THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

Determination of Stomatal Index 2.2.2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.1.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.) Desv 177 1.1.1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.2.2.2-Thermometers 1.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.5.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.2.2.1 Testing Drugs 2.2.1.2.Types of Stomata 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1. 1.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.1.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.4.2.1.2.2.1.1-Nessler Cylinder.2-Sieves 1.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1.1.2.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.1.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.3.2.1.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.

Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.3.1.1-Powder Fineness 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.Weights and Measures 5.3 Limit Tests 2.2.3.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3.2.1.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.3.3.2-Refractive Index 2.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .5-Limit Test for lead 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.

Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. II. accordingly. would be deemed to have been amended vii . Part-I. Vol.P.I. II. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Vol. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. Vol. Part-I. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow.). In general. the Dangerous Drugs Act. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part-I. 1930 and the Poisons Act. II would be official. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted.

Purity and Strength . it is described as having odour. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. Odour and Taste . Mesh Number . The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. If the odour persists to be discernible.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Synonyms . English. distribution and method of collection. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India .Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Italics . Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. When the term “drop” is used. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. indicated in monograph.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. Hindi. if any.GENERAL NOTICES Title . The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. viii .Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Identity. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. substances or processes described in Appendix. Introductory Para . The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . Weights and Measures . Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts.

ix . micro-organisms. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. shall constitute standards. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. mould or other evidence of deterioration. pesticides.Under this head. even by applying known reference standards. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. moisture content. However. wherever given. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. if of equivalent accuracy.) . in 100 grammes of product. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. Purity and Strength.C.L. Vol. Part-I. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. those of definition of the part and source plants. colour. Percentage of Solutions . water-soluble ash. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. sliminess. Constituents .In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. Standards .The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. and show no abnormal odour. and Identity. However. Constant Weight . statements appearing in the API. under Description. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests .In defining standards. and other animal matter including animal excreta. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. alcohol-soluble extractive. The quantitative tests e. fungi. which he uses. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. acid-insoluble ash. with one of the four meanings given below. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses.For statutory purpose. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend.soluble extractive. V. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. water.g. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. according to circumstances. arsenic and heavy metals. pests. ether-soluble extractive. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. the expression per cent (%). total ash.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. is used.

fibres. Solutions .000 parts More than 10. Percentage of alcohol . Solubility . When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. are intended to apply at that temperature.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. at a stated temperature. such as fragment of filter papers. Temperature . Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.000 parts x .Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. all solutions are prepared with purified water.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. thermometric scale. and dust particles.56 oC. Statements of solubilities. Reagents and Solutions . Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities.

the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. 1M.5 N. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights.1 N. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. µ. ml. TS. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. l. Kg. 0. mm. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes.P. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. mg. Fam. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. PS.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . IN. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. cm. unless otherwise stated. 0.I. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. g. Part –I and Part-II. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.

Assam. Bk. Rt. Ht. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Tam. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Beng. Wd. Tub. Bk. Kash. Tel. Lf. Guj. Punj. Ori. Sd. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Wd. St. Kan. Mar. Fr. Rz. xii . Pl. Eng. Rt. St. Mal.Sansk. Wh.

231 µ in 1 . hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. not easily separable. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. slightly aromatic. Akallakara. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. cylindrical.1. thin-walled. more and wider vessels found towards peripery.8 µ in width.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. shrivelled. xylem fibres thick-walled. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. brown. Akalakarabha. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka.2 . an annual. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. taste.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. b) Microscopic Root . Asteraceae).37-28. (Fam. Akravu Akkalakara. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. external surface rough. bark upto 3 mm thick. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. cambium 2-5 layered. Akarakarabha (Rt. tapering slightly at both ends. 1. 53. parenchymatous cells. elongated. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. 7-15 cm in length. vessels pitted. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. odour. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Akarakara Akkaraka. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. characteristically astringent and pungent.

secondary phloem and medullary rays. bi to tri and multiseriate. Powder . Danta¿£la DOSE .length having narrow lumen. running straight. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. Kaphahara.2. IDENTITY. 2 . 2. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. áv¡sa.3. secondary phloem. 2. Appendix 10 percent.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 22 percent. áotha. Pittahara. ray cells thick-walled.Kum¡ry¡sava.Prati¿y¡ya.2. 2. Appendix 8 percent. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. á£laroga. uniseriate rays very rare.5 -1 g. V¡jikara. secondary phloem and medullary rays.2.7. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. also gives positive tests for inulin. NaÀ¶¡rtava.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin).4. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. Svedakara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. of the drug in powder form. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. CONSTITUENTS . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. Appendix 2.6. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. Appendix 2 percent. 2. Udararoga. medullary rays numerous.2. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. D¢pana. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. áukrala. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. radially elongated.2. Grdhras¢. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .0. Buddhivardhaka. K¡sa.Ash coloured. Aj¢rna.

creamish-brown. thin-walled. Juglandaceae). indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. slightly curved. odour. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells. endosperm mostly single layered. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. irregularly corrugated. not distinct. Sailabhava. followed by more or less compressed.2.Shows 1-2 layered.) large deciduous.Cream coloured. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. broken pieces. radially elongated. 3 . abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. (Fam. Powder . under this. collapsed. Cotyledon . Akshoda (Cotldn. parenchymatous cells. oily sweet. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. thin-walled. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. coriaceous. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles.

V¡taroga. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.KÀata.6. Kaphakara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. 2.10 . 2. ViÀ¶ambhi.2. Appendix Not more than 0.0 percent. Appendix 2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not less than 7. Appendix Not less than 10. V¤Àya. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.25 g.0 percent.2. áukral. B¤´ha¸a. Balya.5 percent. 2.Walnut oil and Tannin. Sara.7. KÀaya.2.2.4.IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. DOSE . 4 . CONSTITUENTS .2. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. 2.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.

Stem Bark. Amvara -Mampusli. Mampuiti. a few outer cells exfoliated. Syn. with reddish-brown contents. upto 27 m high and 2. Amra.3. tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces.5 m in girth. curved. fracture. S. laminated. Ambadam Amratakamu. deciduous tree.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Jangli Aam Ambate. consisting of tangentially elongated.Bk. which are thick-walled towards periphery.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. thin-walled cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Ranamba. Wild Mango Ambeda. S. external surface smooth. thin. f. grey having lenticels. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Ambazham. Amrata (St. Amra Indian Hog Plum. mangifera Willd. Kurz. and 5 . Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. acuminata Roxb. Ambado. parenchymatous. Ambalam.. internal surface reddish-yellow. radially arranged. Anbalamu. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Anacardiaceae). Ranambo Ambada. Jangali Ambo. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. non Gamble (Fam. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. a small aromatic. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled.

V. Pittakara. 0.87 (all greyish brown).L.2. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. Not more than 1 per cent.33.2. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. of the drug in powder form for decoction. V¡tahara.5-10 g.C. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.87 (blue) and 0.96 (blue). 0. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. stone cells.7. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.2.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.3.(greyish brown).2. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. Appendix 2. thick-walled.33. D¡ha DOSE . 2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not more than 0.4.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.. 2.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. Under U.2. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. Rucik¤t.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. Powder .96. CONSTITUENTS . KÀaya.C.5 per cent.40 and 0. shows cork cells.75-14 µ in dia. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.L. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. lignified. 0. 6 .KÀata.6. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. Raktapitta. 0.Light brown. simple. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Ka¸¶hya. T. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. 2.

opposite.) Amaranthaceae). alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. Apamarga (W.0 cm in thickness. solid. dorsifixed. yellowish-brown. subsessile. perianth segments 5. two celled. bisexual. (Fam. odour. Leaf . a stiff. Stem . erect. actinomorphic. hollow when dry. stamens 5. numerous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. hypogynous.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. contorted or quincuncial.Simple. hairy.P. wavy margin. sessile. greenish-white. 0. exstipulate. decussate. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. gradually tapering. membranous. anther. 7 . May£raka. PratyakpuÀpa. rough due to presence of some root scars. the perianth lobes. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .1-1. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. yellowish-brown. Kharamaµjar.0. slightly ribbed. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. opposite.3 .3-0.4. obovate. secondary and tertiary roots present. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. erect. one spine lipped.9 m high herb.Cylindrical tap root. bracteate with two bracteoles. filament short. Flower .0.free. branched. cylindrical. not distinct.5 cm in cut pieces. 0.

which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. perianth and bracteoles. rectangular. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. thin-walled cork cells. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. ovary superior.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle.Sub-cylindric. LeafPetiole . capitate. stigma. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. vessels annular. Fruit . elongated. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. unilocular with single ovule. thin-walled cork cells. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. round at the base. vessels simple pitted. syncarpous. Seed . ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. fibres pitted. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. fibres being absent.Shows a single layered epidermis. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous.gynoecium bicarpellary. lignified. on both surfaces. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. composed of parenchymatous cells. followed 8 . micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Midrib . two medullary bundles. epidermis single layered.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. xylem composed of usual elements. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells.Shows crescent-shaped outline. single. thin-walled. endospermic. thin layers of cambium. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. cortex 6-10 layered. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. oval to rectangular. cortical and pith cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. present in pith. tangentially elongated. brown. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. 2-5 celled. either separate throughout or found in some cases. truncate at the apex. style. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. 3-4 celled stalk. scalariform and pitted. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Stem . b) Microscopic Root . demarcating the xylem rings. spiral.

20-50 g.0 on lower surface. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells.3. Chedana. of the drug for decoction. Gu·apippali. Ar¿a. 9.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.Light yellow. 2. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. vessels with annular. slightly elongated in upper. 2. Appendix 2. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . vein islet number 7-13 per sq.0 on upper surface. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. palisade ratio 7. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.2. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.4. shows fragments of elongated. spiral. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. V¡maka. Ka¸·u. rectangular. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger.2. IDENTITY. Medoroga DOSE .2.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. aseptate fibres. Apac¢. 9 . Powder .2. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.5-9. stomatal index 4.á£la.7.2. mm. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. Udara Roga.0-11.0-20. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. Tikta Sara. Medohara. 2.Shows single layered. non-lignified cells.2.6. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. scalariform and pitted thickening. thin-walled epidermal cells. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. Lamina . P¡cana. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. Kaphahara. V¡tahara. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces.

Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. polygonal. lightbrown. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. cylindrical. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. a few solitary fibres also present. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. Aparajita (Rt. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. fibrous. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. b) Microscopic Root . medullary 10 . colour. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. very long. fracture. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. a few showing slit-like pits. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. bitter. taste. (Fam. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. thin-walled.5. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. vessels pitted with oblong. 1-5 mm in thickness. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Fabaceae).

oblong and pitted.Tannin. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.2. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. phloem and xylem parenchyma.rays 1-5 cells wide. Appendix per cent.79 (dull yellow) in visible light.C. KuÀ¶ha.79 (blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. Medhya.Yellowish-brown. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. Appendix per cent.2. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.3 g. 2.Mi¿raka Sneha. 0. of the drug in powder form.7.C. V¡tahara.. Buddhiprada. 2. Tikta.54 and 0. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. 2.L. 0. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.2. Resin.79 (grey). CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. 0.1 . Powder . Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. 0. Pittahara. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. Appendix 2. 2. Vra¸a DOSE .á£la. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Starch.4. measuring 3-13 µ in dia.6. shows simple and compound starch grains. found in secondary cortex.2. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. áotha. 11 .79 (both yellow).3. Under U. ViÀahara. M£traroga.2.. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.L.V.

thin-walled.5 cm thick. radially arranged cells of inner cork. 1. Adrak Injee. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. tangentially elongated. lakottai. each having a depressed scar at its apex. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. gingery. Ardraka (Rz. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . pieces 5-15 cm long. Rhizomes are dug in January-February.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. oblique branches on upper side. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells.5-6.6. Ale -Adi. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. odour. reaching up to 90 cm in height. (Fam. short with projecting fibres. Allam.) Zingiberaceae). taste. pungent Rhizome . widely cultivated in India. irregularly arranged. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. colourless. buds and roots are removed and washed well. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. isodiametric. fracture.Shows a few layered. Inji Allamu.

Under U.63 (grey) & 0. Appendix 90 per cent.L.2.69 (light violet). oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum.. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.C.16. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. 0.63 (light violet).2.2.9 T. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. CONSTITUENTS . 0. larger bundles consists of 2.83 & 0. Appendix 2. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.47.2.13.76. 0. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf.76 (violet) & 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.92 (all yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. elongated pits on their walls. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. 0. free from starch.69. filled with abundant starch grains.92 (violet). vessels showing reticulate.L.l6 (brownish violet).63. 0. 0. septate fibres with oblique.35. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. 0. 0.7. conjoint.7 vessels. 0.69 (grey).dia.03. Appendix 8 per cent.08 (violet). of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. 0.63 & 0. phloem.2. 13 .C.16 (blue). 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene.16. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 2. 0. 2. 0.35 (light violet).4. endodermis single layered. composed of xylem. vessels 2-5 in number. reticulate and spiral vessels. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. Powder -Light yellow.2. IDENTITY. numerous closed. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. Appendix 2 per cent. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.5 per cent. oleo-resin cells abundent. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. fibrovascular bundles of two types.3. 0.47 (light violet). 2. 0.6.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. 0. Appendix 5 per cent. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. 0. small cells of sieve tube. 0. collateral. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. 0.69 (all light yellow). 0. 2. walls of oil cells suberised.08.V. 2.35.2. 0. Appendix 1 per cent.

S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Svarya. Ën¡ha.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Ka¸tharoga. Rocana. V¡tahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H¤dya. DOSE . Bhedana. RukÀa. Vibandha.á£la. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. V ¤Àaya.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. 14 . áopha.

exfoliating in irregular scales. fibres and crystal fibres. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells.5-1 cm thick. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. incurved. upto 3 m in height. thinwalled cortical cells.7. with tapering 15 . (Fam. odour and taste. secondary phloem wide. Fabaceae). square to rectangular cells. rough. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. Pilobaval. characteristic of dry regions. phloem fibres thin-walled. lignified. Velvelam. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. fibrous. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. not distinct. all traversed by medullary rays. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. stone cells and phloem cells. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. fracture. parenchyma. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. internally light brown to reddish-brown.Bk. consisting of sieve elements. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. Arimeda (St. Sadabala -Haramibaval. hard. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0.

KuÀ¶ha.0 to 0. Meha. 2.91 (yellow). Udardapra áamana DOSE . KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. Visarpa. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. 2. Appendix 13 per cent. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.áopha. sclereid. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Dantaroga.78 and 0. Mukharoga.91 (both blue).ends. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.4. K¡sa. shows groups of cork cells.L. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. 0. IDENTITY.3-5 g in powder form.2.2.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . ViÀajavra¸a.2. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. Meda¿oÀaka. composed of thin-walled. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Ka¸·u.3. Appendix 1 per cent.6. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. T. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Appendix 2.39 and a spot at Rf.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). 2. Appendix 14 per cent. Atis¡ra.2.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. radially elongated cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .e. fibres.0.69 (grey) is seen in visible light.n-Hexacosanol. K¤mi. P¡¸·u. crystal fibres elongated.40 g for decoction. 0. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.39 and a spot at Rf.7. 16 . Appendix 11 per cent. Powder .Reddish-brown. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. β -Amyrin. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES .LC. 0 to 0.C.2.

phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. a large deciduous tree.Bk. in the middle and outer phloem region. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma.5 cm thick. Mattimora. taste. Arjuna. Vellamaruthi.2-1. curved. Neermatti. bitter and astringent. consisting of sieve tubes. Torematti Arjuna. channelled to half quilled. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. P¡rtha. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . Bilimatti.8. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. short in inner and laminated in outer part. flat. Kellemasuthu. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. (Fam. traversed by phloem rays. recurved. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. Mathichakke.& A. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. fracture. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W.) Combretaceae). 0. companion cells. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Arjuna (St.

Vra¸an¡¿ana.7. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. H¤droga. Appendix 25 per cent.2. of the drug in powder form. 2.6. 2. Prameha. elliptic. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. alata).in dia. Vra¸a. DOSE . alternating with fibres. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. a few rhomboidal crystals. T¤À¡. 18 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . present in most of the phloem parenchyma.. THERAPEUTIC USES . Arjuna Gh¤ta. round to oval. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T..4. Kaphahara. Appendix 1 per cent. 2. uniseriate phloem rays.2. fibres. 2.3. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. H¤dya. round to oval. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. 4-12 cells high. IDENTITY. Pittahara.Reddish-brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . starch grains simple and compound.. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. compound of 2-3 components. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. Appendix 2.2. KÀatakÀaya. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. shows fragments of cork cells.2. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 20 per cent.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. sometimes upto 5 components. starch grains.3-6 g.2. µ Powder . elliptical.2. mostly simple. Vya´ga.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara.Medoroga. Appendix 20 per cent.

smooth. Fruit . nut 2. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion.5-3 cm long. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Nallajidiginga Baladur. drupaceous. obliquely ovoid. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. 30-40 layers thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. mesocarp a very broad zone. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells.9. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles.) Anacardiaceae). Bhallataka (Fr. mesocarp and endocarp. (Fam. shining with residual receptacle. 19 .Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. Scramkotati Nallajidi. dark brown. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai.

