THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

4.1.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .1.1.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.1.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2. 1.1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.2.2.2-Thermometers 1.1.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.2.2.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.) Desv 177 1.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.2.3.2.2.2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1.2.5.2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.Types of Stomata 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.2-Sieves 1.1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.1 Testing Drugs 2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.1.2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.2.1.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.

1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.5-Limit Test for lead 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.2.3.3.3.3 Limit Tests 2.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.3.3.1.Weights and Measures 5.1-Powder Fineness 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.2-Refractive Index 2.1.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.

P. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. Vol.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). II would be official. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Part-I. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. accordingly. Vol. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. the Dangerous Drugs Act.I. In general. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. would be deemed to have been amended vii .). II. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. II. Part-I. Part-I. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with.

Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Introductory Para . distribution and method of collection. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. substances or processes described in Appendix.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. Purity and Strength .Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. if any. Mesh Number . Synonyms .Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube.The metric system of weights and measures is employed.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Hindi.GENERAL NOTICES Title . Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. indicated in monograph. Italics . scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. If the odour persists to be discernible.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . When the term “drop” is used. viii . Identity. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. it is described as having odour. English. Weights and Measures . unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. Odour and Taste .

the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses.For statutory purpose. Percentage of Solutions . wherever given. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. in 100 grammes of product.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. even by applying known reference standards.L. under Description. water-soluble ash. mould or other evidence of deterioration. Purity and Strength. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. pesticides. Standards .In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. those of definition of the part and source plants. and other animal matter including animal excreta. total ash. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. Constant Weight . the expression per cent (%).Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. fungi. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. is used. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. The quantitative tests e. statements appearing in the API. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. according to circumstances.g. However. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. sliminess. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. moisture content.) . alcohol-soluble extractive. acid-insoluble ash. and show no abnormal odour. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. and Identity. Vol. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests .the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. Part-I. ether-soluble extractive. colour. with one of the four meanings given below. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. which he uses.C. shall constitute standards. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. However.In defining standards. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects.soluble extractive. if of equivalent accuracy. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. water. V. Constituents . arsenic and heavy metals. pests. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. ix .Under this head. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. micro-organisms.

When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. all solutions are prepared with purified water. fibres. Reagents and Solutions . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Statements of solubilities. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Solutions . it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. such as fragment of filter papers. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities.000 parts More than 10. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. and dust particles.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. at a stated temperature.000 parts x .Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. thermometric scale.56 oC. are intended to apply at that temperature. Percentage of alcohol . When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. Solubility . Temperature . Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product.

Fam. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. 1M. ml. µ. unless otherwise stated. PS.I.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. Kg. 0. mm.P. g. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0.5 N. Part –I and Part-II. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. IN. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. TS. mg. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. 0. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. cm.1 N. l. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights.

xii . Bk. Fr. Tub. Kan. St. Ori. Rt. Beng. Mal. Kash. Lf. St. Ht. Punj. Wd. Eng. Wd. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Guj. Wh. Sd. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Rt. Mar. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Assam.Sansk. Tel. Pl. Rz. Tam. Bk.

vessels pitted.2 . Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. slightly aromatic. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 1. tapering slightly at both ends. 7-15 cm in length. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. characteristically astringent and pungent. elongated. Akalakarabha. shrivelled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.231 µ in 1 . parenchymatous cells. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. (Fam. an annual. Asteraceae). b) Microscopic Root . cambium 2-5 layered. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. brown. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. taste. Akarakara Akkaraka. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. Akarakarabha (Rt.1. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. cylindrical. thin-walled. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. Akallakara.37-28. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. Akravu Akkalakara. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. 53.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. bark upto 3 mm thick. xylem fibres thick-walled. not easily separable.8 µ in width. odour. external surface rough.

áukrala. Aj¢rna.2. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin).4. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. secondary phloem. áotha. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. Appendix 2. Powder . Appendix 8 percent. Grdhras¢. NaÀ¶¡rtava.6. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. 2. Appendix 22 percent.0. also gives positive tests for inulin. uniseriate rays very rare.Kum¡ry¡sava. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. CONSTITUENTS . Buddhivardhaka. áv¡sa. Appendix 2 percent. D¢pana. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .2.2.Prati¿y¡ya. secondary phloem and medullary rays. 2. secondary phloem and medullary rays. running straight.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. Danta¿£la DOSE . PakÀ¡gh¡ta. Appendix 10 percent. radially elongated. 2. V¡jikara. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡.2. 2 . Kaphahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ray cells thick-walled. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. Udararoga. of the drug in powder form. medullary rays numerous. 2. IDENTITY. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. Svedakara.3. bi to tri and multiseriate. Pittahara.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.length having narrow lumen.Ash coloured.7. K¡sa. á£laroga.5 -1 g.

found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. taste.Shows 1-2 layered.Cream coloured. parenchymatous cells. collapsed. Cotyledon . (Fam. odour.) large deciduous. Powder . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. broken pieces. thin-walled. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. oily sweet. thin-walled. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. not distinct.2. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. coriaceous. Akshoda (Cotldn. creamish-brown. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. irregularly corrugated. 3 . endosperm mostly single layered. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. radially elongated. Juglandaceae). monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. followed by more or less compressed. Sailabhava. slightly curved. under this.

KÀaya. Kaphakara.2.KÀata. V¡taroga. V¤Àya. 4 .10 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2. Appendix Not less than 10.4. B¤´ha¸a. ViÀ¶ambhi. áukral. Appendix 2.2. Appendix Not more than 0. Sara.2.7.Walnut oil and Tannin. THERAPEUTIC USES .IDENTITY.0 percent.2.0 percent.3.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2. 2. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. 2.25 g.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. DOSE . Appendix Not more than 2 percent. Balya. Appendix Not less than 7. 2. CONSTITUENTS .5 percent.

parenchymatous cells. Amra. internal surface reddish-yellow. thin. Anbalamu. deciduous tree. Ambalam. a few outer cells exfoliated. Amrata (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Kurz. tangentially elongated. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas.. consisting of tangentially elongated.Bk. f.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. S. with reddish-brown contents. Ranamba. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. Ranambo Ambada. S. radially arranged.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows.3. mangifera Willd. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. fracture. acuminata Roxb. parenchymatous. Jangali Ambo. Syn. Mampuiti. non Gamble (Fam. curved. external surface smooth. Ambazham. Amra Indian Hog Plum. Wild Mango Ambeda.5 m in girth. laminated. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Ambadam Amratakamu. and 5 . Stem Bark. grey having lenticels. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. Anacardiaceae). Amvara -Mampusli. Jangli Aam Ambate. a small aromatic. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. upto 27 m high and 2. Ambado. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. thin-walled cells.

round to oval starch grains measuring 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .L.33. 0. 2. Under U. Appendix Not more than 0.7.Light brown.6.KÀata. thick-walled. V¡tahara. Rucik¤t. 6 . 0. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara.2. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. 0.87 (all greyish brown).87 (blue) and 0. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. simple.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.2. CONSTITUENTS .V. Appendix 2. Not more than 1 per cent. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 0. stone cells. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. Ka¸¶hya.96 (blue). a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.L.5-10 g.C. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.2. lignified.5 per cent.2. D¡ha DOSE .33. 2. shows cork cells. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. Pittakara. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. containing rosette crystals and starch grains.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder . IDENTITY. T. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.2.40 and 0. KÀaya. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.C.(greyish brown).75-14 µ in dia..2.3.96. Raktapitta.4. 2. 0. 2.

a stiff. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. filament short. 7 . PratyakpuÀpa.3-0.3 . Stem . yellowish-brown. hairy. bracteate with two bracteoles. one spine lipped.5 cm in cut pieces. decussate.0. secondary and tertiary roots present. anther. gradually tapering. hollow when dry.free. exstipulate. slightly ribbed. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .9 m high herb. dorsifixed. sessile. contorted or quincuncial. Flower . erect.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. perianth segments 5. erect. the perianth lobes. Leaf . Apamarga (W. odour. wavy margin. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. bisexual. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. branched. stamens 5. (Fam.Simple. solid.Cylindrical tap root. greenish-white. not distinct. opposite. yellowish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. cylindrical. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn.P. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. hypogynous. subsessile. membranous. Kharamaµjar.0 cm in thickness. two celled.) Amaranthaceae). numerous. rough due to presence of some root scars. actinomorphic. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. May£raka. 0. opposite.4.1-1.0. 0. obovate.

demarcating the xylem rings. lignified.Sub-cylindric. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. followed 8 . small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. LeafPetiole . unilocular with single ovule. cortex 6-10 layered. endospermic. composed of parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. fibres pitted.gynoecium bicarpellary. elongated. present in pith. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. Seed . perianth and bracteoles. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Root . Midrib . stigma. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. 2-5 celled. epidermis single layered. thin layers of cambium.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. scalariform and pitted. style. fibres being absent. syncarpous. rectangular. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. thin-walled cork cells.Shows crescent-shaped outline. round at the base. cortical and pith cells. spiral. xylem composed of usual elements. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. on both surfaces. thin-walled cork cells. Fruit . 3-4 celled stalk.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled.Shows a single layered epidermis. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. vessels simple pitted. vessels annular. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. truncate at the apex. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. Stem . two medullary bundles. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. brown. single. ovary superior. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. thin-walled. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. capitate. oval to rectangular. either separate throughout or found in some cases.

á£la. thin-walled epidermal cells.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. Udara Roga.3.Shows single layered. aseptate fibres. V¡tahara. 2.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.0-20.0-11. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. Kaphahara.7. stomatal index 4. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. Powder . Appendix 2. Medoroga DOSE . Ar¿a. slightly elongated in upper.6. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent.2. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. Apac¢.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. 2. 9. spiral. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent.20-50 g.2. of the drug for decoction. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. Gu·apippali. uniseriate hair with bulbous base.0 on lower surface. Medohara. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. Lamina . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. 2. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . scalariform and pitted thickening. Ka¸·u. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. V¡maka.2. 9 . 2. rectangular. non-lignified cells. Chedana. mm. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . vessels with annular.0 on upper surface. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. IDENTITY. P¡cana. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. palisade ratio 7.Light yellow. Tikta Sara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . vein islet number 7-13 per sq.5-9. shows fragments of elongated. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.4.2.

phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. 1-5 mm in thickness. fibrous. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres.) perennial climber with slender downy stem.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. medullary 10 . secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. b) Microscopic Root . tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. colour. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. Fabaceae). vessels pitted with oblong. polygonal. taste. fracture. lightbrown. (Fam. cylindrical. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. thin-walled. bitter.5. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. a few solitary fibres also present. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. very long. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. a few showing slit-like pits. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. Aparajita (Rt.

V¡tahara. Vra¸a DOSE . 0.á£la. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.4.2. Pittahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Starch. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. shows simple and compound starch grains. Kaphahara.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. T.79 (blue). IDENTITY. 2.Yellowish-brown.3 g.. Appendix per cent.79 (grey). M£traroga. found in secondary cortex.2. of the drug in powder form. Resin. phloem and xylem parenchyma. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. Powder . Medhya. 0.6. KuÀ¶ha. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Appendix per cent. Tikta.2. Buddhiprada.rays 1-5 cells wide.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. 0.2. oblong and pitted. 2.1 .2.2. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. Under U. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. 2. 11 .7.3.C. Appendix 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Tannin. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.79 (both yellow). áotha.L.L..Mi¿raka Sneha. ViÀahara.54 and 0.V. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

1. pungent Rhizome . rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. tangentially elongated. Ardraka (Rz.Shows a few layered. thin-walled. irregularly arranged. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. Inji Allamu. taste. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. Ale -Adi.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1.5 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. gingery. short with projecting fibres. widely cultivated in India. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. radially arranged cells of inner cork. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. Allam.6. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . pieces 5-15 cm long. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. colourless. fracture. buds and roots are removed and washed well. odour. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Zingiberaceae). Adrak Injee. each having a depressed scar at its apex. isodiametric.5-6. lakottai. oblique branches on upper side. reaching up to 90 cm in height. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. (Fam.

0.47 (light violet).08 (violet). 0.16. 0.76 (violet) & 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. CONSTITUENTS . gingerosol in the oleo-resin. small cells of sieve tube. 13 . 2. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.2. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.13. 2.63.2. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.l6 (brownish violet). 2.63 (grey) & 0. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. 0.92 (violet). 0.2. 0.L. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. oleo-resin cells abundent.9 T.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. 0. 2. vessels 2-5 in number. 0.2. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. walls of oil cells suberised.dia. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.2. Powder -Light yellow. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. 0.2. Appendix 2. 0. Appendix 2 per cent.C.V.4. Under U.7 vessels. numerous closed. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.16. phloem. septate fibres with oblique. 0.5 per cent. 0. 0.47.6. 0.03.69 (grey). endodermis single layered.2. 0. 0.3.83 & 0.35 (light violet). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. 0. 0.08. 0.C. elongated pits on their walls.7. IDENTITY.L. Appendix 1 per cent.. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.69 (light violet). oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.16 (blue).69.35. Appendix 5 per cent. fibrovascular bundles of two types. composed of xylem. Appendix 8 per cent. 2. filled with abundant starch grains.35. Appendix 90 per cent. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. reticulate and spiral vessels. conjoint.63 & 0. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. collateral. larger bundles consists of 2.69 (all light yellow). 0. free from starch. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. vessels showing reticulate.76. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.63 (light violet).92 (all yellow).

áopha. Svarya.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. Rocana. Bhedana. Kaphahara. 14 .2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. H¤dya.á£la. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. Ka¸tharoga. RukÀa. Vibandha. DOSE . Ën¡ha. V ¤Àaya. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara.

characteristic of dry regions. square to rectangular cells. (Fam. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. exfoliating in irregular scales. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. Arimeda (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. lignified. consisting of sieve elements.Bk.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. Velvelam. phloem fibres thin-walled. incurved. rough. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. fracture. internally light brown to reddish-brown. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. Pilobaval. fibrous. Fabaceae). fibres and crystal fibres. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. upto 3 m in height. secondary phloem wide. hard. with tapering 15 . all traversed by medullary rays. Sadabala -Haramibaval.7.5-1 cm thick. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. thinwalled cortical cells. parenchyma. stone cells and phloem cells. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. not distinct. odour and taste. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured.

fibres.2.6.2. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. K¡sa. Appendix 2.2. β -Amyrin. Meha.Reddish-brown. sclereid. ViÀajavra¸a.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 13 per cent. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. T. Appendix 11 per cent. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. K¤mi. KuÀ¶ha. Dantaroga. 0. Ka¸·u.91 (both blue). 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3.91 (yellow). KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. crystal fibres elongated.0 to 0. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Appendix 1 per cent. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. 16 .ends.4. Udardapra áamana DOSE . Mukharoga.n-Hexacosanol.2. 2.0.78 and 0. 0 to 0. IDENTITY.áopha.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Atis¡ra. Visarpa. P¡¸·u. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder .39 and a spot at Rf. shows groups of cork cells. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0.e.3-5 g in powder form. Appendix 14 per cent.LC. radially elongated cells.L.39 and a spot at Rf. 2. Meda¿oÀaka.7.C.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga).69 (grey) is seen in visible light. 0.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS .40 g for decoction. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. composed of thin-walled.

bitter and astringent. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. a large deciduous tree. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10.Bk. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. recurved. flat. curved. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. Neermatti. short in inner and laminated in outer part. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Mathichakke. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. Arjuna. fracture. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . Vellamaruthi. Torematti Arjuna. P¡rtha. consisting of sieve tubes. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width.8.5 cm thick. channelled to half quilled. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. companion cells. Bilimatti. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. traversed by phloem rays. Mattimora.& A. taste. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. 0.2-1. in the middle and outer phloem region. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. Kellemasuthu. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. (Fam. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen.) Combretaceae). Arjuna (St.

Arjuna Gh¤ta. shows fragments of cork cells. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . H¤droga. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa.in dia.Medoroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 25 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Kaphahara. 4-12 cells high.2.2. fibres. Appendix 1 per cent. 2. 18 . sometimes upto 5 components. H¤dya. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. Appendix 20 per cent. uniseriate phloem rays. alata). 2.4. a few rhomboidal crystals. T¤À¡. starch grains simple and compound. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.. starch grains. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. KÀatakÀaya. alternating with fibres.7. Prameha. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Vra¸an¡¿ana.. elliptic. elliptical..2. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. Vra¸a. µ Powder .3.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. IDENTITY. DOSE . measuring 5-13 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. round to oval.6. 2.Reddish-brown. mostly simple. Pittahara. Appendix 20 per cent.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. compound of 2-3 components. Appendix 2. round to oval. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum.3-6 g. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. 2. Vya´ga.

cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. shining with residual receptacle. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. obliquely ovoid. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. Fruit . dark brown. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. nut 2. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. Scramkotati Nallajidi.5-3 cm long. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. Nallajidiginga Baladur. (Fam. 19 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. drupaceous. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. 30-40 layers thick.9. smooth. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. Bhallataka (Fr. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. mesocarp and endocarp. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. mesocarp a very broad zone.) Anacardiaceae).

