THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.1.) Desv 177 1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.3.2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.2.2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.2.1.2.2.2.Types of Stomata 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1-Nessler Cylinder.2.1.2.5.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .2.1.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.2.2. 1.2-Sieves 1.2-Thermometers 1.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.4.2.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.2.2.1.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.1.1.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.1.1-Sampling of drugs 2.1.1.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.1 Testing Drugs 2.

3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.3.3.3.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .2.1.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.3.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.Weights and Measures 5.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.2.1.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.2-Refractive Index 2.3.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.3 Limit Tests 2.3.

If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments.).P. Vol. II. II would be official. Part-I. Vol. Vol. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. Part-I. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. the Dangerous Drugs Act. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. would be deemed to have been amended vii . the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. 1930 and the Poisons Act. In general. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. accordingly. II.I. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982).

Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. When the term “drop” is used. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. Weights and Measures . Italics . indicated in monograph.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Purity and Strength . Identity.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. Introductory Para . as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. Hindi. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Mesh Number . If the odour persists to be discernible.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. English. distribution and method of collection. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. it is described as having odour.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Synonyms . The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). viii . Odour and Taste . substances or processes described in Appendix. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. if any.GENERAL NOTICES Title . Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered.

moisture content. shall constitute standards. micro-organisms. The quantitative tests e. according to circumstances.C. and Identity.soluble extractive. Constituents . Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. which he uses. Percentage of Solutions . with one of the four meanings given below. if of equivalent accuracy. wherever given.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated.L. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. water-soluble ash. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests.For statutory purpose. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. fungi. sliminess.In defining standards. Constant Weight . the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement.g. pesticides. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. in 100 grammes of product. Standards .) . Thin Layer Chromatography (T. alcohol-soluble extractive. pests. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. arsenic and heavy metals. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. and other animal matter including animal excreta. However. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. the expression per cent (%). is used. Part-I. Vol. under Description. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. acid-insoluble ash. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead.Under this head. statements appearing in the API. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. water. and show no abnormal odour. ether-soluble extractive. mould or other evidence of deterioration. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. total ash. colour. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . However. Purity and Strength.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. even by applying known reference standards. V. ix . those of definition of the part and source plants.

When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. and dust particles. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. fibres. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. all solutions are prepared with purified water.000 parts More than 10.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. Solutions . unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. Statements of solubilities. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. such as fragment of filter papers. Reagents and Solutions .Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Solubility .The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. thermometric scale. are intended to apply at that temperature. Temperature .000 parts x .56 oC.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. at a stated temperature. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. Percentage of alcohol . When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.

which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. g. unless otherwise stated. ml.I. µ. mg.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. 1M.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. IN. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . l. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. 0. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes.P.1 N. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. Fam. cm.5 N. PS. mm. Kg. TS. 0. Part –I and Part-II.

Bk. Wh. Mar. Sd. St. Pl. Ori. Rt. xii . Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Lf. Assam. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Tel. Wd. Eng. Punj. Beng. Ht. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Mal. Guj. Kan. St. Tub. Kash. Bk. Tam.Sansk. Wd. Fr. Rt. Rz.

Akallakara. not easily separable. tapering slightly at both ends. external surface rough. Akravu Akkalakara. vessels pitted. 1. odour. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. xylem fibres thick-walled.2 . 53. Akarakarabha (Rt. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. parenchymatous cells. taste. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. elongated. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. Akalakarabha. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. 7-15 cm in length. cambium 2-5 layered. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. shrivelled. Akarakara Akkaraka. cylindrical. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. bark upto 3 mm thick. an annual.231 µ in 1 . brown.1. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. characteristically astringent and pungent.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. slightly aromatic.8 µ in width. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. (Fam. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. many of which developed as sclerenchyma.37-28. Asteraceae). Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. b) Microscopic Root . with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. thin-walled.

Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin).5 -1 g. CONSTITUENTS . NaÀ¶¡rtava. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. áotha. Svedakara. Appendix 2. Kaphahara. Appendix 8 percent.Prati¿y¡ya.4. 2. medullary rays numerous.0. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. V¡jikara.6. Pittahara. Appendix 22 percent. also gives positive tests for inulin. secondary phloem. Appendix 2 percent. Buddhivardhaka. 2. K¡sa. IDENTITY. 2. Aj¢rna. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows vessels having scalariform thickening. áukrala. Udararoga.3.2. Grdhras¢.Ash coloured.2. ray cells thick-walled.length having narrow lumen.2. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Danta¿£la DOSE . calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. radially elongated. uniseriate rays very rare. 2 . bi to tri and multiseriate. 2. Powder . secondary phloem and medullary rays. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex.7. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.2. of the drug in powder form. áv¡sa. D¢pana. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. running straight.2. á£laroga. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡.Kum¡ry¡sava.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. secondary phloem and medullary rays. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. Appendix 10 percent.

monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. Powder . endosperm mostly single layered. irregularly corrugated. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. slightly curved.Cream coloured. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells.Shows 1-2 layered. Sailabhava. creamish-brown. under this. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Cotyledon . Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. 3 . indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. followed by more or less compressed. thin-walled. not distinct. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. coriaceous. broken pieces. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. collapsed. thin-walled. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. oily sweet. odour. (Fam. taste. Juglandaceae).) large deciduous. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. radially elongated. Akshoda (Cotldn.2.

2. V¡taroga.6. THERAPEUTIC USES . Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Kaphakara.2. 2.3.4. B¤´ha¸a. 2.25 g. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . áukral.0 percent. Appendix Not less than 10. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.2. ViÀ¶ambhi. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .IDENTITY.0 percent.7. Appendix Not more than 0. 4 . Sara. 2. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.KÀata. 2.2. V¤Àya.Walnut oil and Tannin. KÀaya.5 percent.2. DOSE .Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.2.10 . Appendix Not less than 7.

thin-walled cells. upto 27 m high and 2. with reddish-brown contents. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. f. Ambado. Jangali Ambo. Ranambo Ambada. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. fracture. Wild Mango Ambeda. Stem Bark. a few outer cells exfoliated. Syn. a small aromatic. Ambalam. thin. grey having lenticels. radially arranged. deciduous tree. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. tangentially elongated. consisting of tangentially elongated. Amra. Amra Indian Hog Plum.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. and 5 ..5 m in girth. Amvara -Mampusli. S. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. mangifera Willd. external surface smooth. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Mampuiti. Jangli Aam Ambate. non Gamble (Fam. Kurz.Bk. laminated. parenchymatous cells. Amrata (St. internal surface reddish-yellow. Anacardiaceae). Ambazham. acuminata Roxb. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated.3. S. Anbalamu. Ranamba. Ambadam Amratakamu. curved. parenchymatous. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces.

2. THERAPEUTIC USES .87 (blue) and 0.96 (blue).Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. shows cork cells. T. of the drug in powder form for decoction. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.5 per cent.2.96.33.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.87 (all greyish brown).(greyish brown).L. 2. 0. 2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. 0. Appendix Not more than 0. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.V. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . prominent lysogenous cavities are present. Appendix 2. lignified. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. 2.4. 0. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. V¡tahara. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. KÀaya. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.2. thick-walled. simple.75-14 µ in dia.C. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. 0.33. Raktapitta. IDENTITY.7. CONSTITUENTS .C. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.5-10 g.40 and 0. Powder . Ka¸¶hya. D¡ha DOSE .KÀata.6. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.3.2. 0. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. 6 . KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.2. stone cells.Light brown. 2.L. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf.2. Under U. Not more than 1 per cent. Rucik¤t. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Pittakara. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.

dorsifixed. (Fam. rough due to presence of some root scars. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. subsessile.free. actinomorphic. erect. 7 . anther. opposite. a stiff. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . solid. 0.Simple.0. 0. exstipulate. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita.9 m high herb.0. one spine lipped. yellowish-brown.P.3 .3-0. secondary and tertiary roots present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. perianth segments 5. stamens 5. filament short. opposite. Apamarga (W. May£raka.) Amaranthaceae). odour. greenish-white. slightly ribbed. Stem . hollow when dry. bisexual. two celled.Cylindrical tap root.0 cm in thickness. the perianth lobes. gradually tapering.5 cm in cut pieces. contorted or quincuncial. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. bracteate with two bracteoles. decussate.1-1. Leaf . wavy margin. branched. erect. numerous. Kharamaµjar. obovate. sessile.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. hairy. cylindrical. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. hypogynous.4. Flower . PratyakpuÀpa. not distinct. yellowish-brown. membranous.

on both surfaces. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. two medullary bundles. Stem . fibres being absent. b) Microscopic Root . each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. thin-walled. present in pith.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. truncate at the apex. scalariform and pitted. followed 8 . covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. thin-walled cork cells. tangentially elongated. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. composed of parenchymatous cells. endospermic. 2-5 celled. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. syncarpous. epidermis single layered.Shows crescent-shaped outline. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. LeafPetiole . ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. Midrib . unilocular with single ovule. lignified. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled.Sub-cylindric.gynoecium bicarpellary.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. stigma. xylem composed of usual elements. either separate throughout or found in some cases.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. cortical and pith cells. rectangular. Fruit . style. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. perianth and bracteoles. spiral. thin layers of cambium. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 3-4 celled stalk. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. vessels annular. capitate. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. oval to rectangular. brown. thin-walled cork cells. single. demarcating the xylem rings. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. cortex 6-10 layered. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. elongated. vessels simple pitted. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. Seed .Shows a single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. fibres pitted. ovary superior. round at the base.

Udara Roga.2. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Medohara.Shows single layered. Chedana. mm. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. Powder .5-9.2. Ka¸·u.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. thin-walled epidermal cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 9 . Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. 9. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. stomatal index 4. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. vein islet number 7-13 per sq.6. spiral. P¡cana.Light yellow. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues.20-50 g.0-20. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.2.0 on lower surface. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. 2. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. of the drug for decoction. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Kaphahara.0 on upper surface. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. Medoroga DOSE .2. aseptate fibres. slightly elongated in upper. vessels with annular. Apac¢. 2. V¡tahara.2. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent.7. palisade ratio 7. rectangular. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.0-11. scalariform and pitted thickening. Lamina .Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. Tikta Sara.á£la. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. IDENTITY. V¡maka.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. shows fragments of elongated. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. Appendix 2.2. non-lignified cells. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. Gu·apippali. Ar¿a.3.

secondary phloem consists of usual elements. cylindrical. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. Aparajita (Rt. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. (Fam. a few solitary fibres also present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡.5. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. thin-walled. vessels pitted with oblong. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. very long. Fabaceae). fracture. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. bitter. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. medullary 10 . a few showing slit-like pits. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. b) Microscopic Root . polygonal. lightbrown.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. colour. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. 1-5 mm in thickness.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. taste. fibrous. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end.

of the drug in powder form.2.2.Yellowish-brown. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. oblong and pitted.Mi¿raka Sneha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent..rays 1-5 cells wide. M£traroga. Under U.79 (grey).2. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. 2.3.79 (blue). phloem and xylem parenchyma. Buddhiprada.2.2. Appendix per cent.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. V¡tahara. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Medhya.Tannin.V. Resin.79 (both yellow). IDENTITY. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. T. Appendix 2. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Pittahara. Powder . 2. Vra¸a DOSE .á£la. Starch. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. shows simple and compound starch grains.C.2.. found in secondary cortex. 0. CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. 11 .3 g.6. 0. Appendix per cent. ViÀahara.1 .4. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.7.C. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. KuÀ¶ha.54 and 0.L. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. 2. 2. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. 0. áotha.L. Tikta.

Rhizomes are dug in January-February. radially arranged cells of inner cork. Ale -Adi. Ardraka (Rz. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. (Fam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. irregularly arranged. gingery. tangentially elongated. reaching up to 90 cm in height. pungent Rhizome . transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells.6. taste. Allam. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. colourless. short with projecting fibres. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. thin-walled. pieces 5-15 cm long. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . isodiametric. Adrak Injee. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. lakottai. each having a depressed scar at its apex. fracture. oblique branches on upper side. buds and roots are removed and washed well. Inji Allamu.5 cm thick. odour. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. 1. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. widely cultivated in India.5-6.) Zingiberaceae).Shows a few layered.

oleo-resin cells abundent.92 (violet).C. elongated pits on their walls.2. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. Appendix 8 per cent. Appendix 90 per cent.69 (grey). 0. 0. reticulate and spiral vessels. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. 0. Appendix 2. 0.7 vessels. 0. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. 0. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. CONSTITUENTS . larger bundles consists of 2.35 (light violet). those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.63.6.2. 0. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.13. filled with abundant starch grains. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.3.16. free from starch. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. phloem. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.69 (light violet).5 per cent. 0.47 (light violet). Appendix 1 per cent.63 (grey) & 0.63 & 0.C.92 (all yellow). 0..2.69. Powder -Light yellow. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.35.dia.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. 0.7. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. 2.63 (light violet).08 (violet). 2.16.03. endodermis single layered. Appendix 5 per cent.2.69 (all light yellow).35. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. Appendix 2 per cent. small cells of sieve tube.2. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0.76. numerous closed. 2.83 & 0. 0.L. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 0.16 (blue). (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.47. Under U.08.76 (violet) & 0. composed of xylem.L. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.V. 0. 0. 0. 2. 2. conjoint. IDENTITY. 0. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. septate fibres with oblique.2. 0. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.l6 (brownish violet). 0. 0. collateral. vessels showing reticulate.4. fibrovascular bundles of two types. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.9 T.2. walls of oil cells suberised. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. 13 . vessels 2-5 in number.

Ka¸tharoga. Rocana. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.á£la.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Kaphahara. 14 . V¡tahara. Svarya. Vibandha. V ¤Àaya. RukÀa. H¤dya. Ën¡ha. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. DOSE . áopha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Bhedana.

with tapering 15 . secondary phloem wide. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. phloem fibres thin-walled. internally light brown to reddish-brown. Arimeda (St. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. parenchyma. fibrous. not distinct. Pilobaval. lignified. exfoliating in irregular scales.7. thinwalled cortical cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. characteristic of dry regions. all traversed by medullary rays. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. fracture.5-1 cm thick.Bk. (Fam. square to rectangular cells. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. Velvelam.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. upto 3 m in height. Fabaceae). incurved. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. hard. stone cells and phloem cells. odour and taste. consisting of sieve elements. fibres and crystal fibres. rough. Sadabala -Haramibaval. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays.

áopha.2.4. Mukharoga. 2.0. K¤mi.2. Meda¿oÀaka. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. β -Amyrin. Dantaroga.3-5 g in powder form. composed of thin-walled.91 (both blue). Appendix 1 per cent. 0. Meha. T. ViÀajavra¸a.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS .91 (yellow). crystal fibres elongated. Appendix 14 per cent.n-Hexacosanol. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.40 g for decoction. IDENTITY. sclereid. Powder . 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. K¡sa. radially elongated cells. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. Udardapra áamana DOSE .78 and 0.7.ends.0 to 0.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Atis¡ra.39 and a spot at Rf. 16 .3.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. shows groups of cork cells. 2. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . 0 to 0.2.Reddish-brown. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. 0. P¡¸·u. Appendix 2.e. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.2. Visarpa.C. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga).6. Ka¸·u.39 and a spot at Rf. Appendix 11 per cent. KuÀ¶ha. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 13 per cent. β-Sitosterol and Tannin.L.2.LC. fibres. 2.

