Shows 10 . rectangular cells.

secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. somewhat oval cells. 2. Ka¶u. Appendix 9 per cent.Brown. D¡ha. starch grains simple. Appendix 9 per cent. composed of radially arranged.2.2. fibres aseptate. Appendix 17 per cent.Arvind¡sava. 2. IDENTITY.1-3 g. 2. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . secondary phloem. present in secondary cortex. of the drug in powder form. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.4.7. M£rchha.2. Sucrose and Mannitol. secondary phloem. secondary xylem and medullary rays.2. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. Powder . xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.6. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 2.having spiral thickenings. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. Appendix 3. round to oval. xylem parenchyma. xylem and phloem rays. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T¤Àn¡ DOSE . 122 . round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter..2. Jvara. shows groups of cork cells.2.5 per cent. secretory canals numerous. Bhrama.áv¡sa. secretory canals.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). Tikta.3. oil globules and simple starch grains. 2. distributed throughout secondary cortex. short with blunt ends.

(Fam. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root . phloem fibres absent. Halukaratige.52. phloem rays 1 123 . Madhusrava. Murva (Rt. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. twining shrub. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. odour. tangentially elongated. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness.5-3 cm thick. indistinct. Kallu Shambu. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. fracture. Koratige. a large stout. bark easily separable from wood. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. slightly bitter. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. Jartor Koratige Hambu. & Am. resin cells present irregularly in this region.) Asclepiadaceae). similar to those present in secondary cortex.Shows a cork. rectangular cells. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. some filled with reddish-brown contents. taste. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells.

22 µ in diameter.2.7.2. Powder . 10-20 g. fragments of cork. IDENTITY.5 .4. Meha.5-22 µ dia. of the drug for decoction. Pittahara. present in parenchymatous tissues. 2. DOSE .3. Appendix 5 per cent. 2. 5. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Ar¿a.6. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form. 2. composed of vessels. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains.. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2-6 g. measuring 5. starch grains simple. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. Mukha áosa. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Light brown. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. Appendix 14 per cent. Prameha Mihira Taila. simple and compound starch grains. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma.2. fibretracheids.3 cells wide. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue.2.tracheids. Tikta Guru. T¤Àn¡. fibres. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. Ka¸·£. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. shows a number of stone cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. Medoroga. Raktapitta. consisting of small tangential. fibres. Appendix 2. H¤droga. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. 124 .. tracheids. Appendix 0. Appendix 7 per cent. vessels with pitted walls.5 per cent. V¡tahara. Jvara.2.

Konkan. each stamen 0. more or less twisted. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar.Brown. (Fam. connective not visible with naked eye. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. Bengal. basifixed. Veluthapala. 125 . Naugaliral. Nagchampa. soft to touch. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. filiform. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. shows elongated cells of filament. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. N¡ga. anther about 0. Guttiferae).9-1. Peri. quite brittle. fragrant. distinct protuberances on walls. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Nauga. astringent. exine and intine distinct. Sachunagkeshara.9 cm long. containing pollen grains. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute.53. Nagakesari -Nangaa. yellowish and thin-walled. Hem¡. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. linear. thick-walled. odour. often buttressed at the base.1. Powder . filament 0. Nagachampakam. b) Microscopic Androecium . connective and filament. Nagppu. Nagakesar (Stmn.) evergreen tree.0 cm long. slender. consisting of thin-walled. N¡gapuÀpa. taste. Pilunagkesar. Nahar Nageshvara. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. an Ke¿ara. coppery or golden brown. Assam. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. parenchymatous cells. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara.8 .Anther shows golden-brown.5 cm long.

N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. 2. 2. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form.4. Var¸ya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.1-3 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Appendix 2.2. Vastiroga DOSE . 126 . CONSTITUENTS . Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.2.Raktapitta. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Tikta. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. V¡tarakta. Appendix per cent.6. Kum¡ry¡sava.2.2.2.IDENTITY. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. 2.7.2. Kaphahara. áopharoga.3.

pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole .5 cm long and 0. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. pith composed of round to oval. N¢l¢n¢. 1. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. (Fam. Fabaceae). a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. no characteristic odour and taste. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili.8 m high. Nili (Lf. 127 .1.) shrub.3-1. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡.54.2.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. leaflet 1-2.2 cm wide. pale green to greenish-black. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip.

N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .Midrib . pitted vessels.3.2. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. aseptate fibres. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. shows groups of mesophyll cells. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . Pl¢haroga. Lamina .. Ud¡varta.50-100 g.7. Udararoga. Jvara. IDENTITY.4. cuticle and hair. 2.. Appendix 2 per cent. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. collateral and crescent shaped. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. cuticle and hair. Appendix 2. V¡tarakta. similar as in petiole and midrib. K¡sa.2. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. Appendix 10 per cent. 2.Ëmav¡ta. vascular bundle single.2.2. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. Appendix 7. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. V¡tahara.shows epidermis. Ke¿ya. CONSTITUENTS . paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . 2.. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. of decoction.Glycoside (Indican).5 per cent. epidermis. palisade 2-3 layers. 2. 128 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . similar as in petiole.6.2. Gulma.Greenish-grey. K¤imiroga.2. Appendix 25 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.shows dorsiventral structure.

Nila Nili. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Karunili. group of fibres. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. Rangapatr¢. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown.10 layers of tangentially elongated. rectangular. woody. cylindrical. Olleneeli -Amari. consisting of usual elements. hard. 1. Gari Nili Kadunili. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.2-1. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. Nili. thin-walled cells. 0. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. Nili (Rt. thin-walled cells. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. taste.5 cm thick. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. 129 . Nili Chettu. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. odour not distinct. Nila -Neel Avuri. with lenticels. (Fam.1 -1. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. Indian Indigo Gali.. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. secondary cortex a narrow zone.) shrub.55. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. Neeligida. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. slightly bitter. Nil. Neeli Nili. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays.8 m high.