2.Dark-brown.4. 2. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). Appendix 5 per cent. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.F. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. 2. Ën¡ha.7.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.. V¡tahara. ether. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Chedi. IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Snigdha. Graha¸¢.2. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Kaphahara. KuÀ¶ha. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former.1. Part-I 20 .A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.I. 2.. Appendix 2.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Appendix 11 per cent. DOSE .2. Appendix 0. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. Gulma.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. innermost prismatic. Powder .2. P¡cana. Note . very much elongated radial walls. chloroform. being highly thickened. CONSTITUENTS . Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES .6. of the drug in Ksirapaka form.Ar¿a. 2.2 g.2.3. Krimi. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Ka¶u. Bhedi. Tikta. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Appendix 4 per cent.2.5 per cent.

(Fam. Bhringaraja (W. Flower . Asteraceae). Karisalai Guntakalagara. Knnunni Bhangra. cylindrical. Gurugada.Opposite. sessile to subsessile.5 cm long. usually oblong. together on unequal axillary peduncles. M¡rkava.10. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. Kesari -Bhangaro. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Stem .Solitary or 2. Bhangro Bhangara. 1. occasionally brownish.2 . greyish. Leaf . Karisalanganni. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. strigose with oppressed hairs. Soppu.. scarcely as long as bracts. node distinct. Kesuriya. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. ligule small. ovate. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. 30 . Keshavardhana. upto about 7 mm in dia.2.50 cm high.Herbaceous.3 cm wide.Well developed. sub-entire. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. occasionally rooting at nodes. erect or prostrate. Tekar¡ja. white. Bhringiraja. 2. strigosely hirsute. not toothed. cylindrical or flat. disc flowers 21 . herbaceous. much branched. obtuse or acute. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. ray flowers ligulate. sub-acute or acute. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. involucral bracts about 8. often rooting at nodes. Bh¤´ga.P. greenish.2 . lanceolate.8. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. spreading. branched.) herbaceous annual. rough due to oppressed white hairs.

and with pointed apical cell. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene.0. simple. in macerated preparation vessels small. free. drum-shaped. run straight in tangential section. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. vessels numerous. fibres and xylem parenchyma. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. with a narrow wing. covered with warty excrescences. pistil bicarpellary.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root .Achenial cypsella. one seeded. Seed . xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. warty. fibre tracheids. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. ovary inferior. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. corolla often 4 toothed. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. filaments epipetalous. externally covered with cuticle. ray cells pitted. brown. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. 0. rarely slightly oblique.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. non-glandular. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. hairy and non endospermic. xylem composed of vessels.0.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. consisting of rounded cells. found scattered throughout wood. covered with striated cuticle. pappus absent. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. unilocular with one basal ovule. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. dark brown. traversed by xylem rays. cuneate. stamen 5. epidermis followed by wide cortex. trichomes of two types. Midrib . epidermis followed by cortex. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side.2 . 1-5 celled. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. uniseriate. Fruit . parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. tangentially elongated cells. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. Leaf- Petiole . secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. phloem rays broader towards periphery. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities.25 cm long.1 cm wide. pitted. with very pointed tips. xylem ray distinct. fibre tracheids. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening.tubular.

spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. externally covered with cuticle. normally biseriate and uniseriate. pointed tips and pitted walls. more abundant on lower surfaces. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. Powder . uniseriate. hairs stiff. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. palisade ratio 3.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. endarch. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. collateral. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. pericyclic fibres distinct. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. septa thick-walled. peg-like outgrowth. trichomes entire or in pieces. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. about 3 celled.5 on upper and 23.Dark green. middle cells longest. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells.0 on lower surface. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. pointed. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. stomatal index 20. xylem fibres with wide lumen. secondary cortex composed of large.collenehymatous cells on both sides. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. wide at the base. vascular bundles in a ring. the cork where formed. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem.5. Stem .shows a dorsi ventral structure. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides.8 -4. epidermis single layered.0-22. Lamina . xylem consists of large number of vessels. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. some elongated with simple perforations. externally covered with cuticle. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. warty. arranged in tangential strands.5 -26. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. 23 . a few often bifurcate and a few other large. while the section cut at apical region. pitted with spiral thickening.

2. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. Tekar¡ja marica. 2.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila.2. Ecliptine and Nicotine.3 . Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.2. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. Ke¿ya. ViÀahara. Ëmahara.IDENTITY.36 g. Tikta RukÀa. Kaphahara. 24 . Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. Appendix per cent.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. CakÀusya. Appendix per cent. P¡¸·u.2. DOSE . 2. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya.6 ml of the drug in juice form. Tvacya. K¤miroga. áirah á£la. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.6. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Dantya.4. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .áotha.Alkaloids. 2.2. 12 . H ¤droga. Yak¤droga. Appendix per cent. áv¡sa. K¡sa. Ras¡yana.

Capsules upto 5 mm long. Fruit . Ondelaga. glabrous. about 1-2 mm thick. taste. opposite. Brahmi (W. sessile. Stem . found throughout India in wet and damp places. small. Brahmi. pedicels 6-30 mm long. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. green or purplish green. nodes and internodes prominent..Simple. succulent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. axillary and solitary.P.11.) Wettst. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. green.Thin. slightly bitter. wiry.& K. Leaf . soft. taste. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. Valabrahmi. a glabrous.B. Syn. Flower .Thin. branched creamish-yellow. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. Scrophulariaceae). 1-2 cm long. 25 . slightly bitter. decussate.Small. small.) H. ovoid and glabrous. (Fam. prostrate or creeping annual herb.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. obovate-oblong.

0 µ in dia.4. round and oval starch grains. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. 2. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. b) Microscopic 26 .6.2.0 x 2.2. IDENTITY. 2.7. Powder . Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. simple. endodermis single layered. Matiprada. pericycle not distinct.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. glandular hairs sessile. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. no distinct midrib present. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. starch grains simple. cortex having large air cavities.3. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.2. Tikta. V¡tahara.5-9. and 8. Ras¡yana. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath.2. round to oval. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.. ËyuÀya.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Shows a single layer of epidermis. Stem . Appendix 2.Yellowish-brown. Svarya. 2. respectively. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings.2.0-14.2. 2. Praj¡sth¡pana. vascular ring continuous. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. glandular hairs.Root . Medhya. endodermis single layered. ViÀahara. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.

KuÀ¶ha. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . Ratnagiri Rasa. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.1-3 g in powder form. áopha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . P¡¸·u.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. 27 . Prameha. Jvara. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.

9 layers of thin-walled. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani.12. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. Putirichunda Dorli. no distinct odour and taste. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . a very prickly. pale yellowish-brown. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. secondary cortex composed of 5 . phloem rays 1-3 cells wide.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. fracture. b) Microscopic Root . cork cambium single layered. 1-2. Heggulla. Badikateri Kirugullia. long. Ubhibharingani. Solanaceae). Brihati (Rt. thin-walled. short and splintery. much branched perennial under shrub. phloem parenchyma much abundant. cylindrical. traversed by phloem rays. oval and tangentially elongated cells. Chichuriti. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. tangentially elongated. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina.5 cm in dia. Papparamulli. (Fam. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . parenchyma and stone cells. woody. varying greatly in shape and size. ribbed. upto 1.. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region.8 m high.15 layers of thin-walled.

Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent.. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.2. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. parenchymatous cells.2. CONSTITUENTS . áv¡sa.2. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Kaphahara. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. shows groups of thin-walled.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. Appendix Not more than 6. tracheids. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.2. of the drug for decoction.Cream coloured.4. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. thick-walled.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.5 . aseptate fibres. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.6. vessels with simple pits. 2. measuring 5. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. Jvara. Appendix 2.11. cells radially elongated and pitted. 2. Powder . phloem and medullary rays.3. 29 . vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. Agnim¡dya.6 µ in diameter.5 per cent. H¤droga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6 µ in diameter. measuring 5.10-20 g. DOSE . rounded to oval starch grains. IDENTITY.á£la. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. 2.7. traversed by xylem rays. xylem rays uni to biseriate.2. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays.5 -11. P¡cana.2. 2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. all elements being lignified. H¤dya. V¡tahara.

5-2. taste. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. acrid. a glabrous.. fracture. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. oval to rectangular. P. plenty of simple starch granules present. consisting of round. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. (Fam. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. odour. cork cambium not distinct. peppery. Chavya (St. brownish cells.0 cm in width.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. Piperaceae).) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. fleshy climber. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. Syn. b) Microscopic Stem . Chavya -Kattumulaku. nodes and internodes distinct. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. officinarum DC. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. P. endodermis single layered. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. tracheid. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. thin-walled. cultivated mainly in Southern India. short. greyish-brown. chaba Hunter non Blume.13. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . secondary cortex a wide zone.

Glycosides and Steroids. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter.1-2 g. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.3. Pl¢h¡ Roga.2.2. Kaphahara. Appendix 6 per cent.6. round to oval. 2. Gulma. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. 31 .2. medullary rays multi seriate. fibres and simple. round to oval starch grains. Appendix 1. Udara Roga.2. Appendix 10 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . P¡cana. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . filled with simple. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. 2.pitted and reticulate thickenings. cells thin walled. shows fragments of vessels.7. D¢pana. starch grains. Recana. of the drug in powder form. Krimi.Greyish-brown.Alkaloids. 2. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. Ën¡ha.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. Appendix 3 per cent.4. á£lal DOSE . 2.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡.Ar¿a. RukÀa. Powder . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.2.

a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. round to oval. cotyledons coiled. endosperm absent. (Fam. oil globules. Punicaceae).5-0. triangular and rectangular. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. 0. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. found growing wild in the warm valley. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. round. 0. wedge-shaped. shows stone cells. taste. consisting of oval to polygonal.6 cm long. oval. sweetish-sour.Reddish-brown. Seed .2 cm wide. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. thin walled.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. Maadalai.14. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. simple. beneath this. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. LohitapuÀpa. containing a few oil globules. angular. starch grains present in testa. parenchymatous cells. Madalam Danimma Anar. Dadima (Sd.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. Powder .1-0. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. 32 .) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

(Fam. serrate. size variable. Leaf . Inflorescence . slightly bitter. globose. lanceolate. Gumma. smooth. tubular. nodes and internodes distinct. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Cylindrical. slightly curved. crenate. zig-zag.Yellowish-green.2-1.16. hairy. Stem . 1. fracture.5 cm long and 0. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. ovate or ovate. 1-2. about 0. thin. white. erect. glabrous in lower part.5 cm wide. an annual.7-2 cm 37 .5 cm across. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. more or less pubescent. subacute.9 m in high. upto 4 mm thick. Dronapushpi (W. pungent. surface rough. corolla.lanceolate.Sessile.P. about 2-3. taste. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. 1-2. crowded in dense.) Lamiaceae). scaberulous. calyx. hairy on upper part. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. long with numerous wiry.25 cm long. 10 dentate with a villous throat.Light greenish-yellow. 3-9 cm long.6-0. fibrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati.3-0. taste. 1.35 cm wide. acute. white. taste. characteristic. stout herb. fine rootlets. ciliate.

followed by round to oval parenchyma. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. lateral lobes small. present in centre. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. Fruit . secondary xylem consists of vessels. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.7 layered. consists of a single layered epidermis. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. Seed . thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. parenchymatous cells. trigonous. xylem consists of vessels. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled.0. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. some having simple pits.Schizocarpic carcerule.tangentially elongated. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. parenchymatous cells. wooly. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. oblong. tracheids. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. thin-walled cells. endoderm is single layered.vascular bundle arc-shaped. upper lip about 4 mm long. Midrib . thin-walled.shows a single layered epidermis.long. dark brown. fibres and xylem parenchyma. 4 .Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. vessels long with spurs. consisting of barrel shaped. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. Lamina .1 cm wide. thin-walled 38 . nutlets 3 mm smooth.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. tracheids. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. round to angular collenchyma. b) Microscopic Root .3 cm long and 0. thin-walled cells. Leaf- Petiole . secondary cortex 5-9 layered. cortex consisting of single layered. Stem . palisade single layered. composed of oval to rectangular. upto 8 cells high.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. smooth. tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. brown. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. vascular bundles 4. bilipped. irregular.

Tamaka áv¡sa.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. 16. Powder . 39 . Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. Agnim¡ndya. Ka¶u Guru.4.2. Glycoside. Bhedani.5 on lower surface. pitted and spiral vessels.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. a few veins present in this region. RukÀa.6-30. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. V¡takara.6-40. Pittakara. K¡mal¡. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. 2.2.3.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. 2.cells. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. 2. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. stomata diacytic.áotha.2. stomatal index 16. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. palisade ratio 7-9.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.7 on upper surface. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Dull yellow. K¡sa.Alkaloid.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. ViÀamajvara DOSE . Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. Lava¸a.7.2. present on both surfaces. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. aseptate fibres. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2.

utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. an annual creeping herb. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. 0. creamish-yellow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. Karka¶¢. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. parenchymatous cells. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. utilissimus Roxb.17. covered with thick cuticle. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. -Kakur. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. shows stone cells. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. more or less ellipsoid. Cucurbitaceae). glossy.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. mesophyll cells thinwalled. straight. rounded and tangentially elongated. sweetish oily. Hastipani. surface smooth. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. (Fam. radially elongated to squarish. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. B¤hatphala.7-10 cm long. Hastipani. Ervaru (Sd. thin-walled. cultivated in many parts of the country. Vellarika Kakadi. C. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. taste.3-0.4 cm wide. parenchymatous. cotyledons two. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. 40 .

A¿mar¢.2.2.77.83. Tikta Guru.35. 0. Appendix 2.2. 2. 0.3-6 g.91 (blue) under U. 0.6. RaktadoÀakara. Pittahara.58. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .26. THERAPEUTIC USES . D¢pana.Oil & Sugars.L. V¡takara.51.0.35.64. 41 .91 and 0. Jvara.3. 0.19. Rucya. of seeds. T. Raktapitta.77. Appendix 0.26. 0. Kaphakara.91 and 0.51.97 (all grey).0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. 0.IDENTITY.7. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Gulma.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0.2.83. (366 mm). T¤À¸¡. Appendix 10 per cent.4.0. 0. 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.97 (all yellow) .58. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.V. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. 0. 0. 2. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0.C.2.C. 2.19. 2.64.D¡ha. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .5 per cent.

transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. 42 . shiny. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal.5 cm thick. Orissa. (Fam.0-3. smooth. Seed . 0.Shows more or less loosely arranged.18. a large epiphytic climber.0 cm in diameter and 2. thin-walled. brownish-grey.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried.4 cm wide. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. b) Microscopic Fruit . odour and taste not disticnt.Kidney-shaped. rough and scaly.6 cm long.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. cut surface has a central core. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.3-0.0-3. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. Araceae). Gajapippali (Fr. 0. odour and taste not distinct. greyish-brown with a dent. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .4-0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a.

27.C. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.2. áv¡sa.73 and 0. Agnivardhaka.Seed . of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. 2.5 per cent. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. in extract (Phant) form.93 (all yellow). Powder .2-3 g.73 (both light brown) and 0. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.7. Ka¸ha Roga. Appendix T.Shows a single layered.27. thick-walled.Dark brown. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .áiv¡gutik¡. oval to polygonal. V¡tahara. Punarnav¡sava.65.93 (all blue) are visible. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. 2. 2. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C.L. DOSE . 0.C. oval to polygonal.4. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. IDENTITY. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0. 2-4 layered. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.2. Sugars & Fixed Oil.V. 0. shows lignified.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. Kaphahara. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. K¤miroga.Atis¡ra.2. thick-walled.3.65. Ka¸¶hya. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. THERAPEUTIC USES . oval to polygonal.65. 43 .6. 0.2. Stanya. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.93 (brown). 2.65 and 0.73 and 0.L. 0.2. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. 0. Three spots appear at Rf.20. 0. Malavi¿oÀana. 0.Glucosides viz.2. 0. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. T. non-lignified. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. pitted and with concentric striations. thin-walled.

thin-walled cells. Gambhari (Fr. tangentially elongated. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . Hannu -Kumbil. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. (Fam. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. Sr¢par¸¢.5-2.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. cotyledons consisting of single layered. light yellow. radially 44 . sweetish sour. ovoid. oily.6 cm wide. 0. 1. Shivani. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. fleshy mesocarp. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢.4-0.5-1 cm long. black. seed coat thin. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled.0 cm long. multilayered. crinkled.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. taste. Seed . 0. b) Microscopic Fruit . surface smooth. sometimes one seeded. P¢takarohi¸¢. taste.Seed ovate. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel.) unarmed tree. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. papery.A drupe. Verbenaceae).19. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. two seeded. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. Seed . thin-walled. K¡¿marya.