Torematti Arjuna. (Fam. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. recurved. curved. taste. fracture. flat. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . channelled to half quilled. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. 0.Bk. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces.& A. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. Mattimora. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. consisting of sieve tubes. bitter and astringent. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma.) Combretaceae). Arjuna. Mathichakke. short in inner and laminated in outer part.2-1. a large deciduous tree. Vellamaruthi. in the middle and outer phloem region.5 cm thick. Arjuna (St. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. P¡rtha. Sajada Arjuna Matti. Kellemasuthu. Bilimatti. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. companion cells.8. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. Neermatti. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. traversed by phloem rays. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells.

starch grains. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. round to oval.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows fragments of cork cells.Medoroga. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. 2. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 20 per cent. round to oval.3. compound of 2-3 components. T¤À¡.2. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2.in dia. 2.3-6 g. Prameha.Reddish-brown. alata). alternating with fibres. Appendix 1 per cent. H¤dya. µ Powder . Arjuna Gh¤ta. fibres. Vra¸an¡¿ana.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. elliptical. IDENTITY. H¤droga. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. Pittahara. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara.2. sometimes upto 5 components. 4-12 cells high. 18 . Appendix 25 per cent..2. a few rhomboidal crystals.2...4. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. Kaphahara.7. mostly simple. Vya´ga. Appendix 20 per cent. DOSE . of the drug in powder form. starch grains simple and compound. Appendix 2. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. KÀatakÀaya.2. elliptic. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. 2.2. uniseriate phloem rays. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a.

a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Fruit .9. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. Bhallataka (Fr. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. 19 . composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Nallajidiginga Baladur.) Anacardiaceae). Scramkotati Nallajidi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. dark brown. drupaceous. smooth. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. 30-40 layers thick. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. obliquely ovoid. shining with residual receptacle. (Fam.5-3 cm long. nut 2. mesocarp a very broad zone. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. mesocarp and endocarp.

I. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.2. Appendix 0. innermost prismatic.3. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. ether.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.F.1.. Chedi. 2. DOSE .7. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Appendix 4 per cent.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. very much elongated radial walls. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Ka¶u. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. CONSTITUENTS . shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Gulma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).2. Tikta. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 11 per cent. Appendix 2. Ën¡ha.4.Dark-brown. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Kaphahara. being highly thickened. 2. 2. Graha¸¢. Powder . Note . IDENTITY.. 2. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. Bhedi.Ar¿a. Snigdha.5 per cent. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. chloroform.2.6. P¡cana.2.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A.2.2 g. Part-I 20 . V¡tahara. KuÀ¶ha. Krimi. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.

strigose with oppressed hairs. branched. herbaceous. Leaf .2. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. Soppu.50 cm high. obtuse or acute.10. sub-entire. upto about 7 mm in dia.) herbaceous annual. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.Herbaceous. node distinct.2 . rough due to oppressed white hairs. (Fam. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. not toothed. 2. erect or prostrate. Gurugada. Kesuriya. Tekar¡ja.Solitary or 2. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. together on unequal axillary peduncles. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. spreading. disc flowers 21 .. Keshavardhana. usually oblong. occasionally rooting at nodes. scarcely as long as bracts. often rooting at nodes. Kesari -Bhangaro. M¡rkava. strigosely hirsute. Bh¤´ga. involucral bracts about 8.Opposite. occasionally brownish. Stem . ray flowers ligulate. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. lanceolate. Knnunni Bhangra. Asteraceae).P.5 cm long.2 . cylindrical. ovate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. ligule small. Flower . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sessile to subsessile.8. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. Karisalai Guntakalagara. greyish. Bhringaraja (W. sub-acute or acute. white. 30 . Bhringiraja. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk.3 cm wide. Bhangro Bhangara. greenish. Karisalanganni. cylindrical or flat.Well developed. much branched. 1.

xylem ray distinct.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both.0. Seed . phloem rays broader towards periphery. brown. dark brown. vessels numerous. in macerated preparation vessels small. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. epidermis followed by wide cortex. hairy and non endospermic. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. fibre tracheids. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls.25 cm long. pitted. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. covered with warty excrescences. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled.1 cm wide. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. b) Microscopic Root . anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. xylem composed of vessels. cuneate. pistil bicarpellary. drum-shaped. with a narrow wing. pappus absent. rarely slightly oblique. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. fibres and xylem parenchyma. externally covered with cuticle. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. one seeded. warty. with very pointed tips. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. unilocular with one basal ovule. trichomes of two types. found scattered throughout wood. traversed by xylem rays. simple. 1-5 celled.0. uniseriate. ovary inferior. corolla often 4 toothed. Midrib . pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. free. and with pointed apical cell.Achenial cypsella.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. 0.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. tangentially elongated cells. Leaf- Petiole . consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. ray cells pitted. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. filaments epipetalous. stamen 5. epidermis followed by cortex. fibre tracheids. run straight in tangential section. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . covered with striated cuticle. consisting of rounded cells.2 . stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. non-glandular. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. Fruit .tubular.

in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length.5 on upper and 23. middle cells longest. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. more abundant on lower surfaces. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. epidermis single layered. some elongated with simple perforations. vascular bundles in a ring. externally covered with cuticle. warty. pitted with spiral thickening.Dark green.collenehymatous cells on both sides. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. palisade ratio 3. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. arranged in tangential strands. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. pericyclic fibres distinct. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. wide at the base. 23 . about 3 celled.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. externally covered with cuticle. Lamina . endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls.0 on lower surface. xylem consists of large number of vessels. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. peg-like outgrowth. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. hairs stiff. secondary cortex composed of large. pointed. endarch. Powder .5.8 -4.0-22. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. normally biseriate and uniseriate. trichomes entire or in pieces. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. Stem . uniseriate. collateral. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem.5 -26. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. the cork where formed. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. while the section cut at apical region. septa thick-walled. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. pointed tips and pitted walls.shows a dorsi ventral structure. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. stomatal index 20. xylem fibres with wide lumen.

Ke¿ya. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. áirah á£la.2. Ëmahara. 2.36 g. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3. Yak¤droga.7. 24 . THERAPEUTIC USES .áotha. of the drug in powder form for decoction. 2.2. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix 2.2.6 ml of the drug in juice form. Appendix per cent.4. CONSTITUENTS . Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.2. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. 2.Alkaloids. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 12 . N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila.3 . K¤miroga.2. Tekar¡ja marica. P¡¸·u.IDENTITY. Ras¡yana. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Tikta RukÀa.2. Dantya. CakÀusya. V¡tahara. Tvacya. ViÀahara.6. K¡sa. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. Appendix per cent. áv¡sa.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. H ¤droga.

Small. green or purplish green. Brahmi (W. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. Scrophulariaceae). Valabrahmi. Stem . green. Leaf . taste. (Fam. pedicels 6-30 mm long.& K.Simple. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. bracteoles shorter than pedicels.) Wettst. opposite. slightly bitter. axillary and solitary. wiry. Ondelaga. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. branched creamish-yellow. nodes and internodes prominent. prostrate or creeping annual herb.) H. 1-2 cm long. Syn. small. obovate-oblong. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. a glabrous. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. glabrous. 25 . succulent. taste.Thin.Thin. soft.Capsules upto 5 mm long.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. small. Flower . Brahmi.. found throughout India in wet and damp places. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. decussate.P. Fruit . about 1-2 mm thick. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .11. sessile. ovoid and glabrous. slightly bitter.B.

Tikta. 2.0 x 2. respectively. Matiprada. 2. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath.2. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.2.2. 2.2. 2. Appendix 2.2. and 8. Svarya. Medhya. b) Microscopic 26 . Appendix per cent. vascular ring continuous.0-14. Praj¡sth¡pana.Shows a single layer of epidermis. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Ras¡yana. pericycle not distinct. Appendix per cent.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Yellowish-brown. round and oval starch grains. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. Appendix per cent. round to oval. ËyuÀya. glandular hairs.3. IDENTITY. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Powder . starch grains simple. ViÀahara. V¡tahara.Root . simple.4.7. Stem . glandular hairs sessile. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. no distinct midrib present.. cortex having large air cavities.6. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.0 µ in dia. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Appendix per cent. endodermis single layered. endodermis single layered. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent.5-9. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .

P¡¸·u. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . 27 .KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ratnagiri Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. áopha. Jvara. Prameha.1-3 g in powder form. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.

tangentially elongated. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. woody. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. thin-walled. (Fam. Badikateri Kirugullia. phloem parenchyma much abundant. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. parenchyma and stone cells. traversed by phloem rays. cylindrical.12. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region.8 m high. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.15 layers of thin-walled. Solanaceae). a number of secondary roots and their branches present.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Ubhibharingani. no distinct odour and taste. Putirichunda Dorli. cork cambium single layered. Papparamulli.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. Heggulla. fracture.9 layers of thin-walled. a very prickly. Brihati (Rt. ribbed. Chichuriti. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. much branched perennial under shrub. b) Microscopic Root . 1-2. secondary cortex composed of 5 . isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . varying greatly in shape and size. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. long. upto 1. pale yellowish-brown. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata.5 cm in dia. short and splintery. oval and tangentially elongated cells.

cells radially elongated and pitted.2.10-20 g.5 per cent. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.3. Powder .5 . parenchymatous cells. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.6 µ in diameter. of the drug for decoction.. Kaphahara.2.7. tracheids.á£la. phloem and medullary rays. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. DOSE . thick-walled.4. measuring 5. IDENTITY.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 -11. H¤droga.2. V¡tahara. H¤dya. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. fibres and xylem parenchyma. all elements being lignified. traversed by xylem rays. vessels with simple pits.2. Appendix Not more than 6. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. 2.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. áv¡sa. P¡cana. 29 .Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. 2. 2. xylem rays uni to biseriate. aseptate fibres.2. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. measuring 5. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. rounded to oval starch grains. 2.6.11.2.6 µ in diameter. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS . Agnim¡dya. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. shows groups of thin-walled.Cream coloured. Appendix 2. Jvara.

endodermis single layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. Chavya -Kattumulaku. oval to rectangular. thin-walled. tracheid. officinarum DC. brownish cells. plenty of simple starch granules present.13.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. P. chaba Hunter non Blume. consisting of round. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. peppery. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. short. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. b) Microscopic Stem . cultivated mainly in Southern India. nodes and internodes distinct. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. (Fam. acrid. fracture. odour. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. Piperaceae). fleshy climber. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels.0 cm in width. a glabrous. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. secondary cortex a wide zone. cork cambium not distinct. Syn. P. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . Chavya (St. greyish-brown. taste.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam.. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab.5-2. fibres and xylem parenchyma.

Appendix 6 per cent. IDENTITY.Alkaloids. á£lal DOSE . Recana. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 3 per cent. round to oval starch grains. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. round to oval. D¢pana. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. 2. 2. Glycosides and Steroids. shows fragments of vessels.2. medullary rays multi seriate. P¡cana.2.3.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡.2. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. Appendix 1.2. of the drug in powder form. Pl¢h¡ Roga. starch grains.7. Powder . cells thin walled.1-2 g.Greyish-brown. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Udara Roga. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. filled with simple.4. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. 2. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Krimi.pitted and reticulate thickenings.6. Gulma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. RukÀa. 31 . Kaphahara. Ën¡ha.Ar¿a.2. fibres and simple.5 per cent.

Seed . Powder . and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. round. beneath this. LohitapuÀpa. Dadima (Sd.1-0. 0.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. found growing wild in the warm valley. consisting of oval to polygonal. oval.2 cm wide. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. angular. Punicaceae). taste. containing a few oil globules.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. shows stone cells.Reddish-brown. thin walled. sweetish-sour. wedge-shaped. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. triangular and rectangular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. 0. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. (Fam.6 cm long. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. round to oval. 32 . outer hills of Himalayas between 900. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.14. Maadalai. oil globules. Madalam Danimma Anar. cotyledons coiled. starch grains present in testa. endosperm absent.5-0. simple.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

ciliate. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. calyx. stout herb. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. 10 dentate with a villous throat. slightly curved. 1-2.35 cm wide. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . fracture. taste. fibrous.5 cm long and 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. fine rootlets.9 m in high.5 cm wide. about 0.Cylindrical. corolla. 1-2. more or less pubescent. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. glabrous in lower part. long with numerous wiry. Dronapushpi (W. slightly bitter.Light greenish-yellow. smooth. 1. surface rough.6-0.2-1. 1. crowded in dense. about 2-3. tubular.3-0.P. 3-9 cm long. white. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. hairy on upper part. taste. Leaf .Yellowish-green. size variable.25 cm long. hairy. taste. subacute. Gumma. zig-zag. scaberulous. nodes and internodes distinct. white. (Fam. crenate.7-2 cm 37 . globose. ovate or ovate.) Lamiaceae). upto 4 mm thick.16.lanceolate. Stem . an annual. lanceolate. Inflorescence . thin. serrate. acute.5 cm across. erect. characteristic. pungent.Sessile.

shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. nutlets 3 mm smooth. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. xylem consists of vessels. irregular. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. thin-walled 38 . 3-4 layers towards upper surface. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. tangentially elongated. wooly. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. tracheids.tangentially elongated. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.shows a single layered epidermis. endoderm is single layered. present in centre.long. thin-walled cells.vascular bundle arc-shaped. vessels and tracheids have simple pits.Schizocarpic carcerule. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. secondary xylem consists of vessels. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening.3 cm long and 0. Lamina . uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. oblong. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. Stem . palisade single layered. thin-walled cells. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. fibres and xylem parenchyma.1 cm wide.7 layered. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. 4 . bilipped. consisting of barrel shaped. Leaf- Petiole . composed of oval to rectangular. tracheids. round to angular collenchyma. vascular bundles 4. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. followed by round to oval parenchyma. dark brown. parenchymatous cells. smooth. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. Midrib . parenchymatous cells. trigonous.0. consists of a single layered epidermis. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Fruit . upto 8 cells high. Seed . brown. some having simple pits. b) Microscopic Root . cortex consisting of single layered. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. lateral lobes small. upper lip about 4 mm long. vessels long with spurs.

1-3 g of the drug in powder form.5 on lower surface. a few veins present in this region. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. IDENTITY.6.7. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 39 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. stomata diacytic. Ka¶u Guru. RukÀa. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.2.Dull yellow. palisade ratio 7-9. stomatal index 16. Tamaka áv¡sa.2. V¡takara. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. Agnim¡ndya. Bhedani. pitted and spiral vessels.2. K¡sa.Alkaloid. ViÀamajvara DOSE . Appendix 2. present on both surfaces. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. K¡mal¡.3. 2.2.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.6-30. Powder . Lava¸a. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. 2.cells.2. Glycoside. 16. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. aseptate fibres. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent.6-40. CONSTITUENTS . Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. Pittakara.2.áotha. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.7 on upper surface. 2. 2.