130 . 0. 2.81 (blue).48 g.V. shows aseptate fibres. 0.0. Appendix 2. K¡sa.06..21. Appendix 4 per cent. IDENTITY. 0.10.0. and 0. CONSTITUENTS . 2.27.14.3.40. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. T.47 (blue). 0. 0.C. 0. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. simple and compound starch grains.6. of drug for decoction. Appendix 0.2. Appendix 3 per cent. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. 2.75. 0. 0.Gulma.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.2. 0.63. V¡tarakta. K¤imiroga.86. present in cortex.10. 0. Ke¿ya. round to oval.58. 0. 2. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.30 (bluish green). 0.C. 0. 0.14. 0.Creamish-brown.27.63.58. Udararoga.91 (all yellow). phloem. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 0.33.2.81.63 (bluish green). Powder . 0.7 per cent. pitted vessels.2. 0.75. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. V¡tahara. Ud¡varta. 0.33.14 (blue). Pl¢h¡roga.L.2. 0. 0. Ëmav¡ta.80.91 (all grey). 0.7. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.40 (blue). DOSE .. ViÀavik¡ra. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem parenchyma and rays.Arvind¡sava.06.58 (blue).50. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.4. Recan¢.50. 0. starch grains simple.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.91 (blue).75 (blue). 0. 0.86 (green) and 0.86 and 0.40.2.L.

Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Veppan Vemu. Veppa Balantanimba. 0. (Fam. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Bevu. crystals also present in phloem region.5 cm long and 1.1 cm thick. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Limba. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. leaflets with oblique base. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Nim Vemmu. Bevinama -Veppu.7 cm wide. lanceolate. Arulundi. slightly yellowish-green. Melia azadirachta Linn. acute. 7-8. Meliaceae). Limbado.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. exstipulate.56. taste. indistinct. Kahibevu. Oilevevu. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. serrate. Kohumba Nim. Bakayan. Bakan. opposite. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Nimbam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. 131 .Compound. alternate. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. rachis 15-25 cm long. odour. Juss Syn. Nimba (Lf. Limado. Nimba Nimba.0-1. Nim. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Veppu. Aryaveppu.

covered externally with thick cuticle. KuÀ¶ha. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. Ëma¿otha. 2.4. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. fibres. of the drug in powder form.5 on lower surface and 8. palisade single layered. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. tangentially elongated cells. Prameha. 2. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .0-14. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.shows dorsiventral structure.1-3 g. traversed by a number of veins.2.Green.Lamina .2.3.6. Netraroga. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. palisade ratio 3. Appendix per cent. 2. epidermis on either surface. Appendix per cent. thin-walled cells.2. 132 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. IDENTITY.7.Triterpenoids and Sterols. 2. Appendix per cent. V¡tal¡. composed of thin walled.2.Jvara. Appendix per cent.5 on upper surface. Powder .0-4. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. Appendix 2. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.0-11.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀarogas DOSE . CONSTITUENTS . Vrana. K¤miroga.5.2.2. shows vessels. stomatal index 13.

Bakam Veppai. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Kahibevu. taste. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. fracture. Kadunimb. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Melia azadirachta Linn. evergreen tree. Nimba. Limba Nimba Nim. characteristic. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. odour. Nimba. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Oilevevu -Veppu.57. Syn. fissured and rusty-grey. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. (Fam. considerably thick in older barks. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. fibrous. a moderate sized to fairly large. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Nimb Bevu. extemal surface rough. Nimba (St. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Vembu Vemu. woody. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. Juss. Meliaceae).

ViÀaghna. round with central hilum. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.2.L.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. 2.6. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.72 (blue). Kaphahara.outer surface. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. measuring 2. stone cells mostly in groups. Appendix 2. 0. Appendix 5 per cent.2.Reddish-brown. simple starch grains. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.2. Appendix 1. and 0. Powder . having wide lumen and distinct striations. 0. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.20. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. T. 0.C.2. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.90 (all blue).63 and 0. 2. lignified rectangular to polygonal.45. simple.2. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . cork cells.75-5 µ in diameter. IDENTITY.7. Appendix 7 per cent. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. 0.C. CONSTITUENTS . 2.3.V.L.5 per cent.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.4.2.90 (green).measuring 2.86 (blue). starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. Appendix 6 per cent. secondary cortex absent in most cases. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Pittahara. 2. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.

2-4 g. Jvara. KuÀ¶ha. Rakta Pitta. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Ka¸·u. 135 . Vra¸a DOSE . Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Decoction should be used externally. K¤miroga. Prameha.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form.D¡ha. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .

15 m high with irregular branches. Chettu Dhak. Khakharo. Paras Moduga. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. fracture. having brown colour. rhytidoma 0. cork cells. curved. exposing light brown surface. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged.58. Khakhapado Dhak. often in groups. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Camata. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. Palash. Modugu. dark brown. Muttala -Plasu. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. tanniniferous cells. except in very arid parts. Tesu Muttug. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m.1 cm thick. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk.Bk) Fabaceae). Dhak. dark-brown. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. pale brown. moderately thick-walled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. thin-walled. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. rectangular.2 cm thick usually peels off.) Kuntze (Fam. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. 12 .5 . exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. internal surface rough. greyish to pale brown. slightly astringent. 5-10 or more layered. taste. Palasha (St. rectangular 136 . sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. 0. Tesu Purasu. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Muttuga. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. Plas.

of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. phloem parenchyma. 2. 2. Appendix 1. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.48.75 µ in dia.12 cells wide. Appendix 14 per cent.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.75 .5 per cent. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . 0. companion cells. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. thin-walled cork cells. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.10.L. T.4. sclereids mostly in groups.2.L.48 and 0. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.cells followed by a zone of 2 .2.10. Appendix 12 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 0. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.2. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.C. Powder . tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.48 and 0. measuring 2. 137 . traversed by phloem rays.10. 0.50 cells in height. Appendix 10 per cent. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma.67 (all violet).2.13. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.V.65 (all blue). shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.6.7..Reddish-brown. 0. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.18.. straight. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. crystal fibres. 2. 0.3 components.2.4 layers of sclereids. phloem fibres. 2.2.C.67 (all yellow). dark brown coloured cells. 0. 7 .3.

Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. DOSE .Ar¿a.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Graha¸¢. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES .5-10 g. Gulma. Vra¸a. Agnid¢paka. S¡raka . KaÀ¡ya Sara. K¤miroga. Tikta. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. 138 .

b) Microscopic Stem Bark . secondary cortex consists of large. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. (Fam. yellowish to cream coloured. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. stone 139 . Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. inner bark fibrous.0 cm thick.Bk) Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka.59. parenchymatous cells.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. Paribhadra (St. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. radially arranged and thin-walled. medium sized. smooth.5-2. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. Pangara Hongar. quick growing tree. Mulmurumgai Badisa. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. tangentially elongated to squarish. exfoliating in narrow strips. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

. Volatile Oil.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.CONSTITUENTS . Balak¤t. V¤Àya. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. 148 ..Alkaloids. V¡taroga DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. of drug in powder form. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .2-4 g.V¡tarakta. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Priyala (Sd. sclerenchymatous cells. Syn. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. which are of various size. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. pitted. linear. Priyalam. latifolia Roxb. Saraparuppu Sara. thick-walled. (Farn. large.) Anacardiaceae). epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . b) Microscopic Seed . creamish-brown. Satdhan -Charal. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells.5 cm wide. followed by remnants of disorganised. B. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high.63. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. pleasant. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. collapsed cells of integument. sweetish-oily. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. funicle stout. occurring mostly in groups. Korka. Chowl. Shalichokha Piyal. 0. 0. Piyar.6 cm long. odour.3-0. hilum present at the apex of round edge. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. micropyle superior.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. taste. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi.4-0. mottled with darker brown lines.

Bhagnas¡dhaka.91. 2. Sara. and sclerenchymatous cells. Appendix 7 per cent. Appendix 2. H¤dya. 0.5-5.L.Albuminoids.94 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent.98 (all violet). shows numerous mesophyll cells.08. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.measuring 2.3.0 µ in dia.94 and 0.2. T. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. V¡tahara. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. 2.A creamish-brown paste.20 g. 0. 150 .D¡ha. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.10 .84.6.P£gakha¸·a.4. KÀata.L.2.94 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.7. 0. IDENTITY.2.27. procambium bundles. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5-5. Appendix 0.08. 2.C.2. Oil and Starch. 0. V¤Àya. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. BrÆha¸a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Powder . thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.72. áukrakara. Pittahara. KÀaya. 0. Priy¡la Taila. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.0 µ in dia. 0. Kaphakara.72.type.2. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. and oil globules. Balya.V. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .54. of the drug in powder form.54. 0. DOSE . 0.C. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2.2.72 and 0. 0.27. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.91. Raktapitta.98 (all yellow).

Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. basifixed.5-7. stigma minutely capitate. filament very long.0. long.5 cm across. brown.5 cm long.Cymose.4 m high shrub. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . Flower . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢.64. densely hairy. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. anther ovate. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. corolla. equal in size. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. ovary 2-4 celled. densely clothed with wooly hairs. style. Priyangu (Infl. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. epipetalous. brown.5 . hairy. tubular. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . 2. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical.) Verbenaceae).2. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres.2.Shows more or less wavy outline. stamens 4.3 mm in dia. 4 lobbed spreading. bell-shaped. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. 1. 1. and abundant in Bengal plains. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. (Fam. b) Microscopic Peduncle . thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. peduncle cylindrical. an erect. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. calyx.

Phenolic compound. CONSTITUENTS .2. elliptical.4. of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. El¡di C£r¸a. DOSE . Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya.D¡ha. Resin and Saponin. Ku´kum¡di Taila.6. (Mukharoga). Jvara. Powder .7. Terpenes. M£travirajan¢ya.3. Appendix per cent. Sandh¡n¢ya.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. 2. Appendix per cent. Daurgandhyahara. Pras¡dana.1-3 g. IDENTITY.2. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. 2. fibres aseptate. Vra¸aropa¸a. spiral vessels.fibres. Sved¡dhikya.Brown. Pakv¡tis¡ra. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.Glycosides. Rakta. 2. V¡tahara. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. THERAPEUTIC USES . groups of thin-walled.2. aseptate fibres. 2. Kanaka Taila.2. Rakta-Pitta. 152 . N¢lik¡dya Taila.2. xylem consists of usual elements.2. Appendix 2.

pitted vessels and 153 . Dhana Bhatto. Dhan Rice. Bhata. cylindrical. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Bhatta. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Chawl. Jhona Arishi. 5-15 cm in length and 0. an annual herb.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Corava. thin. Akki -Ari. both consisting of round to oval. smooth. Dh¡nya. Damgara. Shali (Rt. Dhana. Paddy Shalichokha.) cultivated throughout India. Cala. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. sclerenchymatous cells. Powder . Nellu Tandulamul. Nivara -Chaval. Odalu. cortex differentiated into three zones. Sali. Biyyamu Chaval.Greyish-cream. creamish-brown to greyish-brown.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. soft. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Dhanarmul. b) Microscopic Root . outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. exodermis 1-2 layered. composed of thick-walled.05-0. (Fam. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Nelver Dhanyamu. thick-walled. sclerenchymatous cells. Poaceae). Coke Chaval.65. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Nellu. Vr¢hi.