(366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. H¤droga.6.2. Alkaloid. of the drug in powder form.3. 0.C. 0. 0. Tartaric acid.2. 0.4.93 and 0. Medhya. Rakta Pitta DOSE . IDENTITY. T. Amla. KÀata.4 per cent.L. Appendix 25 per cent. 0. Powder .C.Butyric acid. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.42. T¤À¸¡.V. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.08. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains.98 (orange).98 (all blue). KÀaya.2. Appendix 0. 0. 2. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Sara.2.94 and 0.. M£trak¤cchra. 2. 0.L.98 (all yellow). Ras¡yana. 2. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.7. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.26. Ke¿ya. Appendix 2. V¡tahara. 0.03. 2. shows stone cells.elongated epidermal cells. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. oil globules and aleurone grains.98 (yellow) in visible light.52.03. Pittahara.D¡ha.22. H¤dya. Resin and Saccharine. THERAPEUTIC USES .18. 0.1-3 g. 0.2.Arvind¡sava. 0.2. 45 . CONSTITUENTS . Under U. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 8 per cent.12. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. 0. 0.Blackish-brown.

fracture. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. arranged in radial groups. blunt tips and moderately long in size. channelled. Gangeru (St.) Aschers & Schwf. consisting of 12-20 layered.Bk. a few stone cells. secondary cortex wide. traversed by wide phloem rays. external surface smooth. parenchymatous cells. mucilaginous. oval. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.20. rectangular. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. thin-walled. Grewia populifolia Vahl. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. a shrub 0.6-1. taste. thick-walled. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. radially arranged cells. elliptical. fibrous. moderately large in size. consisting of tangentially elongated. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Shows a wide cork.5-5 cm long.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. (Fam. Tiliaceae). 1.0 m high. fibrous. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. 46 . light yellow. Syn.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk.

88 (light violet). Amla. 0. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. 0. Appendix per cent. 0. Appendix per cent. 0.3.35.55. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.Vra¸a.2. 0.35 (violet).C. 0. 0.17. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.61.64 (blue). Appendix per cent.V.08 (violet). CONSTITUENTS . β-amyrin etc. T. 0. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.6.J¢rak¡di Modaka.7.48. Appendix 2. Ka¶u. α-amyrin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Tikta. 0.2. 0.Sugar.08 (blue) 0. 2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.41. of the drug in powder form. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.68 & 0.Powder .L.27 (light violet).48 (violet). Two spots are seen at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.17 (light violet). DOSE .2-3 g.88 (all yellow).68 (light violet) & 0. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. IDENTITY.27.2. 2. 0.2. 0. 0.35 (dark blue).29 (blue). 0.2. 2. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. Pittavik¡ra.L. Under U.Light yellow and fibrous.17. 0. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.08. 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix per cent. 47 .). 0.4. 2.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. 0.C.55 (blue) & 0.13 (blue).

simple or branched. when distinct. slightly corky.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. tangentially elongated cells. flowering in August-September. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. pitted walls. spreading throughout the plains. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. cylindrical. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. (Fam. present at short intervals. Ghungchi Guluganji. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. composed of 1-2 cells wide. gulagunja -Kunni. Fabaceae). soft. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . Kundumani Guriginga. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. Gurivinda Ghongchi.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. Chonotee Ratti. most often irregularly curved. smaller than stone cells. Gunja (Rt. cork cambium. taste. b) Microscopic Root . thinwalled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root.21. exfoliating in small flakes. bark thin. some with brownish content. feebly sweetish. Chanothee. becoming mildly bitter. light brown. Kakananti Rati Kunch. a climber. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. odourless. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. fruits ripen during winter.

Appendix 2.2. áula.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. xylem vessels with pitted walls. wood composed of narrow concentric. small groups of sclerenchyma. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. DOSE . 49 . 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. Appendix 9 per cent. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). of the drug in powder form.6. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.2.Indralupta. stone cells. 2. 2.5 per cent. 2.Greyish-brown. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood.3 g. thin-walled and rectangular.diverging towards periphery.5 -13. IDENTITY. Pittahara. Tikta á¢ta.75 µ in diameter.1 . Appendix 10 per cent. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.2.4. Appendix 4 per cent. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral.3.2. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches.75 µ in diameter. Powder . CONSTITUENTS . pitted walls. Mukha¿oÀa. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes.7.2. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. THERAPEUTIC USES . medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. 2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. parenchyma thin-walled. numerous xylem fibres. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. vessels of varying sizes with thick. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.5-13. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. shows fragments of cork. Appendix 2.

more numerous and closer towards periphery. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. solid. b) Microscopic Stem . conjoint. closed type of vascular bundles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. scattered throughout the ground tissue. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. lignified. taste. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. besides the xylem and phloem elements. juicy and sweet. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. with. 50 . Ikshu (St. Poaceae). ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India.22. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. characteristic. (Fam. distinct node and internode. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna.) shrub. Serdi Ikha. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. odour. smooth. cylindrical. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma.

2.Bal¡ Taila.2. 2.2. Balya. 2. V¤Àya. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.5 per cent.Powder light brick red.200 . THERAPEUTIC USES .Powder . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. Sara. ground tissue. shows pieces of epidermis.6. Kaphahara. 51 .Raktapitta. IDENTITY.400 ml in the juice form.2.3.Sucrose. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. M£tra KÀaya. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. vessels and sclerenchyma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix Not more than 2.2. Appendix 2. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. DOSE . V¡tahara.7.2.4. Pittahara. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. pitted. longitudinal fissures present. parenchyma and medullary rays. Valiya Pekkumatti. 0. Indrayan. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. Indravaruni (Rt.5 cm thick. Indravarana Gothakakucti. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. cylindrical. Paythumatti. b) Microscopic Root . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. fibres aseptate. áatakratulat¡. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. Bitter apple Indravaran. Indramanoa. occurring throughout the country. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. thin walled. mostly simple or rarely 52 . consisting of vessels. thick-walled. intensively bitter. lying around vessels. (Fam. elongated with pointed ends. parenchyma and medullary rays. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. dull yellow.2-2. parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated.5-7.23. Varithummati. slightly twisted. tangentially elongated cork cells. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. thick walled. composed of sieve elements. Indravaruni. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. Gav¡kÀ¢. fibres. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. an annual or perennial.5 µ in dia. Tumbi Paikamatti. fracture. short. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. Tuntikai. Havumakke. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. taste. xylem forms bulk of root. a few filled with dark brown contents.) Cucurbitaceae). vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. Indrayanalata.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. Eugenia jambolana Lam. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1.6 m with a bole up to 15 m..800 m. brownish-black. coriaceous covering. Seed . shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. rounded starch grains. Myrtaceae). Jambu (Sd. thin-walled. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. oval.Brown coloured.) Skeels Syn. (Fam. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. astringent. mesophyll composed of isodiametric.25. oval or roundish. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. smooth. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. b) Microscopic Powder .) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. a large evergreen tree. 57 .. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. 1 cm wide. cuminii Druce. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. 1 cm long. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. E. taste.

12. Appendix per cent.V.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.2. three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 2.20. ViÀ¶ambhi. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.30 and 0.95 (all violet).IDENTITY.L.2. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.C. Pittahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. T. Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS .20. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. 0. 58 .2.4.2.95 and 0.2. Tannin.3.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. 2. of the drug in powder form. Amla. 2. 2.C.30 (blue). 2.7. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.6. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.3-6 g. Udakameha.Glycoside (Jamboline). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.30 and 0.95 (all yellow). Appendix per cent.Madhumeha.L. DOSE . KaÀ¡ya Guru.

. forming a rhytidoma. elongated. rough. oval to angular. Jambu (St. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. cuminii Druce.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. cork cambium not distinct. Neralamara -Njaval. internal surface fibrous. astringent. light grey to ash coloured.Bk. and phloem rays. fracture. a large evergreen tree. Jamneralae. (Fam. and reddish brown. short and splintery. Jam Jammu Naaval.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. E. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Jambu.800 m.5-2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli.5 cm thick. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. stratified and reddish-brown. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Raja Jambu Merale. younger bark mostly channelled. lower cork thin and colourless.26. Navval Sambu. Jambuda Jomuna. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Mahamaram. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. Myrtaceae).) Skeels Syn. fibres aseptate. Jamu. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. 0. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Eugenia jambolana Lam. taste. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. upper few layers thick. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. stone cells. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem.

Appendix per cent. 60 .2. 2.2. Appendix per cent. elongated.10-20 g. of the drug for decoction. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . round to oval starch grains. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. Appendix per cent. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.2.Atis¡ra. reddish-brown content.2.Light brown. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. measuring 5-11µ in diameter.2. Pittahara. DOSE . 2. single or in groups. 2. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.region.7. THERAPEUTIC USES . rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.6. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . V¡tala. Raktapitta.3. Kaphahara.U¿¢r¡sava.2.4. Appendix per cent. round to oval starch grains. stone cells. Stambhaka. oval to angular. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. aseptate fibres.

consisting of a large endosperm. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. Japala. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. dull cinnamon-brown.27. filled with brownish content. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. slightly quadrangular. 61 . Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. found throughout tropical India.Shows a hard testa. Japal beej. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. slightly bent at middle. Nervala -Nervalam. no marked odour. Jayapala (Sd. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. 5-7 m high. consisting of an epidermal layer. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Tinti·¢phala. Neervalam. Neervalam Jepal. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. b) Microscopic Seed .) small evergreen tree. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. ovate. Euphorbiaceae). oblong. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. thin-walled cells. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. kernel yellowish and oily. (Fam. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents.

Jvara. 2. Pittahara. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.2. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2. T.2.White with black particles of testa.4. 2.L. 62 .6.2.90 (all yellow).Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. Udararoga. Resins & Phorbol esters. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.7. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Powder .3.34.2.5 per cent. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Vibandha DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .L.V. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.2. 0. Appendix 0.54 and 0.C. 0. 0.2.34 (grey). 2.54 (yellow).49. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.84 (brown).10.C. Appendix 15 per cent. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Fixed oil.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.39. 0. 0. 2. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 7 per cent.63 and 0. IDENTITY. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.84 (all violet).29.6-12 mg. 0. (366 nm) three spots at Rf. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.

palisade single layered. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. aegyptiaca Pers. paripinnate.3 cm long.. Jalugu. Jay¡. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . Fabaceae). -Jayanti -Rajashinganee.8-6 m high.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. leaflets 6-16 pairs. Lamina . each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. 63 . jayata Arinintajinamgi. -Semp.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells.8 cm wide. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. Jayanti (Lf.5-15. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. polygonal.0-3.7 layered round. glabrous. very shortly stalked. entire.28. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. stomata anisocytic. linear. consisting of thin-walled. Atti. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢.) Merr. á£kÀma patra. 1. (Fam. Jayanti Jaita. 7.shows single layered epidermis. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. Karijimangai. having secretory cavities in phloem. mucronate to acuminate. opposite. short lived shrub. 1. Arishimajingai. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. a quick growing. pith small. 0.5 cm long.3-0.Syn. S. present on both surfaces. parenchymatous cells. oblong. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.

6. 0. 2. Ras¡yana. shows spongy parenchyma. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.56. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0. Calcium and Phosphorus.Dull green.C. palisade ratio 3. 0. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.05. ViÀaroga. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V. IDENTITY. 2.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 0.L. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.37.C.48.56 (all pink) and 0.29.L. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Powder .2. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. 0. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.19.Ratnagiri Rasa.05.97 (all grey). 0.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Galaga¸·a.7. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.2.05. Pittahara.2.37.2.29. DOSE . 0.11. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara.M£trak¤cchra.19. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.2. 64 . 0.69.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.97 (yellow).56. Appendix 2. 0.11. in powder form.3. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. 0. 0.91 and 0. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. palisade cells. 0.11.2. CONSTITUENTS .19.48. 0. Appendix per cent.Protein.91 and 0.29. 0. 0.25-4. Appendix per cent.97 (all yellow). 0. 2.3-6 g. 0. 0. T.

unpleasant. Gangunge humpu. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. bitter. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani.hard. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni.29. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. surface generally smooth and. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. colour. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin.35 mm in breadth. taste. (Fam. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. light to dark brown. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. odour. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. a large climbing shrub. Gangunge beeja. ripe seeds. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. collapsed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. brownish-orange.5-3. Jyotishmati (Sd. seed without aril also prescent.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. Celastraceae). Seed .

L.2. 0. D¢pana. Tikta Sara.V.4.82. 0. 2.7.54.Alkaloids. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Appendix 45 per cent. Appendix 9 per cent. UÀ¸a. 0. 0.2. 2.5 per cent.63.82. 2. 0. 0. 0.89 (all yellow).2. áirovirecanopaga.94 (yellow) in visible light. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.2. thin-walled. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. dark brown.L. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). Appendix 1. Appendix 20 per cent.2.20.82 (pink) & 0. Meddhya 66 . V¡maka. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.C. V¡tahara. 2. CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.3. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. 0.89 (both greenish blue). light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.15. Powder . Under U. 0.2. Oil and Tannins. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. 0. Kaphahara.6. stone cells. 0. (all blue) & 0.8 IDENTITY. 0.2.composed of polygonal. 0. Virecaka.V. 2.35.82 & 0.94 (yellow).35.04. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.C. Appendix 2.54.Oily.54 (both blue).89.

Sm¤tidaurbalya.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Seed: 1-2 g. Oil : 5-15 drops.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. DOSE . ávitra. 67 .V¡tavy¡dh¢. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Bk. Kadambu Needam. Kadamba Nipo. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. indicus A. rectangular cells. Kadavala. Kadamba mara. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. large tree. some cells contain chlorophyll. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. elongated cells of phloem rays. taste. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Kadam Kadam. Vellai Kadambam. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. a few cells with brown contents. (Fam.30. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. A. composed of thin-walled. bitter. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. Kadappai. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem.. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Kadamba Kadamba. a deciduous. Indulam. Rubiaceae). Kadamba (St. Syn. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Vellaikhadambu. Rich. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. traversed by uni to triseriate. 68 b) Microscopic . Priyka Roghu.

2. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.7. cells distinct and slightly elongated. 0.63 (yellowish grey). 0.57.phloem fibres. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.83 and 0.13.3. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5:10) shows under U. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Powder . DOSE .2.2. 0.0.21. of the drug in powder form. YonidoÀa.2.2. T. Appendix 2.1. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13.5 g. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal.64.4. Vra¸aropa¸a. 0. phloem cells.90 (grey). 0. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.79. 0.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Steroids. L C.L.79 (grey) and 0. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapitta. 2. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.Brown.03.5 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 69 .C. Appendix 3 per cent. 2. 2. 0.31.70 (orange yellow).V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.Alkaloids. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. Appendix 1. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.D¡ha. Appendix 9 per cent. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). 0. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.2. Lava¸a. V¡tahara. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.6. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. shows fragments of cork cells. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. Vra¸a. 0. Appendix 5 per cent.2. fibres.5 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .

sub-umbellate. style cylindric. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region.5 cm long and 2. Leaf . Ganikegida. hairy in lower part. thin.5 cm wide. ovary globose. slender.) Solanaceae). very slender. 1. glabrous or pubescent. bark thin.25 mm long. narrowed at both ends. oblong. road sides and gardens. obtuse. Pikachia. pale brown. found throughout the country in dry parts.5-8. ovate or oblong. obtuse notched at apex. Manaththakkali. Manatakkali. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . externally smooth.P. pedicels 6-10 mm long. toothed or lobed. 3-8 flowered cymes. slightly woody and branched. filaments short. five lobed. hairy at base. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. glabrous.Simple. oblong. a herbaceous annual weed.2-2.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia.Erect. Stem . sinuate. calyx 2-3 mm long. ganike. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. peduncles 6-20 mm long. petiolate. anther 1. extra-axillary. Flower .Small. white or pale violet. 70 . divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. (Fam. Ganikesopu. Manitakkali. 30-45 cm high. flattened. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. green.31. quite common in cultivated lands. Kakamachi (W. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. 2. corolla 4-8 mm long. glabrous.5 mm long. yellowish.

phloem consists of thin-walled.Shows single layered. smooth shining Seed . conjoint and open. oval to round starch grains. phloem rays uniseriate. rays composed of thin-walled.10 layered in angular parts. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. in small or large patches. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. yellow. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. uniseriate. composed of thin-walled. arc71 .shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. compactly arranged. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. epidermis single layered. central vascular bundle shallow. covered with striated cuticle. yellow or black. bicollateral. single or with two or rarely 3 components. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. polygonal cells. cambium 2-4 layered. parenchyma 4-6 layered. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round.Fruit . embedded in perimedullary zones. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. tangentially elongated.Discoid. uniseriate.25 µ in dia. covering trichomes. endoderrnis single layered. uniseriate. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations.5 mm in dia.. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. usually accompanied by fibres. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. 6mm in dia. measuring 2. xylem rays homogenous. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. 1. vascular bundles-collateral. arcshaped. internal phloem.. smooth. Stem . starch grains. pith large. filled with starch grains. radially elongated cells.A berry. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. LeafPetiole . chlorenchyma 2-3 layered.5-8.5-11 µ in dia. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. covered with striated cuticle. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. cortex of large. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces.. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. Midrib . obtuse. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. slightly striated cuticle. slightly elongated. covered with thick. trichomes multicellular. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. minutely pitted.. measuring 2. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. but 4.' oval parenchymatous cells.

in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. Appendix 2. measuring 2. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. 2. palisade ratio 2-4. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. vein islet number 7-10.2. 2. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. 72 . shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. 0.06 & 0. single. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.97 (all yellow). palisade single layered. Fruit . Appendix per cent.2. epidermis with irregular outline. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 0.V.2.06. Appendix per cent.Creamish-green. both upper and lower epidermis single layered.2. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces.3.5 .L.Alkaloids and Saponins. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. papery epicarp. Powder . Lamina .C.4.34 (both pink).6.dorsiventral. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. 034 and 0. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.06 & 0. present beneath palisade parenchyma. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. stomata anisocytic. a few vessels with spiral thickenings. unicellular hairs. CONSTITUENTS .2.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally.L. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.Shows thin. 2. 2. Under U.2.11 µ in diameter. a few broken pieces of pointed. IDENTITY. 0.34 (both brown) in visible light. T.7.