Hastipani. covered with thick cuticle.17. radially elongated to squarish. C. glossy. Ervaru (Sd. rounded and tangentially elongated. more or less ellipsoid. thin-walled. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. taste. 0. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. Karka¶¢. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. mesophyll cells thinwalled. Hastipani. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. surface smooth. Cucurbitaceae). cotyledons two. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. utilissimus Roxb. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. straight. 40 . Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. -Kakur. an annual creeping herb. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. parenchymatous. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. shows stone cells. cultivated in many parts of the country. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. B¤hatphala.3-0. (Fam. parenchymatous cells. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. Vellarika Kakadi.7-10 cm long. sweetish oily.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var.4 cm wide. creamish-yellow.

2.35.0. 0.5 per cent. 0.77. 0. 0.51. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. RaktadoÀakara.83.58. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .97 (all grey). 2.2.2. Kaphakara.64.C.97 (all yellow) . 2.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.V.26. 0.91 and 0.91 and 0. Appendix 0. Raktapitta.77. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.Oil & Sugars.L.19.D¡ha. T¤À¸¡. 0. 0.L. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Jvara.51.7. (366 mm). Appendix 2. Gulma. 41 . 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.3.6.91 (blue) under U.58. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.IDENTITY.26.2. Appendix 5 per cent. Rucya. Appendix 10 per cent.3-6 g. 0. 0.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of seeds.35. T. Tikta Guru.83.64.0. 2.19.0. Pittahara.C. D¢pana.2. V¡takara. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.2.4. 0. 0. A¿mar¢.

Araceae). Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.4 cm wide. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. smooth.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. greyish-brown with a dent.0-3. shiny.Shows more or less loosely arranged. b) Microscopic Fruit . parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Gajapippali (Fr.Kidney-shaped. rough and scaly. Orissa.6 cm long. 42 . 0.0 cm in diameter and 2. odour and taste not distinct. odour and taste not disticnt.18. thin-walled.0-3.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. Seed . Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . cut surface has a central core. brownish-grey. a large epiphytic climber. (Fam.5 cm thick. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.3-0. 0.4-0.

0. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.73 (both light brown) and 0. Powder . oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. THERAPEUTIC USES . oval to polygonal.Shows a single layered.65. 0. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. 0. Three spots appear at Rf.Glucosides viz.C.2. V¡tahara. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. 0. T.93 (brown). oval to polygonal. 2.2. in extract (Phant) form.65. áv¡sa.2. CONSTITUENTS .2.5 per cent. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.2. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Stanya. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 2. Agnivardhaka. 43 . Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent.65. Punarnav¡sava. 2. 2.Seed . 2.Atis¡ra.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.L. thick-walled.L. oval to polygonal. pitted and with concentric striations. 0. 0. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. 2-4 layered. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.65 and 0.93 (all blue) are visible.73 and 0.V. non-lignified.C. Ka¸¶hya. shows lignified.20. Kaphahara. Appendix T.27. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. 0. Sugars & Fixed Oil. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.áiv¡gutik¡. thick-walled. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. DOSE . IDENTITY. 0.93 (all yellow).27. K¤miroga. 0. Ka¸ha Roga.7.2. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.Dark brown.73 and 0.4.2-3 g. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.3.6. Malavi¿oÀana. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. 0.

taste. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . parenchymatous cells. Sr¢par¸¢. 0. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. black. light yellow. Verbenaceae). fleshy mesocarp. taste. tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Fruit . sweetish sour. 1. P¢takarohi¸¢. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. papery.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed.5-2.0 cm long. two seeded.) unarmed tree. Shivani. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. ovoid. radially 44 . K¡¿marya. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. Hannu -Kumbil. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. surface smooth. cotyledons consisting of single layered. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m.19.6 cm wide. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. Seed . oily. 0. multilayered. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. thin-walled cells. Seed . Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. Gambhari (Fr.4-0.5-1 cm long.Seed ovate. sometimes one seeded. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. crinkled. seed coat thin. (Fam. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered.A drupe.

2.08.2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .elongated epidermal cells. 45 ..26. Resin and Saccharine. H¤droga. Appendix 25 per cent. H¤dya. Tartaric acid. Appendix 6 per cent. Appendix 0. 0.Blackish-brown. CONSTITUENTS . 2. 0. Sara.03. Medhya. 2. oil globules and aleurone grains. 0.2. KÀaya. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. M£trak¤cchra. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0.52. T¤À¸¡. Alkaloid. 0. IDENTITY. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 8 per cent. Under U.18. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. 0.3. Powder . of the drug in powder form.1-3 g.4. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. 0. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.C. KaÀ¡ya Guru. KÀata.V.Butyric acid. 0.22. 0. Appendix 2.93 and 0. 0.Arvind¡sava. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. V¡tahara.42.6.7.2.C. Ras¡yana.2. Ke¿ya. Pittahara.2.98 (orange). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0. shows stone cells.L.D¡ha.L.12.4 per cent.03.98 (all yellow). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Amla.98 (all blue). T. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.98 (yellow) in visible light. Rakta Pitta DOSE . 0. 0.94 and 0. 2.

parenchymatous cells. oval.Shows a wide cork. light yellow. fibrous. consisting of tangentially elongated. secondary cortex wide. channelled. radially arranged cells. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. 1. taste. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. fibrous. rectangular. elliptical. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals.. Gangeru (St. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. thin-walled. consisting of 12-20 layered. Tiliaceae). a shrub 0. mucilaginous.Bk.6-1.20. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few stone cells.5-5 cm long. 46 . parenchyma and numerous thick-walled.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. blunt tips and moderately long in size. traversed by wide phloem rays. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . arranged in radial groups. thick-walled. fracture. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. moderately large in size. external surface smooth.0 m high. (Fam.) Aschers & Schwf. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. Grewia populifolia Vahl.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittavik¡ra. 0.L.Light yellow and fibrous. 0.6. 0.08. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. 0. 0. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2.41. Appendix per cent. 0.55 (blue) & 0.C.V. Appendix per cent. 0.C. 2. 0. IDENTITY.L.64 (blue). T.2.68 & 0.).3. β-amyrin etc. α-amyrin.48 (violet). 2.7. 0.48. Amla.17 (light violet).2. Two spots are seen at Rf. 2.Sugar.27. 2.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). THERAPEUTIC USES .35 (both light yellow) in visible light.35 (violet). 0.17. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Ka¶u.08 (violet). 0. 0. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.2. Tikta. 0.29 (blue).35 (dark blue).55. Appendix per cent. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.2-3 g. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. 0.2.27 (light violet). stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. Appendix per cent.17. 0.61. Under U.13 (blue). 0. 47 .08 (blue) 0.J¢rak¡di Modaka.Vra¸a. 0.4.88 (light violet). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .35. 0.88 (all yellow). 0.Powder .2. CONSTITUENTS .68 (light violet) & 0. DOSE .

slightly corky. most often irregularly curved. spreading throughout the plains. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . light brown.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m.21. b) Microscopic Root . when distinct. composed of 1-2 cells wide. Fabaceae). Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. simple or branched. Kundumani Guriginga. tangentially elongated cells. Gurivinda Ghongchi. (Fam. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. becoming mildly bitter. some with brownish content. smaller than stone cells. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. cork cambium. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. fruits ripen during winter. present at short intervals. feebly sweetish. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. Chonotee Ratti. thinwalled. Kakananti Rati Kunch. odourless. pitted walls. exfoliating in small flakes. gulagunja -Kunni. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. Gunja (Rt. flowering in August-September. cylindrical. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. Chanothee. bark thin. soft. a climber. Ghungchi Guluganji. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells.

V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5-13. wood composed of narrow concentric. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays.6.2. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. pitted walls.2. small groups of sclerenchyma. Mukha¿oÀa. 2. IDENTITY. Powder . xylem vessels with pitted walls.75 µ in diameter. Appendix 2.2. Appendix 10 per cent.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). groups of sclerenchymatous cells. DOSE . thin-walled and rectangular.Greyish-brown.5 per cent. numerous xylem fibres. Tikta á¢ta.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. THERAPEUTIC USES .1 . in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.3 g. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. vessels of varying sizes with thick. áula. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region.3.4. 2. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. Appendix 2. 2.2.75 µ in diameter. stone cells. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. Appendix 4 per cent. Appendix 9 per cent.7. parenchyma thin-walled. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5.2.5 -13. shows fragments of cork. CONSTITUENTS . Pittahara.diverging towards periphery. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. of the drug in powder form.Indralupta. 49 .

red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. closed type of vascular bundles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. odour.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. cylindrical. more numerous and closer towards periphery. (Fam. Poaceae). Serdi Ikha. taste. Ikshu (St. besides the xylem and phloem elements.) shrub. distinct node and internode. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. scattered throughout the ground tissue. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. characteristic. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. lignified. juicy and sweet. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. with.22. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. 50 . smooth. solid. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. b) Microscopic Stem . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. conjoint.

Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.Powder .Raktapitta.2. V¤Àya. Appendix Not more than 2. DOSE . shows pieces of epidermis. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. M£tra KÀaya. Pittahara.2.5 per cent. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. 51 .3. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.Sucrose.Powder light brick red. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.400 ml in the juice form.2. Appendix 2. IDENTITY.2. V¡tahara. 2. 2. Kaphahara.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2.2.7.200 . ground tissue. 2. vessels and sclerenchyma. Sara.4.Bal¡ Taila.6. Balya. THERAPEUTIC USES .

dull yellow. intensively bitter. occurring throughout the country.5 cm thick. pitted. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. Paythumatti. Indrayan. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. cylindrical.5-7. Indravaruni. fracture. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. lying around vessels. short. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. composed of sieve elements.5 µ in dia. áatakratulat¡. an annual or perennial. elongated with pointed ends. parenchyma and medullary rays. 0. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. parenchyma and medullary rays.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Varithummati. Tumbi Paikamatti. Indramanoa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. fibres. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. Gav¡kÀ¢. xylem forms bulk of root.2-2. Havumakke. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. taste. (Fam. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. tangentially elongated. thick walled. parenchymatous cells. a few filled with dark brown contents. Bitter apple Indravaran. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. Indrayanalata.) Cucurbitaceae). slightly twisted. Tuntikai. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal.23. thin walled. Indravarana Gothakakucti. consisting of vessels. Valiya Pekkumatti. thick-walled. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. tangentially elongated cork cells. Indravaruni (Rt. fibres aseptate. b) Microscopic Root . longitudinal fissures present. mostly simple or rarely 52 .

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

brownish-black.25. oval or roundish. Eugenia jambolana Lam. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. cuminii Druce. 1 cm wide. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.800 m. taste. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3.6 m with a bole up to 15 m.. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. 1 cm long.) Skeels Syn. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. rounded starch grains. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. smooth. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. coriaceous covering.Brown coloured. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. (Fam. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. thin-walled. astringent. oval. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. Jambu (Sd. 57 .. E. a large evergreen tree. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. Seed . Myrtaceae). b) Microscopic Powder .) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.

C.Madhumeha.30 and 0. 2.3-6 g. 0.30 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.2. 58 .7.20. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Kaphahara. KaÀ¡ya Guru.3. 2.Glycoside (Jamboline).2.2. three spots appear at Rf.2. Appendix per cent.2. DOSE . Appendix per cent.2.20.L.C. Appendix per cent.L.95 and 0. Tannin.95 (all violet). 2. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS .6. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. THERAPEUTIC USES .PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.V. 2. Udakameha. 0. 0. Amla. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. ViÀ¶ambhi.12. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. of the drug in powder form. T. Appendix 2.4. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. 0. Pittahara.95 (all yellow). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.IDENTITY.30 and 0. Appendix per cent.

6 m with a bole up to 15 m. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3.Bk. and reddish brown. Eugenia jambolana Lam. stone cells.26. oval to angular. Mahamaram.5 cm thick.) Skeels Syn. internal surface fibrous. Jamu. Jamneralae. light grey to ash coloured.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Raja Jambu Merale. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. cork cambium not distinct. 0. a large evergreen tree. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . upper few layers thick. lower cork thin and colourless. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. rough. Neralamara -Njaval. Navval Sambu. cuminii Druce. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. Jam Jammu Naaval.5-2. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. astringent. elongated. E. Jambu (St. stratified and reddish-brown. Myrtaceae). younger bark mostly channelled.. forming a rhytidoma. fracture. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. fibres aseptate. (Fam.800 m. Jambuda Jomuna. Jambu. short and splintery. and phloem rays. taste.

Stambhaka. 2. Raktapitta.10-20 g.Atis¡ra. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder .6. 2. Appendix per cent.2.2. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. V¡tala.U¿¢r¡sava. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . reddish-brown content. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. round to oval starch grains.region. Pittahara.Light brown.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. 60 . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.2. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. oval to angular. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. DOSE . elongated.7. aseptate fibres. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .4.3. Appendix per cent. 2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. stone cells. single or in groups.2. IDENTITY. round to oval starch grains. Appendix 2.

no marked odour. Neervalam. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. consisting of a large endosperm. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. thin-walled cells. b) Microscopic Seed . about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape.27. Euphorbiaceae). (Fam. Japala. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous.) small evergreen tree. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. filled with brownish content. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. found throughout tropical India. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent.Shows a hard testa. Neervalam Jepal. 5-7 m high. kernel yellowish and oily. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. Japal beej. ovate. dull cinnamon-brown. Jayapala (Sd. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. oblong. slightly quadrangular. 61 . Nervala -Nervalam. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. slightly bent at middle. consisting of an epidermal layer. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Tinti·¢phala.

Appendix 15 per cent. Appendix 2. 2.54 and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.C.29. Pittahara.White with black particles of testa. 0. Udararoga. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.Fixed oil.L.34.54 (yellow).2. (366 nm) three spots at Rf. 0. Appendix 7 per cent.2. 2. 0. of the drug in powder form. 0. 2.39. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. Vibandha DOSE . On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. Powder . CONSTITUENTS . 0.90 (all yellow).4. 2.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa.10.7. Appendix 3 per cent. Resins & Phorbol esters.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 0. 0. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.84 (brown).endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.49. 0.84 (all violet).Jvara.6.V. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. T.34 (grey). A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.5 per cent.6-12 mg.63 and 0. 62 .C. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.L.3. IDENTITY.2.

glabrous. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. Jalugu. 0. entire. oblong.8-6 m high. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. 1.28. palisade single layered. consisting of thin-walled.shows single layered epidermis. Jayanti (Lf. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. mucronate to acuminate. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. Fabaceae). S.Syn. a quick growing.3 cm long. Atti. Arishimajingai.5-15. 1.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. jayata Arinintajinamgi. á£kÀma patra.0-3. polygonal. opposite. leaflets 6-16 pairs. Jay¡..) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn.5 cm long. (Fam. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. present on both surfaces. stomata anisocytic.8 cm wide. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . pith small.7 layered round. -Semp. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells.3-0. paripinnate. Jayanti Jaita.) Merr. aegyptiaca Pers. short lived shrub. having secretory cavities in phloem. linear. 63 . Karijimangai. 7. very shortly stalked. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. parenchymatous cells. Lamina .