Br¡hma Ras¡yana. 2. BrÆha¸a. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. 2.2.7.4. M£trala.2.2.2. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.50 g. Laghu. Baddh¡lpavarcasa.3. Var¸ak¤t. Rucya. H¤dya. Svarya. V¡tahara. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Balya. Kaphahara. CakÀuÀya. of the drug for decoction.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.StanyakÀaya. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 154 . Pittahara. KaÀ¡ya Guru. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

Leaf . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡.1-0. Sankhapuspi. about 0. hairy on both surfaces. stamen 5. linear-lanceolate.66.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes.4 cm thick. Kakkanangudi. Sankha pushpin (W. 1-5 cm long. Stem . Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. hairy. epipetalous. Shankhavela. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Usually branched. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. 0.P. sub-erect. linear-lanceolate. spreading. Karakhuratt. cylindrical.1-0.5-2 cm long and 0. a prostrate. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. ovary superior and bicarpellary. Sankhahuli Kakattam. light green. corolla shortly discoid. Flower . 155 . solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. sepals narrowly. light green. 0.Shortly petiolate.Slender. perennial herb with a woody root stock. free.White or pinkish. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. Shankhapushpi. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. cylindrical.) Convolvulaceae).5 cm broad. alternate with the petals. inserted deep in the corolla tube. acute. found throughout the country. yellowish-brown to light brown. sparsely hairy.

Seed . present in cortex. measuring 3 . phloem composed of sieve elements. elongated. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. b) Microscopic Root . a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. thin. endoderrnis single layered. Lamina . medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. palisade two layered. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. phloem a narrow zone.Appears nearly circular in outline. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248.0. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. thick-walled cells.8-17. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. round to oval in shape. oblong globose with coriaceous. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. hairs unicellular. present on both surfaces. phloem. xylem consists of vessels. unicellular hairs. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres.. fibres and parenchyma. vascular bundle bicollateral. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. epidermis single layered. LeafMidrib . parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. pale brown pericarp. palisade ratio 6-9.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle.8 µ in dia. both having round to oval. 13.Shows single layered epidermis. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. minutely puberulous. 156 . tanniniferous. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. . simple and composed of 2-3 components.Capsule. Stem . elliptical. at places unicellular hairs present. covered with thick cuticle. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. cortex differentiated in two zones. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered.Brown. starch grains solitary or in groups. secretory cells present in this region. xylem rays and parenchyma. Powder . mm. simple and compound starch grains. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. xylem consisting of usual elements. covered with thick cuticle. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma..Light yellowish-green. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin.walled cells.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side.Fruit . fibres and tracheids. mm.

Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.4. Tikta.2. Appendix per cent. ËyuÀya.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. Appendix per cent. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Agastyahar¢tak¢.3-8 g. Kaphahara. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Medhya.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.2. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.M¡nasaroga.6. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . 2. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Pittahara. Clitoria ternatea Linn. 2. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.2. 2.7. Ras¡yana.IDENTITY. Appendix 2.2. Ras¡yana. 2. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana. Br¡hma.

style. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. sub-sessile.celled with or without attached pedicel. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. 4-5 cm long. Leaf . 3-4 mm in dia. sessile.) Euphorbiaceae). 20-40 cm high. greenish-yellow.P. odour and taste indistinct.Involucre broadly campanulate. lobes short. short.5-2 mm thick.7-7 cm long. filament pubescent. (Fam. Siju. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. solitary. gland semilunate. Kalli -Chasma Lantha.1.67. 1 mm long.Small. free to the base. 0. 2. ciliolate. fracture. ovate. Bilikalli. Flower .8 cm wide. annual herb. cylindrical. shortly 2-fid at the apex. odour and taste not distinct. Joyachi. ribbed. Carmas¡hv¡. 158 . 0. having a few secondary roots. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. lanceolate or linear oblong. pale brown. a much branched.Capsule. smooth. Fruit . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. Saptala (W. linear. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. gradually tapering. 3. subacute.5 mm across at the mouth. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. horned. Chagulputputi Satala. trilocular. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate.2-0.

composed of sieve elements.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. rarely a few oil globules also present. striated cuticle. consisting of thick-walled. vessels having simple pits. rounded to oval. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. lignified cells with wide lumen. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root . flattended. parenchymatous cells. grooved at one side. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. single layered epidermis. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. rectangular. fibres and tracheids. parenchymatous cells. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct.shows slightly convex outline. covered externally with thick. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. 2.25 µ in diameter. thick-walled lignified. rounded to oval. tangentially elongated elliptical. fibres elongated and aseptate. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. measuring 5. filled with yellowish-brown content. secondary phloem narrow. secondary xylem consists of vessels. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma.6 layers of oval. fibres and vessels having simple pits. tangentially elongated cells. Stem . groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. elliptical. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. centre occupied by a pith. some rounded. traversed by numerous xylem rays. mature root shows thin walled cork. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex consists of 4. endodermis not distinct. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. epidermis single layered. thickwalled and lignified. 159 . hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. rounded at the base. stone cells oval to elongated. Leaf- Midrib . starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. all elements. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces.5-19.Young root shows exfoliated. starch grains simple. palisade single layered present on both sides. leprous tuberculate testa. elliptical. solitary or in groups. tracheids and medullary rays. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle.Seed . secondary xylem composed of vessels. simple.3 mm long.75 µ in dia. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. circular to oval. found scattered in phloem region. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. fibres. all elements thick-walled and lignified. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. with wide lumen present in this region.