73 . Ar¿a. THERAPEUTIC USES . Netraroga. H¤droga. Sara. Ka¸·u. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Tikta Laghu. H¤dya. of the drug in juice form. Kaphahara. Prameha. Jvara. KuÀ¶ha. Ras¡yana. Chardi. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . Svarya. V¡tahara.5 -10 ml. Hikk¡. Pittahara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.áotha. Rasar¡ja Rasa.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila.

finely veined. fruit an etaerio of achenes. free. Nymphaeaceae). sepals leaf-like. gynoceium apocarpous.5-3 cm wide. 2-4 cm long.3-2 cm wide. Naidile. crimp led. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. gynoecium and thalamus. elliptic.32. (Fam. Kamal. membranous. Tavare. extended into clavate appendages. anther. embedded in a creamy. aquatic herb with creeping stem. androecium. broken pieces also occur. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. 74 . Padma. Sarojam Kaluva. Paduman. Kanwal Kamal. corolla. linear 1.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. dark brown. crimpled. black. yellowish-brown. Pamposh Tamarai. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. erect. 3-5 cm long. Aravinda. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. starchy and large. Syn. Kalh¡ra. 1. Sitopala. a large. Thamaraipoo. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Venthamara. petals numerous. carpels many. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. Kamala (Fl. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. seed hard. Chenthamara. obtuse.4-2 cm long. Aravindan. 1. Kamalam. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. comprising of calyx..

T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. composed of thin-walled. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. 2.2. ViÀavik¡ra. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.4. IDENTITY. THERAPEUTIC USES . Stamen Filament . parenchymatous cell. Powder . parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . measuring 50-61 µ in diameter.2. spherical. Pittahara.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . parenchymatous cells. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. spore sac contains yellow. Appendix per cent. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. M£tra Virajan¢ya. Tikta. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Visarpa. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. Sant¡pahara. .filament appears circular in outline. having smooth exine and intine. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle.2.2.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. DOSE . two on either sides. followed by ground tissue of oval. 2. 2. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. rectangular. angular.Raktapitta.2. columnar.Dusty brown.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). of the drug for decoction. vascular bundle single. Appendix per cent. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls.6. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. Appendix 2. Anther . Appendix per cent.2. 2. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues.7.3.shows four chambered anther. yellow pollen grains.Aravind¡sava.12 -24 g. Appendix per cent.

found throughout the plains of India.) Swingle. Kavataleal. Haminamara -Vilar maram. 76 . rough. Kapittha (Fr. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. aromatic. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. F. Syn. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. stone cells. elephantum Correa (Faro. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. straight. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Belada hannu. sharp. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. a deciduous. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael.Reddish-brown. found in groups. taste. Balada. often cultivated in many parts of India. axillary thorns. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . stone cells. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. thin-walled. semicircular. Powder . slightly triangular and oval. Rutaceae). reddish brown.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. Belalu. odour. sour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. Siwalik range and forests. hard. Pulp. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles.33. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. Bilvara. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. glabrous tree with strong. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried.shows irregular. parenchymatous cells.

Appendix 2. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. Appendix per cent.2. 0. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.95 (all yellow). V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. 0. Under U.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.7. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 77 .95 (blue). Agnim¡ndya. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. Sangr¡h¢.IDENTITY. Pittav¡tahara. Vra¸an¡¿aka. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. T. DOSE .2. Amla. 0.50 (violet). Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.95 (violet) . 0. KaÀ¡ya.91 (blue) and 0. Appendix per cent.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.Citric acid and Mucilage. Ripe-T¤À¡. Hikk¡. 0.6.06. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent.12. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.37.37 (brown).2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. 2. 6.91 (violet) and 0. Gr¡h¢.áv¡sa.2. 0.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.91 and 0.C.C. of the drug in powder form. 2. 2.L.14 (sky blue).V. V¡mi. Unripe Pulp: Amla. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta.91 (grey) in visible light. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.3. Lekhana. CONSTITUENTS .12 (brown).50. 0.2.1-3 g.

found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. sometimes cultivated. tubular. fracture. met throughout India in wild state. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. (Fam . starch grains simple. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. shows single and groups of stone cells. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. b) Microscopic Powder . external surface brownish-grey. flat or slightly curved pieces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn.) Apocynaceae).Bk. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma.34. and compound having 2-3 components. short. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres.Greyish-brown. rough due to longitudinal striations. internal surface grey and smooth. simple and compound starch grains. light in weight. Karamarda (St. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. 78 .

2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.2.2. DOSE .7. Appendix per cent.58 (both light grey). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. Pittakara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.48 g.KuÀthahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.2.L. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.90 (pink) and 0. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. 0.L.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.2.C.C. Appendix per cent.52 (light sky blue).2. 79 . Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .3. of the drug for decoction. 2. 2.97 (violet). Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.V. 0. 2.35.IDENTITY. 0.6. T.

found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Nakt¡hv¡. secondary phloem very wide. traversed by phloem rays.) glabra Vent. a glabrous tree. taste. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Syn. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. P. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. tangentially elongated cells. external surface rough. most of phloem 80 . single cells of varying shape and size.) Merr. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.35. 3-11 µ in dia. cells. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. fracture. Naktam¡la. tangentially elongated. Fabaceae). stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. very bitter. (Fam. thin-walled. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Karanja (Rt. internally. fibrous.. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. Bk. due to peeling off. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape.. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.

0. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0. of the drug for decoction. 0. 0.L.37. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.13 (Sky blue). Ka¸·u. 0.Flavones Kanugin.3.42 (sky blue). Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 2 per cent.51 (light blue).51. 0. 0. V¡tahara. 2. Appendix 2. Pittahara. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2.2.4. 0.47 (greenish yellow).31. Prameha. shows thin-walled. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 17 per cent. Tikta. KuÀtha.98 (all yellow). KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. T.47. consisting of thin-walled. Powder -Creamish-yellow. DOSE .47. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.1-3 g. 0.2. cork cells. parenchymatous cells. Yoniroga.5 per cent.37 (greenish yellow).08 (greenish blue).parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. Ka¸·£ghna.31 (sky blue). Ëntravidradhi. 81 .2. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 2. ViÀaghma. 2.18. mostly straight.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. similar to those present in secondary cortex. most of ray cells contain starch grain. 0. 2. 0.7.25 (sky blue).80 (light blue).6. 0. DuÀ¶avra¸a. Appendix 3.09.C. phloem rays many.C. 0. 0.L.V.80 and 0.2. 1-2 seriate.04 (blue). 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. Appendix 11 per cent.18 (blue) 0. phloem fibres.K¤miroga.

bark. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. (Fam. tangentially elongated. a glabrous tree. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. cells. fracture. Karanja (Rt. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated cells. rough due to the presence of numerous. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. 3-11 µ in dia. Karaµjaka. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. taste. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. irregularly distributed. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components.) Vent. P. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels.) Merr. consisting of 82 . Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. reddish-brown or dull brown.. thin-walled. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. light in weight. secondary phloem a very wide zone. 1-2 seriate. rounded to oval in shape. bark does not easily separate from xylem. Fabaceae). Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. internally light yellow. Syn..36. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. bitter. Nakt¡hv¡.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. tracheids.2. IDENTITY. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.1-2 g. Prameha. consisting of 2-3 components. 2.Methylfisetin. Appendix per cent. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.DuÀ¶avra¸a.6. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. KuÀ¶ha. tangentially elongated towards outer region.4. Pittahara. Ka¸·£. DOSE .Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. K¤miroga. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. shows fibres in singles or groups. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Tikta. Appendix 2.2. of the drug in powder form. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. ViÀaghna.3. Demethoxy-kanugin. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent.radially elongated. Vra¸a¿odhana. Powder -Light yellow. 2.2.2. Ëntravidradh¢.2. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Vidradh¢. Kaphahara. Yoniroga. rounded to oval in shape. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays.2. more. thin-waned cells towards inner region. Appendix per cent. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells.7.Karanjin. starch grains. Kanugin.. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. V¡tahara. 83 . fibres and parenchyma. CONSTITUENTS . starch grains in abundance both simple and compound.

sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. recurved.2-1 cm thick. odour. alternating with stone cells. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. fibre small. composed of rectangular. more or less smooth. taste. thin-walled. thick-walled cells. Nakt¡hv¡. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. traversed by medullary rays. bitter.37. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. fracture. phloem parenchyma. b) Microscopic Bark . tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. 84 .) glabra Vent. slightly quilled. unpleasant. forming a continuous or discontinuous band.Bk. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. at some places lenticels also appear. lenticellate pieces. usually 0. Karaµjaka. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. Karanja (St. a glabrous tree. Karanja. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. (Fam. P. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. phloem fibre and stone cells.) Merr. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Fabaceae). short and fibrous.. arranged in a tangential manner. filled with reddish-brown content.

CONSTITUENTS .2. 85 . rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Ëntravidradh¢. Appendix 1. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. 2. Prameha.. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. starch grains simple. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin.2. Vidradh¢. Powder -Yellowish-cream.2. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.3.2. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. usually 2-4 cells wide. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. 2. Yoniroga DOSE . simple and compound starch grains. rounded to oval. Tikta. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. V¡tahara. 2. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". aseptate fibre and stone cells.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. 3" 7 : 8).1-2 g. Pongapin. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. measuring 3-14 µ in dia.2. Ka¶u. 2. phloem parenchyma and rays cells.2. Appendix 18 per cent. oil globules. of the drug in powder form. ViÀaghma. Kaphahara. medullary rays wavy. 3". present in secondary cortex.4. Kanugin. Appendix 3 per cent. and rarely. thin-walled and aseptate. KuÀ¶ha. 5Methoxyfurano (2". K¤miroga. Appendix 13 per cent. Pittahara. IDENTITY. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. Ka¸·u.6. Demethoxy- kanugin.DuÀ¶avra¸a. elongated. Pinnatin. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate.5 per cent. Gamatin.7.polygonal.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.

(Fam. 0.5 cm long and 3. traversed by xylem rays. 6. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate.circular in outline. a glabrous tree. Karanja (Lf. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. cortex consisting of angular. Syn. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. Karaµjaka. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Hulagilu -Pungu. 86 . pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. isodiametric. Dithouri Honge.3 cm wide. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Fabaceae). parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. Unu. Kanajo Karuaini.2 . Ungu. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . arcshaped. Karanja. consisting of xylem and phloem. Pongana Ganuga.38. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.11.8 cm.) Merr. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Nakt¡hv¡. consistig of tabular cells. epidermis single layered. petiolule short.) Vent. dark green. xylem vessels arranged radially. vascular bundle single. P.5-0.9-8. leaflets 2-3 pairs. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. covered with cuticle. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.

Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".2. 2. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. covered with thick cuticle. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. Kaphahara. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Pittavardhaka.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. Ka¸·ughna. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 2.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". 5" . K¤imihara.2. Appendix 16 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.(4". central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.5 per cent. V¡tahara.5) . pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Appendix 3.7. Appendix 2. vascular bundle. 2. stomatal index 12.2. stomata anisocytic. . 7) -flavone. Tikta. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. Powder -Green.2. phloem and pith. 5".4. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Appendix 11 per cent.shows single layered epidermis.5-50.5-20.2. CONSTITUENTS . collateral. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. cortex consists of round to oval.6.A new Furanoflavone -3' .2. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.3. palisade ratio 3.5". consisting of tabular cells.6.6. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. mesophyll cells. present in lower surface. Ka¶u. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. palisade two layered.6.Mid rib . shows spiral xylem vessels.

For external use only.J¡ty¡di Taila. 88 . KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·au.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .K¤miroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a. DOSE .

3 valved at the apex when mature. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.6.) Cucurbitaceae). Karavallaka (Fresh. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles.39. Nil Appendix 8.7. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. 2. taste. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.2. Appendix 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . 2.2. IDENTITY. Appendix 2.2.3. 2. fusiform. K¡ravall¢. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.5 per cent.Fr. Appendix 28 per cent.2. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. extremely bitter. Kakiral. Appendix 6 per cent. Varivall¢. upto an altitude of 1500 m. Kathilla. oblong. 2.6 per cent.2. pendulous. surface rough. usually pointed or beaked.4.25 cm long.5 . (Fam.2.

0. 0. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. P¡¸·u. THERAPEUTIC USES . On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. H¤dya.L.61 (light sky blue). 0. K¡sa.V. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.98 (all blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. T.15 ml.C.81 and 0. 90 . 0.75.C. 0.67 and 0. D¢pana.98 (red & sky blue).Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.50.96 (sky blue).34. 0.T.17. KuÀ¶ha. K¤miroga.16.98 (all yellow).L. 0. 0.10 . Kaphahara. Prameha. 0. DOSE .46. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.áv¡sa.43. 0. CONSTITUENTS .23 (red). Raktavik¡ra. Jvara. 0. V¡tahara. Aruci. 0. K¡mal¡.60. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.03. 0. juice of fresh drug.

Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . odour. dusty grey. kaur Katuka rohini.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. taste. pleasant. . externally greyish-brown. Scrophulariaceae). straight or slightly curved. suberised cells. subcylindrical. fracture. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. bitter. short. Katuka (Rz. Sutiktaka. inner surface black with whitish xylem.40. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu.Thin.2. Kaurohi¸¢. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. Kav¢. (Fam. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Katki. Katuka rohini Kutki.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. fracture.05-0. Tiktarohi¸¢. Rohi¸¢. Kauka. cortex single layered or absent. short. Root . Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. a perennial. cylindrical. taste. primary cortex persists 91 . circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. odour. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini.1 cm in diameter. bitter. cork cambium 1-2 layered. Katuku rohini. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. 5-10 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. pleasant. b) Microscopic Rhizome . straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. 0. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. mostly attached with rhizomes.

37.35 (green).2. tapering ends. thick-walled. thick-walled. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends.10.2. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation.3. fibres aseptate. 0.72 and 0.L. measuring 25 . simple round to oval.30.05. secondary phloem poorly developed.05 (blue). 0. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. 0.2.L. 0. parenchyma and fibres. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. Powder . 0. parenchyma. 0. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.4. 92 . 0.21.41 and 0. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. Appendix per cent. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. 0. some cylindrical with taillike. Appendix per cent.41. simple round to oval. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. Appendix 2. abundantly found in all cells.2. 0. secondary xylem consists of vessels. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.2. parenchymatous cells. thick-walled. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. thick-walled.2.in some cases.62.C.Dusty grey. 0. tracheids. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. 0.7.17. 2.104 µ in diameter. cambium 2-4 layered. cortex 8-14 layered. 2. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. 0.17. Appendix per cent.. 0. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. tracheids. vessels have varying shape and size. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape.10. 0. starch grains.84 (all yellow). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. hypodermis single layered.6. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. Appendix per cent. lignified. tracheids long. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. IDENTITY.30. thick-walled cells of endodermis.84 (all brownish grey). consisting of oval to polygonal.30 (blue) and 0. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork.V. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.C. 2. T. starch grains. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0.21. 0.

Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tiktaka Gh¤ta. 93 . Jvara.áv¡sa.CONSTITUENTS . DOSE .3 g. D¢pan¢. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. KuÀ¶ha. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. D¡ha. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya.1 . ViÀamajvara. K¡mal¡. Arocaka. Bhedin¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form. Pittahara.Glucoside (Picrorhizin).