M£trak¤cchra.7.Dull green. V¡tahara. 0. Ras¡yana. Powder .37.2.48. 0. shows spongy parenchyma.69.2. palisade cells. 0. 0.19. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. 0.91 and 0. ViÀaroga. 0. Appendix per cent. in powder form.48.29.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.05. Appendix per cent. 0.2.29.11.56 (all pink) and 0. T.37.11. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.97 (all yellow). DOSE .29. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.Ratnagiri Rasa.97 (all grey).4. 0.19. 0.C. 2.L. 2. 0. Calcium and Phosphorus. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix per cent. 0. 64 .91 and 0. Appendix 2.05.2. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.56. CONSTITUENTS .2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. palisade ratio 3. 0.11. 0.V. 0. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.L. IDENTITY.25-4. Appendix per cent.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 0. 2.Protein.56. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .97 (yellow).C. 2. Galaga¸·a.6. 0.19.2. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara.05.3-6 g. 0. 0.

parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. (Fam. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. colour. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. bitter. unpleasant. taste. brownish-orange.29. Gangunge beeja. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces.hard. light to dark brown. ripe seeds.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. a large climbing shrub. odour.5-3. Jyotishmati (Sd. Gangunge humpu. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. seed without aril also prescent. collapsed. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . surface generally smooth and. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Celastraceae). Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni.35 mm in breadth. Seed . followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.

of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.7. 0.54 (both blue). Tikta Sara.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. V¡maka. dark brown.63. 0.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.3. UÀ¸a.2. Appendix 9 per cent.15. Meddhya 66 . 2.6.composed of polygonal. Kaphahara. 0. Appendix 1.L. 0. 0.54. (all blue) & 0.Oily. Virecaka. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. D¢pana. 0.94 (yellow).Alkaloids.L. Powder .20. 0. Under U.82 (pink) & 0.89.5 per cent. 0.35.94 (yellow) in visible light. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.35. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains.82. 2. 0.04. stone cells. Appendix 6 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .89 (both greenish blue). áirovirecanopaga. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.4.2. 0.82 & 0. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Appendix 20 per cent.2.C. 0. 2.54. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.2.89 (all yellow). 2. 0.82. V¡tahara.C.2.2. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). 0. Appendix 2. Appendix 45 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. 0. thin-walled.8 IDENTITY.V. Oil and Tannins.

DOSE . 67 . Sm¤tidaurbalya.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. ávitra.Seed: 1-2 g.V¡tavy¡dh¢. Oil : 5-15 drops. THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.

Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka.. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide.30. Syn. Vellaikhadambu. rectangular cells. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. a few cells with brown contents. elongated cells of phloem rays. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. 68 b) Microscopic . inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. indicus A. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. Indulam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Kadavala. Kadamba mara. Kadamba (St.Bk. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. some cells contain chlorophyll. taste. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. Priyka Roghu. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. composed of thin-walled.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Vellai Kadambam. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Kadamba Kadamba. a deciduous. Kadambu Needam. Rich. (Fam. Kadappai. Rubiaceae). large tree. Kadam Kadam. bitter. A. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kadamba Nipo. traversed by uni to triseriate.

Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. Appendix 1. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent.5 g.2. of the drug in powder form. Vra¸aropa¸a.90 (grey). Powder .Brown. Appendix 9 per cent.83 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . YonidoÀa. Appendix 3 per cent. 0. T.2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. 2.2. 2.03. 0. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. 0.D¡ha.5 . fibres.5 per cent. 69 .79. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.64.63 (yellowish grey). Appendix 2.2.13. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.4.6. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.21. DOSE .C. 0. phloem cells.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. cells distinct and slightly elongated.phloem fibres. Steroids.L.31. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. V¡tahara.0.70 (orange yellow). Graha¸¢mihira Taila. 0. 0. Lava¸a. Vra¸a.Alkaloids.2.79 (grey) and 0.1.5:10) shows under U. 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Raktapitta.2. 0.57. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. L C.7. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).3. 2. shows fragments of cork cells. 0.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.

Flower . Manitakkali. Kakamachi (W. oblong. anther 1. obtuse. style cylindric. Ganikegida. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. pale brown. filaments short. quite common in cultivated lands. Pikachia.2-2. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. 3-8 flowered cymes. green. glabrous.Simple. ovary globose.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. bark thin. Manatakkali.5 cm long and 2.5 mm long. found throughout the country in dry parts.31.Erect.5 cm wide. yellowish. glabrous or pubescent. petiolate. extra-axillary. calyx 2-3 mm long. sub-umbellate. sinuate. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. corolla 4-8 mm long. externally smooth. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. flattened. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . hairy at base. 70 . Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. oblong. road sides and gardens. ganike. thin. slender. slightly woody and branched. obtuse notched at apex. 1. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. Leaf . hairy in lower part.) Solanaceae). Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region.5-8. (Fam. very slender. a herbaceous annual weed. 30-45 cm high. Manaththakkali. white or pale violet. toothed or lobed. Stem . Ganikesopu. five lobed. ovate or oblong. pedicels 6-10 mm long. peduncles 6-20 mm long.Small. narrowed at both ends. glabrous. 2.P.25 mm long.

minutely pitted.A berry. uniseriate.' oval parenchymatous cells. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. vascular bundles-collateral. covering trichomes. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. covered with thick.Fruit . uniseriate. yellow or black. epidermis single layered. internal phloem. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. endoderrnis single layered.. measuring 2. xylem rays homogenous. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. covered with striated cuticle. LeafPetiole .. cambium 2-4 layered.. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma.25 µ in dia. covered with striated cuticle. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. arc71 . conjoint and open. parenchyma 4-6 layered.5 mm in dia. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces.Discoid. 6mm in dia. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. measuring 2. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. polygonal cells. smooth shining Seed . 1. usually accompanied by fibres. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. phloem rays uniseriate. slightly elongated.5-11 µ in dia. slightly striated cuticle. Midrib . vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. phloem consists of thin-walled. obtuse. bicollateral.10 layered in angular parts. in small or large patches. smooth. rays composed of thin-walled. pith large.. cortex of large. composed of thin-walled. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. tangentially elongated.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. radially elongated cells. filled with starch grains. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. central vascular bundle shallow. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. compactly arranged. single or with two or rarely 3 components. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered.Shows single layered. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. yellow. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. but 4. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. Stem . uniseriate. starch grains. embedded in perimedullary zones. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.5-8. trichomes multicellular. oval to round starch grains. arcshaped.

Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.97 (all yellow).2.C. 0.2.L. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. T. 0. both upper and lower epidermis single layered.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. Appendix per cent.6. 2.4. palisade single layered. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.2.06.Creamish-green. stomata anisocytic. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.06 & 0.06 & 0. Appendix per cent. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. 034 and 0. papery epicarp.L. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.2.2. single. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2.dorsiventral. 2.Alkaloids and Saponins.5 . Lamina . epidermis with irregular outline. Powder . 2. palisade ratio 2-4.C.7. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. present beneath palisade parenchyma. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.3. unicellular hairs.Shows thin. 0. a few broken pieces of pointed.34 (both pink). Fruit . measuring 2. Under U. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.11 µ in diameter.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.34 (both brown) in visible light.V. vein islet number 7-10. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. 72 . 2. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle.

V¡tahara. Netraroga. Prameha. Ras¡yana. THERAPEUTIC USES . H¤dya. 73 . Svarya. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.áotha.5 -10 ml. Sara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pittahara. of the drug in juice form. Ka¸·u. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Chardi. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H¤droga. Tikta Laghu. Hikk¡. KuÀ¶ha.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. DOSE . Jvara. Kaphahara. Ar¿a.

Naidile. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Chenthamara. Aravindan. 1. Aravinda. 2-4 cm long.. 3-5 cm long. corolla. anther. comprising of calyx. Kamalam.3-2 cm wide.5-3 cm wide.32. seed hard. Kalh¡ra. Sitopala. 1. Kamal. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. membranous. Tavare. carpels many. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. embedded in a creamy. petals numerous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. broken pieces also occur. Kamala (Fl. crimpled. elliptic. free. Kanwal Kamal. Padma. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Sarojam Kaluva.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. sepals leaf-like. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. Paduman.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. gynoceium apocarpous. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Thamaraipoo. Nymphaeaceae). black. starchy and large. crimp led.4-2 cm long. erect. yellowish-brown. Venthamara. Tavaregedd -Tamara. obtuse. fruit an etaerio of achenes. a large. dark brown. Pamposh Tamarai. androecium. gynoecium and thalamus. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. Syn. extended into clavate appendages. (Fam. finely veined. linear 1. 74 .

2. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis.shows four chambered anther.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.Dusty brown. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. spore sac contains yellow. M£tra Virajan¢ya. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. Pittahara.7. 2. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. Appendix per cent.filament appears circular in outline. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS .Aravind¡sava.12 -24 g.2. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. having smooth exine and intine. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle.4. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. Visarpa. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. Appendix per cent. Stamen Filament . followed by ground tissue of oval. . Sant¡pahara. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀavik¡ra. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.2. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. yellow pollen grains.b) Microscopic Flower Petal .2. of the drug for decoction. 2. angular. parenchymatous cell. Appendix per cent. rectangular.Raktapitta. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. spherical. vascular bundle single. Powder . Tikta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.6.3. composed of thin-walled.2. DOSE . two on either sides. Anther .Alkaloid (Nelumbine). columnar. parenchymatous cells.

xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. glabrous tree with strong. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. often cultivated in many parts of India. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. Belalu. slightly triangular and oval. taste. Belada hannu. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. sharp. hard. Rutaceae). Powder .) Swingle. Haminamara -Vilar maram. sour. found in groups. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. found throughout the plains of India. thin-walled. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Siwalik range and forests. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Syn. axillary thorns. straight. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp .Reddish-brown. Pulp. parenchymatous cells. Balada. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. 76 . a deciduous. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. elephantum Correa (Faro. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. reddish brown. stone cells. rough.shows irregular. Bilvara. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. F. odour. Kapittha (Fr. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. semicircular. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. aromatic. Kavataleal.33. stone cells.

CONSTITUENTS .50.14 (sky blue). Vra¸an¡¿aka. 6. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 0.2.IDENTITY. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. Hikk¡. Appendix per cent. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. 2. KaÀ¡ya. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.95 (blue).95 (all yellow).C. T.37.Citric acid and Mucilage. Lekhana. 2. 0.2. Gr¡h¢. 0. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. Under U. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.37 (brown). Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. of the drug in powder form. Unripe Pulp: Amla.91 (blue) and 0. Sangr¡h¢.95 (violet) . Appendix per cent.4.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. 0.06. 2. Appendix per cent.1-3 g.6.2. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.91 and 0.7. V¡mi. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. 0.V. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. 0.C.2. DOSE .12. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. Appendix 2. 0. Amla. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf.50 (violet).2. Agnim¡ndya.L. Pittav¡tahara.L.12 (brown).3.áv¡sa.2.91 (grey) in visible light. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 77 .91 (violet) and 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ripe-T¤À¡. 0.

and compound having 2-3 components. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree.Greyish-brown. light in weight. sometimes cultivated. (Fam .34. short.) Apocynaceae). parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. external surface brownish-grey. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. shows single and groups of stone cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. internal surface grey and smooth. 78 . Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. met throughout India in wild state. fracture. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. b) Microscopic Powder . tubular. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. flat or slightly curved pieces. Karamarda (St. simple and compound starch grains.Bk. rough due to longitudinal striations. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. starch grains simple.

2.97 (violet). Pittakara.C. Appendix per cent.3.2. Appendix 2. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. 2. DOSE .V.48 g. of the drug for decoction. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.2. 79 .90 (pink) and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.KuÀthahara.C. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.6. 0. T. 0. Appendix per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.2. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L.35. Appendix per cent.Marma Gu¶¢k¡.IDENTITY.4.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. 2.2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .7. 0. 0. 2.L.52 (light sky blue).58 (both light grey).

secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. internally.. taste.) Merr. P. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. (Fam. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. a glabrous tree. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. very bitter. tangentially elongated cells.. tangentially elongated. Naktam¡la. Fabaceae). most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. thin-walled. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. cells. due to peeling off. Nakt¡hv¡. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. single cells of varying shape and size. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. Karanja (Rt. traversed by phloem rays. secondary phloem very wide. 3-11 µ in dia. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.) glabra Vent. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. fibrous. fracture. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. most of phloem 80 . external surface rough.35. Bk. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups.

51.47. 0. Tikta. 0.K¤miroga. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. 2. Appendix 2. 0. 0. 0. Appendix 3. V¡tahara. 1-2 seriate.13 (Sky blue). 0.Flavones Kanugin. Prameha.C.18 (blue) 0.47.98 (all yellow). parenchymatous cells. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.2.08 (greenish blue). 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.2.80 and 0.31. Yoniroga. 0.5 per cent.18. 2. 2. similar to those present in secondary cortex. of the drug for decoction. Ka¸·£ghna.4. phloem fibres.2. Ka¸·u. phloem rays many. 0. most of ray cells contain starch grain. DuÀ¶avra¸a.3.2. Appendix 17 per cent.09.37. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 2 per cent. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. Powder -Creamish-yellow. mostly straight. 0. IDENTITY. Ëntravidradhi. 0.04 (blue). 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . cork cells. 0.25 (sky blue). 0. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. DOSE . 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex.1-3 g. 0.47 (greenish yellow). T. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 11 per cent.V. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.51 (light blue).7. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.6.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.L.2. 2.80 (light blue). consisting of thin-walled. Pittahara. KuÀtha.37 (greenish yellow). 0. 0.31 (sky blue). ViÀaghma.42 (sky blue).C.L. 81 . shows thin-walled.

light in weight. thin-walled. reddish-brown or dull brown. secondary phloem a very wide zone. irregularly distributed. (Fam. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. P. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. 3-11 µ in dia.) Vent. tangentially elongated cells. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal.. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. bitter. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. taste. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.) Merr.36. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Karaµjaka. bark does not easily separate from xylem. tangentially elongated. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Nakt¡hv¡. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. rough due to the presence of numerous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. consisting of 82 . cells.. internally light yellow. Karanja (Rt. 1-2 seriate. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. a glabrous tree. bark. rounded to oval in shape. fracture. Fabaceae). Syn.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1-2 g.4. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. of the drug in powder form.2.DuÀ¶avra¸a. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.2. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3. CONSTITUENTS . ViÀaghna. Appendix per cent.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Ka¸·£. Kanugin.6. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. Appendix per cent. Vidradh¢. IDENTITY. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Prameha. 2. DOSE . 2. Yoniroga.radially elongated. KuÀ¶ha. K¤miroga. rounded to oval in shape. Ëntravidradh¢. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Appendix per cent.2. Pittahara. Powder -Light yellow. consisting of 2-3 components.2.2. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. thin-waned cells towards inner region.Methylfisetin. Vra¸a¿odhana. fibres and parenchyma. 83 . starch grains. V¡tahara. Demethoxy-kanugin. Tikta.2.. Kaphahara. tangentially elongated towards outer region. more. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. tracheids. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.7.Karanjin. shows fibres in singles or groups.

found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.) glabra Vent. tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. b) Microscopic Bark . 84 . lenticellate pieces. fracture. Karanja (St. more or less smooth. thick-walled cells. taste. arranged in a tangential manner. phloem fibre and stone cells. bitter. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells.Bk. usually 0. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Merr.2-1 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Nakt¡hv¡. short and fibrous. slightly quilled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled.. unpleasant. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. fibre small. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Karaµjaka. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. alternating with stone cells. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells.37. recurved. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. traversed by medullary rays. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. Karanja. composed of rectangular. at some places lenticels also appear. thin-walled. odour. Fabaceae). filled with reddish-brown content. (Fam. phloem parenchyma. a glabrous tree.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. P. Syn.