Appendix 4 per cent. Snigdha. ether. very much elongated radial walls.2.2. Appendix 2. Appendix 11 per cent. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). KaÀ¡ya Laghu. chloroform. 2. Ën¡ha. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. P¡cana. Tikta. Chedi. Graha¸¢. being highly thickened. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Gulma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .I.4..1.5 per cent. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 2.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Ka¶u. CONSTITUENTS . shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Krimi. 2.7. 2. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance.3. DOSE . Note . KuÀ¶ha.2.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. Kaphahara. Appendix 5 per cent.Ar¿a. Powder .Dark-brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2 g.2. V¡tahara. innermost prismatic. IDENTITY. Appendix 0.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Bhedi. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. Part-I 20 . of the drug in Ksirapaka form.2..F.6.endocarp consists of two distinct layers.

Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.50 cm high. node distinct.5 cm long. Leaf .) herbaceous annual.. not toothed. rough due to oppressed white hairs. sessile to subsessile. usually oblong. (Fam. scarcely as long as bracts. together on unequal axillary peduncles. spreading. Asteraceae). a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m.Solitary or 2. much branched. Soppu. herbaceous. Bhringiraja. often rooting at nodes.3 cm wide. Bhangro Bhangara. ligule small. involucral bracts about 8. strigose with oppressed hairs. lanceolate. ray flowers ligulate. sub-entire. Karisalanganni. Kesuriya. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk.Herbaceous. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. ovate. cylindrical. Knnunni Bhangra. occasionally brownish. white.2 .8. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. Bh¤´ga. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. Flower . 30 . occasionally rooting at nodes. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. erect or prostrate. 2. branched.P. Stem . obtuse or acute. Kesari -Bhangaro. Tekar¡ja. sub-acute or acute. disc flowers 21 . Keshavardhana. cylindrical or flat.2. upto about 7 mm in dia. Karisalai Guntakalagara. 1.Opposite. Gurugada.Well developed. greenish. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja.10.2 . greyish. strigosely hirsute. M¡rkava. Bhringaraja (W.

covered with warty excrescences. filaments epipetalous. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene.25 cm long. unilocular with one basal ovule. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. b) Microscopic Root . upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. pistil bicarpellary.2 . epidermis followed by cortex. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. cuneate. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. traversed by xylem rays. Leaf- Petiole . a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. rarely slightly oblique. fibre tracheids. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. stamen 5. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. one seeded.Achenial cypsella. corolla often 4 toothed. 1-5 celled. dark brown. simple. non-glandular. covered with striated cuticle. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. uniseriate. with very pointed tips.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. externally covered with cuticle. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. 0. Midrib .0.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. phloem rays broader towards periphery. free. fibres and xylem parenchyma. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. consisting of rounded cells. xylem ray distinct. Seed . hairy and non endospermic. ovary inferior.tubular.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped.0. trichomes of two types. pappus absent. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen.1 cm wide. Fruit . thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. brown. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. found scattered throughout wood. in macerated preparation vessels small. epidermis followed by wide cortex. tangentially elongated cells. fibre tracheids. warty. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. with a narrow wing. run straight in tangential section. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. pitted. ray cells pitted. xylem composed of vessels. drum-shaped. and with pointed apical cell. vessels numerous.

Lamina . middle cells longest. pericyclic fibres distinct. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. some elongated with simple perforations. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. while the section cut at apical region.collenehymatous cells on both sides. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. secondary cortex composed of large. peg-like outgrowth. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. xylem fibres with wide lumen. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side.8 -4. palisade ratio 3.5. endarch. stomatal index 20. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. wide at the base. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. arranged in tangential strands.0 on lower surface. warty. septa thick-walled. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. pointed tips and pitted walls. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. uniseriate. Powder . externally covered with cuticle.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. trichomes entire or in pieces. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. collateral.shows a dorsi ventral structure. externally covered with cuticle. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. pitted with spiral thickening. xylem consists of large number of vessels. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. 23 . epidermis single layered. numerous fibres entire or in pieces.Dark green. pointed. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. about 3 celled.5 -26. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. hairs stiff. the cork where formed. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. Stem . shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. normally biseriate and uniseriate.5 on upper and 23. more abundant on lower surfaces. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. vascular bundles in a ring.0-22. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width.

Tvacya.6. P¡¸·u. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. Ke¿ya.áotha. 2. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila.IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS .36 g.3.7. CakÀusya. Ëmahara. Kaphahara.2.2. DOSE . Appendix per cent. K¤miroga. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent.2.6 ml of the drug in juice form.2. Ras¡yana.2. H ¤droga. Ecliptine and Nicotine.3 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.4. of the drug in powder form for decoction. V¡tahara. Tekar¡ja marica. Appendix per cent. 2. ViÀahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Dantya. Appendix per cent. áirah á£la. Tikta RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 12 . 2. Yak¤droga. áv¡sa.2. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. 2.Alkaloids. 24 . Appendix per cent. K¡sa.

branched creamish-yellow. green or purplish green. Flower . about 1-2 mm thick. small. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam.& K. a glabrous. (Fam.Thin. nodes and internodes prominent. small. Syn. Scrophulariaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Stem . bracteoles shorter than pedicels. obovate-oblong. soft. Fruit . Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. ovoid and glabrous.) H.Capsules upto 5 mm long. Leaf .Small. wiry. Brahmi (W. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. sessile.B. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. succulent. 1-2 cm long. Ondelaga. 25 . slightly bitter.11.Simple. green.) Wettst. pedicels 6-30 mm long. opposite.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. taste. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. axillary and solitary. Valabrahmi.Thin. slightly bitter.. Brahmi. taste. glabrous.P. found throughout India in wet and damp places. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. decussate. prostrate or creeping annual herb.

starch grains simple. Appendix per cent. Powder . Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.Shows a single layer of epidermis. 2. ËyuÀya. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. and 8.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Tikta. Appendix 2. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. pericycle not distinct. endodermis single layered. Appendix per cent. no distinct midrib present.5-9.6.0 x 2.Yellowish-brown. V¡tahara. b) Microscopic 26 . centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. endodermis single layered. Ras¡yana. Matiprada.4. round and oval starch grains. vascular ring continuous. Stem . pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers.0 µ in dia. Appendix per cent. ViÀahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. respectively. Appendix per cent.2.2. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings.7.2. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Svarya.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Praj¡sth¡pana. simple.2. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath.3. round to oval. cortex having large air cavities. 2.0-14.. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. measuring 4-14 µ in dia.2. Medhya. IDENTITY. glandular hairs sessile. 2.Root . glandular hairs. 2.

P¡¸·u. Ratnagiri Rasa. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.KuÀ¶ha. Jvara.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . 27 .1-3 g in powder form. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Prameha. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE .S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. áopha.

b) Microscopic Root . Chichuriti. Papparamulli. oval and tangentially elongated cells. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. phloem parenchyma much abundant. ribbed. parenchyma and stone cells. varying greatly in shape and size. a number of secondary roots and their branches present.9 layers of thin-walled. cork cambium single layered. Solanaceae). Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. thin-walled. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. Heggulla. much branched perennial under shrub. woody.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . short and splintery. long. no distinct odour and taste. Putirichunda Dorli. fracture. Brihati (Rt. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. Ubhibharingani. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. a very prickly. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. upto 1.. cylindrical.8 m high. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.15 layers of thin-walled. 1-2.5 cm in dia. traversed by phloem rays.12. secondary cortex composed of 5 . phloem rays 1-3 cells wide.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. pale yellowish-brown. (Fam. Badikateri Kirugullia. tangentially elongated.

Powder . DOSE . Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.Cream coloured.10-20 g.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. 2. of the drug for decoction. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . aseptate fibres. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. cells radially elongated and pitted.2. H¤dya. CONSTITUENTS . measuring 5. Kaphahara.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. H¤droga. all elements being lignified. Agnim¡dya.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.5 per cent.2. 2..2. phloem and medullary rays. V¡tahara. 29 . shows groups of thin-walled.7.4. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.á£la. fibres and xylem parenchyma.2. IDENTITY.2. xylem rays uni to biseriate. thick-walled. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.5 . microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. measuring 5. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. 2. tracheids. áv¡sa.5 -11. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. traversed by xylem rays.6 µ in diameter. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. parenchymatous cells.2. Appendix Not more than 6.3. 2.6 µ in diameter.11. vessels with simple pits. Jvara. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. rounded to oval starch grains. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.6. P¡cana.

taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. consisting of round. secondary cortex a wide zone.0 cm in width. Syn. Piperaceae). Chavya (St.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. nodes and internodes distinct. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. greyish-brown. a glabrous. oval to rectangular. chaba Hunter non Blume. brownish cells. cultivated mainly in Southern India. fleshy climber.13. P. fibres and xylem parenchyma. odour. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. tracheid. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. fracture. endodermis single layered. plenty of simple starch granules present.. officinarum DC. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. (Fam. short.5-2. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. P. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . peppery. Chavya -Kattumulaku. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. acrid. b) Microscopic Stem . thin-walled. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. cork cambium not distinct.

á£lal DOSE .pitted and reticulate thickenings. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. CONSTITUENTS . fibres needle and spindle-shaped.2.2. D¢pana. round to oval. Glycosides and Steroids. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. 2. shows fragments of vessels.Greyish-brown. Appendix 1.7. Ën¡ha.Alkaloids. filled with simple. starch grains. round to oval starch grains.3.1-2 g. 31 .2. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. medullary rays multi seriate. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Krimi. Appendix 2.6.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. Recana. Gulma. Powder . of the drug in powder form. Appendix 3 per cent. Udara Roga. Pl¢h¡ Roga. 2. IDENTITY. 2.Ar¿a. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 6 per cent.5 per cent. P¡cana.2. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2. Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. RukÀa. fibres and simple. cells thin walled.4.

Reddish-brown. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. 32 . reddish-brown pigmented layer present.6 cm long. triangular and rectangular. starch grains present in testa. oil globules. endosperm absent. 0. oval. angular. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. Punicaceae). parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. beneath this. Powder . shows stone cells. found growing wild in the warm valley.5-0. simple. taste. thin walled.1-0. LohitapuÀpa.2 cm wide. sweetish-sour. Madalam Danimma Anar. wedge-shaped. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. 0. Maadalai. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. Seed . (Fam.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. consisting of oval to polygonal. Dadima (Sd.14. cotyledons coiled. parenchymatous cells. round. containing a few oil globules. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. round to oval.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

Light greenish-yellow. tubular. crenate. white. slightly bitter. Leaf . corolla. characteristic.7-2 cm 37 . 1-2. (Fam. size variable.2-1. ciliate. glabrous in lower part. Gumma. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati.3-0. nodes and internodes distinct. taste. 1.6-0. hairy. Dronapushpi (W.16. surface rough. more or less pubescent. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. ovate or ovate. thin. long with numerous wiry. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. 10 dentate with a villous throat.25 cm long. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. about 0.5 cm across. taste. erect.lanceolate. acute.Cylindrical. 3-9 cm long.5 cm long and 0. hairy on upper part. scaberulous. fibrous. fine rootlets.35 cm wide. serrate. pungent. fracture. zig-zag. 1-2.P. about 2-3. lanceolate.5 cm wide. smooth. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. Inflorescence .Sessile. white.9 m in high. stout herb.) Lamiaceae). slightly curved. Stem . subacute.Yellowish-green. calyx. upto 4 mm thick. taste. globose. 1. crowded in dense. an annual.

consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. secondary xylem consists of vessels. thin-walled cells. thin-walled. tracheids. some having simple pits. cortex consisting of single layered. thin-walled 38 .0. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled.long. Fruit . wooly. Lamina . 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. consists of a single layered epidermis. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. parenchymatous cells.vascular bundle arc-shaped. tangentially elongated. oblong. palisade single layered. brown. followed by round to oval parenchyma. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. Seed . 4 . Stem . parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. bilipped. upto 8 cells high. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls.shows a single layered epidermis. lateral lobes small. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. trigonous. fibres and xylem parenchyma.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements.tangentially elongated. dark brown. round to angular collenchyma. parenchymatous cells. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends.7 layered. vascular bundles 4. tracheids. smooth. thin-walled cells.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. Leaf- Petiole . Midrib . parenchymatous cells. consisting of barrel shaped.3 cm long and 0. irregular. endoderm is single layered. xylem consists of vessels.1 cm wide. secondary cortex 5-9 layered.Schizocarpic carcerule. vessels long with spurs. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. nutlets 3 mm smooth. present in centre. composed of oval to rectangular. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. upper lip about 4 mm long.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent.6-40. a few veins present in this region. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . palisade ratio 7-9.2. stomatal index 16. Bhedani. aseptate fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.áotha. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.7 on upper surface.2. Agnim¡ndya.cells. K¡sa. 2.1-3 g of the drug in powder form.3. IDENTITY. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. Powder . Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. V¡takara.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. 2.5 on lower surface. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. Ka¶u Guru. 16.6. Glycoside. K¡mal¡. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.2. present on both surfaces. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Tamaka áv¡sa. ViÀamajvara DOSE .6-30.4. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.2.Dull yellow.Alkaloid. Lava¸a. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. 2. Pittakara. pitted and spiral vessels. RukÀa.7.2. 2.2. stomata diacytic. 39 .

followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. taste. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. cultivated in many parts of the country. surface smooth. utilissimus Roxb.17. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. creamish-yellow. 40 . sweetish oily. an annual creeping herb. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. glossy. Karka¶¢. parenchymatous. -Kakur. Hastipani. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains.4 cm wide.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. B¤hatphala. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. straight. (Fam. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi.3-0. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. Vellarika Kakadi. parenchymatous cells. Ervaru (Sd. C. Cucurbitaceae). covered with thick cuticle. shows stone cells. Hastipani. mesophyll cells thinwalled. 0. radially elongated to squarish. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. 0. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. more or less ellipsoid. rounded and tangentially elongated. cotyledons two. thin-walled.7-10 cm long.

IDENTITY.C.Oil & Sugars. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3-6 g. of seeds.2.83.26.2.64.35.35. Pittahara.19. Tikta Guru.2.0.58. Gulma.91 and 0. D¢pana. Appendix 0. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. A¿mar¢.6. 0. 0. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .64.7.91 (blue) under U.77. 0. 0.L. 0.5 per cent. T¤À¸¡. V¡takara.C. 0. Jvara. 2. 0. Raktapitta.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.91 and 0. 41 . THERAPEUTIC USES . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.2.L. 2.V.19. Appendix 5 per cent. 0.51.97 (all yellow) . 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 4 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.3.51.83.0. 2. (366 mm). 0.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0. Rucya. RaktadoÀakara. 0.77. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.4.2. 0.26. 0. T.0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.97 (all grey).2. 2.D¡ha. Kaphakara.58.

4 cm wide. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.0-3.3-0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. smooth. brownish-grey. cut surface has a central core.4-0.0-3.Kidney-shaped. odour and taste not disticnt. b) Microscopic Fruit .) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. Orissa. (Fam. Seed .18.6 cm long. rough and scaly. shiny.Shows more or less loosely arranged.0 cm in diameter and 2. 0. thin-walled. Gajapippali (Fr. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. greyish-brown with a dent.5 cm thick. 42 . parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. a large epiphytic climber. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . odour and taste not distinct. Araceae).

Three spots appear at Rf. 43 . pitted and with concentric striations. 0.20. T. CONSTITUENTS .C.Seed . Candraprabh¡ va¶i. Ka¸ha Roga. 0. 2.2-3 g. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.V.C. THERAPEUTIC USES .Shows a single layered. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. thick-walled. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.2.27.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. Appendix T.73 (both light brown) and 0.3. thin-walled. 0. Punarnav¡sava. Sugars & Fixed Oil. Powder .93 (all blue) are visible. 2. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.65 and 0. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.Dark brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. 2-4 layered. Kaphahara.65.65. in extract (Phant) form. 2. 0. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. IDENTITY. DOSE . Stanya.áiv¡gutik¡. Agnivardhaka. shows lignified. 0. 2. K¤miroga. non-lignified.2.5 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. thick-walled.73 and 0. áv¡sa. oval to polygonal.L.4.6. V¡tahara.27.Atis¡ra. 0.2. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Malavi¿oÀana. 2. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.93 (brown).Glucosides viz. oval to polygonal. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. 0. 0.2.2.2. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. 0. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. Ka¸¶hya.73 and 0. oval to polygonal. 0.65.7. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.93 (all yellow).L.

thin-walled. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. cotyledons consisting of single layered. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. oily. b) Microscopic Fruit . Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani.5-2. parenchymatous cells.Seed ovate. papery. black.5-1 cm long. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. Seed . 0. light yellow.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . ovoid.6 cm wide.19.4-0. Shivani. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric.A drupe. crinkled. taste. radially 44 . surface smooth. sweetish sour. two seeded. Seed . P¢takarohi¸¢. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. multilayered. 0. taste. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. fleshy mesocarp. Gambhari (Fr. thin-walled cells.) unarmed tree. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. (Fam.0 cm long. tangentially elongated. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. 1. sometimes one seeded. K¡¿marya. seed coat thin. parenchymatous cells. Hannu -Kumbil. Sr¢par¸¢. Verbenaceae). planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree.