P. no characteristic odour and taste.Greenish-brown.6-2 cm long. Kettu. stout. calyx 4-partite. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. entire and hairy.6 cm long.Yellowish-brown.2 cm long. externally greyish-brown.41. annual herb. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. bracts about 2. Vayalculli Talikhana. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. fasciculate. whitish to brown. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. Nirchulli.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. all linear-lanceolate. swollen at nodes. Hygrophila spinosa T. Nirguvireru.Anders (Fam. corolla 3. broader than the other three. sub-quadrangular. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. a spiny. 1-7 cm long. widely 2 lipped. Culli. subsessile. Leaf . Kolarind. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. stamens 4. second pair 94 . Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . no characteristic odour and taste. Flower .5 cm long. abruptly swollen at top.3 cm long. common in water logged places throughout the country. Kokilaksha (W. Kalsunda --Golmidi. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins.Acanthaceae). tube 1. Kolavankal ---. acute. which are 1.Mostly adventitious. lanceolate. with long white hairs. upper sepal 1. IkÀuraka. 0. Stem .5-1 cm wide. Syn.Usually unbranched. didynamous.

fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. inner cells smaller. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. thin-walled.8 cm long. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. linear-oblong. ray cells thin-walled.25 cm long and 0. rectangular to cubical. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. pubescent.15 cm wide. filament quite glabrous. peripheral ones larger. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. brownish cells. a few thick-walled. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. radially arranged. xylem present in a ring. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. round. having small intercellular spaces. capsule about 0. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces.Two celled. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. vessels with spiral thickenings. variable in size. truncate at the base. flat or compressed. thin-walled cells. endodermis single layered. fibre walls uniformly thickened. radially elongated in secondary xylem. anthers two celled.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline.0. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell.2-0. subequal.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. moderately thick-walled.1 . size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. consisting of round to polygonal cells. style filiform. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. cortical cells thin-walled. scattered throughout the phloem region. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. b) Microscopic Root . phloem fibres thick-walled. 95 . broader towards centre.larger. single or in groups of 2-3. 0. composed of polygonal. compressed. arranged in radial rows. radially elongated in xylem region. hairy but appearing smooth. involute with a fissure on upper side. phloem narrow. glabrous. vessels angular.Ovate. Seed . fibres thick-walled. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. pith large. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. oblong. with a number of large air cavities. ray cells thin walled. polygonal cells. Fruit . Stem . 4seeded. stigma simple. arranged radially. pointed. composed of transversely elongate. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. light brown.

IDENTITY. parenchymatous. palisade. lignified.2. Appendix per cent.7. 2. unicellular hairs and globules. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . vein islet number 17-42. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered.2. Appendix 2.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. collenchyma 2-5 layered. sclerenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. oval to hexagonal.25-15.24-30.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. . embryo composed of oval to polygonal. composed of thin-walled. Lamina .Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered.2. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.4. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces.Light brown. elongated fibres. Appendix per cent.2.2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. Fruit . tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.Shows concavo-convex outline. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.2. 2. Rucya. 2. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. palisade 1-2 layered. Appendix per cent. Amla. stomatal index 17. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. V¤Àya. palisade ratio 6. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. shows aseptate. parenchymatous cells.75. tangentially elongated cells. Seed . covered with thick cuticle.6.78.3. stomata diacytic.LeafMidrib . M£trala. thin-walled. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. thick-walled. Tikta Picchila. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. V¡jikara. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules.

THERAPEUTIC USES .T¤À¸¡. V¡tarakta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3 -6 g. DOSE . of the drug in powder form. 97 . Ëmav¡ta áotha.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra).

Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Kolavulike. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. Root-Appears circular in outline. thinwalled cells.42. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. the size of these cells. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. Nerugobbi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. consisting of small. Anders (Fam.Acanthaceae). Kokil¡kÀ¢. IkÀuraka. 98 . thin-walled. branches on nodes. stout. Kokilaksha (Rt. no characteristic odour and taste. common in water logged places throughout the country.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Syn. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. annual herb. polygonal cells. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. a spiny. slightly transversely elongated. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. Culli --. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. secondary phloem narrow. whitish to brownish. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. Hygrophila spinosa T.

M£trala. fibre walls uniformly thickened. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. V¡tarakta. 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. vessels with spiral thickening. ray cells thin-walled.6. Appendix 2. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. angular.3 -6 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittatis¡ra DOSE .R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Powder . of the drug for decoction. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. shows fragments of pitted. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. scattered throughout the phloem region.2. 2. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows.3. lignified fibres. radially elongated in the xylem region. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells.2.7. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . each group composed of 2-6 cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.Ëmav¡ta áotha. having spiral thickening.4. Amla. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. A¿ma¤¢.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells.2.Light brown to ash coloured.2. broader towards centre. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. Tikta Picchila. 99 .2. IDENTITY. 2. 2.

Anders. Hygrophila spinosa T. thinwalled. shows hairs and oil globules. hairy but appearing smooth. Maradarishina -Maramannal. white. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. a spiny. oil globules present in this region. Swelling Index . Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Powder . The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. light yellowish-brown.43. IkÀuraka. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. common in water logged places throughout the country. the 100 . Maradarishana. parenchymatous cells. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. annual herb. flat or compressed. Kokilaksha (Sd. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. truncate at the base. (Fam.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. taste. Acanthaceae). Syn. stout.Greyish-brown. b) Microscopic Seed . Daruhuladur Darhald.8 -10.

L. 0.31 (dark brown). T.C.55 (light blue). 0. of the drug in powder form.6. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. including any sticky mucilage. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. 0.76 (sky blue) and 0.V.C. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.72 (all yellow). 2. V¤Àya.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.93 (sky blue). Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. Appendix per cent.03.3. V¡tarakta.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.2.38 (light brown). 0.31. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.03 (light brown).2. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. Santarpa¸a.2. related to 1 g of seeds.L. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf.17 (light brown). Lipase. 0. 0.3 -6 g. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. Add 25 ml of water. 0.41 (light blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.4. 0. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. Kaphahara. 0.72 (dark brown). 0. 0. 2. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . Protease and an Alkaloid. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. 0.An yellow semi-drying oil.. 0. 0. 0.24.áotha. enzymes like Diastase. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. 2.17. IDENTITY. 0.52 (dark brown) and 0.38. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction. 101 .24 (dark brown). Pitt¡¿mar¢.2. 0.52 and 0.10 (light brown). Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .24 (red). DOSE .2.

Chhotalunia. Fruit . 50 cm long. Badi Lona Dudagorai. spathulate.5 cm long. less in number. 3-4 leaves. 0. petals obovate. 0. Loni. stamens 8-12. Leaf . style 5-6 fid.P) Portulacaceae). branched. oblong. Loni. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Kulfa. Gho¶ik¡.1 to 0. root hairs abundant in upper region. 0.44.6 cm wide.A few. -Baraloniya. Badanuni. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .1 to 0. fracture.25-0.5 cm long and 0. 102 . secondary roots. Kozuppa. Paruppukkeerai. ribbed. Doddagoni Soppu. rounded and truncate at the apex.3 cm long.35-0. sub-sessile. an annual succulent.Cylindrical. Baranunia Garden Purslane. 0. Kwfa Pasalai. Ghola -Lonak. oblique.Simple. small. Flower . cuneiform. Lonika.An ovoid capsule. odour.2 cm in diameter. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. 0. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Fam. subtended by an involucre. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Peddapavila Kura. Payilikura.Almost cylindrical. characteristic. found throughout the country. dehiscing above the base. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. very delicate and soon falling off. Kozhuppa. surface smooth. fracture. Stem . Loni -Koricchira. sepal 0. short. at terminal heads. Pulikkirai. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Kuzuppa (W.4 cm long. Khurfa. prostrate herb. brownish-grey.4 cm long. Kozhuppu Pappukura. short. smooth and greenish-brown. bright yellow. swollen at the nodes.3 to 2. Moti Luni Khursa.

phloem. covered externally with a thick cuticle.3. LeafMidrib . ray cells and pith. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. Appendix per cent.2. arranged in radial rows. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. Appendix per cent. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. Appendix 2.4. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. Stem . having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex.6.07 cm across.06-0. . having intercellular spaces. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. shows groups of oval to polygonal. solitary or in groups of 2-5. thick-walled with wide lumen. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. having simple pits and spiral thickening.. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. stomata paracytic type. secondary xylem consists of vessels.7. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. vessels. parenchyma abundant. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. 2. fragments of cork cells.2.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. 2. oval cells. present in mesophyll cells.2. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells.Seed -Numerous. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. pericycle fibre present in patches. minute. oval. palisade single layered. as well as compound. reniform. 2. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root . black. 2.2. Lamina . Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. Powder . dark brown. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. measuring 6-14 µ .2. tracheids and parenchyma. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. with reddish-brown content in a few cells.Greyish-brown.Wavy in outline. 0.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. tracheids and parenchyma. simple as well as compound. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. pitted and spiral vessels. IDENTITY. phloem and xylem parenchyma. tracheids. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. having 2-3 components.2. secondary xylem composed of vessels. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. parenchymatous cells.

Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.L. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. áotha.6 g. Prameha.68 (yellow) and 0. of the drug in powder form.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .3 . Pittakara.C. 0.50. 0..68 and 0. 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.Protein. 0. CakÀuÀya.76 and 0.68. 0.10.41. 0.08.76 (all pinkish red). 0. V¡tahara. 0.52 (both faint green). T. 0. RukÀa. Gulma.Agnim¡ndya. Carbohydrates. Ar¿a. (both green).52.08.10. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.61. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.T.Marma Gu¶ik¡. 0. Under U.L. 0.10. Vra¸a DOSE .C.41.76 (green) in visible light. 0.V. 0. 104 .

25-50 cm high. hairy pinnae. Lajjalu (W. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. linear lanceolate. taste. greyish brown to brown. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. woody. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. Var¡kr¡nt¡.Cylindrical. fracture hard. Lajamani Chhuimui. distinct. tapering. sparsely prickly. easily separable from wood. petiolate.6-1. upto 2. 105 .3-0. Leaf . Lajauni Muttidasenui.week bristles longitudinally grooved. rependant .P) diffused undershrub. (Fam. Machikegida. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. varying in length.45. alternate. bark fibrous. odour.Cylindrical. acute. nearly glabrous. obliquely rounded at base.4 cm broad. slightly astringent. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. external surface light brown. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. with secondary and tertiary branches.5 cm in dia. bark fibrous. Lajavanti. sensitive to touch. Stem . Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. yellowish-green. upto 2 cm thick. stipulate. 0. Adamalati Lajaka. Fabaceae). leaflets 10-20 pairs. 0.2 cm long. internal cut surface grey. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. sessile. covered with long. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi.

ovules numerous. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. corolla pink. thick-walled. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. scattered throughout.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays.Flower . phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. parenchyma. thick-walled. a number of lignified. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. stamens 4.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. tracheids pitted with pointed ends.Pink. 2. fibres of two types. dry. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays.Lomentum. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. much exserted. lobes 4. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated cells. Seed . ovate oblong. oval-elliptic. 2-3 seriate more common. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. fibres. thick-walled. rarely multiseriate.Compressed. ovary sessile. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. consisting of large. phloem fibres single or in groups.6 cm long. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. starch grains. scattered throughout secondary xylem. pith consisting of polygonal. 3-25 chambered. brown to grey. 1-1. peduncles prickly. fibres single or in groups. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. calyx very small. in globose head. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex wide. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia.3 cm long.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. arranged in tangential bands. radially elongated. Stem . spreading bristle at sutures. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. phloem rays thick-walled. straw coloured. crystal fibres elongated. glabrous. respectively. Fruit . crystal fibres thick-walled. 0. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. filled with reddish-brown contents. 106 . 0. xylem rays radially elongated. simple. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated.4-0. b) Microscopic Root . moderately thick-walled. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements.3 long. 0.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. tangentially elongated to oval.

spongy parenchyma single layered.Reddish-brown.2. Fruit . one in each wing. shows. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. Appendix per cent. reticulate. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. branched. measuring 6-25 µ in dia.6. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally.C. 0. Powder . crystal fibres. single and compound starch grains. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. Lamina . parenchymatous cells. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. branched.shows epidermis on both surfaces.2.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. with 2 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. 0. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. pitted vessels. parenchymatous cells Seed .Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. vascular bundle single. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells.V. 2.L. fibres.62. palisade cells non glandular.3 components IDENTITY.Leaf- Petiole .Shows single layered radially elongated cells. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. lignified cells followed by single layered. Midrib . covered with thin-cuticle. T. endocarp of thick-walled. pericycle arranged in a ring. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma.2. Appendix 2.7. 2.2.C. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .35. parenchymatous cells. pericycle same as in petiole. shaggy hairs.2. 2. thin-walled. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.69 (all blue) and 0.shows single layered epidermis. 0.3. spongy parenchyma.4.81 (bluish-pink). Appendix per cent. palisade single layered. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf.L. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. shaggy hairs.

108 . CONSTITUENTS . D¡ha. Atis¡ra. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.áopha. 0.35 and 0. Kaphahara.spots appear at Rf. Ku¶aj¡valeha. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. Vra¸a. Yoniroga. KuÀ¶ha. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. Raktapita DOSE . áv¡sa. 0.35 (orange). KaÀ¡ya Laghu. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Ippa. M. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. followed by thin-walled. epipetalous. epipetalous and arranged in two series. Hippe.Gmel. Kattu Iluppai.46. Syn. ovate lanceolate. Halippe. latifolia (Roxb. Mahua Katiluppai. (Fam. lanceolate. and also cultivated. b) Microscopic Corolla . Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Ilippa. corolla fleshy. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. short. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). Hippenara. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9).5-2 cm long. a few 109 . Bassia latifolia Roxb. erect 0. sweet.F. Androecium . reddish-brown.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Mahawash tree Mahudo. basifixed.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. Sapotaceae) . Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium.) Macbride. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. anther sub-sessile. Madhuka. tabular. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Madhuka (Fl. Eppimara -Irippa. Iluppa.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers.

Madh£k¡sava. KÀaya.7. Appendix 2. tapetum not distinct.2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. El¡di Modaka. árama DOSE . Appendix 10 per cent. IDENTITY.2. KÀata. 2. unicellular hairs.2. Ah¤dya.6.Dark brown.5 per cent.15 g. pollen grains single or in groups. Balya.2. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. áramahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . 2. lignified cells. Appendix 70 per cent.2. oval shaped. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. of the drug. 2.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . D¡ha. 2.áv¡sa. Appendix 0.2. V¡tahara. Pittakara. Appendix 5 per cent.10 . endothecium composed of radially elongated.2. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 25 per cent. T¤À¸¡. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.unicellular hairs present on one side. Powder . 110 . shows fragments of epidermal cells. spherical.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.3. round.

A. white often tinged with pink. Br. Matsy¡duni. Syn. short. repens Gmel. Br.) R.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. triandra Lam. fracture. 0. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. no characteristic odour and taste. linear-oblong.Herbaceous. internodes 0. bracteoles 111 . Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . or elliptic.5 cm wide. denticulata R. A. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. obtuse or subacute. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. nodes and internodes distinct..Cylindrical. with spreading branches from the base.3-7. fracture. often rooting at lower nodes. cream to grey.. Amaranthaceae). A.47...5-5 cm long.3-2 cm wide. Flower .5 cm long.. nodiflora R.P. non Link. sessile.1-0. A. 0. short. Br. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. (Fam.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. no characteristic odour and taste. Bahli. 2. yellowish-brown to light-brown. Gandal¢.6 cm diameter. Matshyakshi (W.1. weak. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. no characteristic odour and taste. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. Leaf . Stem .

parenchymatous cells. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. parenchymatous cells. irregular. parenchymatous cells. covered wtith striated cuticle. composed of thin-walled. shows wavy or undulate. secondary cortex narrow. ovate. ovary obcordate. Lamina . bicollateral. collenchymatous cells.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. style very short. isodiametric.2 cm long. vascualr bundles radially arranged.5-3 mm long. pith distinct. sepals ovate. thin.Utricle. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. compressed with thickened margins. each consisting of xylem and phloem. Stem . stomata paracytic. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 112 .Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. parenchymatous cells. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. consisting of thin-walled cells. acute. 1. round to oval. with are conjoint. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. palisade 2-3 layers. with anomalous secondary growth. xylem tissues lignified. round or oval. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. no characteristic odour and taste. isodiametic cells. thin-walled. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. present in the centre. compressed. palisade ratio 3-5. b) Microscopic Root . more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.1. Leaf- Midrib .dorsiventral. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. thin-walled round or oval. consistig of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. vascular bundles three. numerous. perianth 2. no characteristic odour and taste. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. Fruit . pith consisting of thin-walled. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. radially arranged cork cells. scarious. open and exarch.5 mm long. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. single layered. orbicular. capitellate. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells.