6.2.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).2. 160 . 0. Vibandha.50 g. 2. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tal¡. rounded to oval starch grains. 2.C. Visarpa. elliptical. Gulma. DOSE .Powder .L.4.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.0. Appendix per cent.2. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. stone cells thick-walled.Light yellow. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a.L. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.C. 0. Mi¿raka Sneha. IDENTITY. 0. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. Udararoga. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. of the drug for decoction.3.Ën¡ha.87 (violet). T.46.04. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. 2. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. Appendix per cent.2.7.67. THERAPEUTIC USES . and 0. shows vessels with simple pits.57 (all yellow). simple.2. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . RukÀa. oval to elongated.V.46 (brown) and 0. Ud¡vartta. Appendix per cent.04 and 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. lignified with wide lumen. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.2. Appendix 2. aseptate fibres. RaktadoÀahara.

mericarps usually separate and free. Apiaceae). ex Flem. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. graveolens Linn. P. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. sowa Roxb. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. odour. graveolens Benth.. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. dorsal 161 . graveolens DC. brown. glabrous. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. parenchymatous. A. Satahva (Fr.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. Shulupa.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. Shepa. vittae. b) Microscopic Fruit . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. Sulpha. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. filiform and incospicuous.. slightly sharp taste. akin to caraway. (Fam. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. slightly raised. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. and a warm. often stalk attached.. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. a tall. Syn. dark brown. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. glabrous. mesocarp. A. Peucedanum sowa Roxb.68. var. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. 4 mm long. yellowish membranous wings. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway.

2. 0. Appendix 14 per cent.68 (all yellow). Appendix 1. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .59 (blue) and 0.2.59 and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.C. 2. of the drug in powder form. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.68 (violet). shows spiral vessels. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.L.37 (pink) 0. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. Appendix 15 per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.3-6 g. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.5 per cent.2.Essential Oil. 0. Jvara. each costae with vascular strands.Brown.2.10 T.á£la.2. Appendix 4 per cent. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. 2. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Kaphahara. 2.7. 162 . Atis¡ra. Appendix 2.C.2. Powder . Netra Roga DOSE . Vra¸a. Appendix 3 per cent. carpophore split.costae three. 2. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.3. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. IDENTITY.6.L.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. CONSTITUENTS . cellulosic. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.

ovate or obovate. (Fam. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Sajna. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Shewgachi pane Sajana. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo.) Gaertn. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. pericycle forming a broken ring.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. Muringa. Munga. palisade single layered. odour and taste not distinct. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Segata pana. Nugge ele -Murinna. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Sekato. elliptic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. commonly cultivated throughout the country. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Rachis . Mocaka -Sajina. oval to elliptical. thickened. thin walled.69. slender. parenchymatous cells. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered.5-1 cm wide. Syn. Mungna Neegge. Segata.2-2 cm long and 0. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. AkÀ¢va.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. entire. Leaflet . a small or medium sized tree. parenchymatous cells. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. Muringa Elai Sevaga. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. pith and phloem parenchyma. vascular bundle collateral. Bahala. Tishnagandha. Moringaceae). and articulated at the base. central region 163 b) Microscopic . Shigru (Lf. leaflet 1. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers.

T. áukra N¡¿aka.36 (green). stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.69 (yellow). 0.05. Appendix per cent. 0. vein islets number 50-65. CONSTITUENTS . shows groups of spongy parenchyma. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. 0.3. (all green). 0.L.94 (yellow) in visible light. 2. Under U.V. Appendix 2.Carbohydrate. Sirovirecaka 164 . 0. palisade ratio 6-11. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. palisade cells. 0. 0.30 (pink). Appendix per cent. B ¤Æhana.2. 2. 0.82 (yellow) and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.38.C. Pittahara. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.2. 0. 0. Medohara.52 (green).C.6. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.46 (both blue).69 (blue) and 0. 0. stomata anornocytic. Appendix per cent.26. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. 0.18.20. IDENTITY. Powder -Greyish-green.53 (yellow).2. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.46 (green).4.26 (all green).94 (violet). 2. 0.94 (blue). K¤mihara. 0.2.36.L. V¡tahara. RukÀa. 0. 2. 0. 0.05.05.occupied by a crescent-shaped.46 (dark green) & 0. Carotene and Ascorbic acid.46 (all red) & 0.2. spiral vessels.7. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.26. Protein.59 (blue).18.0.36 (yellowish green). present on both surface but more on lower sur face.2.87 (blue). 0. 0.

20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Medoroga. DOSE . Galaga¸·a. Pl¢haroga. Vidradhi.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀatinduka Taila. Gulma.Ratnagiri Rasa.áopha. 165 . K¤miroga. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .10 .

parenchymatous cells. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. perispenn encloses the 166 .) Zingiberaceae). perisperm consists of polygonal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. aromatic. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. thin-walled. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. membraneous aril. sclerenchymatous.. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. 0. Sthulaela (Sd. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. brown to dark brown. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. thin walled. (Fam. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled.70. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb.3 cm wide. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. odour. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. Beraelam. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. taste.4 cm long. spicy pungent.

0.2. thin-walled. 2. thin-walled. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. DOSE .5 -1 g.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. Appendix 5 per cent. 167 . V¡tahara.áv¡sa. 2. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. 2. K¡sa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.7. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. IDENTITY. Appendix 4 per cent.(Seed). Appendix 2. rich in protein.5 per cent. perisperm cells.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Appendix 1. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. 2. simple. Mukha¿odhaka.2. RukÀa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. T¤À¸¡. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. oil globules.4. Ka¸·u.3. both composed of polygonal. Tikta Laghu. Appendix 14 per cent. Mukharoga. Powder . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. rounded to oval.10 CONSTITUENTS .2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. Rocaka.2. 2. parenchymatous cells. H¤ll¡sa. Chardi.S¡rivady¡sava. Kaphahara. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter.2. Karp£r¡dy¡rka.endosperm and embryo.Light brown. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. shows fragments of testa.6. Note . (Seed).2. polygonal.