Gamatin. oil globules. Appendix 2. Pittahara. Kaphahara. aseptate fibre and stone cells. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. starch grains simple. and rarely. simple and compound starch grains.6.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. 2.. Ka¸·u. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. Demethoxy- kanugin. Pongapin. ViÀaghma. rounded to oval.polygonal. Prameha. usually 2-4 cells wide.2. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. of the drug in powder form. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.7.4.2. Appendix 3 per cent.3. Kanugin. 85 .2. 2. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. Appendix 13 per cent. Yoniroga DOSE . radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. K¤miroga. 3" 7 : 8).1-2 g. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.DuÀ¶avra¸a. elongated. Vidradh¢. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. 3". Ëntravidradh¢. 2.2. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate.5 per cent. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. Tikta. medullary rays wavy. Appendix 1. Ka¶u. CONSTITUENTS . 2. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. V¡tahara. Appendix 18 per cent. IDENTITY.2. thin-walled and aseptate. Powder -Yellowish-cream. present in secondary cortex. 5Methoxyfurano (2". THERAPEUTIC USES . flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha.2. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Pinnatin. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components.

a glabrous tree. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. Karanja (Lf.) Merr. Karanja.5 cm long and 3. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Syn. 86 .) Vent. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex.circular in outline. Nakt¡hv¡. traversed by xylem rays. consistig of tabular cells. Kanajo Karuaini. P. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. Hulagilu -Pungu.9-8.38. isodiametric. leaflets 2-3 pairs.3 cm wide. xylem vessels arranged radially. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Pongana Ganuga. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. Dithouri Honge.. Fabaceae).2 . Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Unu. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. consisting of xylem and phloem. Ungu. Karaµjaka. petiolule short.5-0. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. epidermis single layered. 6. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule .8 cm. vascular bundle single. arcshaped. cortex consisting of angular. dark green. 0. covered with cuticle.11.

6. 7) -flavone. cortex consists of round to oval. Kaphahara. K¤imihara. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. covered with thick cuticle.5) .4. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. Pittavardhaka. consisting of tabular cells. Appendix 10 per cent.5". .2. 5" . Appendix 3. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.7.2.5-20. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. 2. stomatal index 12. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Powder -Green. Appendix 11 per cent. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.(4". pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. stomata anisocytic. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". 2.shows single layered epidermis.3.5 per cent. collateral. palisade two layered. palisade ratio 3. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.5-50.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. Appendix 16 per cent. Appendix 2.A new Furanoflavone -3' .flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4".2. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. Ka¸·ughna. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . phloem and pith. CONSTITUENTS . followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.Mid rib . V¡tahara. vascular bundle.2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.6.6. 2. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. Ka¶u. shows spiral xylem vessels. 5". Tikta. 2. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. mesophyll cells.6. present in lower surface.2. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.2.

K¤miroga. Ka¸·au. KuÀ¶ha. DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vra¸a.J¡ty¡di Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . 88 .For external use only.

(Fam.39. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. surface rough. Appendix 28 per cent.2.2. K¡ravall¢. Kakiral. Varivall¢. pendulous.4. Appendix 6 per cent. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.2.5 .2. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. usually pointed or beaked. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. fusiform.6 per cent.7. upto an altitude of 1500 m. oblong.25 cm long. 3 valved at the apex when mature. Appendix 0. Kathilla. extremely bitter. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation.) Cucurbitaceae). Nil Appendix 8.2.Fr. 2. Appendix 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella.2. 2. Karavallaka (Fresh.5 per cent.6.3. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. taste. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. IDENTITY. 2.

Raktavik¡ra. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf.L. T.98 (red & sky blue). 0.10 .Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides.C. Prameha.96 (sky blue). P¡¸·u.C.15 ml. 90 .61 (light sky blue). 0. 0. Aruci. K¡sa. 0. 0. Kaphahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. 0.98 (all yellow). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.67 and 0. K¡mal¡. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. DOSE . 0.46. 0. KuÀ¶ha.L.81 and 0. 0. K¤miroga.43.03. CONSTITUENTS .16.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.60. juice of fresh drug.áv¡sa.T.V. D¢pana. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi.50. 0.75. 0. Jvara. 0.98 (all blue).34. H¤dya.17.23 (red). On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. V¡tahara.

short. primary cortex persists 91 . kaur Katuka rohini. bitter. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. Scrophulariaceae). Tiktarohi¸¢.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. suberised cells. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. short. Katuku rohini. pleasant. straight or slightly curved. Katuka rohini Kutki. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. taste. Rohi¸¢. Root . bitter. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. fracture. pleasant. 0. Sutiktaka. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini.2. Katki. . cork cambium 1-2 layered.40. Kaurohi¸¢. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. fracture. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. taste. externally greyish-brown. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. mostly attached with rhizomes. odour. b) Microscopic Rhizome . tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. dusty grey. subcylindrical. inner surface black with whitish xylem. 5-10 cm long. a perennial.1 cm in diameter. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome .05-0. Kauka. odour.Thin. cortex single layered or absent. cylindrical. Katuka (Rz.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Kav¢.

mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. vessels have varying shape and size.3.104 µ in diameter. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.2. parenchyma. 0. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. 0.37. Appendix 2. thick-walled. 0.30 (blue) and 0. 0. Appendix per cent. tracheids. 0. secondary xylem consists of vessels. 0. 92 . tracheids long. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.30. thick-walled.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. secondary phloem poorly developed. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. simple round to oval. 0.7. 0.C. cortex 8-14 layered. some cylindrical with taillike. starch grains.17.2. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation.05 (blue). starch grains.21. 2.35 (green).Dusty grey. 2. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. parenchymatous cells.62.2.2.05.21. Appendix per cent. Powder . Appendix per cent. tracheids.C.V.. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. 0.4. 0. fibres aseptate.17.41 and 0.84 (all brownish grey). 0. tapering ends.L. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. 0. parenchyma and fibres.2. simple round to oval. thick-walled cells of endodermis.72 and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent.41. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U.84 (all yellow). primary stele tetrach to heptarch. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. IDENTITY. lignified.in some cases. measuring 25 .30. thick-walled. consisting of oval to polygonal. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. cambium 2-4 layered.10. abundantly found in all cells. thick-walled. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. hypodermis single layered. 2. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. 0.L. 2.10. T. 0. Appendix per cent.6. 0. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.

Glucoside (Picrorhizin). Arocaka. 93 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . K¡mal¡. D¡ha. Pittahara. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. ViÀamajvara. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. D¢pan¢.áv¡sa.3 g. Bhedin¢. of the drug in powder form. THERAPEUTIC USES .CONSTITUENTS .1 .Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Jvara. KuÀ¶ha.

Hygrophila spinosa T. no characteristic odour and taste.5 cm long. a spiny. Culli. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. lanceolate.Mostly adventitious.6-2 cm long. 0. no characteristic odour and taste. fasciculate.6 cm long.5-1 cm wide. stamens 4. calyx 4-partite. corolla 3.41. Leaf . Nirchulli.Acanthaceae). Flower . didynamous. subsessile. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. 1-7 cm long. Stem . Kolavankal ---. widely 2 lipped.Usually unbranched.P. all linear-lanceolate. Kolarind.Anders (Fam. stout. swollen at nodes. annual herb. whitish to brown.Greenish-brown. acute. Kalsunda --Golmidi. second pair 94 . Kettu. common in water logged places throughout the country.3 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. which are 1.Yellowish-brown.2 cm long. bracts about 2. abruptly swollen at top. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. entire and hairy. IkÀuraka. with long white hairs. externally greyish-brown. broader than the other three. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. Nirguvireru. Kokilaksha (W. Vayalculli Talikhana. sub-quadrangular. tube 1. upper sepal 1. Syn.

having small intercellular spaces. phloem narrow. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. hairy but appearing smooth. style filiform. scattered throughout the phloem region. 4seeded. single or in groups of 2-3. oblong. moderately thick-walled. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. ray cells thin-walled. compressed. glabrous. consisting of round to polygonal cells.15 cm wide. radially elongated in secondary xylem. a few thick-walled. brownish cells. light brown. Fruit . composed of transversely elongate. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. peripheral ones larger. pubescent. capsule about 0. round. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.1 . 95 . 0. anthers two celled. rectangular to cubical.8 cm long.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell.0. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. thin-walled cells. filament quite glabrous. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong.Two celled. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex.25 cm long and 0. variable in size. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. phloem fibres thick-walled. broader towards centre. radially arranged. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region.2-0. secondary xylem forms continuous ring.larger. linear-oblong. vessels angular. composed of polygonal. with a number of large air cavities. truncate at the base. thin-walled. pointed. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. ray cells thin walled. Seed . collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. Stem . inner cells smaller. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. xylem present in a ring. flat or compressed. fibres thick-walled. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. arranged radially. subequal. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. fibre walls uniformly thickened. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. arranged in radial rows. b) Microscopic Root . arranged radially having spiral thickenings. stigma simple. vessels with spiral thickenings. polygonal cells. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. endodermis single layered. involute with a fissure on upper side.Ovate. radially elongated in xylem region. pith large. cortical cells thin-walled.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled.

3. 2. V¤Àya.2. Amla. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. M£trala. parenchymatous cells. Rucya. thin-walled. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. Appendix per cent.LeafMidrib . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. sclerenchymatous cells. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.2. stomatal index 17. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. stomata diacytic. 2.6. shows aseptate. V¡jikara. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. thick-walled. Appendix per cent. unicellular hairs and globules. composed of thin-walled. palisade ratio 6. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins.Shows concavo-convex outline.2. Powder .75. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.2.Light brown. Fruit . embryo composed of oval to polygonal.7. Appendix per cent.25-15. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . covered with thick cuticle. Seed .2. lignified.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. vein islet number 17-42. palisade. Tikta Picchila. oval to hexagonal. 2. Lamina . 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.4.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. . spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules.2. Appendix 2. tangentially elongated cells.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. parenchymatous. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.24-30. 2. elongated fibres.78. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. collenchyma 2-5 layered. palisade 1-2 layered.

Ëmav¡ta áotha.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). V¡tarakta.T¤À¸¡. of the drug in powder form. 97 . THERAPEUTIC USES .3 -6 g.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE .

) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Culli --. slightly transversely elongated. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. no characteristic odour and taste. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. whitish to brownish. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. polygonal cells.42. Kokilaksha (Rt. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. secondary phloem narrow. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. branches on nodes. Kokil¡kÀ¢. annual herb. thin-walled. common in water logged places throughout the country. stout. the size of these cells. Nerugobbi. Root-Appears circular in outline. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. thinwalled cells. consisting of small. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. Kolavulike. IkÀuraka. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. 98 . a spiny. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Syn. Hygrophila spinosa T.Acanthaceae). Anders (Fam. Kolavankae -Vayalculli.

6. lignified fibres. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. 2. shows fragments of pitted. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region.2. Appendix per cent. V¡tarakta.2. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. secondary xylem forms continuous ring.3.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . A¿ma¤¢. fibre walls uniformly thickened. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.4. Amla. scattered throughout the phloem region. of the drug for decoction. angular.Light brown to ash coloured. M£trala. Tikta Picchila.2.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. 99 .3 -6 g. Appendix per cent. vessels with spiral thickening. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. 2.2. V¡tahara. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. Appendix 2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .7. each group composed of 2-6 cells.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. ray cells thin-walled. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.Ëmav¡ta áotha.2. radially elongated in the xylem region. Powder .2. having spiral thickening. broader towards centre.

taste. Powder . IkÀuraka. flat or compressed. Kokilaksha (Sd. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. shows hairs and oil globules. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. thinwalled. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. Maradarishina -Maramannal. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. annual herb.8 -10. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Daruhuladur Darhald. Swelling Index . truncate at the base. Maradarishana. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. a spiny.Greyish-brown. (Fam.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. common in water logged places throughout the country. Syn. light yellowish-brown.43.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Anders. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Hygrophila spinosa T. hairy but appearing smooth. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. oil globules present in this region. Acanthaceae). Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. stout. b) Microscopic Seed . parenchymatous cells. the 100 . when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. white.

2. 0.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.03. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.An yellow semi-drying oil.24 (dark brown). of the drug in powder form.6. Pitt¡¿mar¢. 2.72 (all yellow). Santarpa¸a.38.24 (red).2. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.3. including any sticky mucilage. 0. Appendix per cent. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. Kaphahara. 101 .31 (dark brown). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.41 (light blue). 0.38 (light brown). IDENTITY..52 (dark brown) and 0.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. Appendix per cent. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. Appendix 2. 0. related to 1 g of seeds. 0.17.76 (sky blue) and 0.V. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.2. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.03 (light brown).10 (light brown).internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.C. 2. Appendix per cent.áotha. 0.3 -6 g. 0. 0. 0.L.4. 0. V¡tarakta. 0. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .2. CONSTITUENTS . enzymes like Diastase. Lipase. DOSE . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.L.2.31.24.93 (sky blue). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf.17 (light brown). V¤Àya. Protease and an Alkaloid.55 (light blue). T.72 (dark brown). 0. 0. 0. 0.52 and 0. Add 25 ml of water.

3 cm long. Lonika. Payilikura. 0. Paruppukkeerai. smooth and greenish-brown. Pulikkirai.3 to 2. Kozhuppa.35-0. 50 cm long.Simple. sepal 0. Moti Luni Khursa. characteristic. petals obovate. fracture.1 to 0. Loni. Flower . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . root hairs abundant in upper region. Khurfa. dehiscing above the base.2 cm in diameter. found throughout the country. 0. Loni -Koricchira.A few. at terminal heads. Peddapavila Kura. an annual succulent. odour. fracture. stamens 8-12. Stem . 0. small. short.1 to 0. subtended by an involucre. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. secondary roots. oblique. bright yellow. Badi Lona Dudagorai.4 cm long. Leaf . Kwfa Pasalai. Doddagoni Soppu. surface smooth. 0. oblong. rounded and truncate at the apex.44. style 5-6 fid. ribbed.4 cm long. 3-4 leaves. Loni. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. swollen at the nodes. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Kozhuppu Pappukura. -Baraloniya. very delicate and soon falling off. Kuzuppa (W. (Fam. Fruit .P) Portulacaceae). sub-sessile. Kozuppa. Kulfa. branched. Common Indian Purslane Luni. less in number. spathulate.Cylindrical. Ghola -Lonak.Almost cylindrical.25-0. 102 . Chhotalunia. Gho¶ik¡. cuneiform. Baranunia Garden Purslane.An ovoid capsule. short.5 cm long. 0. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. brownish-grey. prostrate herb.5 cm long and 0.6 cm wide. Badanuni. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡.

vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening.3.Wavy in outline. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled.7. tracheids and parenchyma. 2. secondary xylem consists of vessels. Appendix per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.2. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged.2.2. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. 0. minute. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. Stem . present in mesophyll cells. phloem and xylem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. black. tracheids and parenchyma.06-0.2. palisade single layered. LeafMidrib . Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. Appendix 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. pericycle fibre present in patches. as well as compound. Lamina . having simple pits and spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. secondary xylem composed of vessels. tracheids. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. having 2-3 components. . dark brown. stomata paracytic type. IDENTITY. simple as well as compound. arranged in radial rows.2. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. shows groups of oval to polygonal. b) Microscopic Root . simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. Powder .. 2. having intercellular spaces. 2. phloem. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen.07 cm across. reniform. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. oval cells. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. fragments of cork cells.Shows 5-15 layers of cork.Greyish-brown. measuring 6-14 µ . shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. thick-walled with wide lumen. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. vessels.Seed -Numerous. solitary or in groups of 2-5.2. ray cells and pith. covered externally with a thick cuticle. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents.6. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. Appendix per cent. parenchyma abundant. thin-walled.4. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. pitted and spiral vessels. 2. oval.