98 (orange). Tartaric acid..C.26.L. KaÀ¡ya Guru. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. Alkaloid. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.2. 2. 0. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.98 (all yellow). 0.4 per cent.98 (all blue).93 and 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.03. Medhya.V. Powder . Resin and Saccharine.2. oil globules and aleurone grains.Arvind¡sava.C.94 and 0. Appendix 25 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. T. CONSTITUENTS .2. 45 . filled with oil globules and aleurone grains.2.3. 0.52. H¤dya.03.2.42.Blackish-brown. Ke¿ya. KÀata. 0.08. 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara.2. T¤À¸¡. Under U. Amla.1-3 g. H¤droga.22.12. Appendix 6 per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Ras¡yana.98 (yellow) in visible light. Rakta Pitta DOSE . 2.18. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. KÀaya.Butyric acid. Pittahara. 0.D¡ha. Sara. 0. 2. Appendix 2. M£trak¤cchra. 0. 0. Appendix 8 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. shows stone cells. 2.7.4.elongated epidermal cells.L. Appendix 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.

Shows a wide cork. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. Syn. oval. parenchymatous cells. consisting of tangentially elongated.20. 46 . external surface smooth. mucilaginous.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . traversed by wide phloem rays. thin-walled. channelled. consisting of 12-20 layered.0 m high. taste.) Aschers & Schwf. moderately large in size.6-1. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. Tiliaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. a shrub 0. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. elliptical. fibrous. secondary cortex wide. rectangular. radially arranged cells.. arranged in radial groups. fracture. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. Grewia populifolia Vahl. Gangeru (St. thick-walled. a few stone cells. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.Bk. light yellow. fibrous. (Fam. blunt tips and moderately long in size.5-5 cm long. 1.

35 (dark blue). (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. 0. Pittavik¡ra.6.L. Tikta.48 (violet).L. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. 0. 0. 0. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. Amla.88 (light violet).V. β-amyrin etc. 0.27. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10).C.2.68 & 0. Appendix 2.). 2.17 (light violet). 0.17. Under U. 0.Sugar. Appendix per cent.48. of the drug in powder form.2.Vra¸a.29 (blue).17. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.08 (blue) 0.13 (blue).Light yellow and fibrous.2-3 g.4. 0. T.55. 2. DOSE . 0.C.35 (violet). 0. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix per cent. 0.08. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.55 (blue) & 0.3.27 (light violet). 2.7. Appendix per cent. Two spots are seen at Rf.68 (light violet) & 0. 0. IDENTITY. 0. 0.08 (violet). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.2. α-amyrin.88 (all yellow). 0.J¢rak¡di Modaka.2. 2.35.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. Ka¶u.Powder . 0.64 (blue). Appendix per cent.41. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.61. 47 . 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.

Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. simple or branched. composed of 1-2 cells wide. thinwalled. cylindrical. taste. bark thin. Ghungchi Guluganji. Chonotee Ratti.21. smaller than stone cells. slightly corky. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. b) Microscopic Root . feebly sweetish. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. Kakananti Rati Kunch. (Fam. pitted walls. becoming mildly bitter. fruits ripen during winter. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. exfoliating in small flakes. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. Gunja (Rt. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. some with brownish content. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 .Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. spreading throughout the plains. Gurivinda Ghongchi. cork cambium. odourless. light brown. Fabaceae). flowering in August-September. a climber. present at short intervals. Kundumani Guriginga. most often irregularly curved. Chanothee. when distinct. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. soft. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. gulagunja -Kunni. tangentially elongated cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡.

DOSE . medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). Appendix 10 per cent.Indralupta. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4. Powder . parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.7. pitted walls. xylem vessels with pitted walls. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. 2.2. 2. 49 .2.2. Tikta á¢ta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral.75 µ in diameter.5 -13. small groups of sclerenchyma. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. CONSTITUENTS . shows fragments of cork. 2.3. wood composed of narrow concentric. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya.1 . Pittahara. Appendix 2. áula.3 g. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. Mukha¿oÀa. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. stone cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Greyish-brown.5-13. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Appendix 9 per cent. of the drug in powder form.diverging towards periphery.5 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. numerous xylem fibres.2.75 µ in diameter.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. parenchyma thin-walled. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. vessels of varying sizes with thick.2. IDENTITY. thin-walled and rectangular. 2.6.

distinct node and internode. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. Poaceae). ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. Serdi Ikha. characteristic. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. taste.22. conjoint. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. odour. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. juicy and sweet. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high.) shrub. smooth.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. Ikshu (St. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. b) Microscopic Stem . red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. lignified. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. 50 . Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. solid. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. cylindrical. besides the xylem and phloem elements. (Fam. scattered throughout the ground tissue. more numerous and closer towards periphery. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. closed type of vascular bundles. with.

Appendix 2. 2. shows pieces of epidermis.Powder light brick red.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. IDENTITY.4.Sucrose.2. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Balya. Sara. DOSE . Kaphahara. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa.2. Appendix Not more than 2. 51 .400 ml in the juice form. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.Raktapitta.Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.5 per cent. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.6. V¤Àya.Bal¡ Taila. 2. 2. M£tra KÀaya.2.3. vessels and sclerenchyma. Pittahara. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.200 . ground tissue.7.2. 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .

fibres. Tumbi Paikamatti. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. áatakratulat¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. Havumakke. fibres aseptate. Indravarana Gothakakucti. elongated with pointed ends.2-2. tangentially elongated. mostly simple or rarely 52 . taste. b) Microscopic Root . Indravaruni (Rt. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal.) Cucurbitaceae). Varithummati. longitudinal fissures present.23. Indrayan.5 µ in dia. thick walled. lying around vessels. short. parenchyma and medullary rays. cylindrical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. (Fam. Paythumatti.5 cm thick. dull yellow.5-7. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Indramanoa. slightly twisted. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. occurring throughout the country.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. composed of sieve elements. thin walled. Tuntikai. xylem forms bulk of root. fracture. Indravaruni. a few filled with dark brown contents. pitted. parenchymatous cells. Indrayanalata. an annual or perennial. consisting of vessels. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. tangentially elongated cork cells. Gav¡kÀ¢. 0. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. parenchyma and medullary rays. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. Valiya Pekkumatti. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. thick-walled. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. intensively bitter. Bitter apple Indravaran.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. Eugenia jambolana Lam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. oval.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. E. coriaceous covering. (Fam. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. b) Microscopic Powder .. cuminii Druce. 1 cm long. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. taste. a large evergreen tree. smooth.) Skeels Syn. Jambu (Sd.Brown coloured. thin-walled. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. 57 .) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.800 m. 1 cm wide. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. Seed . the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. astringent.25.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. brownish-black.. Myrtaceae). rounded starch grains. oval or roundish.

CONSTITUENTS . RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.3-6 g.Glycoside (Jamboline). 58 . Pittahara. 0. of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.2.2. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. T. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.L. 0.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2.20. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid.2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.C.V.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. Udakameha.30 (blue). Appendix per cent.L. ViÀ¶ambhi.7. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Tannin. 0.4.Madhumeha.IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. three spots appear at Rf.3.C.12. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .30 and 0.95 (all yellow). DOSE .95 and 0.6. 0.30 and 0.2.95 (all violet). KaÀ¡ya Guru.20.2. 0. 2. Kaphahara. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. 2. Appendix per cent. Amla. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.

stratified and reddish-brown. Raja Jambu Merale. upper few layers thick. 0. Jamneralae. (Fam. elongated. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. E.5 cm thick.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. and phloem rays. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Myrtaceae). Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape.Bk. Jam Jammu Naaval. Eugenia jambolana Lam. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. younger bark mostly channelled. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . fibres aseptate. cork cambium not distinct. Navval Sambu. Jamu. internal surface fibrous. and reddish brown. oval to angular. astringent. fracture. Neralamara -Njaval. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu.800 m.26. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones.. stone cells. cuminii Druce.) Skeels Syn. lower cork thin and colourless. short and splintery. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. rough. a large evergreen tree. Mahamaram. Jambu (St.5-2. forming a rhytidoma. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. light grey to ash coloured. Jambu. Jambuda Jomuna.

elongated. V¡tala.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. round to oval starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . measuring 5-11µ in diameter. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder .2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. round to oval starch grains. aseptate fibres. reddish-brown content. 2.region. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. single or in groups. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide.6. 2. Appendix per cent.2. 60 .10-20 g.2. Raktapitta. Appendix 2. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. Pittahara.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.7. oval to angular.Atis¡ra.3.4.2.Light brown.2. Stambhaka.U¿¢r¡sava. stone cells. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. Appendix per cent. 2. 2. DOSE . IDENTITY. of the drug for decoction.

enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. Tinti·¢phala.27. ovate. dull cinnamon-brown. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. Neervalam Jepal. (Fam. found throughout tropical India. consisting of an epidermal layer. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed.) small evergreen tree. kernel yellowish and oily. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. 5-7 m high. filled with brownish content. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. 61 . slightly bent at middle.Shows a hard testa. thin-walled cells. slightly quadrangular. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. no marked odour. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. b) Microscopic Seed . Neervalam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. consisting of a large endosperm. Nervala -Nervalam. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. oblong. Japal beej. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Euphorbiaceae). Japala. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. Jayapala (Sd.

7. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.C.54 and 0.6-12 mg.39.Fixed oil.2. Appendix 2.6. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.34 (grey). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 0.5 per cent. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.3. 0. Resins & Phorbol esters.34.49.84 (brown). 0.White with black particles of testa. T. 0. Vibandha DOSE . 2.C.V. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Appendix 7 per cent.2.2. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.2. 0. 0.2. 62 . 2. of the drug in powder form. Pittahara.2. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.63 and 0.54 (yellow).endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .90 (all yellow). Udararoga. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Appendix 3 per cent. 0.4.L. 0.10.Jvara.29. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 15 per cent. 0.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa.84 (all violet). 2. Powder . A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.L. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.

Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. Jalugu.8 cm wide. paripinnate. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . S.3-0. linear. Jayanti (Lf. Jay¡.) Merr. opposite. Karijimangai. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. 0. glabrous. 7.28. 63 . Lamina . entire.. a quick growing. Fabaceae). aegyptiaca Pers. Jayanti Jaita. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. parenchymatous cells. pith small. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound.7 layered round. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. palisade single layered. short lived shrub. Arishimajingai. leaflets 6-16 pairs. stomata anisocytic. oblong. 1. present on both surfaces. consisting of thin-walled. Atti. mucronate to acuminate. very shortly stalked. vascular bundles arranged in a ring.shows single layered epidermis. having secretory cavities in phloem.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.3 cm long.5-15. 1. jayata Arinintajinamgi. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn.Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢.8-6 m high.5 cm long. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. á£kÀma patra. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings.0-3. -Semp. polygonal. (Fam.

Pittahara.3.3-6 g.19.29.05.37. Appendix per cent. DOSE . Calcium and Phosphorus. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. 0.56.05.11. 0.L. 0. 0.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.Protein.56 (all pink) and 0.Ratnagiri Rasa. Appendix per cent. palisade ratio 3. 0.V. 0.48.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 2.C.91 and 0. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. ViÀaroga. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . palisade cells.2.97 (all yellow). 2. 0.25-4.2. 0. 0.C.11.Dull green. Ras¡yana. in powder form. 0.48. 0. 0. 2. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. T.L.2.7.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.97 (yellow). 0.19. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0.4. 0. 0. 64 .2. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara.29. 0.29. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.M£trak¤cchra. IDENTITY.97 (all grey).37.05. 2. shows spongy parenchyma. Appendix 2.91 and 0. 0.2.11.19.69.6. Galaga¸·a. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.56. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0.

one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Celastraceae).35 mm in breadth. taste. Jyotishmati (Sd. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. (Fam. light to dark brown. ripe seeds. odour.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. Gangunge humpu. collapsed. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. a large climbing shrub. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. Gangunge beeja.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. bitter. colour.hard. Seed . inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal.29. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. seed without aril also prescent. surface generally smooth and.5-3. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. brownish-orange. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . unpleasant. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2.

82. 0. Appendix 45 per cent.Oily. CONSTITUENTS . thin-walled.2. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.2.35.7. 0. Appendix 2.V. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. V¡maka.94 (yellow) in visible light. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.2.L.2.2. 2. UÀ¸a. 0.04.2.94 (yellow). Virecaka.54 (both blue). stone cells.15. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. 0. (all blue) & 0. 2.8 IDENTITY.54. 0.Alkaloids.6.20. Tikta Sara. Oil and Tannins. Under U.82. Appendix 9 per cent. D¢pana.C.89 (all yellow). Kaphahara.composed of polygonal. 0. áirovirecanopaga. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. Appendix 1.V.L. 0.89 (both greenish blue). ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Powder .82 & 0. 0. Appendix 6 per cent. dark brown. 0. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.5 per cent. 0. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. Appendix 20 per cent. V¡tahara.35. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.89.C.54. 0.63. 2.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. 2. 0.4. Meddhya 66 .82 (pink) & 0.

67 .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ávitra. Sm¤tidaurbalya. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Seed: 1-2 g.V¡tavy¡dh¢. Oil : 5-15 drops. DOSE .

a few cells with brown contents. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. A.30. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Kadamba (St. Indulam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. large tree. Kadavala. a deciduous. Kadambu Needam. Vellai Kadambam. indicus A. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. taste. 68 b) Microscopic . easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. Kadamba Nipo. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Syn. some cells contain chlorophyll. composed of thin-walled. Kadamba mara. Rich. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Kadam Kadam. phloem composed of sieve tubes. elongated cells of phloem rays. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. (Fam.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Kadappai. Vellaikhadambu. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam.. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. rectangular cells. bitter. Priyka Roghu. Rubiaceae). found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Kadamba Kadamba. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb.Bk. traversed by uni to triseriate.

V¡tahara. cells distinct and slightly elongated. Raktapitta. 0. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). fibres. Vra¸aropa¸a. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. YonidoÀa. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Appendix 5 per cent. DOSE .Alkaloids. Powder .21. 0. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.79 (grey) and 0.6.63 (yellowish grey).5 per cent.phloem fibres. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form. 69 .2.83 and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.70 (orange yellow). Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. CONSTITUENTS .03. 2.5 . 0.5:10) shows under U. Appendix 1.13.Brown.31.4. 0. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.D¡ha. Steroids. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Vra¸a. phloem cells.C. 0.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.2.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. 2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. 0.2. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. L C.2. T. 0. shows fragments of cork cells.3. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.90 (grey). Appendix 9 per cent.0. 0.1.7. 0. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. 0.57.79. Appendix 3 per cent. Lava¸a.64. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.5 g.

pale brown.Simple. glabrous. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. obtuse notched at apex. slender. a herbaceous annual weed.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. flattened. narrowed at both ends. 1. very slender. five lobed. Manatakkali. Manaththakkali. obtuse.Small. hairy in lower part. anther 1.2-2. corolla 4-8 mm long. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida.P. 70 . oblong. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. externally smooth. Ganikesopu. glabrous or pubescent. Manitakkali. 3-8 flowered cymes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Kakamachi (W. found throughout the country in dry parts. oblong. Leaf . petiolate. Pikachia. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. ovary globose. thin.31. 2. (Fam. quite common in cultivated lands.Erect. Flower .25 mm long. yellowish. road sides and gardens.5 mm long.5-8. toothed or lobed. pedicels 6-10 mm long. filaments short. Stem . sub-umbellate.5 cm wide. hairy at base. extra-axillary. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. ovate or oblong. 30-45 cm high. sinuate. Ganikegida. white or pale violet. style cylindric. glabrous. peduncles 6-20 mm long.) Solanaceae). calyx 2-3 mm long. green.5 cm long and 2. slightly woody and branched. ganike. bark thin.