L.Sugar.KuÀ¶ha. 2.2.54 and 0.5 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.33.2.6. V¡tahara.C. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.2. 0.2.44.2. 0.33 and 0.68 (all red). 0. 0. 2.3..16. Appendix 10 per cent. 0.96 (all yellow). Appendix 19 per cent. 2. Under U. IDENTITY. T. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.16. Appendix 3 per cent. 0.V.59. Appendix 2. Pittavik¡ra. 0.18. paracytic stomata. 0.94 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. 0. 113 .35. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktavik¡ra DOSE .C.Olive green.Powder .4.25. THERAPEUTIC USES . palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.44. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. Appendix 4.2.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.81. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 0. 0.7. Kaphahara. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2 -3 g. 0. Tikta.44 (all green).

cells flat at base. Methi (Sd.Seed shows a layer of thick.) aromatic. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. 114 . bitter. annual herb. very hard. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. taste. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Seed . an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. (Fam. covered externally with thick cuticle. 30-60 cm tall. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. columnar palisade. mucilaginous cells.48.walled. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. varying in size. dull yellow. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings.2-0. odour. 0. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. pleasant. smooth. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe.5 cm long. 0.35 cm broad.15-0. Fabaceae). cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. cultivated throughout the country. several layers of thin walled.

6. 2.Graha¸¢. 2. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. CONSTITUENTS . M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . aleurone grains. Appendix 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .Alkaloid.4.2.2.5 per cent. 115 .2. Powder . Appendix 4 per cent. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.2. Prameha.3-6 g. Aruci DOSE . Rucya.Yellow. Appendix 2.3.2. Sapogenins and Mucilage. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. IDENTITY. 2.Mustak¡riÀ¶a.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. oil globules. Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix 5 per cent. Jvara.

coarsely toothed.7-2.Flower in long terminal raceme. lyrate. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. pedicel with scattered hairs. cylindrical. variable size and thickness. Stem . upper most leaves simple.Slender. blade obovate. oblong. Leaf .000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.Root cylindrical. taste.49..2 cm long. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. not distinct.0 cm in dia. petiole 5-5. petals 1. (Fam. sometimes brown red.3 cm long. having a few longitudinal striations. bisexual. regular. compressed. seplas 6. 0.1-1. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sub-marginate at the apex. Muli. slightly pungent.Lower leaves hairy. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. bright green.P.5-10 cm long. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. hollow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. yellowish-green. Flower . complete 1-2 cm long. Mulaka (W.) Brassicaceae). an annual or biennial bristly herb. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . odour.

starch grains simple. present only on upper side. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. continuous or more or less constricted. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. two outer smaller and four inner longer. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. round to oval. 1-2 chambered. epidermis single layered. traversed by xylem rays. Fruit .8.purple vein. sometimes flattened. 2 mm wide. round to oval. 117 . xylem parenchyma and ray cells. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. irregularly globose. endodermis at some places. phloem. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. style about 4 mm long. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. one central and two lateral. thin-walled. Leaf- Petiole .appears biconvex in outline. present in cortex. taste.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. longitudinally sulcatus. greenish-yellow. elliptical. hairs unicellular. single layered.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. solitary or ingroups. cork cells. occasionally pale purple. radially arranged. medullary rays four to many cells wide. epidermis followed by 6. cylindrical. Seed . thin-walled. present in cortex and phloem.4 cm thick.dorsiventral. palisade 2-3 layers. Midrib . ovary superior. erect. 3-9 cm long and 0. Lamina .Reddish-brown. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.Siliqua. Stem . secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. 2-4 mm long. stamen 6 in two whorls. parenchymatous cells. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. oily. pith a wide zone of polygonal. traversed by phloem rays. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components.1. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. green or brown-purple. 10-12 ovuled. covered with thick cuticle. b) Microscopic Root . vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. vascular bundle three in number.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.

Appendix 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. reddish-brown.40 ml.Fruit . Svarya. 2. Powder . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES .2. shows aseptate fibres.Agnim¡ndya. 118 . 2. 2. 2. H¤dya.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. tangentially elongated.7. P¡cana. Ar¿a.Glucoside. P¢nasa.4. thin-walled. Rucya. DOSE . Ud¡varta. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Appendix per cent. Gulma. covered with thin. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. covered with a thin-cuticle. spiral vessels. Kaphahara.Yellowish-green.3.20 .2.2. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. Seed . parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. IDENTITY. Gandhaka Va¶¢. straight cuticle. Pittahara. of the drug in juice form. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. Appendix per cent.2.2. parenchymatous cells present.M£lakakÀ¡ra. CONSTITUENTS . Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells.2. of columnar cells. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. thinwalled. Appendix per cent.Shows a single layered epidermis. Tikta Laghu.

2. (Fam. 2. cylindrical. slightly or strongly pungent.2. Saleya. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Appendix per cent. Visra. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.2. Brassicaceae). Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. Mulaka (Rt. Mullangi.2. taste.7.50. variable in size.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. Appendix per cent.4. having a few lateral fibrous roots. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. fusiform. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. Moclangi gadde.2.3. Mulaka. IDENTITY. 2. 2. 2.6. Mula Muli Moolangi. Appendix 2. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. white in colour. 119 . Rakhyasmula Mula.2. rarely sweet. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. usually 25-40 cm in length.

On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. 0. Galaroga. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .09 (both blue). V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rucya. Pittahara.69 (all yellow).Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. 0.34. Ar¿a.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . 0.49 & 0.15-30 ml. T. Netraroga.Glucoside. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. K¡sa. áv¡sa. P¢nasa. 0. Jvara. Vrana. Ud¡varta DOSE . Dadru. Svarya.V.04. P¡cana.T. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.04.Agnim¡ndya.09. H¤dya.LC. Tikta Laghu.C.09 & 0. of the drug in the juice form 120 . 0.04 & 0. Gulma. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.L. 0. Kaphahara.

dull brown.6 .Shows 10 . S. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. Apiaceae ). slightly bitter. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. thin-walled cells.1. taste.3 . traversed by phloem rays. 0.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths.42000 m. Daitya. secondary cortex composed of rounded. Mura (Rt. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. tenuifolium Wall. inner cells thin-walled. odour.) DC. colour. (Fam. Gandhakuti. 6-12 cm long and 0. thin-walled cells. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. Syn. aromatic. Root .51. fibres and parenchyma. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. traversed by xylem rays. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. cambium 2-4 layered.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . tangentially elongated. rectangular cells. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents.2. consisting of tangentially elongated. secondary phloem shows wide zone.4 m tall. a perennial herb. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi.

2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Tikta. D¡ha. 2.Brown. Appendix 9 per cent. secondary phloem. Powder . round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. present in secondary cortex.7. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide.1-3 g.2. parenchymatous cells.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). 2. round to oval. 122 . shows groups of cork cells. 2.5 per cent. Bhrama.2. secondary xylem and medullary rays.. Ka¶u.6. secretory canals. distributed throughout secondary cortex. oil globules and simple starch grains. Appendix 3. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. secretory canals numerous.Arvind¡sava.having spiral thickenings. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 17 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . secondary phloem. somewhat oval cells. Jvara. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .2. Sucrose and Mannitol. xylem and phloem rays.áv¡sa. fibres aseptate. xylem parenchyma. of the drug in powder form. composed of radially arranged. Appendix 9 per cent.2.4. starch grains simple. short with blunt ends. Appendix 2. M£rchha.3. 2. IDENTITY.

Jartor Koratige Hambu. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. Halukaratige. twining shrub. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. some filled with reddish-brown contents.5-3 cm thick.Shows a cork. a large stout. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. phloem fibres absent. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. rectangular cells. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Kallu Shambu.52. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. Koratige. taste. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. tangentially elongated. fracture. phloem rays 1 123 .) Asclepiadaceae). similar to those present in secondary cortex. (Fam. bark easily separable from wood. slightly bitter. & Am. odour. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. Madhusrava. b) Microscopic Root . composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. resin cells present irregularly in this region. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. Murva (Rt. indistinct.

Pittahara.5 . of the drug for decoction. 2.2. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.5 per cent.2. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. THERAPEUTIC USES . vary in shape and size with borderd pits. consisting of small tangential. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2..2-6 g. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. fibres. Prameha Mihira Taila. V¡tahara. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified.Ar¿a. Appendix 0.tracheids. 5. of the drug in powder form. Meha. H¤droga. Mukha áosa. Powder . Appendix 14 per cent. DOSE .. Ka¸·£. 2. 2. present in parenchymatous tissues. 10-20 g. starch grains simple. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 124 . compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. 2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. T¤Àn¡. Tikta Guru. composed of vessels.2. tracheids. Appendix 2.3. Medoroga.5-22 µ dia.7. fibretracheids. K¤miroga. Raktapitta. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Light brown. fragments of cork. vessels with pitted walls.3 cells wide.2.4. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. measuring 5.22 µ in diameter. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . simple and compound starch grains. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. shows a number of stone cells. Jvara. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 7 per cent.2. Appendix 5 per cent. fibres. IDENTITY.6.

forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh.Brown. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. astringent. yellowish and thin-walled. (Fam. N¡ga.53.9-1. odour. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring.9 cm long. Konkan. Nagchampa. filiform. N¡gapuÀpa. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. 125 . b) Microscopic Androecium . Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. distinct protuberances on walls. soft to touch. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. Naugaliral. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Nagakesari -Nangaa. connective and filament. Assam. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Nagakesar (Stmn. fragrant. anther about 0. basifixed. Nagppu.Anther shows golden-brown. slender. Sachunagkeshara. connective not visible with naked eye.0 cm long. Nauga. Hem¡. quite brittle. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. coppery or golden brown. containing pollen grains. often buttressed at the base. Nagachampakam. linear. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. Nahar Nageshvara. Bengal. Peri. Pilunagkesar.5 cm long. Guttiferae). parenchymatous cells. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. filament 0. consisting of thin-walled.8 . more or less twisted. an Ke¿ara.1. exine and intine distinct. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. Powder . Veluthapala. each stamen 0. shows elongated cells of filament. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn.) evergreen tree. thick-walled. taste.

THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Vastiroga DOSE .3.2.Raktapitta. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2. 2.7.2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Var¸ya. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.2. 2.1-3 g.2. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. Kum¡ry¡sava.6.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Appendix 2. V¡tarakta.4. Tikta. of the drug in powder form.2.IDENTITY.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. áopharoga. 2. Kaphahara. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. 126 .

pith composed of round to oval.3-1. (Fam. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis.2. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. pale green to greenish-black.54.8 m high. N¢l¢n¢. Fabaceae). large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. leaflet 1-2. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. Nili (Lf. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.5 cm long and 0.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. 127 .2 cm wide. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region.1. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. no characteristic odour and taste. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu.) shrub. 1.

. V¡tahara. cuticle and hair.2.Ëmav¡ta. Appendix 25 per cent. Ke¿ya. CONSTITUENTS .shows epidermis. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.5 per cent. Appendix 7. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.6. of decoction.3.Midrib . K¡sa.2. IDENTITY. V¡tarakta..4. Jvara.2. 2. aseptate fibres. Pl¢haroga. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .Glycoside (Indican).2. Appendix 2. shows groups of mesophyll cells. Udararoga. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. similar as in petiole and midrib.7. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. Ud¡varta. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . cuticle and hair. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Greenish-grey.2.shows dorsiventral structure. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. collateral and crescent shaped. pitted vessels. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. epidermis. Lamina . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. vascular bundle single. palisade 2-3 layers. Appendix 2 per cent. similar as in petiole. 128 . Gulma.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.50-100 g. 2. K¤imiroga. 2. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma.

10 layers of tangentially elongated. Neeli Nili. 0. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. Karunili. group of fibres. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. Indian Indigo Gali. rectangular. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. thin-walled cells. Rangapatr¢. slightly bitter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. woody.5 cm thick. secondary cortex a narrow zone. taste. Nil. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Fabaceae). vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. Olleneeli -Amari. Nili (Rt. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays.. Nili Chettu. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.) shrub. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. Gari Nili Kadunili. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. Neeligida. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. Nila Nili.8 m high.1 -1. with lenticels. hard.55. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. (Fam. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. Nila -Neel Avuri. Nili.2-1. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. cylindrical. 129 . N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. thin-walled cells. odour not distinct. consisting of usual elements. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. 1.

0. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Gulma. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.27. DOSE . Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.2.10. Powder .14.81 (blue). and 0.58 (blue).40. 2.C.63. K¡sa.2. Appendix 0. 0.91 (blue).7. 0.58.58. 0. pitted vessels.06.14.47 (blue).7 per cent. 130 . 0.L. 0. 0. 0.2.2. Recan¢. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .86. present in cortex.86 (green) and 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf.50.63 (bluish green). Ke¿ya.14 (blue). 0.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.2.48 g. 0. Appendix 2.91 (all grey).27. Udararoga.75. 0. 2.06. 0. 0.C. round to oval.V.50.. Pl¢h¡roga. 0. 0. xylem parenchyma and rays.L.0.33. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. 0.33. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. T. 0.80.Arvind¡sava.63. 0. Ud¡varta. 0. 0. 0. phloem. 0. 0.86 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. ViÀavik¡ra.40 (blue). simple and compound starch grains. IDENTITY.21.30 (bluish green).4.75 (blue). of drug for decoction. Appendix 6 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Ëmav¡ta.6.2. 0.75. 0.40.3.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. 0. V¡tarakta. 0.Creamish-brown.. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.81. shows aseptate fibres. V¡tahara. Appendix 3 per cent. 2.91 (all yellow). starch grains simple. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. K¤imiroga.0.10. 0.

attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Bakan.56. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Oilevevu. (Fam.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. leaflets with oblique base. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Nimba Nimba. Limado. 0. rachis 15-25 cm long. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Kahibevu. 7-8. Juss Syn. Meliaceae). Melia azadirachta Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Veppa Balantanimba. Limba. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. lanceolate. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves .5 cm long and 1.7 cm wide. Nimbam. opposite. Kohumba Nim. serrate.1 cm thick. acute. Limbado. Veppu. Bakayan. slightly yellowish-green. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. alternate. Arulundi. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. taste. Nim.Compound. 131 . odour. exstipulate. Nimba (Lf. Nim Vemmu. Veppan Vemu. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. indistinct. crystals also present in phloem region. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Aryaveppu. Bevu. Bevinama -Veppu. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.0-1. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m.

Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡.shows dorsiventral structure. traversed by a number of veins. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. Appendix 2. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. IDENTITY.Green.0-4. fibres. palisade single layered. Appendix per cent.2. KuÀ¶ha. ViÀarogas DOSE . palisade ratio 3. Vrana.2. 2. Powder . Ëma¿otha. Prameha. Appendix per cent. 2. stomatal index 13. 132 .5. 2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta.7.4. 2.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.0-11.5 on lower surface and 8.0-14. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.3.5 on upper surface. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. covered externally with thick cuticle.6.Lamina . Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. shows vessels. V¡tal¡.Triterpenoids and Sterols. Appendix per cent. epidermis on either surface. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. of the drug in powder form. thin-walled cells. tangentially elongated cells. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix per cent.Jvara.1-3 g. Netraroga. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. K¤miroga. CONSTITUENTS . composed of thin walled.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered.2.

extemal surface rough. fissured and rusty-grey. woody. Juss. Nimba. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Melia azadirachta Linn. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents.57. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. considerably thick in older barks. Meliaceae). Kahibevu. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. characteristic. Kadunimb. fibrous. odour. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. fracture. a moderate sized to fairly large. Aruveppu Balantanimba. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. (Fam. Nimba (St.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Oilevevu -Veppu. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Nimba. Bakam Veppai. Vembu Vemu. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Syn. evergreen tree. taste. Nimb Bevu. Limba Nimba Nim.

0. starch grains.20. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. 0.5 per cent. 2.45. 2. Kaphahara. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.63 and 0. lignified rectangular to polygonal. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate.2. IDENTITY. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 5 per cent.7.3. 0. ViÀaghna. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. round with central hilum.90 (all blue).Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.L. measuring 2.2. having wide lumen and distinct striations.2.90 (green).C. and 0. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. simple. Powder .Reddish-brown. 2. Appendix 1. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem.86 (blue). Appendix 7 per cent.4. 0.2. stone cells mostly in groups.2. simple starch grains. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. CONSTITUENTS .C.L. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. Pittahara. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. secondary cortex absent in most cases. cork cells. Appendix 6 per cent.75-5 µ in diameter. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.V. 2. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. Appendix 2. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.measuring 2. 0.6.72 (blue).outer surface.

Decoction should be used externally. K¤miroga. Rakta Pitta. Jvara. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. 135 . Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Ka¸·u. Prameha. KuÀ¶ha.D¡ha. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a..2-4 g. Vra¸a DOSE .

2 cm thick usually peels off. Muttuga. secondary cortex and phloem tissue.Bk) Fabaceae). rectangular. 0. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Tesu Muttug. rectangular 136 . greyish to pale brown. having brown colour. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Modugu. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. pale brown. often in groups. Plas. Camata. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. Khakharo. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. Palash. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. except in very arid parts. fracture. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. Chama Tha Palas -Palash.5 . curved. 12 . dark-brown. rhytidoma 0. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. exposing light brown surface. Chettu Dhak.1 cm thick. Dhak.58. tanniniferous cells. Paras Moduga. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. internal surface rough. Palasha (St. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. thin-walled. 5-10 or more layered. cork cells. Tesu Purasu. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. Khakhapado Dhak.) Kuntze (Fam. Muttala -Plasu. moderately thick-walled. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. taste. slightly astringent. dark brown.15 m high with irregular branches. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam.