10. 0. T.52..L. V¡tahara. 0. 0.50. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.68 and 0. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.L.10. Ar¿a. 0.Agnim¡ndya. 0. 0. 0.08. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.41. 104 . Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. Pittakara.52 (both faint green).41. Gulma. RukÀa. 0.C. THERAPEUTIC USES .98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .C.68 (yellow) and 0.61.76 (green) in visible light. of the drug in powder form.08. áotha. 0. (both green).V. 0. 0.10.Marma Gu¶ik¡.T. Prameha. Carbohydrates.Protein.76 and 0. CakÀuÀya.68. Under U. Vra¸a DOSE .6 g.3 .76 (all pinkish red). 0.

sensitive to touch.P) diffused undershrub. Stem . stipulate. 105 . petiolate. Lajauni Muttidasenui. bark fibrous. nearly glabrous. greyish brown to brown. bark fibrous. obliquely rounded at base.2 cm long. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. Lajavanti. Var¡kr¡nt¡. Lajjalu (W. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. rependant .Cylindrical.6-1. covered with long. leaflets 10-20 pairs.4 cm broad. distinct. Machikegida.5 cm in dia. taste. easily separable from wood. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. varying in length. sparsely prickly. tapering. slightly astringent. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 0. alternate. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. Leaf . yellowish-green. with secondary and tertiary branches. Adamalati Lajaka. Fabaceae).week bristles longitudinally grooved. upto 2. woody. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. sessile. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡.3-0. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country.45. 25-50 cm high. acute. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. linear lanceolate. internal cut surface grey. external surface light brown. fracture hard. Lajamani Chhuimui. (Fam.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile.Cylindrical. 0. hairy pinnae. upto 2 cm thick. obliquely narrow or linear oblong.

vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. much exserted. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. in globose head. Stem .Lomentum. starch grains.Compressed. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. fibres. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. ovary sessile.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. spreading bristle at sutures. b) Microscopic Root . lobes 4. straw coloured. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. 3-25 chambered. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. a number of lignified. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. tangentially elongated cells. consisting of large. simple. corolla pink. thick-walled. phloem rays thick-walled. brown to grey.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face.4-0.6 cm long. radially elongated. parenchyma. crystal fibres thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. stamens 4. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. rarely multiseriate. peduncles prickly. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Fruit . scattered throughout. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. xylem rays radially elongated. fibres of two types. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. 106 . Seed . each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.3 long. oval-elliptic. thick-walled. filled with reddish-brown contents.3 cm long. dry. respectively. tangentially elongated to oval. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. calyx very small.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. 1-1. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. 2-3 seriate more common. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. secondary cortex wide.Pink. scattered throughout secondary xylem. ovules numerous. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. crystal fibres elongated. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. pith consisting of polygonal. 0.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. fibres single or in groups. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. 0. glabrous. phloem fibres single or in groups. 0. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. moderately thick-walled. thick-walled. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. arranged in tangential bands.Flower . ovate oblong. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. 2. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high.

Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.L. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells.69 (all blue) and 0. parenchymatous cells. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. spongy parenchyma. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. pericycle same as in petiole. pericycle arranged in a ring. one in each wing. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. covered with thin-cuticle.shows epidermis on both surfaces. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . reticulate. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. branched. shows.C.62. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. endocarp of thick-walled. Appendix per cent. T.2. palisade single layered. shaggy hairs.35. single and compound starch grains.2. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. fibres. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. Midrib .Leaf- Petiole . 0. 2. vascular bundle single. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. branched.3 components IDENTITY. pitted vessels. thin-walled. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.Shows single layered radially elongated cells.V. lignified cells followed by single layered.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. Appendix 2. Fruit . with 2 .Reddish-brown.4.L. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally.6. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells. Lamina .2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. crystal fibres. shaggy hairs.7.81 (bluish-pink). parenchymatous cells Seed .C.2. palisade cells non glandular.3. Powder .2.shows single layered epidermis. 2. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. spongy parenchyma single layered. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. 2. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.

THERAPEUTIC USES . Ku¶aj¡valeha.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. áv¡sa. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Kaphahara. Vra¸a. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 0. Raktapita DOSE .35 and 0. Yoniroga. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS . Atis¡ra. D¡ha.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. 0. 108 .35 (orange).áopha.spots appear at Rf.

tabular. Madhuka. Hippenara.F. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. (Fam. corolla fleshy. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. ovate lanceolate. Sapotaceae) . epipetalous and arranged in two series. short. Kattu Iluppai. Halippe. Mahawash tree Mahudo.46.Gmel. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. erect 0. sweet. Madhuka (Fl. followed by thin-walled. Hippe. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Eppimara -Irippa. Ilippa. a few 109 . Syn. reddish-brown. M. Iluppa. anther sub-sessile. latifolia (Roxb. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. basifixed.) Macbride. Ippa. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Mahua Katiluppai. lanceolate. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). epipetalous. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle.5-2 cm long.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Androecium . taste. and also cultivated. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. b) Microscopic Corolla .Petal shows a single layered epidermis.

2. unicellular hairs. 2. pollen grains single or in groups.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2.2. of the drug.10 .5 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS .9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . spherical. KÀata.2. Ah¤dya. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. IDENTITY.3. KÀaya. 110 . D¡ha. V¡tahara. Appendix 2. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 70 per cent.unicellular hairs present on one side. 2. round. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. 2.6. Appendix 10 per cent.2. Pittakara.Madh£k¡sava. árama DOSE . lignified cells. El¡di Modaka. endothecium composed of radially elongated.2.áv¡sa. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. áramahara. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. 2.Dark brown.4. 2. tapetum not distinct.7. THERAPEUTIC USES . Balya. shows fragments of epidermal cells. T¤À¸¡. oval shaped. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. Appendix 25 per cent.15 g. Appendix 0.

1-0. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. Br. triandra Lam. Syn.) R.. Matsy¡duni. or elliptic. no characteristic odour and taste. internodes 0. obtuse or subacute..47. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. cream to grey. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. A. (Fam.3-2 cm wide. A. sessile. Stem . A. 2. fracture.5 cm long. sometimes reaching 10 cm long.5 cm wide. 0.6 cm diameter. Flower .) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. with spreading branches from the base. Bahli. A.3-7. Br. yellowish-brown to light-brown.5-5 cm long. short.1. no characteristic odour and taste. Gandal¢. bracteoles 111 . non Link.Herbaceous. nodes and internodes distinct. nodiflora R.P. often rooting at lower nodes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡.Cylindrical. linear-oblong. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. Amaranthaceae).. fracture.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. denticulata R. Leaf . Br. Matshyakshi (W. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . white often tinged with pink. repens Gmel. weak.. 0.. no characteristic odour and taste. short.

tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. round or oval. isodiametic cells.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. acute. with anomalous secondary growth.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. Lamina . ovate. radially arranged cork cells. xylem tissues lignified. open and exarch. stomata paracytic. vascular bundles three. thin-walled. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. with are conjoint. scarious. perianth 2. bicollateral. Stem .dorsiventral. thin-walled round or oval. vascualr bundles radially arranged. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex narrow. consisting of thin-walled cells. each consisting of xylem and phloem. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. round to oval. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. capitellate. parenchymatous cells.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. parenchymatous cells.1. present in the centre. parenchymatous cells. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. consistig of thin-walled. shows wavy or undulate. 112 . 1. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. single layered.Utricle. irregular. orbicular. no characteristic odour and taste. parenchymatous cells. ovary obcordate. pith consisting of thin-walled. collenchymatous cells. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral.5 mm long. sepals ovate. composed of thin-walled. pith distinct.5-3 mm long. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. no characteristic odour and taste. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. numerous. b) Microscopic Root . thin. isodiametric. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. covered wtith striated cuticle. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. compressed with thickened margins. style very short. Leaf- Midrib . a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. compressed.2 cm long. palisade ratio 3-5. Fruit . palisade 2-3 layers.

Appendix 4. 0.V. Pittavik¡ra.35. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. 0.81. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. T. Appendix 10 per cent.7. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.18. THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta.KuÀ¶ha.L. 0.2.C. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 3 per cent.44. Appendix 19 per cent. 2.44 (all green).2.16. 0. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.Olive green.3. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. paracytic stomata. Kaphahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 0.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. Appendix 2. 0.L. IDENTITY. 0.4.2.44.25.54 and 0. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Raktavik¡ra DOSE .Powder .33. 2.96 (all yellow). V¡tahara. 0. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.2. Under U. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. 113 .2..16. of the drug in powder form. 2.6. CONSTITUENTS .94 and 0. 0.Sugar. 0.33 and 0.68 (all red).C.5 per cent.59. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.2 -3 g. 2.

very hard. Fabaceae).2-0. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. taste. annual herb. 0. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. mucilaginous cells. thin-walled.Seed shows a layer of thick. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. pleasant. Methi (Sd. dull yellow. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated.walled. several layers of thin walled. cultivated throughout the country.15-0. 0. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. b) Microscopic Seed .35 cm broad. odour. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. smooth. cells flat at base. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. varying in size. covered externally with thick cuticle. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. columnar palisade.48. parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. (Fam.) aromatic. 114 . 30-60 cm tall. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side.5 cm long. bitter.

Yellow. of the drug in powder form. Kaphahara.5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2. IDENTITY. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. 2. aleurone grains. Appendix 2.2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Prameha. 2. Jvara.6. Appendix 5 per cent. 115 .Mustak¡riÀ¶a. Powder .3-6 g.2. Rucya.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. Appendix 0. Appendix 4 per cent.4.2. oil globules. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES .3.Graha¸¢. 2. Aruci DOSE .Alkaloid. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. Sapogenins and Mucilage. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.

Flower in long terminal raceme. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. Stem . compressed.49. taste.Lower leaves hairy. not distinct.) Brassicaceae).P. sometimes brown red. variable size and thickness. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. upper most leaves simple. having a few longitudinal striations.3 cm long. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.Root cylindrical. bright green. cylindrical. sub-marginate at the apex. petals 1. odour.5-10 cm long. blade obovate. Flower .1-1. pedicel with scattered hairs.. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . seplas 6. an annual or biennial bristly herb. bisexual. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. hollow.0 cm in dia.Slender. Muli. regular. lyrate. Mulaka (W. yellowish-green. coarsely toothed. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. slightly pungent. 0. Leaf . smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying.7-2. white or lilac with yellow or 116 .000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. complete 1-2 cm long. oblong. petiole 5-5. (Fam.2 cm long.

solitary or ingroups. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. erect. thin-walled. 10-12 ovuled. present only on upper side. cylindrical.dorsiventral. one central and two lateral. Lamina . Seed . measuring 3-6 µ in dia. taste. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.4 cm thick. covered with thick cuticle. 1-2 chambered.Siliqua. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. parenchymatous cells. cork cells. 2-4 mm long. medullary rays four to many cells wide. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. 3-9 cm long and 0. epidermis single layered. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends.appears biconvex in outline. round to oval.purple vein. epidermis followed by 6.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. 2 mm wide. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components.1. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. green or brown-purple. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. style about 4 mm long. pith a wide zone of polygonal. two outer smaller and four inner longer. greenish-yellow. parenchymatous cells. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. Leaf- Petiole .8. Stem . endodermis at some places. occasionally pale purple. round to oval. palisade 2-3 layers.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. irregularly globose. continuous or more or less constricted. Fruit . in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. 117 . sometimes flattened. Midrib . single layered. ovary superior. longitudinally sulcatus. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. oily. starch grains simple. present in cortex and phloem.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. radially arranged. vascular bundle three in number. traversed by xylem rays. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. elliptical. parenchymatous cells. hairs unicellular. traversed by phloem rays. phloem. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. thin-walled. stamen 6 in two whorls. present in cortex. b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.Reddish-brown.

Kaphahara. spiral vessels. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. 118 . oil globules and round to oval starch grains.M£lakakÀ¡ra.40 ml. thinwalled. reddish-brown. Appendix per cent.4. Gandhaka Va¶¢. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . parenchymatous cells present. DOSE .Glucoside. parenchymatous cells.Fruit . Seed . Rucya. 2. straight cuticle. Gulma. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. H¤dya. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Agnim¡ndya.3. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Pittahara.7. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. Appendix per cent. Powder . covered with a thin-cuticle.6.Shows a single layered epidermis. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. 2.2.2. 2. Ud¡varta. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells.Yellowish-green. covered with thin. IDENTITY. 2. of columnar cells. P¢nasa. Appendix per cent. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . shows aseptate fibres. of the drug in juice form. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . thin-walled.2. Tikta Laghu.2. P¡cana. Svarya. tangentially elongated.2. Ar¿a.2.20 . containing aleurone grains and oil globules. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Appendix per cent.

Mulaka (Rt. Appendix per cent.2. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Mullangi. Mula Muli Moolangi. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Appendix per cent.2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. cylindrical. Rakhyasmula Mula. Mulaka. 119 . Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. 2. Saleya.3.2. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. fusiform. taste. 2. 2. 2.6. Appendix 2. Brassicaceae). rarely sweet. white in colour.4.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Appendix per cent. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy.2.2. IDENTITY. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula.2. usually 25-40 cm in length.50. Moclangi gadde. Visra. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Appendix per cent.) annual or biennial bristly herb. slightly or strongly pungent. (Fam.7. variable in size.

ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.04. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. Svarya. T.34.Agnim¡ndya. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.Glucoside. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . Netraroga. 0. K¡sa. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Galaroga. Gulma. Kaphahara. 0. Jvara. Ar¿a.V. 0.09. Vrana. 0. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .C.09 (both blue). Ud¡varta DOSE . Tikta Laghu.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.49 & 0. Rucya.04.69 (all yellow). H¤dya.09 & 0. áv¡sa. P¡cana.04 & 0. P¢nasa.L. Pittahara.LC.15-30 ml. Dadru. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.T. of the drug in the juice form 120 . 0. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.

3 . Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. a perennial herb. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. Syn. tenuifolium Wall. taste. traversed by phloem rays.4 m tall. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. secondary phloem shows wide zone. thin-walled cells. slightly bitter. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 .42000 m. 6-12 cm long and 0.Shows 10 . roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. Apiaceae ). Root . odour. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. fibres and parenchyma. Mura (Rt. Gandhakuti. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. tangentially elongated.) DC. consisting of tangentially elongated.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. cambium 2-4 layered. thin-walled cells. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige.6 .51. 0. dull brown.1. secondary cortex composed of rounded.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. (Fam. colour. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic .2. S. aromatic. Daitya. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. inner cells thin-walled. rectangular cells. traversed by xylem rays.