5-8. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. covered with striated cuticle.10 layered in angular parts. smooth shining Seed . arc71 . endoderrnis single layered. uniseriate. trichomes multicellular. covering trichomes. uniseriate. Midrib . a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. radially elongated cells. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. yellow. slightly striated cuticle. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls.. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres.5-11 µ in dia. epidermis single layered. compactly arranged. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. measuring 2. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. covered with thick. measuring 2. pith large.Discoid. rays composed of thin-walled. internal phloem. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. arcshaped. central vascular bundle shallow. uniseriate. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. minutely pitted. bicollateral. polygonal cells. smooth. conjoint and open. usually accompanied by fibres. slightly elongated.. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces.' oval parenchymatous cells. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces.5 mm in dia.25 µ in dia. cambium 2-4 layered. 6mm in dia. embedded in perimedullary zones. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells.A berry. LeafPetiole .shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. parenchyma 4-6 layered. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. single or with two or rarely 3 components.. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. filled with starch grains. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. composed of thin-walled. starch grains. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. cortex of large. covered with striated cuticle. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. Stem . yellow or black.Shows single layered. phloem consists of thin-walled. in small or large patches.Fruit . parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. but 4. 1. oval to round starch grains. vascular bundles-collateral. xylem rays homogenous.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. obtuse. tangentially elongated. phloem rays uniseriate. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre.

epidermis with irregular outline.97 (all yellow). both upper and lower epidermis single layered.Shows thin. a few vessels with spiral thickenings. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. 0. T. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.L. 72 . warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. IDENTITY.34 (both brown) in visible light.5 . palisade ratio 2-4. 0. papery epicarp. Appendix per cent. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.2.2.06 & 0.11 µ in diameter. present beneath palisade parenchyma. palisade single layered.7.2.06 & 0. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. 0.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. vein islet number 7-10.C.Alkaloids and Saponins.6. Under U.L. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. single. 2. 034 and 0.dorsiventral.4.V. unicellular hairs. Lamina . composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle.34 (both pink).2.Creamish-green.3. Appendix per cent. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. measuring 2. Appendix per cent.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. a few broken pieces of pointed. Fruit . 2.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. Powder . seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. stomata anisocytic.06.C. Appendix per cent.

H¤droga. Chardi.5 -10 ml. Ar¿a. KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·u. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 73 . DOSE . Jvara. of the drug in juice form. Svarya. Sara. Hikk¡.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Prameha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.áotha. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Kaphahara. H¤dya. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Tikta Laghu. Pittahara. Ras¡yana. Netraroga.

obtuse. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. crimpled.. seed hard. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. Aravinda. embedded in a creamy. free. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Pamposh Tamarai. elliptic. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Kalh¡ra. 74 . linear 1. Padma. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. corolla. 2-4 cm long. Chenthamara. finely veined. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. Kamalam. crimp led.32. dark brown.3-2 cm wide. broken pieces also occur. sepals leaf-like. fruit an etaerio of achenes.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Fam. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Sarojam Kaluva. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Kamala (Fl. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. 3-5 cm long. carpels many. Kanwal Kamal. Syn. Venthamara. 1. Aravindan. Kamal. Paduman. erect. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. yellowish-brown. a large. Thamaraipoo. androecium. petals numerous. Naidile. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Tavare.5-3 cm wide. Nymphaeaceae).4-2 cm long. 1.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. starchy and large. membranous. comprising of calyx. gynoecium and thalamus. Sitopala. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. gynoceium apocarpous. black. anther. extended into clavate appendages.

IDENTITY. angular. spherical. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE .2. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. yellow pollen grains. Tikta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. Stamen Filament .6. . consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. ground tissue consisting of polygonal.3.4.2. 2. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. two on either sides. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. followed by ground tissue of oval.7.2. having smooth exine and intine. of the drug for decoction. THERAPEUTIC USES . vascular bundle single. Sant¡pahara.Raktapitta. 2. Appendix per cent.2. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis.filament appears circular in outline. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. spore sac contains yellow. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. parenchymatous cell.Alkaloid (Nelumbine).shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . M£tra Virajan¢ya. Appendix per cent. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. Anther . parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. Appendix 2. composed of thin-walled.2.b) Microscopic Flower Petal .Aravind¡sava.Dusty brown. parenchymatous cells. ViÀavik¡ra. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha.2. Appendix per cent. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. Powder . columnar. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. 2. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. 2.shows four chambered anther.12 -24 g. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. rectangular. Visarpa.

F. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. a deciduous. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. straight. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. glabrous tree with strong. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. taste. Bilvara. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. hard. elephantum Correa (Faro. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . stone cells. axillary thorns.33. thin-walled. aromatic. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. found in groups. 76 . Balada. odour. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. Haminamara -Vilar maram. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. Powder . found throughout the plains of India. sour. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram.shows irregular. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. Pulp.Reddish-brown. slightly triangular and oval.) Swingle. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. Kavataleal. stone cells. reddish brown. often cultivated in many parts of India. Rutaceae). Kapittha (Fr. Syn. Belada hannu. Siwalik range and forests. parenchymatous cells. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. rough. sharp. semicircular. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. Belalu.

12 (brown). Lekhana.2.2. Vra¸an¡¿aka.2. Hikk¡. 2.91 (grey) in visible light.4. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.2. Pittav¡tahara. of the drug in powder form.91 (violet) and 0.50 (violet).2.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.L. Appendix per cent. 0. Sangr¡h¢. 6. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .37. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. 77 . KaÀ¡ya. Amla. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.L. DOSE . Unripe Pulp: Amla. 0.7. 0.IDENTITY. THERAPEUTIC USES . Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. 0.2. 0.1-3 g. CONSTITUENTS . 0. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.3. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.95 (blue). Under U. Appendix per cent. 0.C.95 (violet) . Ripe-T¤À¡. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.91 (blue) and 0.50. 2. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. V¡mi. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.V. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.37 (brown).C.12. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya.6. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.06. Agnim¡ndya. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta.áv¡sa. 0. 0.95 (all yellow).Citric acid and Mucilage. Gr¡h¢. T.14 (sky blue). 2.91 and 0.

found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. external surface brownish-grey. and compound having 2-3 components. internal surface grey and smooth. light in weight.) Apocynaceae). starch grains simple. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. sometimes cultivated. b) Microscopic Powder .34. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. rough due to longitudinal striations. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. tubular. fracture. simple and compound starch grains. 78 . short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn.Bk. met throughout India in wild state. shows single and groups of stone cells.Greyish-brown. Karamarda (St. (Fam . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. flat or slightly curved pieces.

Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. CONSTITUENTS .7.KuÀthahara.L.V.IDENTITY. 0.6.2.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. Appendix per cent.C. Appendix per cent.90 (pink) and 0.35. T. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. Pittakara.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. 2. 2.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.4. 2. 0. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.58 (both light grey). Appendix per cent.52 (light sky blue).2.2.97 (violet). 79 . Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.2. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.2.48 g. of the drug for decoction. Appendix 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. 2. 0. DOSE .3. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. 0. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.

b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. due to peeling off. thin-walled. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. internally. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. cells. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. 3-11 µ in dia. traversed by phloem rays. fracture. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite... Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Syn. secondary phloem very wide. Nakt¡hv¡. Karanja (Rt.) glabra Vent. external surface rough. tangentially elongated. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Naktam¡la. a glabrous tree.) Merr. very bitter. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. Fabaceae). of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. P. (Fam. most of phloem 80 . Bk. single cells of varying shape and size. tangentially elongated cells. fibrous. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape.35. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka.

C. Appendix 3. 0. T.80 (light blue).51. phloem rays many. 0.2. 0. 2.18.09. 0. KuÀtha. 0.V. 0. Ka¸·u.31. shows thin-walled. cork cells. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. mostly straight. consisting of thin-walled. 81 .13 (Sky blue). DOSE . 0.04 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of the drug for decoction. 0. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. 0.08 (greenish blue).18 (blue) 0. DuÀ¶avra¸a. Powder -Creamish-yellow.1-3 g. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.80 and 0. 2.C.K¤miroga.6. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0.4. similar to those present in secondary cortex. Appendix 2.37 (greenish yellow).3.2.47 (greenish yellow). Prameha. Ka¸·£ghna. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.98 (all yellow).31 (sky blue).2. phloem fibres.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.25 (sky blue). Pittahara. most of ray cells contain starch grain. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0. Yoniroga.5 per cent. Appendix 11 per cent.L. 0. 0. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 17 per cent. Ëntravidradhi.Flavones Kanugin.37. parenchymatous cells. Tikta. 2.47.51 (light blue).2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery.47. 1-2 seriate. THERAPEUTIC USES .7.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.2. Appendix 2 per cent. 0.2. CONSTITUENTS .42 (sky blue). 2. ViÀaghma.L. 0.

secondary phloem a very wide zone.. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Karaµjaka. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. light in weight.) Merr. tangentially elongated. consisting of 82 . rough due to the presence of numerous. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. Fabaceae).36. reddish-brown or dull brown. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. fracture. P. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. 1-2 seriate. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally.. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. taste. Nakt¡hv¡. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Syn. rounded to oval in shape. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. 3-11 µ in dia. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. a glabrous tree. Karanja (Rt. bark. irregularly distributed. internally light yellow. bark does not easily separate from xylem. cells. bitter. tangentially elongated cells. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga.) Vent. thin-walled. (Fam.

3. Ka¸·£. more. tracheids. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS . Pongachromene & Tetra-O. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound.1-2 g. 2. starch grains. 2.DuÀ¶avra¸a. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Vra¸a¿odhana. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fibres in singles or groups.Methylfisetin.. 83 . V¡tahara. IDENTITY. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells.2. fibres and parenchyma. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Prameha. K¤miroga.6.2.Karanjin. Appendix per cent. 2. Demethoxy-kanugin. Pittahara. KuÀ¶ha.radially elongated.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. of the drug in powder form.2.4. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. consisting of 2-3 components. Tikta. Yoniroga. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. Appendix 2. Kanugin.7. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. tangentially elongated towards outer region. Powder -Light yellow. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. 2.2. thin-waned cells towards inner region. rounded to oval in shape. Appendix per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. ViÀaghna. Vidradh¢. Ëntravidradh¢.

slightly quilled. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. Karanja. taste. thin-walled. phloem parenchyma. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.) Merr. at some places lenticels also appear. tangentially elongated. a glabrous tree. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. arranged in a tangential manner. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. Karanja (St. b) Microscopic Bark . fibre small. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. Nakt¡hv¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. Fabaceae). Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. (Fam. alternating with stone cells. lenticellate pieces. P. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. more or less smooth. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. filled with reddish-brown content.. 84 . short and fibrous. Karaµjaka. traversed by medullary rays.2-1 cm thick. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. parenchymatous cells. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. thick-walled cells.Bk. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Syn.37. recurved.) glabra Vent. bitter. composed of rectangular. unpleasant. odour. usually 0. fracture. phloem fibre and stone cells.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork.

polygonal. Ka¸·u.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . thin-walled and aseptate. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex.4.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Appendix 1. ViÀaghma.2. V¡tahara. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Prameha. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". Demethoxy- kanugin.2. 5Methoxyfurano (2". Appendix 2. K¤miroga. Appendix 13 per cent. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. Tikta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form. IDENTITY. 85 . Pittahara. elongated. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. and rarely. Appendix 3 per cent. medullary rays wavy. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. Powder -Yellowish-cream. Appendix 18 per cent. usually 2-4 cells wide. Gamatin. Kaphahara.2. 2. Ëntravidradh¢. 2. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. rounded to oval. KuÀ¶ha.1-2 g. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape.3. present in secondary cortex. 3" 7 : 8). 2. 2. oil globules.. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pongapin. CONSTITUENTS . Vidradh¢. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal.6. Pinnatin.2. starch grains simple. aseptate fibre and stone cells.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. Kanugin. 3".7. simple and compound starch grains.5 per cent. Ka¶u. Yoniroga DOSE .

Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Merr. Syn. Karanja (Lf.5-0.5 cm long and 3. 6. consistig of tabular cells. xylem vessels arranged radially. Dithouri Honge. a glabrous tree. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. dark green. 0.9-8.11.) Vent. Fabaceae). cortex consisting of angular. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. 86 . isodiametric. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.38. P.8 cm. consisting of xylem and phloem. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. Pongana Ganuga. Hulagilu -Pungu. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. (Fam. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. petiolule short. Karaµjaka.2 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . arcshaped. leaflets 2-3 pairs. Unu. Karanja. vascular bundle single.3 cm wide. covered with cuticle. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate.circular in outline.. epidermis single layered. Ungu. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. traversed by xylem rays. Nakt¡hv¡. Kanajo Karuaini.

2. stomatal index 12.2.6. Appendix 10 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.3.2. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. 5". áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 .2. .5-50.2. vascular bundle. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.(4".6. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.5-20. consisting of tabular cells. Powder -Green. Tikta.2. mesophyll cells.4. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. Ka¸·ughna. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. stomata anisocytic.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4".6.2.7.5". 2. covered with thick cuticle. Pittavardhaka. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Appendix 2. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. 2.Mid rib .A new Furanoflavone -3' . phloem and pith. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.shows single layered epidermis. 7) -flavone. collateral. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. palisade two layered.5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 11 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.5) . spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. shows spiral xylem vessels.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. 5" . Appendix 3. K¤imihara. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. Appendix 16 per cent. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". cortex consists of round to oval. Kaphahara. palisade ratio 3. 2. V¡tahara.6. Ka¶u. present in lower surface.

KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 88 . THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . Ka¸·au.K¤miroga. Vra¸a.For external use only.J¡ty¡di Taila.

2.Fr. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.39. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. 2. Kakiral. oblong. 2. Appendix 28 per cent. K¡ravall¢. taste.2. Appendix 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella.7. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds.2. Kathilla. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. 2. fusiform.3.2.2. usually pointed or beaked. Appendix 6 per cent. surface rough. Karavallaka (Fresh. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa.6.25 cm long. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . pendulous. IDENTITY. Appendix 0.4. 2. Nil Appendix 8.2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. 3 valved at the apex when mature. upto an altitude of 1500 m.5 . Varivall¢. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.6 per cent.5 per cent.) Cucurbitaceae). extremely bitter. (Fam.

T.03. 0. Prameha. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Aruci.81 and 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. 0. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. D¢pana.C. DOSE .10 .23 (red). KuÀ¶ha.46. H¤dya.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 0. K¡sa.L.34. 0.50.61 (light sky blue). 0.43. T.98 (all yellow). 0. 0.áv¡sa. K¡mal¡. 90 . K¤miroga.V.98 (red & sky blue). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. 0.60. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.96 (sky blue). Raktavik¡ra.L. Kaphahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. P¡¸·u.75.98 (all blue).16.17.15 ml. 0. Jvara.67 and 0. juice of fresh drug.

more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. Root . 0. taste. dusty grey. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. bitter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. primary cortex persists 91 . inner surface black with whitish xylem.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. short. taste. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick.05-0. Katuka rohini Kutki. 5-10 cm long. kaur Katuka rohini.Thin. . Tiktarohi¸¢. fracture. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. a perennial. b) Microscopic Rhizome . Rohi¸¢. Kaurohi¸¢. odour. Katki. straight or slightly curved. cylindrical. cork cambium 1-2 layered. Katuka (Rz. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. (Fam. short. subcylindrical. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. Kav¢.1 cm in diameter. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. odour. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. fracture. bitter.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Scrophulariaceae). Kauka. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . Katuku rohini. pleasant. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. cortex single layered or absent. mostly attached with rhizomes. Sutiktaka. suberised cells. pleasant. externally greyish-brown.2. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars.40.

tracheids long.21.Dusty grey. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork.10.17.L. 0. fibres aseptate. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. tracheids. 0. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. thick-walled.in some cases. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. 0. IDENTITY.41. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent.2. vessels have varying shape and size. abundantly found in all cells.2. 2. hypodermis single layered. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. parenchyma.72 and 0.05 (blue). thick-walled cells of endodermis. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.104 µ in diameter.35 (green). T. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres.62. 2. 0. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. 2. cortex 8-14 layered. secondary phloem poorly developed. parenchymatous cells. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.30 (blue) and 0. 0. thick-walled.84 (all brownish grey). starch grains. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. 0. simple round to oval. starch grains.7. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.30. some cylindrical with taillike. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. Appendix per cent.C. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. 0.84 (all yellow).05.41 and 0.37.2. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.4.10.. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. 0. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. consisting of oval to polygonal.2. secondary xylem consists of vessels. cambium 2-4 layered.C. 0. 2. Powder . thick-walled.3. tracheids. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.30. 0.6.V. measuring 25 . thick-walled. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. simple round to oval. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex.2. 0. lignified. 0. tapering ends. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. 92 . parenchyma and fibres.21. 0.17. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. 0. 0. 0.L.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U.

Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Tiktaka Gh¤ta.3 g. Arocaka. KuÀ¶ha. K¡mal¡. 93 . Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. D¡ha. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. DOSE .CONSTITUENTS .Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡.1 . Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Bhedin¢.áv¡sa. Jvara. D¢pan¢. ViÀamajvara. Pittahara.

entire and hairy. all linear-lanceolate. Kolarind. stout. IkÀuraka. Leaf . Kettu. Culli. bracts about 2. annual herb. calyx 4-partite. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . stamens 4.Yellowish-brown. which are 1. 0. tube 1. Nirguvireru. broader than the other three. swollen at nodes. corolla 3. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. widely 2 lipped. acute.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. Hygrophila spinosa T.Mostly adventitious. fasciculate. upper sepal 1. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. no characteristic odour and taste.2 cm long. Syn. second pair 94 . usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node.P. 1-7 cm long.Usually unbranched. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura.41.Acanthaceae). common in water logged places throughout the country.Anders (Fam. Kalsunda --Golmidi.Greenish-brown. didynamous.5 cm long. Vayalculli Talikhana.6-2 cm long.3 cm long.5-1 cm wide. whitish to brown. externally greyish-brown. subsessile. with long white hairs. a spiny. no characteristic odour and taste. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. Stem . Flower . abruptly swollen at top. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. Kokilaksha (W. Nirchulli. Kolavankal ---.6 cm long. sub-quadrangular. lanceolate.