4 layers of sclereids.10. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. dark brown coloured cells. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder .50 cells in height. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. Appendix 2. 0.3.C. 7 .67 (all yellow).65 (all blue).2. measuring 2. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.48. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .67 (all violet). (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.10.75 µ in dia. T.3 components.7. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.Reddish-brown. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma.V.18.4.L.12 cells wide. traversed by phloem rays.2.48 and 0. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly.10.6. Appendix 1. 0.48 and 0. CONSTITUENTS .L. 0. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. 137 . 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.cells followed by a zone of 2 .13. 2. 2.75 . 0. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . 0. Appendix 10 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.2. 0. 2. sclereids mostly in groups. Appendix 14 per cent. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends..C. phloem parenchyma.5 per cent.. 0.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.2. straight. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.2. thin-walled cork cells. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. 0. Appendix 12 per cent. crystal fibres. phloem fibres. companion cells.

Ar¿a. K¤miroga.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Agnid¢paka. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Tikta. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Gulma. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. 138 . Graha¸¢. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vra¸a. KaÀ¡ya Sara.5-10 g. DOSE . S¡raka . Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila.

inner bark fibrous. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. smooth. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.59. parenchymatous cells. (Fam. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. quick growing tree.0 cm thick. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. Mulmurumgai Badisa.5-2. Pangara Hongar. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. exfoliating in narrow strips. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. Paribhadra (St. radially arranged and thin-walled. medium sized. secondary cortex consists of large. tangentially elongated to squarish. stone 139 . yellowish to cream coloured. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam.Bk) Fabaceae).

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.CONSTITUENTS . 148 . Balak¤t. Volatile Oil. V¡taroga DOSE .. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡tarakta. of drug in powder form.Alkaloids. V¤Àya.. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.2-4 g.

(Farn.6 cm long. funicle stout. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. micropyle superior.3-0. Satdhan -Charal. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. sweetish-oily. occurring mostly in groups.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. pleasant. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. sclerenchymatous cells. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. large. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. mottled with darker brown lines. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. pitted. Priyalam. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. collapsed cells of integument. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed.) Anacardiaceae). followed by remnants of disorganised. odour. B. 0.5 cm wide. linear. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. Syn. taste. b) Microscopic Seed . hilum present at the apex of round edge.63. Saraparuppu Sara. Chowl. thick-walled. latifolia Roxb. which are of various size. Priyala (Sd. creamish-brown. Shalichokha Piyal. 0.4-0. Piyar. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Korka.

27. Appendix 7 per cent. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.91. KÀaya.D¡ha. and oil globules. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. 0.2.94 and 0. Kaphakara.0 µ in dia. 0. BrÆha¸a. IDENTITY. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.27.2.2. Raktapitta.72. 0. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. H¤dya.3. 0.72. Appendix 2.2. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf.A creamish-brown paste. Balya. 0.C.91. DOSE . shows numerous mesophyll cells. 0.2. Sara.5-5. V¡tahara.0 µ in dia.5-5.54. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.P£gakha¸·a. Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0.08. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.C. Appendix 0.54.94 (blue). 0.98 (all violet).2. Priy¡la Taila. procambium bundles.Albuminoids. T. 2.5 per cent. 0.type.6.7.72 and 0.84. Bhagnas¡dhaka. 2. Pittahara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. 2.L. CONSTITUENTS . V¤Àya. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. 0. Oil and Starch.98 (all yellow). 0.4. 0.94 and 0.20 g.measuring 2. KÀata. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2.L.08.V. áukrakara. and sclerenchymatous cells. 150 .10 .

2. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. thin-walled. calyx. bell-shaped. epipetalous. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs.64. brown. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres.3 mm in dia. hairy. corolla.5 .5 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs.0.) Verbenaceae). 1. long. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. 2. stigma minutely capitate. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. anther ovate. Priyangu (Infl. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical.Cymose. densely hairy. parenchymatous cells. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam.2.Shows more or less wavy outline. densely clothed with wooly hairs. (Fam. style. 4 lobbed spreading. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. peduncle cylindrical. stamens 4. b) Microscopic Peduncle . filament very long. ovary 2-4 celled. equal in size. tubular. and abundant in Bengal plains. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu.4 m high shrub. 1. Flower . basifixed.5 cm across. brown.5-7. an erect.

3.2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.2. DOSE . N¢lik¡dya Taila. Ku´kum¡di Taila. Phenolic compound. CONSTITUENTS . xylem consists of usual elements. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Powder . Vra¸aropa¸a.1-3 g.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Appendix per cent. Rakta-Pitta. V¡tahara. groups of thin-walled. Kanaka Taila. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .fibres. THERAPEUTIC USES .Glycosides. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Jvara. Appendix 2.2.2. aseptate fibres. 2.7. Pakv¡tis¡ra. Rakta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. spiral vessels. Terpenes. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. of the drug in powder form. Pras¡dana. 152 .D¡ha.2. Appendix per cent. El¡di C£r¸a. M£travirajan¢ya. Appendix per cent.2. Resin and Saponin. 2. 2. Daurgandhyahara. (Mukharoga). Sandh¡n¢ya.Brown. elliptical. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. Sved¡dhikya.6. fibres aseptate. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs.4.

exodermis 1-2 layered. both consisting of round to oval. smooth. pitted vessels and 153 . Paddy Shalichokha. Chawl. Corava.Greyish-cream. Dhanarmul. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Dhan Rice. sclerenchymatous cells. sclerenchymatous cells. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Bhatta. Cala. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. (Fam. Bhata. an annual herb.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. Nivara -Chaval. Dh¡nya. thin. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Biyyamu Chaval. Coke Chaval. soft.65. Poaceae). Powder . Nellu Tandulamul. Shali (Rt. Dhana. 5-15 cm in length and 0. thick-walled. Dhana Bhatto. cortex differentiated into three zones.05-0. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. composed of thick-walled. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Jhona Arishi. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Vr¢hi. Odalu. cylindrical. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Sali. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. b) Microscopic Root . Nellu. Nelver Dhanyamu. Damgara. Akki -Ari.) cultivated throughout India.

Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. KaÀ¡ya Guru. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Balya.7.2. Kaphahara. CakÀuÀya. of the drug for decoction. H¤dya. Rucya. IDENTITY.4.2.2. 2. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Svarya. 154 . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Appendix per cent. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. BrÆha¸a.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.StanyakÀaya. Pittahara. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Laghu.3.50 g. M£trala.2. 2. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Var¸ak¤t.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.

stamen 5. yellowish-brown to light brown. Stem . light green. 0. epipetalous. spreading. hairy. sub-erect. Kakkanangudi.4 cm thick. Flower . perennial herb with a woody root stock. light green. 155 . acute. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. sparsely hairy.Shortly petiolate. Leaf . solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis.Usually branched. inserted deep in the corolla tube. Shankhapushpi. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. hairy on both surfaces. Karakhuratt.1-0. linear-lanceolate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. Sankhapuspi. cylindrical. corolla shortly discoid. sepals narrowly. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .) Convolvulaceae). found throughout the country.5 cm broad. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli.P.66. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Shankhavela. a prostrate.Slender.5-2 cm long and 0. free. 0. alternate with the petals. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. cylindrical. about 0. ovary superior and bicarpellary. Sankha pushpin (W.White or pinkish. linear-lanceolate. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.1-0. 1-5 cm long.

and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. at places unicellular hairs present. tanniniferous. pale brown pericarp. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres.Shows single layered epidermis. 13. starch grains solitary or in groups. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. measuring 3 . measuring 3-8 µ in dia.0. xylem rays and parenchyma. vascular bundle bicollateral. round to oval in shape. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. simple and composed of 2-3 components. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. Lamina .8 µ in dia. minutely puberulous.Capsule. secretory cells present in this region. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. present on both surfaces. xylem consists of vessels. b) Microscopic Root .shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. oblong globose with coriaceous. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. mm. . Seed . stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. thin. xylem consisting of usual elements. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. phloem a narrow zone. covered with thick cuticle.. thick-walled cells.walled cells. phloem. present in cortex. cortex differentiated in two zones. both having round to oval.Brown. Powder .appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. endoderrnis single layered.8-17. palisade two layered. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. Stem .Light yellowish-green. phloem composed of sieve elements.. mm. palisade ratio 6-9. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. epidermis single layered. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted.Fruit . medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. simple and compound starch grains. unicellular hairs.Appears nearly circular in outline. fibres and tracheids. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. LeafMidrib . covered with thick cuticle. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. elliptical. elongated. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. 156 . fibres and parenchyma. hairs unicellular.

2.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. ËyuÀya.6. Ras¡yana.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. Medhya.4. Ras¡yana.3-8 g.IDENTITY.M¡nasaroga.7. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix per cent. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.2.2. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.3. Tikta. Pittahara. 2. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent.2. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Apasm¡ra DOSE . Ras¡yana.2. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.2. Br¡hma. Agastyahar¢tak¢. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix 2. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 .

sessile. 1 mm long. gland semilunate. Joyachi. Siju. pale brown. odour and taste not distinct. 3-4 mm in dia. 0. 158 .celled with or without attached pedicel.7-7 cm long. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. lanceolate or linear oblong.8 cm wide.67. having a few secondary roots. fracture. ovate. 3. cylindrical. annual herb. greenish-yellow. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. Flower . lobes short. subacute. odour and taste indistinct. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni.) Euphorbiaceae). 0. gradually tapering. horned. (Fam. Leaf . 4-5 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. Chagulputputi Satala. sub-sessile. style.2-0. shortly 2-fid at the apex. ribbed. Saptala (W.1. 20-40 cm high. 2. filament pubescent. linear. trilocular. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Small. smooth. Bilikalli. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. Carmas¡hv¡. short.Capsule. solitary.5-2 mm thick.5 mm across at the mouth. free to the base. found throughout India in the plains and low hills.P. Fruit . Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.Involucre broadly campanulate. ciliolate. a much branched.

measuring 5. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. secondary phloem narrow. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. filled with yellowish-brown content. thickwalled and lignified. fibres and vessels having simple pits. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. secondary xylem consists of vessels. rounded at the base.6 layers of oval. b) Microscopic Root . covered externally with thick. consisting of thick-walled. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. single layered epidermis.5-19. starch grains simple. rounded to oval.Young root shows exfoliated. tangentially elongated cells. 2. found scattered in phloem region. grooved at one side. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. rounded to oval. epidermis single layered. some rounded. palisade single layered present on both sides. centre occupied by a pith. rarely a few oil globules also present. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. flattended. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. 159 . secondary cortex consists of 4.75 µ in dia. solitary or in groups.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. thick-walled lignified. circular to oval. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. traversed by numerous xylem rays. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. striated cuticle. secondary xylem composed of vessels.3 mm long. elliptical. vessels having simple pits. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. with wide lumen present in this region. parenchymatous cells. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. endodermis not distinct. lignified cells with wide lumen. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. all elements thick-walled and lignified. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. leprous tuberculate testa. parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated elliptical. rectangular. simple. mature root shows thin walled cork. stone cells oval to elongated. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. fibres. composed of sieve elements. Stem .Seed . Leaf- Midrib . tracheids and medullary rays. fibres and tracheids. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white.25 µ in diameter. elliptical. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. fibres elongated and aseptate. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. all elements. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade.shows slightly convex outline.

RaktadoÀahara.Light yellow. of the drug for decoction. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.57 (all yellow).Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). 2. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. aseptate fibres.4.Ën¡ha. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent.2.0.3.2.46 (brown) and 0.7. RukÀa.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix per cent. Vibandha.50 g. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. V¡tal¡. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. 2.2.04. 0.L. Visarpa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Ud¡vartta.6. IDENTITY. T.Powder . ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. 2. 2. DOSE .04 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. rounded to oval starch grains.C. Pittahara. lignified with wide lumen.L. Udararoga.2. simple. Mi¿raka Sneha.C. Appendix 2. shows vessels with simple pits. 0. 160 . stone cells thick-walled.V. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. oval to elongated.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.87 (violet). Gulma.67.46. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. elliptical. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.

glabrous. Syn.68. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. odour. glabrous. P. A. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. mesocarp.. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. dorsal 161 . (Fam. Shulupa. Shepa. filiform and incospicuous. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. graveolens Benth. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. b) Microscopic Fruit . Sulpha. broadly oval and compressed dorsally.. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. A. and a warm. akin to caraway. slightly sharp taste. ex Flem. slightly raised. dark brown. graveolens DC. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. graveolens Linn. sowa Roxb. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. often stalk attached. Apiaceae). parenchymatous. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. Satahva (Fr. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. vittae. yellowish membranous wings. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. 4 mm long. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. var. a tall. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. brown. mericarps usually separate and free.

Appendix 4 per cent. V¡tahara.10 T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 15 per cent.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.2. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.3-6 g. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.Brown. Jvara.68 (violet).4.6. Appendix 14 per cent. Atis¡ra.L. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.7.2. 2. Powder .2.á£la. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. each costae with vascular strands.5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .37 (pink) 0. 2.Essential Oil. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.C.2.2. 2. 0. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .3. Appendix 1. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.C. of the drug in powder form.L. Appendix 2. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.2. IDENTITY. 162 . Vra¸a.costae three. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Netra Roga DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. 2. cellulosic. Kaphahara. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. 0. carpophore split.2.59 and 0. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a.68 (all yellow). shows spiral vessels.59 (blue) and 0.

spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Rachis .) Gaertn. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. elliptic. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. Bahala. and articulated at the base. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. thickened. parenchymatous cells. central region 163 b) Microscopic . Tishnagandha. Nugge ele -Murinna.5-1 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Mungna Neegge. palisade single layered. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. consisting of pericyclic fibres. a small or medium sized tree.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Segata. vascular bundle collateral. Muringa Elai Sevaga. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. thin walled. Moringaceae). Mocaka -Sajina. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces.69.2-2 cm long and 0. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. odour and taste not distinct. Sekato. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. (Fam. Syn. slender. Muringa. pith and phloem parenchyma. AkÀ¢va. leaflet 1. Shigru (Lf. pericycle forming a broken ring. Leaflet . T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. ovate or obovate. Shewgachi pane Sajana. oval to elliptical. commonly cultivated throughout the country. Segata pana. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Sajna. Munga.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. entire. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. parenchymatous cells.

46 (green).18. 0. Appendix per cent.94 (blue). 0. B ¤Æhana. T. Appendix 2.L. vein islets number 50-65.38. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.53 (yellow). Carotene and Ascorbic acid.2.26.46 (dark green) & 0. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.05.46 (both blue).26 (all green). Medohara. stomata anornocytic.2. Appendix per cent. K¤mihara.36 (yellowish green). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. 0.05.26. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.18. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. 0. 0. 0. 0.2. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.52 (green).4. 0. 0. 2. Pittahara. 0. Powder -Greyish-green. Appendix per cent. 0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. spiral vessels.7. (all green).30 (pink). 2. 0. V¡tahara. 0. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.82 (yellow) and 0. 0.94 (violet). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.05. RukÀa.V. 0.L. palisade ratio 6-11.87 (blue). áukra N¡¿aka.0. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.occupied by a crescent-shaped.Carbohydrate. 0. 0.94 (yellow) in visible light.2. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.69 (blue) and 0. 2.59 (blue).36. 0. Under U. Protein.3. CONSTITUENTS .46 (all red) & 0.20.C. 0.6.2.36 (green).2. Sirovirecaka 164 .C. palisade cells. 0. IDENTITY.69 (yellow). rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.

20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.Ratnagiri Rasa. K¤miroga. Vidradhi. Gulma. DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Medoroga. 165 . ViÀatinduka Taila.áopha.10 . Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Galaga¸·a. Pl¢haroga.

0. taste. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. perisperm consists of polygonal. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened.. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. spicy pungent.70. sclerenchymatous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. odour. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. thin walled.) Zingiberaceae). Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb.4 cm long. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. brown to dark brown. (Fam.3 cm wide. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. perispenn encloses the 166 . Sthulaela (Sd. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. aromatic. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. membraneous aril. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. Beraelam. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. parenchymatous cells.

2.2. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. (Seed).4.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.6. Appendix 2.5 -1 g. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. parenchymatous cells.(Seed).endosperm and embryo.0. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Karp£r¡dy¡rka.3. 2.2.10 CONSTITUENTS . K¡sa. Powder . T¤À¸¡. Appendix 4 per cent.5 per cent.S¡rivady¡sava. DOSE . Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Appendix 5 per cent. 167 . V¡tahara. Appendix 14 per cent. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. shows fragments of testa. Ka¸·u. IDENTITY. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. rounded to oval. Mukharoga. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. THERAPEUTIC USES . simple. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. thin-walled. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. H¤ll¡sa. RukÀa. 2. Note .áv¡sa. polygonal.Light brown. Chardi.2. Kaphahara. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. oil globules.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). 2. perisperm cells. both composed of polygonal. of the drug in powder form. Rocaka.2. 2.2.7. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Mukha¿odhaka. thin-walled. Appendix 1. rich in protein. Tikta Laghu.

parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri.2 cm thick. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. Rutaceae). found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. Tumbura. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. thick-walled cells.Bk. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. stem and branches. Tejovati (St. fracture. light yellow to pale brown. phloem fibres thickwalled. aromatic pungent. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. short. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam.0. brownish. internal surface smooth. parenchymatous cells. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high.) Roxb. thin-walled. aromatic. rather deeply furrowed. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. armed with long. lignified.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. external surface pale brown. Jimmi. odour. taste. Tumburudra. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. sharp prickles.71. Syn. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Thumbooni. Z. stone cells found in 168 . (Fam.1-0.