2. xylem parenchyma. M£rchha.5 per cent. Tikta. CONSTITUENTS . T¤Àn¡ DOSE . somewhat oval cells. Sucrose and Mannitol. Appendix 9 per cent.2. 122 . secretory canals. round to oval.áv¡sa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara.2. secondary xylem and medullary rays. 2.1-3 g.having spiral thickenings. short with blunt ends.2. 2. distributed throughout secondary cortex.4. secondary phloem. secondary phloem.Brown.3. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . composed of radially arranged. oil globules and simple starch grains. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7.2. xylem and phloem rays.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). Appendix 9 per cent. fibres aseptate. D¡ha.. present in secondary cortex.2. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. Ka¶u. of the drug in powder form. secretory canals numerous. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. Bhrama.6.Arvind¡sava. Appendix 3. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. 2. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 17 per cent. 2. shows groups of cork cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. starch grains simple.

indistinct. taste. fracture. resin cells present irregularly in this region. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells.5-3 cm thick. odour. slightly bitter. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Koratige. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. bark easily separable from wood. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. phloem fibres absent. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present.52. some filled with reddish-brown contents. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. (Fam. Murva (Rt. tangentially elongated.Shows a cork. & Am. b) Microscopic Root . rectangular cells.) Asclepiadaceae). Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. twining shrub. Madhusrava. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. Halukaratige. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. a large stout. Jartor Koratige Hambu. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. Kallu Shambu. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. phloem rays 1 123 .

3. Tikta Guru. fibres. K¤miroga. Jvara. 124 . DOSE .5-22 µ dia.Light brown.22 µ in diameter.5 .2. Appendix 0.2. present in parenchymatous tissues.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. fibretracheids. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. tracheids.3 cells wide.2. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Appendix 7 per cent. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. simple and compound starch grains..tracheids. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 14 per cent. fibres. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified.. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. 2. Appendix 2.4. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. 2.2-6 g. starch grains simple. elliptical to spherical with central hilum.2. composed of vessels. Pittahara.5 per cent. of the drug in powder form. measuring 5. 10-20 g. vessels with pitted walls.2. 5. fragments of cork. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. H¤droga. Ka¸·£.6. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue.7. V¡tahara.2. Appendix 5 per cent. shows a number of stone cells. consisting of small tangential. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. Medoroga. Prameha Mihira Taila. 2. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Raktapitta. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. Meha. IDENTITY. Mukha áosa. of the drug for decoction. T¤Àn¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Ar¿a. Powder . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. Assam. soft to touch. shows elongated cells of filament.9 cm long.Anther shows golden-brown. Guttiferae). Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. Nagakesar (Stmn. Pilunagkesar. quite brittle. Nagchampa. fragrant. Hem¡. Bengal. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute.8 . N¡ga. linear. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. Nauga. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. more or less twisted. Naugaliral. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. connective and filament. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. exine and intine distinct. yellowish and thin-walled. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall.9-1. N¡gapuÀpa. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Konkan. thick-walled. connective not visible with naked eye. Nagppu. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. often buttressed at the base. consisting of thin-walled. taste. Nagachampakam. filament 0. basifixed. anther about 0.Brown. Sachunagkeshara. Veluthapala.1. Nagakesari -Nangaa. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. odour. an Ke¿ara. coppery or golden brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. slender. 125 . parenchymatous cells.5 cm long. containing pollen grains.0 cm long. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. (Fam. Nahar Nageshvara. astringent. each stamen 0.53. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. b) Microscopic Androecium . Powder .) evergreen tree. Peri. distinct protuberances on walls. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. filiform.

1-3 g. 2.2.6.4. 2. Kum¡ry¡sava. Var¸ya. Appendix 2.2.IDENTITY. of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. CONSTITUENTS .Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. 2. Appendix per cent.3. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara.2. Kaphahara. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.2. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Essential oil and Oleo-resin. 126 . Appendix per cent.7. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. V¡tarakta. Appendix per cent.2.Raktapitta. Vastiroga DOSE .2. áopharoga. Tikta. Appendix per cent.

1. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu.54. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. pith composed of round to oval. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. no characteristic odour and taste. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . leaflet 1-2.) shrub. pale green to greenish-black.5 cm long and 0.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. vascular bundles collateral and three in number.2 cm wide.3-1. 1. N¢l¢n¢. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region.2. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.8 m high. 127 . Nili (Lf. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (Fam. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Fabaceae).

Pl¢haroga. Ud¡varta. Gulma. CONSTITUENTS . palisade 2-3 layers. collateral and crescent shaped. epidermis.4. K¤imiroga. cuticle and hair. K¡sa.Ëmav¡ta.2.2. 2.2.. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma.3.6. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . Appendix 25 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. V¡tahara. Appendix 7. pitted vessels. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.50-100 g.2. 128 .2. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.Greenish-grey.. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 10 per cent.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. cuticle and hair. aseptate fibres. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.shows dorsiventral structure. IDENTITY.. similar as in petiole and midrib. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.Midrib . Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. V¡tarakta. 2. Ke¿ya. Appendix 2. vascular bundle single. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . Udararoga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Glycoside (Indican).7. shows groups of mesophyll cells. 2. of decoction.shows epidermis. Jvara. Lamina . Appendix 2 per cent. similar as in petiole.5 per cent.

Nili Chettu.55. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (Fam. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. Neeligida. 0.) shrub. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Olleneeli -Amari. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. with lenticels. Karunili. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. wood occupies bulk parts of the root.. slightly bitter. Nili. Rangapatr¢. secondary cortex a narrow zone. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. Neeli Nili. Nil.1 -1. thin-walled cells. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. consisting of usual elements.2-1. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. cylindrical. 129 . Fabaceae). taste.5 cm thick. Nila Nili. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. thin-walled cells.10 layers of tangentially elongated. odour not distinct. rectangular. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. Nila -Neel Avuri. 1. group of fibres. Nili (Rt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. woody. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4.8 m high. Gari Nili Kadunili. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. hard. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Indian Indigo Gali.

75. Pl¢h¡roga.30 (bluish green). present in cortex. Recan¢. 0. 0.2.27.86. 0. of drug for decoction.2. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.75 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. V¡tahara.2.40. Appendix 4 per cent.81 (blue).58.4. 2. 0. Powder . Ke¿ya.7 per cent.33. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0.14 (blue).7. K¤imiroga. 130 . K¡sa.10. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. V¡tarakta. 0. 0. 2. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. shows aseptate fibres. 0.58. DOSE .58 (blue). 0. 2. starch grains simple.27.06.63 (bluish green). 0.. 0.91 (all yellow). 2.63. T.Arvind¡sava.21.C. simple and compound starch grains. 0. xylem parenchyma and rays. 0. 0. 0.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. 0.40 (blue). 0. 0.50..0.50. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.48 g.91 (all grey).80.86 and 0. 0. and 0.0.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.3.V. IDENTITY. Ëmav¡ta.L.06. phloem. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 0. Appendix 2.10.91 (blue).14. 0. 0.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.86 (green) and 0.33.75. ViÀavik¡ra. Appendix 3 per cent.Creamish-brown. 0. Ud¡varta.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. 0.6. round to oval. 0.63. Appendix 6 per cent. 0.2.L.47 (blue). pitted vessels. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Udararoga.Gulma.40. 0. CONSTITUENTS .81.14. 0. 0.

bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Arulundi. Bakayan.1 cm thick. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Nimbam. leaflets with oblique base.7 cm wide. Juss Syn. Bevinama -Veppu. exstipulate. 131 . epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Nim. 7-8. Nim Vemmu. Bevu. opposite. Meliaceae). (Fam. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Bakan.0-1. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Veppa Balantanimba. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Limbado. Aryaveppu. 0. Veppu. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Compound. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. crystals also present in phloem region. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. indistinct. Nimba Nimba. odour. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. rachis 15-25 cm long. Oilevevu. Veppan Vemu. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Kahibevu. taste. acute. Kohumba Nim. serrate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Nimba (Lf. slightly yellowish-green.56. Limba. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. alternate. Melia azadirachta Linn.5 cm long and 1.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Limado. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. lanceolate.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . composed of thin walled.6. of the drug in powder form. epidermis on either surface. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered.3. fibres. 2.shows dorsiventral structure. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. Powder .4. Vrana. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. covered externally with thick cuticle. tangentially elongated cells.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. KuÀ¶ha. Appendix per cent.2.2.7. IDENTITY. Ëma¿otha. Appendix 2.1-3 g. traversed by a number of veins. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. shows vessels. K¤miroga. 2.2. Appendix per cent. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. ViÀarogas DOSE .K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.Green. V¡tal¡. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. 2.Jvara.0-11. stomatal index 13.0-4.Lamina . 132 . Prameha.Triterpenoids and Sterols. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. Netraroga. CONSTITUENTS . palisade single layered.5 on lower surface and 8.0-14.5 on upper surface. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. palisade ratio 3. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta.5. 2. thin-walled cells.2.2.

in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. taste. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. woody. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Limba Nimba Nim. Kahibevu. considerably thick in older barks. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Syn. Aruveppu Balantanimba. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. fissured and rusty-grey. (Fam. Nimb Bevu. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . odour. Bakam Veppai. Nimba. Kadunimb. a moderate sized to fairly large. extemal surface rough. Nimba. fracture. Juss. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. characteristic. fibrous. Nimba (St. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Meliaceae). evergreen tree.57. Melia azadirachta Linn. Vembu Vemu. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. Oilevevu -Veppu.

cork cells.2.measuring 2. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .3. stone cells mostly in groups.75-5 µ in diameter.5 per cent. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. round with central hilum.4.L. ViÀaghna.2. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. Appendix 6 per cent. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. measuring 2.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. 0. Pittahara. IDENTITY.72 (blue).63 and 0. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.2.20. 2. 2. Appendix 7 per cent.V.6.Reddish-brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.C. lignified rectangular to polygonal. Kaphahara. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.90 (green). 2.2. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. having wide lumen and distinct striations.45. 2. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7.outer surface. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present.86 (blue). Appendix 5 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. 0. 0. simple. secondary cortex absent in most cases.90 (all blue). CONSTITUENTS . rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. Powder .Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. T. starch grains.L. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. simple starch grains. and 0. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Appendix 1. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.2.C. Appendix 2.

D¡ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rakta Pitta. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Vra¸a DOSE . Ka¸·u. Jvara.. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. K¤miroga.2-4 g. of the drug in powder form. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Prameha. Decoction should be used externally. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. 135 . KuÀ¶ha.

58. rectangular. curved. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. Dhak.) Kuntze (Fam. internal surface rough. rhytidoma 0. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. tanniniferous cells. Muttuga. Palash. fracture. Khakhapado Dhak. Modugu.1 cm thick. thin-walled. taste.2 cm thick usually peels off. greyish to pale brown. often in groups. Plas. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. Muttala -Plasu. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. dark brown. slightly astringent. Chettu Dhak. moderately thick-walled. dark-brown. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. having brown colour. Palasha (St. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk.15 m high with irregular branches. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. 0. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. Paras Moduga. 12 . exposing light brown surface. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. Khakharo. cork cells.Bk) Fabaceae). Tesu Purasu. Tesu Muttug. Camata. pale brown. rectangular 136 . except in very arid parts. 5-10 or more layered.5 .

2. companion cells.C.. T. measuring 2.L.67 (all violet).3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.3 components. traversed by phloem rays. 7 . Powder . Appendix 2.V.6. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.2. 0. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.2.48 and 0. Appendix 10 per cent.2.C. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. CONSTITUENTS .4 layers of sclereids. crystal fibres. 0. dark brown coloured cells.48 and 0. 0. 2. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 1. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. phloem fibres. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes..2.cells followed by a zone of 2 . starch grains simple and compound with 2 . in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. Appendix 12 per cent. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.67 (all yellow). starch grains simple or compound having 2 .13. thin-walled cork cells. 0.2.50 cells in height. 2.18. sclereids mostly in groups. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.75 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.10. 0.75 µ in dia. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath.10. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.7.48. 2.L. straight. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 14 per cent. 0.3. 0.2.12 cells wide.10.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. 137 .5 per cent. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . phloem parenchyma.4.Reddish-brown.65 (all blue).

K¤miroga. KaÀ¡ya Sara. Gulma. of the drug in powder form for decoction.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. S¡raka . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . 138 .Ar¿a. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya.5-10 g. Vra¸a. DOSE . Graha¸¢. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Agnid¢paka. Tikta.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. yellowish to cream coloured. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. smooth. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. Pangara Hongar.59. radially arranged and thin-walled. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated to squarish. medium sized.0 cm thick. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. (Fam. Paribhadra (St. Mulmurumgai Badisa. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam.Bk) Fabaceae). Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . inner bark fibrous. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. exfoliating in narrow strips. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. quick growing tree.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed.5-2. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. stone 139 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. secondary cortex consists of large. parenchymatous cells.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

of drug in powder form. Volatile Oil. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. V¤Àya.CONSTITUENTS .2-4 g. Balak¤t. 148 .Alkaloids.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.. V¡taroga DOSE .V¡tarakta. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES ..

Chowl. (Farn. thick-walled. sweetish-oily. which are of various size.) Anacardiaceae). large. Priyalam. pleasant. latifolia Roxb. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . Shalichokha Piyal.6 cm long. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. Satdhan -Charal.63. mottled with darker brown lines. occurring mostly in groups. collapsed cells of integument. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. Piyar. b) Microscopic Seed . Priyala (Sd. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. 0. funicle stout.4-0. micropyle superior. creamish-brown. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. B. Syn. Saraparuppu Sara. 0. pitted. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. sclerenchymatous cells.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. linear. followed by remnants of disorganised. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. odour. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. hilum present at the apex of round edge.3-0.5 cm wide. Korka. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. taste.

0. 0. 0.P£gakha¸·a.0 µ in dia. THERAPEUTIC USES . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara.98 (all violet). V¤Àya. 0.5-5.54. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.27.54.3. Sara.L.2. 0. and sclerenchymatous cells. Appendix 2. 0. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 7 per cent. of the drug in powder form. 0.5-5. Pittahara. Bhagnas¡dhaka.84.20 g.2.C.2.94 and 0. 2.Albuminoids.91.72.10 . 0.27. CONSTITUENTS .08.2. 0.2.91. Appendix 10 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.6. 0.5 per cent. 0.72. 0.7. 0. procambium bundles. DOSE . Kaphakara. Appendix 4 per cent.98 (all yellow). KÀata. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.V. BrÆha¸a. T. Appendix 0.94 and 0. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells.measuring 2. Powder . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.D¡ha. Balya.0 µ in dia. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4. 0. 2. V¡tahara.2. KÀaya. IDENTITY. Priy¡la Taila.L.08. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. áukrakara. 2. H¤dya. 150 .A creamish-brown paste.C. shows numerous mesophyll cells.type. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. Oil and Starch.94 (blue). and oil globules. Raktapitta.72 and 0.

bell-shaped. densely hairy. anther ovate. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. 4 lobbed spreading. corolla. b) Microscopic Peduncle .64. Flower .2. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. long. and abundant in Bengal plains.0. basifixed. 2. 1. brown. (Fam. calyx. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . Priyangu (Infl. stigma minutely capitate. peduncle cylindrical. ovary 2-4 celled.5 .Shows more or less wavy outline.5 cm long. thin-walled.4 m high shrub.3 mm in dia.5 cm across. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. style. brown.Cymose. tubular. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. densely clothed with wooly hairs. filament very long.2.5-7. stamens 4. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. hairy.) Verbenaceae). an erect. epipetalous. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. parenchymatous cells. 1. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . equal in size.