0. thin-walled.larger. fibre walls uniformly thickened. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. style filiform. light brown. Stem . consisting of round to polygonal cells.8 cm long. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. round. moderately thick-walled.Ovate. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small.Two celled. arranged radially. composed of polygonal. broader towards centre. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Fruit . secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. anthers two celled. b) Microscopic Root . some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. oblong. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. variable in size. hairy but appearing smooth. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. pubescent. 95 . filament quite glabrous. arranged in radial rows. single or in groups of 2-3. scattered throughout the phloem region. fibres thick-walled. radially elongated in secondary xylem. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. linear-oblong. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. xylem present in a ring. brownish cells. rectangular to cubical. truncate at the base. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres.2-0. thin-walled cells. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. radially elongated in xylem region. ray cells thin-walled. radially arranged. pointed. glabrous.25 cm long and 0. capsule about 0. 4seeded. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. compressed. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. endodermis single layered. having small intercellular spaces. cortical cells thin-walled. 0. peripheral ones larger.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. composed of transversely elongate. involute with a fissure on upper side. vessels with spiral thickenings. phloem fibres thick-walled. Seed . fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. flat or compressed. subequal.15 cm wide. inner cells smaller. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. phloem narrow. with a number of large air cavities. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. a few thick-walled. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. polygonal cells. stigma simple. ray cells thin walled.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline.1 . pith large. vessels angular.

2.2. Fruit . spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. lignified. thick-walled. composed of thin-walled. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces.6. 2.LeafMidrib . a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . shows aseptate.2. sclerenchymatous cells.2. stomata diacytic. palisade 1-2 layered. Appendix 2.7. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. Amla.2. parenchymatous. Rucya. IDENTITY. 2. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. V¤Àya. covered with thick cuticle. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. collenchyma 2-5 layered. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules.2. unicellular hairs and globules. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. thin-walled.3.25-15. Powder .24-30. V¡jikara. Seed . stomatal index 17.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. 2. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. Tikta Picchila. oval to hexagonal. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. vein islet number 17-42.Light brown.78. Appendix per cent. Lamina . Appendix per cent. palisade. 2. M£trala.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. Appendix per cent. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated cells.75.4. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. .Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. parenchymatous cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. palisade ratio 6.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Shows concavo-convex outline. elongated fibres.

3 -6 g.T¤À¸¡. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE .P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra).IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ëmav¡ta áotha. 97 . V¡tarakta. of the drug in powder form.

Kolavulike. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. secondary phloem narrow. Kokilaksha (Rt. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. Root-Appears circular in outline. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. 98 . thinwalled cells. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. polygonal cells. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. consisting of small. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. whitish to brownish. Syn.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Hygrophila spinosa T. a spiny. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. Nerugobbi. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex.Acanthaceae). common in water logged places throughout the country. thin-walled. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. IkÀuraka. Culli --. branches on nodes. Kokil¡kÀ¢. slightly transversely elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Anders (Fam. the size of these cells.42. stout. no characteristic odour and taste. annual herb.

fibre walls uniformly thickened.2.3 -6 g. V¡tahara. 99 .7. 2. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex.2. secondary xylem forms continuous ring.6.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. having spiral thickening.Ëmav¡ta áotha. Appendix per cent. ray cells thin-walled. Amla. 2. each group composed of 2-6 cells.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .4. 2. A¿ma¤¢. shows fragments of pitted.3. vessels with spiral thickening. V¡tarakta. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells.2. IDENTITY. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. Tikta Picchila.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . radially elongated in the xylem region.Light brown to ash coloured. lignified fibres. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . angular. Powder . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. M£trala. 2. broader towards centre. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region.2. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent.2. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. scattered throughout the phloem region. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.

Anders. flat or compressed. truncate at the base. thinwalled. b) Microscopic Seed . Kokilaksha (Sd. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. Swelling Index . Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. Maradarishana. common in water logged places throughout the country. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. parenchymatous cells. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. IkÀuraka. hairy but appearing smooth. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. light yellowish-brown. the 100 . 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Hygrophila spinosa T. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. (Fam. Daruhuladur Darhald. a spiny. Acanthaceae). tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer.43. annual herb.Greyish-brown. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. Maradarishina -Maramannal.8 -10. Syn. stout. oil globules present in this region.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Powder . Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. shows hairs and oil globules. taste. white. slightly bitter and odour not distinct.

0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. 0. 2.52 (dark brown) and 0. including any sticky mucilage. 2. DOSE .2. Add 25 ml of water.38 (light brown). V¡tarakta. 0. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Lipase.C.2. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .72 (dark brown). Appendix per cent.áotha. of the drug in powder form.31 (dark brown). Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.2. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.93 (sky blue). 0.76 (sky blue) and 0. V¤Àya.C. T. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.17. CONSTITUENTS . 0.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. Santarpa¸a.6.24 (red).L.24 (dark brown).An yellow semi-drying oil. related to 1 g of seeds.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. 0.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.10 (light brown). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf.3 -6 g. 0.38. 0.31.55 (light blue).03 (light brown).72 (all yellow). and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Appendix per cent. Pitt¡¿mar¢. 0.52 and 0. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . 101 . 0.24. 2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. 0.4. Appendix 2. 0. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.03.. 0. 0. Kaphahara.V. 0.3. Protease and an Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. enzymes like Diastase.41 (light blue). 0.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.2.17 (light brown).2.

6 cm wide. (Fam. subtended by an involucre.3 to 2. Khurfa. sepal 0. 50 cm long.44.25-0.Cylindrical. secondary roots.Almost cylindrical. cuneiform. Chhotalunia.An ovoid capsule.4 cm long. prostrate herb. Kozhuppa. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. 0. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Doddagoni Soppu. dehiscing above the base. spathulate. sub-sessile. Fruit . -Baraloniya. characteristic. Flower . 102 . 0. Pulikkirai. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .A few. short. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. oblong. Loni.5 cm long. style 5-6 fid. Moti Luni Khursa.3 cm long. rounded and truncate at the apex. 0. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. Paruppukkeerai. fracture. ribbed.1 to 0. less in number. Ghola -Lonak. 0. Badi Lona Dudagorai. Baranunia Garden Purslane.4 cm long. Kulfa. Peddapavila Kura.P) Portulacaceae). an annual succulent. Payilikura.Simple.1 to 0. root hairs abundant in upper region. Kwfa Pasalai. fracture. petals obovate. stamens 8-12. Loni -Koricchira.2 cm in diameter.5 cm long and 0. Gho¶ik¡. 0. Loni. surface smooth. very delicate and soon falling off. Leaf . oblique. at terminal heads. found throughout the country. brownish-grey. Kuzuppa (W. Lonika. 3-4 leaves.35-0. bright yellow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. branched. Badanuni. Kozuppa. small. Stem . smooth and greenish-brown. Kozhuppu Pappukura. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. short. swollen at the nodes. odour.

2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple.. dark brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. 2. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. present in mesophyll cells. tracheids and parenchyma. 2. oval.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. thick-walled with wide lumen. tracheids and parenchyma. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres.2. parenchyma abundant. b) Microscopic Root . having simple pits and spiral thickening. covered externally with a thick cuticle.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. pitted and spiral vessels.2. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. 2.3.07 cm across. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. reniform. IDENTITY. simple as well as compound. . ray cells and pith.06-0. Appendix per cent. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. having 2-3 components. vessels. tracheids. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem composed of vessels. pericycle fibre present in patches.2.4. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. minute. Appendix 2. phloem.7. having intercellular spaces. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.Greyish-brown.Wavy in outline. shows groups of oval to polygonal. LeafMidrib .shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis.Seed -Numerous. phloem and xylem parenchyma. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. solitary or in groups of 2-5. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. secondary xylem consists of vessels. black. 2.2. Stem . Powder . stomata paracytic type. fragments of cork cells. Lamina . rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. measuring 6-14 µ . simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. palisade single layered. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. 0. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. parenchymatous cells.6. Appendix per cent. oval cells. thin-walled. as well as compound. arranged in radial rows.2.

Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 0. CakÀuÀya. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.68.68 (yellow) and 0.V.Marma Gu¶ik¡.41.3 .52 (both faint green). 0.52. 0.08. áotha. Vra¸a DOSE . 0. 0.76 and 0.68 and 0. Under U.L. 0. 0. RukÀa.10.6 g. 0.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . Ar¿a.L. Prameha.. 0.10. Pittakara.41. T. 0. Gulma.76 (all pinkish red).T.50. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. (both green). 0.Agnim¡ndya.08. V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form.10. 0.61. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0. Carbohydrates. 0.C. 104 .Protein. THERAPEUTIC USES .C. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.76 (green) in visible light.

petiolate.5 cm in dia.4 cm broad. 25-50 cm high. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. Lajavanti. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. leaflets 10-20 pairs. yellowish-green. tapering.P) diffused undershrub. hairy pinnae. bark fibrous. easily separable from wood.3-0. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. internal cut surface grey.Cylindrical. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. nearly glabrous. covered with long. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. Var¡kr¡nt¡. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. sparsely prickly. upto 2 cm thick. obliquely rounded at base. greyish brown to brown. sensitive to touch. varying in length. stipulate.week bristles longitudinally grooved. Adamalati Lajaka. acute. 105 . odour. Lajjalu (W. sessile. Lajauni Muttidasenui. Lajamani Chhuimui. linear lanceolate. distinct. Machikegida. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . rependant . obliquely narrow or linear oblong. Fabaceae). 0. (Fam. Stem . external surface light brown. with secondary and tertiary branches.Cylindrical. fracture hard. slightly astringent. woody. Leaf . alternate. bark fibrous. taste. upto 2.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile.45.2 cm long.6-1. 0.

xylem rays radially elongated. dry. oval-elliptic. fibres. Seed . each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. ovules numerous. phloem rays thick-walled. crystal fibres elongated. lobes 4. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. parenchyma. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings.Lomentum. phloem fibres single or in groups. ovary sessile. 0.Pink. peduncles prickly. glabrous.6 cm long.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre.3 long. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. brown to grey. 0. respectively. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. 106 . a number of lignified. Stem . calyx very small. rarely multiseriate. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. stamens 4. simple. secondary cortex wide. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma.Compressed. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. crystal fibres thick-walled. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. filled with reddish-brown contents. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. corolla pink. tangentially elongated to oval. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. in globose head.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. b) Microscopic Root .Flower . tracheids pitted with pointed ends. fibres of two types. straw coloured. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. tangentially elongated cells.4-0. radially elongated.3 cm long.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. pith consisting of polygonal. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. thick-walled. 1-1. 2-3 seriate more common. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. scattered throughout. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. fibres single or in groups. arranged in tangential bands. starch grains. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. ovate oblong. consisting of large. thick-walled. 3-25 chambered. thick-walled. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. 0. moderately thick-walled. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. parenchymatous cells. Fruit . scattered throughout secondary xylem. much exserted. spreading bristle at sutures.

upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. Lamina .81 (bluish-pink).3. palisade single layered.6.L.2. Appendix per cent. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. pericycle same as in petiole. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. spongy parenchyma single layered.35. shaggy hairs.shows epidermis on both surfaces. parenchymatous cells Seed .69 (all blue) and 0. reticulate. single and compound starch grains.2.4. T. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent.Reddish-brown. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. Appendix per cent. vascular bundle single.Leaf- Petiole .C. parenchymatous cells. branched. Powder . lignified cells followed by single layered. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. pericycle arranged in a ring.7. one in each wing. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.3 components IDENTITY. shaggy hairs.L. shows.62. 0.2.C. pitted vessels. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U.2. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. 2. crystal fibres. 2.2. Appendix 2. with 2 . 0. spongy parenchyma. 2. Appendix per cent. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Fruit . covered with thin-cuticle.2. Appendix per cent. endocarp of thick-walled. 0. fibres. parenchymatous cells.V.shows single layered epidermis. palisade cells non glandular. Midrib . cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. thin-walled. branched. measuring 6-25 µ in dia.

RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Ku¶aj¡valeha. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. 108 .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. KuÀ¶ha. Kaphahara. 0. Vra¸a.spots appear at Rf. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.áopha.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. áv¡sa.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. Atis¡ra. D¡ha. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.35 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.35 (orange). THERAPEUTIC USES . Raktapita DOSE . Yoniroga. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.

46. reddish-brown. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). anther sub-sessile. taste. erect 0.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. sweet. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. short. Kattu Iluppai. followed by thin-walled. lanceolate. a few 109 . epipetalous. Bassia latifolia Roxb. latifolia (Roxb. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Halippe. Sapotaceae) . M. Mahawash tree Mahudo. epipetalous and arranged in two series. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Ippa. Madhuka. Androecium . Eppimara -Irippa. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues.5-2 cm long. Iluppa. Hippenara.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. Ilippa. ovate lanceolate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. b) Microscopic Corolla .Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. (Fam. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Madhuka (Fl. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. Mahua Katiluppai. tabular. Hippe. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua.) Macbride.Gmel.F. corolla fleshy. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. and also cultivated. Syn. basifixed.

round. oval shaped.2. 110 .4.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2. Pittakara.áv¡sa. árama DOSE . KÀata. shows fragments of epidermal cells.5 per cent.3. KÀaya. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. THERAPEUTIC USES . with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. spherical. áramahara.2. Appendix 10 per cent. Balya. 2.2. 2. endothecium composed of radially elongated. Ah¤dya.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.Madh£k¡sava. tapetum not distinct.Dark brown. Appendix 70 per cent.15 g.7. V¡tahara.6. 2. Appendix 5 per cent. IDENTITY. Powder . T¤À¸¡.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 0. Appendix 2.2. El¡di Modaka.2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. pollen grains single or in groups. 2. lignified cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.unicellular hairs present on one side. unicellular hairs. Appendix 25 per cent. of the drug. D¡ha.10 .

A.5 cm wide. Stem . bracteoles 111 .P. obtuse or subacute. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. Matsy¡duni.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. nodes and internodes distinct. yellowish-brown to light-brown. Bahli.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Cylindrical.. short. sessile.47. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. white often tinged with pink.3-2 cm wide. short.Herbaceous. non Link.1-0. often rooting at lower nodes.. Gandal¢. fracture. triandra Lam.3-7. fracture. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. A. 2. Matshyakshi (W.. Leaf . cream to grey. Br. A. repens Gmel.6 cm diameter. 0. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds.. Br. internodes 0. or elliptic. nodiflora R. Flower . no characteristic odour and taste. with spreading branches from the base.5-5 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste. linear-oblong. Br. Amaranthaceae). A.) R. (Fam. denticulata R. no characteristic odour and taste. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. 0. weak.1.5 cm long. Syn. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha.

5-3 mm long. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. parenchymatous cells. ovary obcordate. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. compressed.Utricle. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. isodiametric. radially arranged cork cells. compressed with thickened margins. secondary cortex narrow. vascular bundles three.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.1. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. round to oval. scarious. ovate. Fruit . sepals ovate. single layered.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. Leaf- Midrib . shows wavy or undulate. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. each consisting of xylem and phloem. thin-walled. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. Stem . thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. acute. covered wtith striated cuticle. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. parenchymatous cells. orbicular. pith distinct. collenchymatous cells. no characteristic odour and taste. present in the centre. consistig of thin-walled. open and exarch. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Root . anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. perianth 2. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. with anomalous secondary growth. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. palisade ratio 3-5. pith consisting of thin-walled. thin-walled round or oval. consisting of thin-walled cells. xylem tissues lignified. style very short.5 mm long. 112 . palisade 2-3 layers. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. irregular. stomata paracytic.dorsiventral. round or oval. vascualr bundles radially arranged. with are conjoint. bicollateral. isodiametic cells. thin. numerous. composed of thin-walled. capitellate. parenchymatous cells.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. no characteristic odour and taste. 1. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. Lamina . in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. parenchymatous cells.2 cm long.

shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.C. paracytic stomata.33 and 0. Appendix 2. T. Tikta.33. 0. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. 0.2.L. 0.68 (all red).94 and 0.6.18. 0.44.59. 0.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L. 2.7.3. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . Under U. 113 .16. 2. of the drug in powder form.25.5 per cent. 0.2.44 (all green).2.44.81.Olive green.C. 0. Appendix 4. 0. 2.2 -3 g.96 (all yellow). 0. Appendix 19 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent. 0.4. 0.2. V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.KuÀ¶ha.Powder .54 and 0.Sugar.16. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.35. Pittavik¡ra. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.. IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . 0.2.V. Appendix 10 per cent.

walled.15-0. pleasant. mucilaginous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. smooth. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. odour. 114 . long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. annual herb. columnar palisade. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. very hard. parenchymatous cells. Fabaceae). 0. thin-walled. dull yellow. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.Seed shows a layer of thick. bitter. 30-60 cm tall. (Fam.) aromatic. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. covered externally with thick cuticle. 0. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. b) Microscopic Seed . cultivated throughout the country.2-0.35 cm broad. varying in size. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated.48. taste. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex.5 cm long. Methi (Sd. cells flat at base. several layers of thin walled.