Medhya. Hikk¡.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. Rucya.Aruci. 2.75 µ in diameter. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.6. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.10-20 g. Appendix 2.13.3.2.7. Ëmav¡ta.75 . CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 8. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. Mukharoga. round and oval measuring 2. oil globules and starch grains. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. 169 .13. Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. of the drug for decoction.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 13 per cent. 2. aseptate fibres. áv¡sa. 2.2.4.75 .Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. measuring 2.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. a Volatile Oil and Resin.75 µ in diameter.2. 2. P¡cana. DOSE .2. IDENTITY.5 per cent. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. stone cells.2. K¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fragments of cork cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. Kaphahara.Yellowish-brown. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. starch grains round and oval.5 per cent. Appendix 12 per cent. Appendix 1.

calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. elliptic oblong. pedicels longer than calyx. obtuse or acute. much branched. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. branched. pubescent on both sides. hairy. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . soft. Lamiaceae).5-3 cm long hairy. internally cream.2 cm wide.60 cm high. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. Leaf . blackish-brown externally and pale. lower lip 170 . woody. externally purplish-brown to black.2. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. branched. (Fam. annual herb. aromatic. sub quadrangular. Tulasi (W.Thin. pubescent. entire or serrate.72. coloured.3. K¤À¸atulas¢. violet internally. taste.) an erect. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. characteristic. Shree Tulasi. small in close whorls. odour faintly aromatic. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. Stem . wiry. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn.5-5 cm long 1. 30 .6 . hairy. Flower . shortly apiculate. fracture. odour. petiole thin. slender.Purplish or crimson coloured. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. herbaceous. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi.P. about 1.Erect. Thulasi. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. found throughout the country.

brown.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. fibre tracheides. mucilaginous when soaked in water. parenchymatous cells. Stem . thin-walled. no odour. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. filled with brown content. taste. each with one seed. pitted with pointed ends. vessels pitted. vessels pitted. veined calyx. odour.Rounded to oval. Midrib . thin-walled.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. thin-walled. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. fibres with pointed ends. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. 0. b) Microscopic Root . pubescent. tracheids. odour.1 cm long. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. slightly mucilaginous. lateral two short and central two largest. parenchymatous cells. glandular trichomes short. aromatic. Seed . parenchymatous cells. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. membranous.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. xylem consists of vessels. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. thin-walled. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. middle one larger than other two. occasionally a few cells collapsed. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. corolla about 4 mm long. long. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. taste. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. elongated. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. nearly smooth.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. found scattered in phloem. round to oval polygonal.epidermis. slightly notched at the base. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. xylem surrounded by phloem. in groups and rarely in singles.A group of 4 nutlets. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. aromatic. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. enclosed in an enlarged. 171 . fibres and parenchyma. pungent. slightly compressed. Leaf- Petiole . measuring 22-27 in dia. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. pungent.shows somewhat cordate outline. three vascular bundles situated centrally. rectangular. pungent. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. taste. phloem consists of sieve elements. Fruit . phloem consisting of sieve elements. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem.

C. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. V¡tahara. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. 2. rounded to oval.6.2.1. Appendix 8 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. Kaphahara. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10).L.Greenish: shows thin-walled.16 on lower surface. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.2. Appendix 2. Rucya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. Record Rf. a few containing reddish brown contents. 2. oil globules. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.8.2.4. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. H¤dya.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. values of eugenol and caryophyllence.7.3. in thoroughly vanillin . stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .5 per cent. IDENTITY.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .2. 2.35. value 0. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.2.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. T. Durgandhihara 172 . Tikta.15 . Appendix 10 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Powder .L.2. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. palisade ratio 3.minutes Under observation. thin walled fibres. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. Pittavardhin¢. Rf. On cooling spray. parenchymatous cells. vein islet number 31 . CONSTITUENTS .Lamina . xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.7.Essential Oil. Appendix 1.

áv¡sa. K¤miroga.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. Netraroga. K¡sa. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE .Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .A¿mar¢.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. Chardi. Hikk¡. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. 173 .

much branched annual herb. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. taste. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. consisting of xylem and phloem. hairy. Lamiaceae). Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. balloon-shaped head. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. and 2-8 celled. 1. covering trichomes multicellular.5-3 cm long.shows cordate outline. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. obtuse or acute. odour. middle one larger than the other two. thin. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi.73. elliptic-oblong. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. LeafPetiole . (Fam. 174 b) Microscopic . found throughout the country. petiolate. entire or serrate.6-3. upper epidermis. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. glandular trichomes short. K¤À¸atulas¢.) 30-60 cm high. Holy Basil Tulasi.2 cm wide. aromatic. an erect. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. three vascular bundles situated centrally.5-5 cm long. characteristic. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. Tulasi (Lf. pubescent on both surfaces. petiole 1. measuring 22-27 µ dia..

Appendix per cent.45 (yellowish green).3. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0. Appendix 2.85 (blue). 0. 0.epidermis. 0.C.L. 2.88 and 0.93 (violet) and 0. Caryophyllene.21. 0.).45.98 (blue).93 (pink) & 0. 0. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .83. 2.45 (violet).epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.30. Appendix per cent. 175 .45. 0. 0. 0.Light-green.33 (both green) 0. 0.12 (light green).2.2.08.04. 0.04.54 (blue). shows fragments of polygonal. 0. palisade and spongy parenchyma. Nerol and Camphene etc.83 (blue). 0. 0. 0. Under U. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. Lamina . anomocytic and diacytic stomata. 2.75 (violet).C.12 (light violet). 0.L.21.98 (blue).. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.08 (both green). (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.33 (violet). palisade ratio 3. 0. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. 0.93 (all0 yellow). IDENTITY.8.54. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.04.83 (all pink) 0.12.75. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.2.6. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. Powder .21 (brown). 0. 2.7. 0.08 (violet). 0. 0.2. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.Midrib .2. vein islet number 31-33. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. 0. T. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. 0.33.85 & 0. 0.2.33. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.4.V.03 (dark green). 0.93 (both light green).

176 . THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa.2-3 g. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. of the drug in powder form. Prati¿y¡ya. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. H¤dya. Pittahara. Hikk¡.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡sa.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Aruci. Tikta. K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha. V¡tahara. Kaphahara. RukÀa. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. áv¡sa.

Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca.Shows single layered epidermis. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. Araceae). buff coloured intemally. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. Gora-bach Baje. Rhizome . rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. Vekhandas -Varch. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. Vacha (Rz. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. large. Ugr¡. Ghodvach Bach.5-1. triangular. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. cells towards periphery. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. Ghodavaca Vasambu. fracture.74. short.5 cm thick. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . somewhat collenchymatous. odour. and 0. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present.) semiaquatic herb. pungent and bitter. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. taste. aromatic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. broadly. enclosing large air spaces. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. thin-walled cells of various sizes. (Fam. upper side marked with alternately arranged. smaller.

CONSTITUENTS . Eugenol and Asarone). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. Appendix per cent. endodermis distinct. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. 2. 178 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. stele composed of round.3.2.Yellowish-cream b. 2. 2. Appendix 2. 0. Petroleum ether-No change ii. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. Appendix per cent.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. Starch and Tannin.2.L.2. reticulate. 2.C.14 (violet) and 0. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.4.10 T..2. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. Appendix per cent. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. Extracts in i. present in cortex and ground tissue. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.7.region. Appendix per cent.Buff coloured.2.2. shows fibres. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. 2. spherical. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). starch grains simple. Chloroform-Light green iii. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.6. Appendix per cent.L.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol.2. Powder as such: . Powder .C.

V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vibandha. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Medhya. 179 . Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Ëdhm¡na. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Unm¡da. V¡tahara. Kar¸a Sr¡va. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Apasm¡ra. DOSE . C£r¸a. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. S¡rasvata. Kaphahara.2 g. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta Laghu. Ka¸¶hya. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.Vac¡di Taila.á£la. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. K¤mihara. áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa. 1.

Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. papillose on outside. suberised. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. rough due to root scars. taste. roots are generally collected late in September. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. fracture. rarely 5 cm long. parenchymatous cells.8 cm thick. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . plant is an erect. small portions of stem sometimes attached. Vatsanabha (Rt. odour indistinct. Basanaag Bisa. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered.5 cm. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. dark brown to blackish-brown. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. Mithalelia. poisonous. 2-4. Teliya Bish Basanalli.1. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Vatsanabha. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. thin-walled. occasionally separated due to breakage. Beesh. perennial herb. Vatsanabhi. Naabhi Bachnak. cartilaginous. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Nabhi. Ranunculaceae). Meethabisha. ovoid. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Bachhnaag. 0. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired.75.4 . Mahura. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. conical. Vatsanabhi. without or with a few intercellular spaces. tapering downwards to a point. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Sth¡varaviÀa. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m.) (Fam.

V¡tavidhwansana Rasa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. 0. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. Appendix 2.3.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. 0.6. Appendix 24 per cent. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. CONSTITUENTS .20. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions.Light grey.10. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre.39. Viyav¡yi. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.96 (both orange). 2.56. often forming 'V' shaped ring. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. consisting of round to oval cells. 0.2. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. xylem exarch.2. 2. a few aseptate fibres.5 per cent. shows vessels.L. Laghu. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Powder . 2. Sv®dala. S £tasekhara Rasa.2.7. ÙikÀ¸a.2. some scattered.2. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. Appendix 8 per cent. IDENTITY. cambium having 6 10 angles. containing a few groups of phloem strands.endodermis. present in cortical cells. RukÀa. occupying more than half the radius.74 and 0. metaxylem vessels met in centre.39 and 0. Anandabhairava Rasa. Appendix 5.L. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex.4.C.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. UÀ¸a. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. Trid°Àahara.C. 2. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2 per cent.2. 0. T. inner bark parenchymatous.

Sannip¡ta. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. V¡takaphajvara.V¡taroga. Kanharoga.30 mgs of the drug in powder form. 182 . DOSE . Jvar¡tis¡ra.THERAPEUTIC USES .15 .

Gumadi belli. Nelagumbula. thinwalled. thin-walled cells. Fabaceae). (Fam. cut surface creamish-brown. Vidari (Tub. but pliable. sweetish. Bhuikumra Vidari. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. taste. usually does not break.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. outer surface reddish-brown. stone cells moderately thick-walled. Bhumikusmanda. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. Bhonykoru. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. Vid¡rik¡. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde.Rt. smooth except for protuberances at some places. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Bhoikolu. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Nelagumbala. Eagio. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. starchy and somewhat porous.76.

2.13.5 . having central hilum and striations. Ras¡yana. lignified with narrow lumen. radially elongated cells. CONSTITUENTS . phloem fibres much elongated. fragments of cork.2. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5.75 µ in dia.5 . Pittahara. somewhat round. Powder . Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta.5 per cent. Angmarda. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. present in all parenchymatous cells. distributed throughout this region. 2. Appendix 24 per cent. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content.2. 2.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). Appendix 2.3-6 g.13. Balya. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements.D¡ha. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. J¢van¢ya. V¡tahara. Stanyada. and also rarely in stone cells. Appendix 4 per cent. highly thickened.and pits. of the drug in powder form. angular to oval. Appendix 17 per cent. IDENTITY. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. áoÀa. 2. Svarya.Marma Gu¶ik¡.75 µ in dia. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. Raktapitta.Gluconic and Malic acids. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. Appendix 4. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.3. Var¸ya. Daurbalya.4. 184 . THERAPEUTIC USES . plenty of starch grains mostly simple.2.7. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. measuring 5.2.6. M£trala. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.. a few latex duct also present. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Buff coloured. 2.

taste. (Fam. Yava (Fr. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam.) Poaceae). a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. square or quadrilateral. seed coat appears as a colourless line. elliptic. thick-walled. round to oval wavy walled cells.2-0. polygortal inner epidermal cells. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. Jav Barley Cheno. cultivated chiefly in North India. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . smooth. followed by 2-3 layers. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. sclerenchymatous fibres. erect herb. not distinct. followed by more or less. Syn. H. spongy parenchymatous cells. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. oblong. about 1 cm long and 0.3 cm wide.77. sativum Pers. sweetish-acrid. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. 50-100 cm high. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. an annual. pale-greenish-yellow.

0. 0.83 (all violet) and 0. 0. 0. 0.16.L.V. Powder . KaÀ¡ya M¤du. V¤Àya.2. Fats. endosperm divided into two zones.92 (yellow).06.C. 0. IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Sthairyakara. Globulin.L.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.31. 0.56. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. Kaphahara.14. 0. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.5 per cent. 0. starch grains simple.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. Appendix 1. Appendix 2. 0.5 per cent. Orientin. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. Appendix 4 per cent.65 & 0. sclerenchymatous fibres.2. 0. M£trahara.10.5 2.24. Pittahara. 2. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Sugars. Orientoside.5 per cent. simple starch grains. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.Creamish-white. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. Vitexin etc. Proteins (Albumin. 0. round to oval. Svarya.45.53.22.) CONSTITUENTS . 0.31.72 (all pink. 0. 2.36. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. V¡tak¤t. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. Lekhana.2. Medahara. Appendix 2.22.44.6.92 (all grey). 0. and the rest starch layers.7 T.Starch.C.31. 2.83 and 0. Appendix 5.10. Pur¢Àak ¤t. 0.narrow lumens. 0. 0. 0. Var¸ya 186 .4.68. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.2.68. 2.2. 0.

THERAPEUTIC USES .100 . Gandharvahasta Taila. P¢nasa. Dh¡nvantara Taila.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. K¡sa. Prameha. Medoroga. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. of the drug. Urustambha. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.áv¡sa. Kanharoga. El¡dya Modaka. T¤À¸¡. 187 .200 g. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Tvagroga DOSE .

gradually tapering. Stem . Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. 0. striate.5-0. filled with reddish-brown contents. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown.7 cm broad. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. Neladangara. oblong. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Punjab. elliptical. Yavasaka (W. Y¡sa. short. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. radially arranged cork cells. dark brown. extipulate. glabrous. Desv. sharp axillary spines upto 3. 20-30 cm long and 0. opposite. nearly 0. drooping. slightly rough at basal region with slender. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa.1-1 cm thick. Javasa. glabrous.P.Simple. stipules green.) Fabaceae). mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. secondary and tertiary root absent. ballidurabi. no taste and odour. (Fam.78. Duralabha -Venkatithura. fracture. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . Leaf . Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. a small thorny shrub. cork cambium single layered. terete. hard.2-1 cm thick.5-1 cm long. branched. alternate.8 cm long.Cylindrical. 0.Well developed. mucronate obtuse. secondary cortex almost 188 .

covered with cuticle. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal.appears biconvex in outline. Powder . tracheids and fibres. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. Stem . angular.Greenish-brown. phloem composed of sieve elements. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin.appears circular in outline. 189 . parenchymatous cells. vascular bundle collateral. epidermis single layered. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. tracheids. parenchyma and fibres. tanniniferous cells.5. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. hypodermis 1-2 layered. a few with thick wall and simple pits. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous.absent.75 µ in diameter. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. some cells filled with tannin. thin-walled. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. filled with tannin. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. present throughout the region.75 µ in dia. 3-45 cells long. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. filled with tannin.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. elongated.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. hypodermis 2-3 layered. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. xylem situated above phlome. thin-walled. covered externally with thick cuticle. starch grains simple. xylem fibres. rounded to oval. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.5-14. tangentially elongated cells. fibres. xylem consists of vessels. xylem consists of vessels. 5. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. simple. Lamina . consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. Leaf- Petiole . pitted vessels. parenchymatous cells. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. phloem composed of sieve elements. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. tracheids and fibres thick-walled.14. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. pith composed of a few thin-walled. Midrib . tracheids.

2. T¤À¸¡.IDENTITY.2.2. Kaphahara. Appendix 2 per cent. D¢pana. Appendix 13.5 per cent. Tikta. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7.4.20 .2. of the drug in powder form for decoction. V¡tarakta. CONSTITUENTS . 2. 2. 2. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.6. Invert Sugars). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.50 g. Raktapitta. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. Appendix 2.3. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Sucrose.Sugars (Melizitose. Arimed¡di Taila. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2.Chardi. K¡sa. Visarpa DOSE . 190 .2. Jvara.5 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent.

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