1-0. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. phloem fibres thickwalled. Thumbooni. Z. (Fam.Bk. Tumbura. short. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. thin-walled.0. stone cells found in 168 . lignified.2 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. aromatic pungent. parenchymatous cells. Tejovati (St. aromatic. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . taste. odour. Jimmi. sharp prickles. external surface pale brown. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. armed with long. thick-walled cells.) Roxb. Syn. internal surface smooth. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high.71. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. brownish. stem and branches. fracture. Rutaceae). light yellow to pale brown. rather deeply furrowed. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. Tumburudra.

DOSE . Appendix 8. Appendix 12 per cent. 2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. starch grains round and oval. a Volatile Oil and Resin.2.7. Hikk¡. round and oval measuring 2.75 µ in diameter.Aruci. 2. Ëmav¡ta. Medhya.2.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.75 .75 µ in diameter. oil globules and starch grains. 169 . aseptate fibres. CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent.4. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. shows fragments of cork cells. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. Appendix 1. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.3.10-20 g.2. P¡cana. Mukharoga.13. Appendix 13 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. THERAPEUTIC USES .A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.2. Rucya.5 per cent. K¡sa.2.6.13. measuring 2.Yellowish-brown. 2. Kaphahara. Powder . stone cells.75 . Appendix 2. IDENTITY. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. áv¡sa.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. of the drug for decoction. 2.

Thin.P. hairy.5-5 cm long 1. blackish-brown externally and pale. K¤À¸atulas¢. Stem . petiole thin. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. lower lip 170 . internally cream. odour faintly aromatic. violet internally.5-3 cm long hairy. herbaceous. Flower . 30 . Leaf . Shree Tulasi. pubescent on both sides. taste. characteristic.2 cm wide.) an erect. coloured. about 1. externally purplish-brown to black. entire or serrate.2. pedicels longer than calyx. shortly apiculate.72.6 .Erect.60 cm high. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. soft. branched. pubescent. woody. Lamiaceae). aromatic. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. Tulasi (W.Purplish or crimson coloured. small in close whorls. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. annual herb. elliptic oblong. wiry. fibrous in bark and short in xylem.3. slender. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. Thulasi. odour. hairy. branched. found throughout the country. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. fracture. (Fam. much branched. obtuse or acute. sub quadrangular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .

inner layers of cortex devoid of contents.A group of 4 nutlets. mucilaginous when soaked in water. Leaf- Petiole . corolla about 4 mm long. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. 171 . in groups and rarely in singles. thin-walled. lateral two short and central two largest.Rounded to oval. Stem . taste. aromatic. rectangular. parenchymatous cells. measuring 22-27 in dia. odour. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. parenchymatous cells. glandular trichomes short. brown. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. thin-walled.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. slightly compressed. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. slightly mucilaginous. Midrib . taste. slightly notched at the base.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. membranous. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. odour. tracheids. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. filled with brown content. xylem consists of vessels. three vascular bundles situated centrally. long. pungent. round to oval polygonal. each with one seed.shows somewhat cordate outline.1 cm long. veined calyx. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. pungent.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. vessels pitted. pungent. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. thin-walled. fibre tracheides. nearly smooth. middle one larger than other two. occasionally a few cells collapsed. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. aromatic.epidermis. Seed . phloem consists of sieve elements. pubescent. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. fibres and parenchyma. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. xylem surrounded by phloem. no odour. 0.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. enclosed in an enlarged. fibres with pointed ends. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. vessels pitted. Fruit . pitted with pointed ends. phloem consisting of sieve elements. found scattered in phloem. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. b) Microscopic Root . rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. taste. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. elongated.

Rucya. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. Durgandhihara 172 . unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.3. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. rounded to oval.4. 2. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components.35. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. 2. T. parenchymatous cells. Tikta. Appendix 4 per cent. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .8.1. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. thin walled fibres.2.7. 2. CONSTITUENTS . On cooling spray. oil globules. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara.2. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. Appendix 8 per cent. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). H¤dya. Appendix 10 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. vein islet number 31 .C. Appendix 1. Record Rf.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole.15 . IDENTITY. Rf. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.2.2. RukÀa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Essential Oil. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.minutes Under observation. 2. value 0.Lamina .5 per cent.6.L. in thoroughly vanillin . measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.C. Powder .2. palisade ratio 3. Pittavardhin¢. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2.7.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . Appendix 2.Greenish: shows thin-walled. a few containing reddish brown contents. V¡tahara. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.L. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.16 on lower surface.

173 . 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). K¤miroga.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. K¡sa. áv¡sa.A¿mar¢. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. Netraroga. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . Hikk¡. Chardi. KuÀ¶ha. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. found throughout the country. upper epidermis. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. Lamiaceae). glandular trichomes short. entire or serrate. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. elliptic-oblong. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. odour. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. petiolate. covering trichomes multicellular. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. LeafPetiole . and 2-8 celled. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. three vascular bundles situated centrally.. much branched annual herb.shows cordate outline. 1. balloon-shaped head. characteristic. (Fam. an erect. Holy Basil Tulasi. taste. consisting of xylem and phloem. hairy. middle one larger than the other two.5-5 cm long. obtuse or acute. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. 174 b) Microscopic . lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. aromatic.) 30-60 cm high. K¤À¸atulas¢.6-3.73. measuring 22-27 µ dia. thin. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2.2 cm wide. petiole 1. Tulasi (Lf. pubescent on both surfaces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢.5-3 cm long.