M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. Appendix 4 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. Kaphahara.Graha¸¢. Powder . Aruci DOSE .3. Prameha. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. 115 . Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 0. aleurone grains. 2.2. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.4. of the drug in powder form.6. Jvara.3-6 g.2.Yellow.2.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll.Alkaloid. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. Sapogenins and Mucilage. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. oil globules. 2.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. CONSTITUENTS . Rucya.5 per cent. 2.

) Brassicaceae). complete 1-2 cm long. yellowish-green. slightly pungent.Lower leaves hairy.3 cm long. upper most leaves simple. Muli. having a few longitudinal striations. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . not distinct.5-10 cm long. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.Root cylindrical.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. (Fam. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. petiole 5-5. sometimes brown red.1-1. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. blade obovate. bisexual. lyrate.2 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula.. odour. coarsely toothed.7-2. sub-marginate at the apex.49. Mulaka (W. seplas 6. cylindrical. variable size and thickness. Flower .0 cm in dia. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. taste.Flower in long terminal raceme.P. an annual or biennial bristly herb. regular.Slender. Leaf . petals 1. Stem . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . pedicel with scattered hairs. bright green. compressed. hollow. oblong. 0.

dorsiventral. 1-2 chambered. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. covered with thick cuticle. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. hairs unicellular. greenish-yellow.Siliqua. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers.4 cm thick. present only on upper side. two outer smaller and four inner longer.1. 2 mm wide. phloem. Midrib .Reddish-brown. 117 . solitary or ingroups. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. palisade 2-3 layers.appears biconvex in outline. oily. 2-4 mm long. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. cylindrical. round to oval. radially arranged. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. traversed by xylem rays.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. thin-walled. 10-12 ovuled. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. erect. continuous or more or less constricted.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. Stem .8. ovary superior. taste. green or brown-purple. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. cork cells. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. present in cortex and phloem. traversed by phloem rays. epidermis followed by 6. Lamina .12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. parenchymatous cells. medullary rays four to many cells wide. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. thin-walled. style about 4 mm long. longitudinally sulcatus. round to oval. pith a wide zone of polygonal. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. sometimes flattened.purple vein. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. parenchymatous cells. starch grains simple. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. epidermis single layered.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. 3-9 cm long and 0. occasionally pale purple.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. present in cortex. Fruit . pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. Seed . Leaf- Petiole . endodermis at some places. single layered. vascular bundle three in number. one central and two lateral. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. stamen 6 in two whorls. irregularly globose. elliptical. b) Microscopic Root .

Appendix per cent. 2. covered with a thin-cuticle.M£lakakÀ¡ra. DOSE . parenchymatous cells present. Powder .2.4. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix per cent. covered with thin. Seed . parenchymatous cells.Yellowish-green. 2. Tikta Laghu. Ar¿a. of the drug in juice form. thinwalled.2. Appendix per cent. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . straight cuticle. Gandhaka Va¶¢. IDENTITY. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ud¡varta. Rucya. of columnar cells. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. 2. Appendix 2. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. Kaphahara. shows aseptate fibres.40 ml. CONSTITUENTS .2. tangentially elongated.Glucoside.3.2. 118 .2. P¢nasa.2. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. P¡cana. thin-walled. H¤dya.6.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells.7. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed.Shows a single layered epidermis. Appendix per cent. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. spiral vessels. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated.Fruit . Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. oil globules and round to oval starch grains.20 . epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. 2. Gulma. Svarya.Agnim¡ndya. reddish-brown.

variable in size. usually 25-40 cm in length. Mula Muli Moolangi. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. 2. Appendix per cent.3.2. having a few lateral fibrous roots. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. fusiform.50. Appendix per cent.2.6. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Moclangi gadde.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.2.2. Appendix per cent. Mullangi. Appendix 2.7. Appendix per cent. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.2. 119 . cylindrical. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. 2.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Rakhyasmula Mula. taste.2. Mulaka (Rt. Visra. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. (Fam. 2. Saleya. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. slightly or strongly pungent. Mulaka. 2. IDENTITY.4. Brassicaceae). rarely sweet. white in colour. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula.

09 (both blue).Glucoside.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. H¤dya. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0.15-30 ml. 0. Netraroga. Vrana.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . 0. Svarya.49 & 0. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. Kaphahara.C. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . Ar¿a. Galaroga. P¡cana. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Tikta Laghu. 0.34. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V.04.L.09 & 0.T.04 & 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. Rucya. K¡sa. Gulma.69 (all yellow). Pittahara. 0.09.LC. Dadru. Ud¡varta DOSE . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. T. Jvara.04. áv¡sa. P¢nasa. of the drug in the juice form 120 .Agnim¡ndya. 0.

inner cells thin-walled. rectangular cells. taste. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents.2. (Fam. colour. aromatic. odour. a perennial herb.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths.) DC. 0. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. consisting of tangentially elongated.42000 m. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. slightly bitter. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . 6-12 cm long and 0.Shows 10 . Daitya. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma.51. secondary phloem shows wide zone. traversed by phloem rays. thin-walled cells. traversed by xylem rays. cambium 2-4 layered.3 . Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. S. tenuifolium Wall. Root . found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . thin-walled cells. dull brown. Mura (Rt. Apiaceae ). fibres and parenchyma.4 m tall. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. Gandhakuti.6 . ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Syn. tangentially elongated. secondary cortex composed of rounded. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC.1.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated.

2. CONSTITUENTS . oil globules and simple starch grains.4. shows groups of cork cells. composed of radially arranged. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. distributed throughout secondary cortex.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. xylem and phloem rays. Appendix 17 per cent.2. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. 2.6. secondary phloem.2.1-3 g. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . secretory canals numerous. Sucrose and Mannitol. Jvara. Appendix 3. 122 . short with blunt ends.2. Appendix 2.. IDENTITY. 2. 2. xylem parenchyma.2. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. starch grains simple. M£rchha. present in secondary cortex.Brown. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. secondary phloem. Powder . round to oval. secretory canals. Bhrama.3. Ka¶u. of the drug in powder form. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. somewhat oval cells. fibres aseptate.7.having spiral thickenings. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . secondary xylem and medullary rays. Appendix 9 per cent.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). Tikta. 2. D¡ha. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 9 per cent.áv¡sa.Arvind¡sava. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent.

followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. odour. tangentially elongated.52. slightly bitter. some filled with reddish-brown contents. indistinct. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. similar to those present in secondary cortex. Madhusrava. (Fam. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. fracture. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. Kallu Shambu. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. taste. resin cells present irregularly in this region. a large stout. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. rectangular cells. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0.Shows a cork. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. Koratige. Halukaratige. phloem rays 1 123 . bark easily separable from wood. Murva (Rt.5-3 cm thick. b) Microscopic Root .) Asclepiadaceae). twining shrub. Jartor Koratige Hambu. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. phloem fibres absent. & Am.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. DOSE . compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components.2-6 g. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. Raktapitta.2. 10-20 g. of the drug in powder form.22 µ in diameter. 2. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations.Ar¿a. Pittahara.3 cells wide.3. fibres. 2.5-22 µ dia.2. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. present in parenchymatous tissues. 124 . consisting of small tangential.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Prameha Mihira Taila. Appendix 2. Appendix 5 per cent.4. 2. fibres.5 per cent. Meha. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Tikta Guru.2. Powder . Jvara..5 . composed of vessels. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.tracheids.2. T¤Àn¡. Appendix 7 per cent. H¤droga.2. Ka¸·£. 5. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. simple and compound starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls.6. Appendix 14 per cent. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. 2.2. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. starch grains simple. vessels with pitted walls. tracheids..Light brown. fibretracheids. measuring 5. elliptical to spherical with central hilum.7. Mukha áosa. Medoroga. shows a number of stone cells. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. of the drug for decoction. K¤miroga. Appendix 0. fragments of cork.

longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. yellowish and thin-walled.Brown. N¡ga.Anther shows golden-brown. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single.5 cm long. Konkan. coppery or golden brown. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. 125 .1. parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. taste. thick-walled. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. Nagppu. (Fam. an Ke¿ara. consisting of thin-walled. astringent. containing pollen grains. often buttressed at the base. Nagachampakam.0 cm long. filament 0. Nagakesar (Stmn. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. linear. Nahar Nageshvara. b) Microscopic Androecium . odour. anther about 0. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. connective not visible with naked eye. basifixed. quite brittle. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Bengal. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Guttiferae). Pilunagkesar. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring.9-1. Sachunagkeshara. slender. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. each stamen 0.53. filiform. distinct protuberances on walls. exine and intine distinct. Assam. Powder . Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. Veluthapala. shows elongated cells of filament. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. Hem¡.9 cm long. Nagakesari -Nangaa. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Nagchampa. soft to touch.8 . fragrant. Peri. N¡gapuÀpa. Naugaliral. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. connective and filament.) evergreen tree. more or less twisted. Nauga.

Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Vastiroga DOSE . áopharoga. of the drug in powder form. Var¸ya.4. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Raktapitta. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. THERAPEUTIC USES .IDENTITY. 126 .2. 2.2. Tikta.2.2. Kaphahara.3. V¡tarakta. 2. 2. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.6. Kum¡ry¡sava. Appendix per cent. 2.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.1-3 g. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara.2. Appendix 2.7.2. Appendix per cent.

N¢l¢n¢.5 cm long and 0. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. no characteristic odour and taste. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring.1.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.54. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡.2. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.8 m high. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. 127 . b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . pith composed of round to oval.2 cm wide.3-1. pale green to greenish-black. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. Fabaceae). Nili (Lf. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. (Fam. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. 1.) shrub. leaflet 1-2.

Appendix 2.2. Appendix 10 per cent. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .Ëmav¡ta. Appendix 25 per cent. epidermis. 128 . cuticle and hair. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.. CONSTITUENTS .2.shows epidermis.2. IDENTITY. 2. aseptate fibres. K¤imiroga. Udararoga. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma.. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.4. Ud¡varta. similar as in petiole and midrib. pitted vessels.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.2. shows groups of mesophyll cells. Lamina . 2. 2.Greenish-grey. vascular bundle single.2. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. Pl¢haroga.7. Appendix 2 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6.Midrib . palisade 2-3 layers. 2. V¡tahara. cuticle and hair..shows dorsiventral structure.5 per cent. similar as in petiole. K¡sa.50-100 g. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . collateral and crescent shaped.2.Glycoside (Indican). beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. Ke¿ya.3. Appendix 7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tarakta. of decoction. Jvara. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Gulma. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .

with lenticels.10 layers of tangentially elongated. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. Indian Indigo Gali. Karunili. group of fibres. Nila -Neel Avuri. thin-walled cells. Nili. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. cylindrical. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. secondary cortex a narrow zone. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma.. Nili Chettu. 1.) shrub. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. (Fam. odour not distinct. Rangapatr¢. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. taste. slightly bitter. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.5 cm thick.1 -1. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. Nila Nili. Nili (Rt. Gari Nili Kadunili.2-1. woody. Olleneeli -Amari.55. rectangular. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. 129 . hard. Neeli Nili. Neeligida. Fabaceae). measuring 11-17 µ in dia. Nil. consisting of usual elements. 0. thin-walled cells.8 m high.

75.75 (blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.63. 0. 0.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.58 (blue).14.50.27. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.4.30 (bluish green).2. phloem. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.86. 0.Arvind¡sava. 0. 0. Recan¢. 2. Udararoga. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. 2. Powder . 0. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. V¡tahara.58. Ud¡varta.L. Appendix 0.27.0.14 (blue). IDENTITY. and 0. 0. Appendix 3 per cent.3. Ëmav¡ta. 0. 0. 0.40.40. shows aseptate fibres.06.47 (blue). 0. 0.Creamish-brown. 0. 0.2.63 (bluish green).48 g.2. 2.7. T.21. CONSTITUENTS .58. 0. 0.50.. K¤imiroga.91 (blue). Appendix 2. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.7 per cent. DOSE . 0. Appendix 4 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.80. Ke¿ya. of drug for decoction.C.63. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. starch grains simple. Pl¢h¡roga. pitted vessels.91 (all yellow).10. 0.33..2.86 (green) and 0.10.2.V.14. K¡sa. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. 0.Gulma.81.C.6.L.2.06.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. V¡tarakta.91 (all grey). 0. 0. 2.40 (blue).75. 0.0. present in cortex. simple and compound starch grains. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 130 .86 and 0.33. ViÀavik¡ra. 0. 0. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem parenchyma and rays. round to oval. 0. 0. 0.81 (blue).

taste. 131 . slightly yellowish-green. opposite. crystals also present in phloem region. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nimba Nimba. 0. leaflets with oblique base.1 cm thick. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Bevu. 7-8. Limba. Oilevevu. Aryaveppu.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Bevinama -Veppu. Veppa Balantanimba. Bakan. Nimbam. Nim Vemmu. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. serrate. Nimba (Lf. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Veppu. Bakayan. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Kahibevu. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle.56.7 cm wide.0-1. indistinct. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. acute. Veppan Vemu. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. odour. Limado. Nim. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Juss Syn. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.5 cm long and 1.Compound. alternate. lanceolate. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. rachis 15-25 cm long. Kohumba Nim. exstipulate. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Limbado. Meliaceae). (Fam. Arulundi. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

Powder . Netraroga. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. IDENTITY. stomatal index 13. covered externally with thick cuticle.3. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.Triterpenoids and Sterols. thin-walled cells. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. Appendix 2.0-14. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .2. 132 . tangentially elongated cells. shows vessels. K¤miroga. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Ëma¿otha. palisade single layered. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. traversed by a number of veins. Appendix per cent. fibres.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.2. KuÀ¶ha.4. Prameha. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. epidermis on either surface.6.Green.Jvara.1-3 g.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. 2. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered.2.0-11.5 on upper surface. V¡tal¡. 2. CONSTITUENTS .2. composed of thin walled. 2.0-4. of the drug in powder form. ViÀarogas DOSE . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells.5.shows dorsiventral structure. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. Vrana. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡.5 on lower surface and 8. 2.Lamina .7. palisade ratio 3.

taste. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Kadunimb. extemal surface rough. Melia azadirachta Linn. Meliaceae). Nimba. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. Juss. considerably thick in older barks. (Fam. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Bakam Veppai. Vembu Vemu. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. fissured and rusty-grey. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. odour. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Nimb Bevu. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Oilevevu -Veppu. fibrous. woody.57. fracture. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. characteristic. Nimba. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Aruveppu Balantanimba.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. a moderate sized to fairly large. Nimba (St. evergreen tree. Kahibevu. Limba Nimba Nim. Syn.

Appendix 2.20.2.63 and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent. measuring 2. Appendix 5 per cent. 0.measuring 2.L.75-5 µ in diameter.90 (green). (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.L.2. Appendix 6 per cent. IDENTITY. simple starch grains. 2. secondary cortex absent in most cases.C. Appendix 1. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. 0. 2. 2. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. stone cells mostly in groups. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.90 (all blue). Pittahara. having wide lumen and distinct striations.Reddish-brown. ViÀaghna. 0. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . 0. simple. CONSTITUENTS .2. lignified rectangular to polygonal.3. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem.7. and 0.72 (blue). secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. round with central hilum.4. Kaphahara. T. cork cells.86 (blue).2. starch grains. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.45.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.C. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.outer surface. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Appendix 7 per cent.V. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. 0. Powder . 2.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.6.

Jvara. Ka¸·u. KuÀ¶ha. Vra¸a DOSE . Pa´canimba C£r¸a. K¤miroga.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. of the drug in powder form. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a..D¡ha. Decoction should be used externally. 135 . Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Prameha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rakta Pitta. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .2-4 g.

Muttuga. cork cells. except in very arid parts. rhytidoma 0. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. 5-10 or more layered. Tesu Purasu. Muttala -Plasu. often in groups.1 cm thick. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. taste. Plas. fracture. Khakhapado Dhak. Dhak. Tesu Muttug. pale brown. Modugu. slightly astringent. 0. Palasha (St. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. having brown colour. greyish to pale brown. Palash. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. internal surface rough. Paras Moduga. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m.5 . sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. Khakharo.15 m high with irregular branches. rectangular. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo.) Kuntze (Fam. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. dark brown. 12 . secondary cortex and phloem tissue. moderately thick-walled.2 cm thick usually peels off. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. thin-walled. dark-brown. exposing light brown surface. rectangular 136 . curved. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha.58. Camata.Bk) Fabaceae). Chettu Dhak. tanniniferous cells. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline.

2.3. straight. Appendix 14 per cent.48 and 0. 2. measuring 2. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.L. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.2. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.13. 137 . in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma.. 0.Reddish-brown. Powder .5 per cent. 0.2. phloem fibres. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. thin-walled cork cells. Appendix 12 per cent.50 cells in height. 2.10.67 (all violet). 0.C. traversed by phloem rays. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.L. companion cells.2. 0.7. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. phloem parenchyma.2.10. 0. dark brown coloured cells.65 (all blue). prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.2.18. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .67 (all yellow).75 µ in dia.3 components.V.75 . sclereids mostly in groups. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.12 cells wide. crystal fibres. 2.cells followed by a zone of 2 . in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends. 0.48 and 0.48.10..2. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . Appendix 2. T.6. 7 .C.4 layers of sclereids. Appendix 10 per cent. 0.4. Appendix 1. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . CONSTITUENTS .

Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Tikta. Agnid¢paka. of the drug in powder form for decoction.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. K¤miroga. S¡raka . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. 138 . Graha¸¢. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. KaÀ¡ya Sara. Gulma.5-10 g.Ar¿a. DOSE . Vra¸a.

Paribhadra (St. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones.59. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0.5-2. exfoliating in narrow strips. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. smooth. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. medium sized. secondary cortex consists of large. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. parenchymatous cells. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Bk) Fabaceae). lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. inner bark fibrous. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated to squarish.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. radially arranged and thin-walled. (Fam. quick growing tree. Pangara Hongar. yellowish to cream coloured. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers.0 cm thick. Mulmurumgai Badisa. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. stone 139 .

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

Balak¤t. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2-4 g.V¡tarakta.Alkaloids. 148 . V¤Àya. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES ..CONSTITUENTS . Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara..Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. of drug in powder form. Volatile Oil. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. V¡taroga DOSE .

sweetish-oily.63. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. pitted. odour. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. funicle stout. latifolia Roxb. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. creamish-brown. Syn. Priyalam. linear. followed by remnants of disorganised. Korka. mottled with darker brown lines. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural.5 cm wide. b) Microscopic Seed .) Anacardiaceae). 0. which are of various size. Saraparuppu Sara. (Farn. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present.6 cm long. Shalichokha Piyal.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. collapsed cells of integument. Priyala (Sd. taste. thick-walled. sclerenchymatous cells.4-0. Satdhan -Charal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. 0.3-0. pleasant. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. occurring mostly in groups. hilum present at the apex of round edge. large. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. B. Chowl. Piyar. micropyle superior. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima.

Appendix 7 per cent. 0. V¡tahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.L. Oil and Starch. 0. procambium bundles. 0. of the drug in powder form.2. T. 0.type.C.94 and 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 150 . thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.98 (all violet).54. KÀata. 0. Appendix 2.94 (blue).C. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .A creamish-brown paste. Appendix 4 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Powder .Albuminoids.72.10 . Balya. Priy¡la Taila.7.2.98 (all yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.2. 0. Pittahara. KÀaya.2.V. Bhagnas¡dhaka.5-5. 2. 2. Kaphakara. 0. 2.D¡ha. 0.4. Appendix 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. áukrakara.3.0 µ in dia.6.P£gakha¸·a. and oil globules. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. 0. 0.2. IDENTITY.5 per cent. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.27. BrÆha¸a.0 µ in dia.08.2.84.94 and 0.72 and 0.L. H¤dya. DOSE .91.72.54.20 g. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. Raktapitta. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.91. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. Sara. 0.08. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf.5-5. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.27. shows numerous mesophyll cells. 0. and sclerenchymatous cells.measuring 2. V¤Àya.

3 mm in dia.Shows more or less wavy outline. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical.5-7. anther ovate.64. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. (Fam. calyx. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .2.Cymose. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. epipetalous. tubular.0. hairy.4 m high shrub. 4 lobbed spreading. bell-shaped. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢.) Verbenaceae). 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. Flower . phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . Priyangu (Infl. densely hairy. filament very long. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres.5 . 1.5 cm long. and abundant in Bengal plains. 1. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. stigma minutely capitate. equal in size. basifixed. long. peduncle cylindrical.5 cm across. corolla. densely clothed with wooly hairs. brown. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. 2. an erect. stamens 4. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. b) Microscopic Peduncle . brown.2. style. ovary 2-4 celled. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents.

7. elliptical. M£travirajan¢ya. Kanaka Taila. of the drug in powder form. Resin and Saponin. fibres aseptate. 2. Ku´kum¡di Taila. DOSE .3.fibres. 152 . Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Phenolic compound. N¢lik¡dya Taila. Appendix 2.2.2.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡.6. Appendix per cent. Sandh¡n¢ya. IDENTITY.Glycosides. CONSTITUENTS . Jvara. Pakv¡tis¡ra. Sved¡dhikya. groups of thin-walled.2. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent. xylem consists of usual elements. spiral vessels. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. THERAPEUTIC USES .Brown. Powder .2. aseptate fibres.D¡ha. 2. Vra¸aropa¸a. El¡di C£r¸a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.2. Terpenes. Rakta. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs.4.1-3 g. Pras¡dana. Daurgandhyahara. Appendix per cent. Rakta-Pitta. V¡tahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. (Mukharoga). oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour.2. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening.

cortex differentiated into three zones. Bhatta. Corava. Biyyamu Chaval. Odalu. Vr¢hi. sclerenchymatous cells. Cala. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal.) cultivated throughout India. Akki -Ari. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Nelver Dhanyamu.65. b) Microscopic Root . 5-15 cm in length and 0. soft. exodermis 1-2 layered. Dhan Rice. Dhana. Dh¡nya. Damgara. middle zone consisting of radially elongated.05-0. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Nivara -Chaval.1 cm thick with a few rootlets.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled.Greyish-cream. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Bhata. thin. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Jhona Arishi. Powder . Dhana Bhatto. an annual herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Coke Chaval. Poaceae). Dhanarmul. thick-walled. both consisting of round to oval. sclerenchymatous cells. Chawl. composed of thick-walled. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. (Fam. Nellu Tandulamul. Nellu. smooth. Sali. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Shali (Rt. cylindrical. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. pitted vessels and 153 . Paddy Shalichokha. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs.

M£trala.2. Svarya.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittahara.StanyakÀaya. 154 . KaÀ¡ya Guru. Laghu.Br¡hma Ras¡yana.50 g. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. IDENTITY. V¡tahara. 2.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Kaphahara.2.2. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Rucya. 2. 2. Var¸ak¤t. Appendix per cent. BrÆha¸a.4. Balya. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . of the drug for decoction.2. H¤dya. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. CakÀuÀya. Appendix 2.7.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

) Convolvulaceae). Kakkanangudi.P. perennial herb with a woody root stock. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. 0. cylindrical. stamen 5. 0. Stem . Sankha pushpin (W. light green. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡.66. acute. Flower .White or pinkish. Karakhuratt. alternate with the petals. ovary superior and bicarpellary. free.5-2 cm long and 0. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. sepals narrowly. Sankhapuspi. spreading. Sankhahuli Kakattam. about 0. inserted deep in the corolla tube. linear-lanceolate. hairy on both surfaces. a prostrate. 155 . yellowish-brown to light brown. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. epipetalous.5 cm broad. sparsely hairy.Slender. light green. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. corolla shortly discoid.1-0. cylindrical.Usually branched.4 cm thick.1-0. Shankhapushpi. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Leaf . 1-5 cm long. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. found throughout the country. sub-erect. linear-lanceolate. hairy. Shankhavela.Shortly petiolate.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes.

2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. thick-walled cells. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. palisade two layered. covered with thick cuticle. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. covered with thick cuticle.. palisade ratio 6-9. endoderrnis single layered. Seed .Light yellowish-green. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. present in cortex. fibres and tracheids. at places unicellular hairs present. hairs unicellular. 156 .Shows single layered epidermis. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. mm. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. Lamina . phloem. simple and compound starch grains. phloem a narrow zone.Capsule. round to oval in shape.8-17. thin. xylem consisting of usual elements.Fruit . lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells.Appears nearly circular in outline. tanniniferous. . both having round to oval.. oblong globose with coriaceous. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. measuring 3 .walled cells. mm. simple and composed of 2-3 components.0.Brown. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. epidermis single layered. xylem consists of vessels.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Stem . minutely puberulous. xylem rays and parenchyma.8 µ in dia. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. secretory cells present in this region. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. 13. phloem composed of sieve elements. vascular bundle bicollateral. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. starch grains solitary or in groups. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. LeafMidrib . cortex differentiated in two zones. pale brown pericarp. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. Powder . fibres and parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root . elongated. present on both surfaces. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. unicellular hairs. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. elliptical.

KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Pittahara. Ras¡yana.2. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Br¡hma.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Ras¡yana.7.2. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. 2. ËyuÀya. Ras¡yana. Apasm¡ra DOSE .6.2. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.2.2.3-8 g. Kaphahara. Appendix 2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Tikta.4. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix per cent. Clitoria ternatea Linn.IDENTITY. 2. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .3. 2. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Agastyahar¢tak¢. Medhya. Appendix per cent.M¡nasaroga.

158 . shortly 2-fid at the apex. 0. horned.) Euphorbiaceae). 4-5 cm long. filament pubescent.8 cm wide. Fruit . ribbed. lobes short. ciliolate. Leaf .P. subacute.5-2 mm thick. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. ovate.Capsule. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. (Fam. 3. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. cylindrical.Small.7-7 cm long. lanceolate or linear oblong.2-0. a much branched.5 mm across at the mouth. sessile. solitary. Joyachi. short. 20-40 cm high. 2.Involucre broadly campanulate. gradually tapering. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. 1 mm long.celled with or without attached pedicel. style. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . gland semilunate.67. Saptala (W. fracture. Siju. greenish-yellow. smooth. Chagulputputi Satala. 3-4 mm in dia. trilocular. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. annual herb. having a few secondary roots. Kalli -Chasma Lantha.1. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. Carmas¡hv¡. Flower . odour and taste not distinct. linear. pale brown. Bilikalli. free to the base. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. sub-sessile. odour and taste indistinct.

Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. secondary xylem consists of vessels.shows slightly convex outline. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. all elements.Seed . palisade single layered present on both sides. secondary phloem narrow. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled.75 µ in dia. circular to oval. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. leprous tuberculate testa.Young root shows exfoliated. filled with yellowish-brown content. rounded at the base. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. vessels having simple pits. parenchymatous cells. elliptical. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. measuring 5. rounded to oval. epidermis single layered.3 mm long. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. thick-walled lignified. 159 . tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. endodermis not distinct. stone cells oval to elongated. with wide lumen present in this region. tangentially elongated elliptical. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. starch grains simple. composed of sieve elements. rounded to oval. centre occupied by a pith.6 layers of oval. thickwalled and lignified. rectangular. 2. simple. lignified cells with wide lumen. grooved at one side. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. traversed by numerous xylem rays. some rounded. parenchymatous cells. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. single layered epidermis. secondary xylem composed of vessels.5-19. Leaf- Midrib . endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. mature root shows thin walled cork. fibres. flattended. striated cuticle. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. tangentially elongated cells. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. found scattered in phloem region. elliptical. b) Microscopic Root . rarely a few oil globules also present. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. covered externally with thick. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. Stem . fibres elongated and aseptate. solitary or in groups. fibres and tracheids. secondary cortex consists of 4. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. consisting of thick-walled. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. all elements thick-walled and lignified. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. parenchymatous cells. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. tracheids and medullary rays. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. fibres and vessels having simple pits.25 µ in diameter.

Ud¡vartta. rounded to oval starch grains. V¡tal¡.7. IDENTITY.46 (brown) and 0.67.2.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). T. of the drug for decoction. 0. 0.4.Light yellow.3. THERAPEUTIC USES . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. Gulma. 2. RaktadoÀahara.6. RukÀa. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. Appendix per cent. aseptate fibres. and 0. DOSE .87 (violet). simple.2.50 g.46. 0. Mi¿raka Sneha. elliptical.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. 2. shows vessels with simple pits. Udararoga. lignified with wide lumen.0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. Visarpa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf.V.2. 2.L.04 and 0.C.04. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent.2. Vibandha. 2. Pittahara. 160 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.2.C. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf.57 (all yellow). KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L.2.Powder . Appendix per cent.Ën¡ha. Appendix per cent. stone cells thick-walled. CONSTITUENTS . oval to elongated. Appendix 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.

. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. (Fam. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. graveolens Linn. A. dorsal 161 . 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. parenchymatous. ex Flem. slightly raised. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. b) Microscopic Fruit .. Satahva (Fr. glabrous. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. graveolens DC. and a warm. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway.. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. glabrous. akin to caraway. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. A. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. slightly sharp taste. Syn. var. dark brown. Shepa. mericarps usually separate and free. filiform and incospicuous. Sulpha. a tall. 4 mm long. vittae. yellowish membranous wings.68. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. P. Shulupa. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. Apiaceae). 2 lateral prolonged into thin. often stalk attached. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. mesocarp. brown. graveolens Benth. sowa Roxb.

Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.6. 2. 2.59 (blue) and 0. Appendix 15 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent.costae three.L.2. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.5 per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.7. 162 . CONSTITUENTS . 2.2. cellulosic. each costae with vascular strands. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. carpophore split. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2.37 (pink) 0.2. Appendix 3 per cent.3-6 g.10 T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. V¡tahara.68 (all yellow). 0. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.C. IDENTITY. Powder . Kaphahara. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix 2.Brown.á£la. Netra Roga DOSE . shows spiral vessels. Appendix 14 per cent. 2.L. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Appendix 1.68 (violet).Essential Oil. Jvara. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a.59 and 0. of the drug in powder form.4. Atis¡ra.2. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. Vra¸a. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels.3.C. 2.

Nugge ele -Murinna. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana.2-2 cm long and 0. Bahala. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.69. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. Muringa Elai Sevaga. Moringaceae). central region 163 b) Microscopic . thin walled. pith and phloem parenchyma. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Segata. Muringa. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. a small or medium sized tree. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Sekato. pericycle forming a broken ring. palisade single layered. slender.) Gaertn. Rachis . ovate or obovate. Munga.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Leaflet . cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. odour and taste not distinct. oval to elliptical. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. parenchymatous cells. (Fam. consisting of pericyclic fibres. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. and articulated at the base. entire.5-1 cm wide. Tishnagandha. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Mungna Neegge. Mocaka -Sajina. Shigru (Lf. Sajna. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. thickened.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. commonly cultivated throughout the country. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Shewgachi pane Sajana. Syn. elliptic. vascular bundle collateral. AkÀ¢va. leaflet 1. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. parenchymatous cells. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Segata pana.

0.26 (all green). Appendix 2. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.V.2. vein islets number 50-65. 0. 0. Powder -Greyish-green. 0.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. 0. 0.2. 0.26.C. palisade ratio 6-11.94 (violet).occupied by a crescent-shaped. 0. 0.46 (dark green) & 0. 2. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. stomata anornocytic. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. 0. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. Appendix per cent. Pittahara. 0.2.18. 0.36 (yellowish green).36 (green). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. V¡tahara.18.94 (yellow) in visible light.3.38.52 (green). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. Sirovirecaka 164 . (all green). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. áukra N¡¿aka. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0.Carbohydrate. palisade cells. K¤mihara. IDENTITY. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.69 (blue) and 0. 2.53 (yellow). Medohara. 2.7. 0. Under U. 0.87 (blue).05.94 (blue).05.59 (blue). Appendix per cent. 0.82 (yellow) and 0.4.30 (pink). 0. CONSTITUENTS .05. T. present on both surface but more on lower sur face.26.46 (green).2. 0.6.20. 0. RukÀa.46 (both blue). 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.2.69 (yellow).L.0.2.46 (all red) & 0. Appendix per cent. spiral vessels. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Protein. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. 0.C. Appendix per cent. 0.36. B ¤Æhana.

165 . Pl¢haroga. Galaga¸·a.10 . Gulma. DOSE . K¤miroga.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.áopha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Ratnagiri Rasa. ViÀatinduka Taila. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Vidradhi. Medoroga.

4 cm long. (Fam. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. 0. thin-walled.3 cm wide. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. membraneous aril. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. taste. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. perispenn encloses the 166 . sclerenchymatous. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. thin walled.70. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. aromatic. brown to dark brown. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb.. perisperm consists of polygonal. odour. Beraelam. Sthulaela (Sd. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. spicy pungent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡.) Zingiberaceae). beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. parenchymatous cells. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled.

2. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. T¤À¸¡.(Seed). shows fragments of testa.2. V¡tahara. rounded to oval. DOSE . (Seed). RukÀa.5 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.2.S¡rivady¡sava.6. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. 2. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.3. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.áv¡sa.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Note . Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 2. Appendix 14 per cent. K¡sa. thin-walled.endosperm and embryo. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. oil globules. both composed of polygonal. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.2. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta.4. Tikta Laghu. 167 . 2. Mukharoga. H¤ll¡sa. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Chardi.7. 2.Light brown. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mukha¿odhaka. simple. rich in protein. Ka¸·u.2. thin-walled.10 CONSTITUENTS . Powder . polygonal. parenchymatous cells.2. 2. perisperm cells. Appendix 1. of the drug in powder form.5 -1 g. IDENTITY.2.0. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Kaphahara.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.2. Rocaka. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.