4.21.Midrib .L. IDENTITY.45. 0. Lamina .93 (pink) & 0.93 (both light green). stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. 0. Appendix per cent. anomocytic and diacytic stomata. 0.3.45 (violet). T. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.45. 0.30. CONSTITUENTS .93 (all0 yellow).L. 0.12. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 2. 0.83 (blue). 0.08. 0. 175 . 2. Powder . 0. palisade and spongy parenchyma.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. Appendix per cent.85 & 0.75. 0.2.21 (brown).2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.epidermis.2. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.85 (blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.12 (light violet). Caryophyllene.03 (dark green).54.C. 0.98 (blue). vein islet number 31-33.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. 0. 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. palisade ratio 3.04.45 (yellowish green). 0.33. Appendix 2. 0.83 (all pink) 0. 0. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.Light-green.54 (blue). trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.88 and 0.7. 0. 0. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. 2.08 (violet). 0. shows fragments of polygonal.2. 0..75 (violet).04.12 (light green).83.8. 0. 0.2. 0.V. Appendix per cent.).93 (violet) and 0. Nerol and Camphene etc.04.21. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. 0. 0. 0.33 (violet). 0.C. 0. 2.33 (both green) 0.08 (both green).98 (blue). Under U.6.33. 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.2.

M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. K¡sa. KuÀ¶ha. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. Pittahara. 176 . V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. RukÀa. Tikta. Hikk¡. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES .Aruci.2-3 g. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. áv¡sa. K¤miroga. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. of the drug in powder form.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. H¤dya. Prati¿y¡ya. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Kaphahara.

wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. somewhat collenchymatous. pungent and bitter. odour. thin-walled cells of various sizes.Shows single layered epidermis. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. Araceae). lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. cells towards periphery. buff coloured intemally.5-1.5 cm thick. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. aromatic. Ghodavaca Vasambu. Vekhandas -Varch. taste. Ghodvach Bach. triangular. Ugr¡. Vacha (Rz. broadly. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. short. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. fracture. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. smaller. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. (Fam. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present.74. Gora-bach Baje.) semiaquatic herb. and 0. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. enclosing large air spaces. Rhizome . upper side marked with alternately arranged. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. large.

Eugenol and Asarone). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.Buff coloured. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.2. Chloroform-Light green iii. Starch and Tannin. present in cortex and ground tissue.2.L. spherical. Appendix per cent.7.14 (violet) and 0. Appendix per cent.C.2. endodermis distinct. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. 2. 2.2. Extracts in i. reticulate.region. Appendix 2. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains.2. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.10 T. stele composed of round. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.Yellowish-cream b. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. Powder as such: . Powder . shows fibres. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. Appendix per cent.4.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.C. 2. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. 2. 178 . Appendix per cent.3.. 0.6. starch grains simple. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). Benzene-No change IDENTITY. Petroleum ether-No change ii.2.

Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. C£r¸a. Kar¸a Sr¡va. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. V¡tahara. S¡rasvata. Apasm¡ra. áv¡sa.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Sm¤ti daurbalya. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. DOSE . 179 . V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. 1. Kaphahara.á£la.2 g. Medhya. K¤mihara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Tikta Laghu.Vac¡di Taila. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Ka¸¶hya. Vibandha. Unm¡da. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ëdhm¡na. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. K¡sa.

8 cm thick. fracture.75. small portions of stem sometimes attached. Vatsanabha. taste. Ranunculaceae). primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. Meethabisha. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. ViÀa Vajran¡ga.1.) (Fam. cartilaginous. dark brown to blackish-brown. Vatsanabha (Rt. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. 0. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. Sth¡varaviÀa.5 cm. Mithalelia. occasionally separated due to breakage. Basanaag Bisa. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Bachhnaag. thin-walled. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. rough due to root scars. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. rarely 5 cm long. parenchymatous cells. poisonous. 2-4. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Nabhi. perennial herb. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. without or with a few intercellular spaces. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. Teliya Bish Basanalli. plant is an erect. ovoid. Naabhi Bachnak. Vatsanabhi. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi.4 . slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. conical. tapering downwards to a point. suberised. Beesh. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. papillose on outside. odour indistinct. Vatsanabhi. roots are generally collected late in September. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Mahura.

39. 0.2. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. present in cortical cells.3. shows vessels. Powder . CONSTITUENTS . and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2.Light grey. 0. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. consisting of round to oval cells.2. Anandabhairava Rasa. 0.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa.74 and 0. some scattered.endodermis. 0. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. often forming 'V' shaped ring. Appendix 24 per cent.20. inner bark parenchymatous. 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.6. Appendix 8 per cent.4.2.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. S £tasekhara Rasa. 0.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring.C.2. xylem exarch.C. IDENTITY. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. T.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. Appendix 2 per cent. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. UÀ¸a. Appendix 5. 2.L. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.96 (both orange). metaxylem vessels met in centre.39 and 0.56. cambium having 6 10 angles. Viyav¡yi. 2. Sv®dala. 2.10. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. ÙikÀ¸a.7. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . 2. Trid°Àahara.2. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L. RukÀa.5 per cent. Laghu. containing a few groups of phloem strands. a few aseptate fibres. occupying more than half the radius.

Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. Kanharoga.THERAPEUTIC USES .30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Jvar¡tis¡ra. V¡takaphajvara.15 .V¡taroga. Sannip¡ta. DOSE . 182 .