Tumbura. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high.Bk. light yellow to pale brown. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala.71. Tejovati (St. armed with long. Syn. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. stone cells found in 168 . alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. Thumbooni. rather deeply furrowed. external surface pale brown. aromatic. Rutaceae). Tumburudra. Jimmi. short. taste. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. odour. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles.1-0.2 cm thick. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . (Fam. internal surface smooth. thin-walled. lignified. thick-walled cells. stem and branches.0. sharp prickles.) Roxb. brownish. fracture. phloem fibres thickwalled. Z. aromatic pungent. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region.

2. stone cells. 2. Appendix 1. Appendix 8.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. DOSE . Rucya. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. of the drug for decoction. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .75 .75 µ in diameter. starch grains round and oval.6. oil globules and starch grains. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 2.4. áv¡sa.5 per cent.5 per cent. Appendix 12 per cent.2.2. 2.75 . K¡sa. CONSTITUENTS .13.2.3. shows fragments of cork cells. IDENTITY.Yellowish-brown. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). 169 . Hikk¡. Powder . Appendix 13 per cent.75 µ in diameter.7.Aruci. aseptate fibres.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. P¡cana.13. a Volatile Oil and Resin. Ëmav¡ta. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. Mukharoga. round and oval measuring 2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. THERAPEUTIC USES .10-20 g. measuring 2. Kaphahara. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Medhya. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.2.2.

sub quadrangular. 30 . fibrous in bark and short in xylem. shortly apiculate. entire or serrate. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi.2 cm wide. about 1. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped.72. externally purplish-brown to black. aromatic. obtuse or acute. pedicels longer than calyx. fracture. annual herb.Purplish or crimson coloured. wiry. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. branched.Erect. coloured. Shree Tulasi. Leaf .) an erect. much branched. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. soft. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. K¤À¸atulas¢.Thin. small in close whorls. internally cream.P. found throughout the country. pubescent.6 . Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. slender. Lamiaceae). hairy. pubescent on both sides. characteristic. odour.3. lower lip 170 . hairy. Thulasi. (Fam. Flower . bracts about 3 mm long and broad.2. Tulasi (W. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. taste. odour faintly aromatic.60 cm high. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi.5-3 cm long hairy. violet internally. petiole thin. blackish-brown externally and pale.5-5 cm long 1. Stem . elliptic oblong. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . branched. herbaceous. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. woody.

phloem consisting of sieve elements. 0. taste.shows somewhat cordate outline. Leaf- Petiole . oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. fibres and parenchyma. pungent. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. taste. odour. parenchymatous cells. occasionally a few cells collapsed. corolla about 4 mm long. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. pungent. 171 . tracheids. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. long. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. odour. measuring 22-27 in dia. phloem consists of sieve elements. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. Fruit . inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. aromatic. nearly smooth. vessels pitted. slightly notched at the base. pungent.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate.epidermis. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. round to oval polygonal.1 cm long. vessels pitted. b) Microscopic Root . membranous. parenchymatous cells. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. elongated.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. fibres with pointed ends. three vascular bundles situated centrally. rectangular. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. no odour. lateral two short and central two largest. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. Stem . Midrib .rarely slightly reflexed at tip.A group of 4 nutlets. found scattered in phloem. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. slightly compressed. Seed . sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. mucilaginous when soaked in water. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. pitted with pointed ends.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. thin-walled. xylem consists of vessels. veined calyx. taste. each with one seed. in groups and rarely in singles. aromatic. middle one larger than other two. thin-walled. glandular trichomes short. pubescent. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. xylem surrounded by phloem. filled with brown content. thin-walled. slightly mucilaginous. thin-walled. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels.Rounded to oval. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. enclosed in an enlarged. fibre tracheides. brown.

IDENTITY.8.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. T. in thoroughly vanillin .Greenish: shows thin-walled. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.15 . values of eugenol and caryophyllence.C. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. RukÀa. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.16 on lower surface. 2. Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS .Essential Oil. Appendix 1. rounded to oval. Appendix 10 per cent. On cooling spray. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. 2. 2. Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. parenchymatous cells.7.2. 2.3. Pittavardhin¢. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. Appendix 8 per cent.7.Lamina . V¡tahara. Durgandhihara 172 . H¤dya. thin walled fibres. value 0. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. vein islet number 31 .1.2.35.2. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .minutes Under observation.L.6. a few containing reddish brown contents. palisade ratio 3.5 per cent.2.2. Appendix 4 per cent. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.L. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.2.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . Rucya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Rf. oil globules.C. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). Record Rf. Tikta. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.

Chardi. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana.A¿mar¢. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áv¡sa. K¡sa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. Hikk¡.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. KuÀ¶ha. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). 173 . K¤miroga. Netraroga.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. LeafPetiole . 1. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. characteristic. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. glandular trichomes short.shows cordate outline. odour. taste. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. K¤À¸atulas¢. thin.2 cm wide. middle one larger than the other two. and 2-8 celled. balloon-shaped head.) 30-60 cm high. Holy Basil Tulasi. 174 b) Microscopic .5-5 cm long. Tulasi (Lf. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. measuring 22-27 µ dia. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. upper epidermis. hairy. petiolate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. covering trichomes multicellular. Lamiaceae).5-3 cm long. elliptic-oblong.. an erect. entire or serrate. petiole 1. pubescent on both surfaces. consisting of xylem and phloem.6-3. three vascular bundles situated centrally. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. aromatic. obtuse or acute. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. much branched annual herb. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. found throughout the country. (Fam. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil.73.

T.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. 0.7.12. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. Lamina . 0.83 (blue).). shows fragments of polygonal.Light-green. 0. vein islet number 31-33. Appendix per cent. 0. Caryophyllene. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0.85 (blue).08 (violet). covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.93 (both light green). 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. 175 .2.4. Appendix per cent. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Nerol and Camphene etc.45.33 (both green) 0. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.33 (violet). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.12 (light green). Appendix per cent. 0. 0.54.21.93 (pink) & 0.Midrib .epidermis.C..V. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.83. Appendix per cent. 2.2.83 (all pink) 0.30. 0. 0.C. palisade and spongy parenchyma. 0.04. 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.75 (violet). 0. 0. 2.03 (dark green). 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS .93 (all0 yellow).04.04.08 (both green).L.08. IDENTITY.75. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. 0.21 (brown). 0. 0. 0. palisade ratio 3.2. 0. 0. 0.45.45 (yellowish green).2.6. 0.98 (blue).21. 0. Under U. 0.88 and 0.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.54 (blue).85 & 0.45 (violet).93 (violet) and 0. 0.33. 0.98 (blue). 2. 0.12 (light violet). 0. Appendix 2. 0.2. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Powder .33. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.2.3.8. 0. 0.

Prati¿y¡ya. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. Kaphahara. KuÀ¶ha. of the drug in powder form. RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.Aruci.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Tikta.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 176 . Hikk¡. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa. Pittahara. K¤miroga. H¤dya. áv¡sa. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara.2-3 g. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE .

more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. fracture. pungent and bitter. buff coloured intemally. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes.) semiaquatic herb. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. aromatic. Araceae). Ghodavaca Vasambu. triangular. Ugr¡. Vekhandas -Varch. smaller. (Fam. large. Rhizome .5 cm thick. short. somewhat collenchymatous. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents.Shows single layered epidermis. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. taste. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. upper side marked with alternately arranged.5-1. broadly. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. Vacha (Rz. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. Ghodvach Bach. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. thin-walled cells of various sizes.74. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. Gora-bach Baje. enclosing large air spaces. and 0. odour. cells towards periphery.

0.. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. present in cortex and ground tissue. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. 2.6.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol.C.Yellowish-cream b. CONSTITUENTS .2. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. Petroleum ether-No change ii. spherical. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). 178 .region. Appendix per cent. 2. reticulate.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Appendix per cent. Powder .2. Starch and Tannin.2. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.2.C. Appendix per cent.3. Eugenol and Asarone).10 T. Appendix 2. 2.2. starch grains simple. 2. endodermis distinct.14 (violet) and 0. stele composed of round.L. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Powder as such: . Extracts in i. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. Appendix per cent.4. shows fibres. 2.Buff coloured. Appendix per cent. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. Chloroform-Light green iii.2.7. Methanol-Yellowish green iv.L.

Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Ëdhm¡na. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. K¡sa. Ka¸¶hya. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. K¤mihara. 179 . Unm¡da. áv¡sa.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. DOSE . Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. S¡rasvata. V¡tahara. Medhya. Apasm¡ra.á£la.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2 g. 1. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sm¤ti daurbalya. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Kar¸a Sr¡va. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting.Vac¡di Taila. C£r¸a. Vibandha. Tikta Laghu.

Basanaag Bisa.) (Fam. cartilaginous. Naabhi Bachnak. perennial herb. Ranunculaceae). rarely 5 cm long. plant is an erect. suberised. rough due to root scars. small portions of stem sometimes attached. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag.5 cm. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Nabhi. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. 0. Mahura. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. without or with a few intercellular spaces. Vatsanabha (Rt. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. poisonous. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. Vatsanabhi. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. Mithalelia. Vatsanabha. tapering downwards to a point. parenchymatous cells. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. Teliya Bish Basanalli. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. conical. taste. Vatsanabhi. 2-4. odour indistinct. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. roots are generally collected late in September. papillose on outside. fracture. Sth¡varaviÀa.4 . a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. occasionally separated due to breakage. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara.8 cm thick. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi.1. Bachhnaag. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Meethabisha. ovoid. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. dark brown to blackish-brown. thin-walled.75. Beesh.

2.39 and 0.2. shows vessels. consisting of round to oval cells. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. 0.4. RukÀa.39. Appendix 2. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Sv®dala. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. 2.L.2. 0. metaxylem vessels met in centre. Anandabhairava Rasa. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. a few aseptate fibres. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. containing a few groups of phloem strands. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. present in cortical cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.10.3.6. 0.C. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. cambium having 6 10 angles.2. some scattered. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Trid°Àahara. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre.96 (both orange).96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour.74 and 0. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . inner bark parenchymatous. often forming 'V' shaped ring. Appendix 2 per cent. T. ÙikÀ¸a.endodermis. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . S £tasekhara Rasa. Laghu.2.7. Powder . Appendix 5. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Viyav¡yi. 2.2. 2.56.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Appendix 24 per cent.L. Appendix 8 per cent.Light grey. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. IDENTITY. UÀ¸a.20. 2. 0. occupying more than half the radius.C. 0. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. xylem exarch.5 per cent.

30 mgs of the drug in powder form. DOSE . Jvar¡tis¡ra. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.THERAPEUTIC USES . Kanharoga.15 .V¡taroga. V¡takaphajvara. 182 . Sannip¡ta.

Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. outer surface reddish-brown.76. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular.Rt. Bhuikumra Vidari.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. sweetish. cut surface creamish-brown. starchy and somewhat porous. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Bhonykoru. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. thinwalled. Vid¡rik¡. Vidari (Tub. Bhumikusmanda. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. Eagio. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Gumadi belli. Fabaceae). yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Nelagumbula. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Nelagumbala. smooth except for protuberances at some places. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. taste. but pliable. thin-walled cells. usually does not break. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. (Fam. stone cells moderately thick-walled. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Bhoikolu.

4. somewhat round. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.D¡ha. Svarya.3-6 g.5 . CONSTITUENTS . Ras¡yana.2. Appendix 4. IDENTITY.Gluconic and Malic acids. Powder . fragments of cork. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. Var¸ya. highly thickened. Daurbalya. M£trala. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Stanyada. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.2.2. Angmarda. Pittahara. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. measuring 5.3. and also rarely in stone cells. DOSE . áoÀa. Appendix 4 per cent.2. having central hilum and striations. 2. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.2. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. present in all parenchymatous cells. 184 .75 µ in dia.2. phloem fibres much elongated.. a few latex duct also present. V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form.6. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled.5 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). distributed throughout this region.7. 2.13.75 µ in dia.13. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . radially elongated cells.Marma Gu¶ik¡. Balya. J¢van¢ya. lignified with narrow lumen. Appendix 17 per cent. angular to oval. Appendix 2.and pits.Buff coloured. 2. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. Raktapitta.5 per cent. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. Appendix 24 per cent.

pale-greenish-yellow. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. taste. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. oblong. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. square or quadrilateral. an annual. not distinct.) Poaceae). seed coat appears as a colourless line. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. (Fam.2-0. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. thick-walled. H. cultivated chiefly in North India. elliptic. Yava (Fr.3 cm wide. 50-100 cm high. sweetish-acrid. round to oval wavy walled cells. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . spongy parenchymatous cells. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. followed by more or less. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. odour. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. Syn. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. about 1 cm long and 0. polygortal inner epidermal cells. sclerenchymatous fibres. followed by 2-3 layers. erect herb. Jav Barley Cheno. smooth. sativum Pers.77.

2. 2.31.L. 0. Lekhana. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 2. 0.68. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. Fats. Sthairyakara.5 2. and the rest starch layers. simple starch grains.2.10.5 per cent. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. V¡tak¤t. Vitexin etc. Globulin.24. Sugars.83 and 0. 0. Medahara. 2. round to oval. 0. Svarya.2.narrow lumens.6. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 0. Appendix 2.72 (all pink. 0. Orientoside. M£trahara. Appendix 2. Appendix 1. 0. 0.53. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.2. 0.2. 0.56. 0.3.22.C. 0. Kaphahara. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.92 (yellow). 0.22. Appendix 5.31. Pur¢Àak ¤t.5 per cent. endosperm divided into two zones.83 (all violet) and 0. Proteins (Albumin.V. Powder .16.31. 0.44. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.06. V¤Àya.45. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 4 per cent.5 per cent. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.L. Orientin.Creamish-white. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. starch grains simple. 0. IDENTITY.C. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. 0.10.) CONSTITUENTS .4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.2.68.36. 2.2.65 & 0. Appendix 4 per cent. Pittahara. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.7 T. sclerenchymatous fibres. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. Var¸ya 186 . 0.92 (all grey). On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.14. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. 0.Starch.

Gandharvahasta Taila. Dh¡nvantara Taila. K¡sa. Kanharoga. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. El¡dya Modaka. Prameha. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Urustambha. Tvagroga DOSE . P¢nasa.áv¡sa. Medoroga. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.100 . of the drug. 187 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .200 g. T¤À¸¡.

drooping. terete. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi.5-0. no taste and odour. oblong. hard. nearly 0. short. gradually tapering. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. secondary and tertiary root absent. a small thorny shrub. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. cork cambium single layered.Well developed. Leaf . elliptical. alternate. glabrous. Duralabha -Venkatithura. stipules green.Simple.2-1 cm thick. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. sharp axillary spines upto 3. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole.7 cm broad. opposite. Neladangara. 0. ballidurabi. filled with reddish-brown contents.8 cm long.5-1 cm long.P. mucronate obtuse. Javasa. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Punjab. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. Desv.1-1 cm thick.Cylindrical. secondary cortex almost 188 . slightly rough at basal region with slender. (Fam. dark brown. striate. glabrous. Yavasaka (W.78. Stem . Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated.) Fabaceae). Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Y¡sa. extipulate. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . fracture. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. 20-30 cm long and 0. branched. radially arranged cork cells.

fibres. present throughout the region. Stem . phloem composed of sieve elements. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. covered with cuticle. Leaf- Petiole . covered externally with thick cuticle. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval.5-14. thin-walled. filled with tannin. vascular bundle collateral. angular. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin.75 µ in dia. 3-45 cells long. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled.Greenish-brown.75 µ in diameter. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. elongated.appears biconvex in outline. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. 189 . hypodermis 2-3 layered. filled with tannin. 5. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. xylem situated above phlome. phloem composed of sieve elements. tracheids. a few with thick wall and simple pits. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata.appears circular in outline. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin.5. some cells filled with tannin. epidermis single layered. Lamina . shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. parenchymatous cells. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Midrib . some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. xylem fibres. simple. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. Powder . tanniniferous cells. rounded to oval. pith composed of a few thin-walled. tracheids and fibres. starch grains simple. xylem consists of vessels. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. tracheids. pitted vessels. thin-walled. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. xylem consists of vessels. round and oval starch grains measuring 5.absent.14. hypodermis 1-2 layered. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. parenchymatous cells. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. parenchyma and fibres. tangentially elongated cells. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous.

KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2.IDENTITY.Chardi. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. Visarpa DOSE . of the drug in powder form for decoction. Tikta. T¤À¸¡. 2. Kaphahara.2. Sucrose.2.50 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Invert Sugars). D¢pana.6.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3.5 per cent. 2. Appendix 13. V¡tarakta. K¡sa. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . Arimed¡di Taila.20 . THERAPEUTIC USES . Raktapitta. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7.4.5 per cent.2. Jvara.2.Sugars (Melizitose. 190 .2. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 2. Appendix 2 per cent. 2.

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