Bhuikumra Vidari. usually does not break. Vid¡rik¡. Nelagumbala. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Bhonykoru. starchy and somewhat porous. stone cells moderately thick-walled. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. thinwalled. outer surface reddish-brown. sweetish.76. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Gumadi belli. taste. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Fabaceae). tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. smooth except for protuberances at some places. (Fam. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. thin-walled cells.Rt. Eagio. cut surface creamish-brown. Bhumikusmanda.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. Nelagumbula. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Bhoikolu.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Vidari (Tub. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . but pliable.

prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.5 . highly thickened. angular to oval. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. phloem fibres much elongated. CONSTITUENTS . xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. Appendix 17 per cent. Appendix 4. Var¸ya.2.75 µ in dia. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Svarya.3-6 g.5 . 2. Pittahara. Appendix 24 per cent. Powder . Balya.Gluconic and Malic acids. measuring 5. radially elongated cells. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. M£trala. J¢van¢ya.7. 2.2.13.2. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. Angmarda. lignified with narrow lumen.2. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.6. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. Raktapitta. Daurbalya. Ras¡yana.2. V¡tahara.75 µ in dia. having central hilum and striations. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled.3.Marma Gu¶ik¡. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2. of the drug in powder form. distributed throughout this region. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 4 per cent. a few latex duct also present. IDENTITY. Appendix 2.2. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). and also rarely in stone cells.4. present in all parenchymatous cells.. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5.and pits. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. áoÀa. somewhat round. Stanyada.D¡ha. 2.5 per cent. fragments of cork. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content.Buff coloured.13. 184 . DOSE .

2-0. taste. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. sweetish-acrid. elliptic. sclerenchymatous fibres. odour. sativum Pers.77. erect herb. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. followed by more or less.) Poaceae). thick-walled. pale-greenish-yellow. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. polygortal inner epidermal cells. seed coat appears as a colourless line. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. followed by 2-3 layers. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. 50-100 cm high. H. spongy parenchymatous cells. square or quadrilateral. an annual. (Fam. round to oval wavy walled cells. Syn. oblong. Yava (Fr. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. smooth. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . cultivated chiefly in North India. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau.3 cm wide. Jav Barley Cheno. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. not distinct. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. about 1 cm long and 0.

2. Appendix 2.L. Proteins (Albumin. Globulin. 0.14.Creamish-white.2.7 T.V. 0. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.22. 0. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. 0. 0.83 (all violet) and 0.2. Appendix 2. simple starch grains.narrow lumens. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. Svarya.2.) CONSTITUENTS .2.5 per cent.22. Appendix 4 per cent.5 per cent. Appendix 5.83 and 0. Appendix 1.36. Orientoside. Var¸ya 186 .92 (all grey). and the rest starch layers.16. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.C. 2. 0.3.92 (yellow). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Lekhana.31. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.5 per cent. 0.06.72 (all pink.65 & 0. 2. 0.10. 0. 0.L.2. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.56.53.31. Kaphahara. Sugars. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. round to oval. Fats.68. 0. Pur¢Àak ¤t. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Pittahara. Appendix 4 per cent.2. 2. 2. V¤Àya. 0. 0.10.24. 0. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. 0.Starch.45.6.5 2. sclerenchymatous fibres. IDENTITY. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.44. Vitexin etc. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.31. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. endosperm divided into two zones. starch grains simple.C. 0. Powder . Orientin. V¡tak¤t.4.68. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. M£trahara. Sthairyakara. Medahara.

of the drug.áv¡sa. K¡sa. T¤À¸¡. 187 . Gandharvahasta Taila.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Medoroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Kanharoga. El¡dya Modaka.200 g. Prameha. Tvagroga DOSE . Urustambha.100 . Dh¡nvantara Taila. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. P¢nasa.

Desv. radially arranged cork cells.1-1 cm thick. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Stem . branched. a small thorny shrub. alternate. elliptical. striate.5-0. Javasa. slightly rough at basal region with slender. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. 0. Yavasaka (W. nearly 0. drooping. 20-30 cm long and 0. stipules green. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb).Well developed.Cylindrical. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . Y¡sa. glabrous. fracture. short. Neladangara. 0. Leaf .8 cm long.78. extipulate. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. cork cambium single layered.) Fabaceae). secondary cortex almost 188 . Duralabha -Venkatithura.7 cm broad. (Fam. filled with reddish-brown contents. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. terete. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. sharp axillary spines upto 3. oblong. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. hard. ballidurabi.Simple. gradually tapering. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat.P. opposite.5-1 cm long. dark brown. Punjab. no taste and odour. secondary and tertiary root absent. mucronate obtuse. glabrous.2-1 cm thick.

a few with thick wall and simple pits. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. starch grains simple. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. 189 . tracheids and fibres.5-14. covered with cuticle. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. present throughout the region. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin.appears biconvex in outline. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. parenchymatous cells. Midrib . tanniniferous cells.appears circular in outline. pith composed of a few thin-walled. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. phloem composed of sieve elements. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. some cells filled with tannin. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. filled with tannin.75 µ in diameter. simple. parenchymatous cells. vascular bundle collateral.Greenish-brown. tracheids. hypodermis 2-3 layered. xylem situated above phlome. Stem . vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. xylem consists of vessels. thin-walled. 3-45 cells long. tracheids. phloem composed of sieve elements. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. covered externally with thick cuticle.75 µ in dia. filled with tannin. xylem consists of vessels. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. tangentially elongated cells. Leaf- Petiole . pitted vessels.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. angular. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region.5. xylem fibres. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. 5. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded.absent. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.14. Powder .epidermis consisting of single layered cells. Lamina . thin-walled. hypodermis 1-2 layered. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. rounded to oval. epidermis single layered. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. parenchyma and fibres. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. fibres. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. elongated.

2.2.7. Appendix 13. 2. 190 . Tikta.50 g.2. Appendix 2 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . Arimed¡di Taila. Raktapitta. T¤À¸¡. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2.4.3. Visarpa DOSE .2.IDENTITY.6.5 per cent. K¡sa. of the drug in powder form for decoction.5 per cent. Invert Sugars). Jvara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS .Sugars (Melizitose. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Kaphahara.20 . Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Chardi. 2.2. 2.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. Sucrose. V¡tarakta. Appendix 10 per cent. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2. D¢pana.

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