6.fibres.2. IDENTITY. (Mukharoga). shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. Sved¡dhikya. 152 .D¡ha. Pras¡dana. Appendix per cent. 2. Jvara. spiral vessels.2.2.1-3 g. Daurgandhyahara.2.7.2. Pakv¡tis¡ra. Rakta-Pitta. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. DOSE .2. elliptical. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. CONSTITUENTS . Terpenes. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Kanaka Taila. 2. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . N¢lik¡dya Taila. El¡di C£r¸a.Brown. of the drug in powder form. Vra¸aropa¸a. V¡tahara. Appendix 2. Phenolic compound. aseptate fibres.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sandh¡n¢ya.Glycosides. xylem consists of usual elements. fibres aseptate. M£travirajan¢ya. Appendix per cent. Resin and Saponin.4. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. 2. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Ku´kum¡di Taila. groups of thin-walled. Rakta. Appendix per cent. 2. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent.

Corava. b) Microscopic Root . smooth. Chawl. Bhata. Biyyamu Chaval. Dhana Bhatto. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Paddy Shalichokha. Dhanarmul.65. Odalu. soft. Coke Chaval. Dh¡nya. Nelver Dhanyamu. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. sclerenchymatous cells. Damgara. sclerenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. pitted vessels and 153 .Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Cala. Nellu Tandulamul. Bhatta. cylindrical. an annual herb. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs.Greyish-cream. (Fam. Dhana. Vr¢hi. Nellu. Nivara -Chaval. Poaceae). creamish-brown to greyish-brown. thick-walled. Powder . thin. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Dhan Rice.) cultivated throughout India. Shali (Rt. exodermis 1-2 layered. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Sali.05-0. Jhona Arishi. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Akki -Ari. 5-15 cm in length and 0. both consisting of round to oval. cortex differentiated into three zones. composed of thick-walled.

4. Kaphahara. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. Laghu. Appendix 2. Balya. 154 .2. Appendix per cent.2.3. H¤dya. BrÆha¸a. KaÀ¡ya Guru.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . CakÀuÀya. of the drug for decoction. 2. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . 2.2.7. Pittahara. Svarya. 2. Appendix per cent. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. M£trala. Rucya. IDENTITY.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.StanyakÀaya.2.2.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. V¡tahara.50 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Var¸ak¤t.

light green. Karakhuratt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . free. Kakkanangudi. hairy on both surfaces. corolla shortly discoid.66. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. perennial herb with a woody root stock. about 0. sub-erect. cylindrical.P. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.Slender.) Convolvulaceae). cylindrical. Sankhapuspi. spreading.Shortly petiolate. light green. alternate with the petals.5 cm broad.5-2 cm long and 0. inserted deep in the corolla tube. linear-lanceolate.1-0. hairy. Shankhavela. sepals narrowly. 155 . ovary superior and bicarpellary. yellowish-brown to light brown. found throughout the country. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. epipetalous. Stem . stamen 5. Leaf . acute. 0. Shankhapushpi. a prostrate.Usually branched.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes.1-0. sparsely hairy. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. linear-lanceolate.White or pinkish. 0. 1-5 cm long.4 cm thick. Flower . solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. Sankha pushpin (W. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam.

secretory cells present in this region. simple and compound starch grains. Stem . endoderrnis single layered. at places unicellular hairs present. pale brown pericarp. vein islet number 21-25 per sq.walled cells. round to oval in shape.. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. 13. cortex differentiated in two zones. vascular bundle bicollateral. . xylem rays and parenchyma. covered with thick cuticle. present in cortex. thick-walled cells. thin. b) Microscopic Root . measuring 3-8 µ in dia. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith.8-17. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq.8 µ in dia. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface.Fruit . Seed .Brown. hairs unicellular. simple and composed of 2-3 components. covered with thick cuticle. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. unicellular hairs. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells.0. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. oblong globose with coriaceous. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. Lamina . pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. phloem composed of sieve elements. xylem consisting of usual elements. palisade two layered. elliptical. mm. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. 156 . elongated. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. mm.Light yellowish-green. phloem a narrow zone.Appears nearly circular in outline. minutely puberulous. LeafMidrib . xylem consists of vessels. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. fibres and tracheids.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. tanniniferous. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem.Shows single layered epidermis. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. phloem. measuring 3 . Powder . spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. starch grains solitary or in groups. fibres and parenchyma..shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. palisade ratio 6-9. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. present on both surfaces. both having round to oval. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.Capsule. epidermis single layered. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.

of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Appendix per cent.2.3-8 g.2.2. Tikta. 2. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Ras¡yana. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . Ras¡yana.2. Kaphahara.IDENTITY. Appendix 2. Pittahara.2. Clitoria ternatea Linn.7. 2. Ras¡yana. Br¡hma. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. 2. Agastyahar¢tak¢.3. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.6.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.4. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.M¡nasaroga.2. ËyuÀya. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Medhya. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.

ribbed. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Fruit .P.Capsule. sessile. greenish-yellow. short. sub-sessile. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. a much branched.1. 1 mm long. trilocular.67. Flower . 3-4 mm in dia.5-2 mm thick. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. filament pubescent. subacute. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. style. having a few secondary roots. (Fam. solitary. Saptala (W.celled with or without attached pedicel. Bilikalli. cylindrical. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. 3.Small. Carmas¡hv¡. Leaf . 0. 158 .2-0. gland semilunate. pale brown. free to the base. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. 4-5 cm long. found throughout India in the plains and low hills.8 cm wide. 0. Chagulputputi Satala.Involucre broadly campanulate. smooth. lobes short. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Siju. fracture. Joyachi. odour and taste indistinct.5 mm across at the mouth. gradually tapering. ovate.) Euphorbiaceae). ciliolate.7-7 cm long. linear. 20-40 cm high. shortly 2-fid at the apex. odour and taste not distinct. horned. lanceolate or linear oblong. annual herb. 2.

shows slightly convex outline. leprous tuberculate testa. endodermis not distinct. single layered epidermis. with wide lumen present in this region. centre occupied by a pith. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. rounded to oval. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. epidermis single layered. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 159 .Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. b) Microscopic Root .Young root shows exfoliated. elliptical. tangentially elongated cells. stone cells oval to elongated. all elements. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. composed of sieve elements.5-19. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. palisade single layered present on both sides. 2. covered externally with thick. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. starch grains simple. tracheids and medullary rays. vessels having simple pits. Stem . grooved at one side. thick-walled lignified. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. thickwalled and lignified. secondary xylem consists of vessels. all elements thick-walled and lignified.25 µ in diameter. rounded at the base. parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. secondary xylem composed of vessels. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. found scattered in phloem region. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. mature root shows thin walled cork. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. fibres and vessels having simple pits. solitary or in groups. simple. rarely a few oil globules also present. fibres and tracheids. parenchymatous cells. traversed by numerous xylem rays. elliptical. fibres. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade.6 layers of oval. Leaf- Midrib . ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs.3 mm long. measuring 5. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. tangentially elongated elliptical. lignified cells with wide lumen. consisting of thick-walled. secondary cortex consists of 4. secondary phloem narrow. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. flattended.Seed . parenchymatous cells. rectangular. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. fibres elongated and aseptate. circular to oval. some rounded. striated cuticle.75 µ in dia. rounded to oval. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. filled with yellowish-brown content.

87 (violet).Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.04.L. Appendix per cent.2.2. RukÀa. shows vessels with simple pits. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.L.2.2. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. rounded to oval starch grains. 0. 2. 2. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. T. Ud¡vartta. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf.46.04 and 0. stone cells thick-walled.C. Vibandha. aseptate fibres.2.50 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.57 (all yellow). 2. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. oval to elongated.2. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . RaktadoÀahara. Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.Ën¡ha. Visarpa.Light yellow. DOSE . Pittahara. V¡tal¡. CONSTITUENTS .Powder . Appendix per cent.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).3. Mi¿raka Sneha.46 (brown) and 0. 2. simple.V. lignified with wide lumen. and 0.4.7. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Appendix per cent. Udararoga. IDENTITY.67. elliptical.6. 160 . Gulma.0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.

akin to caraway. graveolens Benth. P. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt.. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. b) Microscopic Fruit . sowa Roxb. slightly raised. Shepa. vittae. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya.. slightly sharp taste. Satahva (Fr. Sulpha. brown. dark brown. mesocarp. ex Flem. graveolens DC. and a warm. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. Shulupa. mericarps usually separate and free. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway.68. var. (Fam.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. graveolens Linn. parenchymatous. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. A. Syn. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. A. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. odour. yellowish membranous wings. Sova Sabasige --Badishep.. 4 mm long. a tall. glabrous. glabrous. Apiaceae). 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. filiform and incospicuous. often stalk attached.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. dorsal 161 .

of the drug in powder form. CONSTITUENTS .3-6 g. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. Powder .Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.59 (blue) and 0. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a.7.2. cellulosic.costae three. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. V¡tahara. Appendix 2.4. Appendix 4 per cent. 2.5 per cent. IDENTITY. 2. 162 . each costae with vascular strands.Brown.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6. Netra Roga DOSE . On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.L.2. 2. Appendix 14 per cent.C. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 1. Appendix 3 per cent. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .10 T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. Atis¡ra. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. 0.C. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Jvara. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.2. Vra¸a.2.2.68 (all yellow). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.59 and 0. shows spiral vessels. Appendix 15 per cent. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.L.37 (pink) 0.68 (violet). passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. 0.á£la.2.Essential Oil. carpophore split. 2.2. Kaphahara. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.

vascular bundle collateral.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. a small or medium sized tree. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. Sekato. thin walled. commonly cultivated throughout the country. Sajna.) Gaertn. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. Shewgachi pane Sajana. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. pith and phloem parenchyma. oval to elliptical. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. odour and taste not distinct. Muringa Elai Sevaga.5-1 cm wide. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Bahala. Segata. Leaflet . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Mungna Neegge. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Tishnagandha. pericycle forming a broken ring. thickened. parenchymatous cells. Nugge ele -Murinna. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. central region 163 b) Microscopic . epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. Syn. AkÀ¢va. ovate or obovate. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Munga. leaflet 1. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound.2-2 cm long and 0. Muringa. Mocaka -Sajina. slender.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. (Fam. entire. elliptic. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. Moringaceae). Shigru (Lf. consisting of pericyclic fibres. palisade single layered.69. Segata pana. and articulated at the base. Rachis .

0. Pittahara. palisade ratio 6-11. 0.52 (green).4.59 (blue). Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 2.46 (both blue). 0. 0. 0.38. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.2. 0.2. present on both surface but more on lower sur face.L. CONSTITUENTS . Under U.46 (dark green) & 0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. 0.46 (all red) & 0. 0. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. stomata anornocytic. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.V.69 (yellow). 0. palisade cells. V¡tahara. T.36 (yellowish green).20. RukÀa. Appendix per cent.C. 0.36 (green). stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.2. Powder -Greyish-green.occupied by a crescent-shaped. (all green). ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. IDENTITY.0. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. Protein.Carbohydrate. Appendix per cent.18. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.2.53 (yellow).82 (yellow) and 0. 0. 0.69 (blue) and 0.94 (violet). 0.87 (blue).46 (green). 2. spiral vessels. 0. Appendix 2.L. Medohara.94 (yellow) in visible light.36. 0.05. 0.26.05.2.2. 0. 2. 2. Appendix per cent. 0.7.05.6. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. K¤mihara. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.30 (pink). Sirovirecaka 164 . áukra N¡¿aka.3. B ¤Æhana. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.26.94 (blue). vein islets number 50-65.18.26 (all green).

Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Galaga¸·a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vidradhi.Ratnagiri Rasa. 165 .10 . Medoroga. ViÀatinduka Taila. Pl¢haroga. K¤miroga. Gulma. DOSE .áopha.

perisperm consists of polygonal. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. taste. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. brown to dark brown. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed.4 cm long. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. spicy pungent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. odour. Beraelam. membraneous aril.3 cm wide. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. thin walled. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. Sthulaela (Sd. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. (Fam.) Zingiberaceae). perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. thin-walled. sclerenchymatous. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. perispenn encloses the 166 . 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0..70. aromatic. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

Appendix 2. Tikta Laghu. IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. shows fragments of testa. 2.2. thin-walled. both composed of polygonal. thin-walled.3. Rocaka. K¡sa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. DOSE . Powder . Appendix 1 v/wper cent. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta.endosperm and embryo. Kaphahara.(Seed).Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb.Light brown. Mukha¿odhaka. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 14 per cent. perisperm cells. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. V¡tahara. rich in protein. simple. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 1. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. 2. Appendix 4 per cent.7. rounded to oval. polygonal. H¤ll¡sa.0.4.S¡rivady¡sava. 167 . of the drug in powder form. oil globules. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. (Seed).2. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.2.5 per cent.6. Mukharoga. T¤À¸¡.2. Chardi.2.10 CONSTITUENTS .Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). 2. Note .2.áv¡sa. RukÀa. Ka¸·u.5 -1 g. parenchymatous cells. 2.2. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.

brownish. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. armed with long. Tumbura. phloem fibres thickwalled. Rutaceae). Tumburudra. sharp prickles. stone cells found in 168 . rather deeply furrowed. taste.Bk. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. external surface pale brown. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . cork 15-20 layers of tabular. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays.2 cm thick. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. internal surface smooth. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. thick-walled cells. stem and branches. thin-walled. aromatic. short. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. fracture. Z. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. odour. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky.0. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. lignified. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. light yellow to pale brown. Tejovati (St. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m.) Roxb. Thumbooni. (Fam. Syn. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. parenchymatous cells.71.1-0. aromatic pungent. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. Jimmi.

13. Appendix 12 per cent. IDENTITY.75 µ in diameter. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.2. stone cells. Kaphahara. Hikk¡.Aruci. P¡cana.10-20 g.75 .2. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.5 per cent. of the drug for decoction. Appendix 1. round and oval measuring 2. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. Ëmav¡ta. Appendix 2. DOSE .tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.2. K¡sa.75 . aseptate fibres.2. oil globules and starch grains. measuring 2.7.6. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex.2. shows fragments of cork cells. Rucya. a Volatile Oil and Resin.75 µ in diameter.3.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.4. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. starch grains round and oval. Appendix 13 per cent.13. Powder . K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. áv¡sa. Appendix 8. CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent.Yellowish-brown. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 169 . Medhya. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. 2. Mukharoga.

annual herb. aromatic.) an erect. Tulasi (W. pubescent on both sides.P. herbaceous.60 cm high. wiry.2 cm wide. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi.2.Purplish or crimson coloured. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan.5-5 cm long 1.Erect. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. odour faintly aromatic. Shree Tulasi. branched. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. odour. blackish-brown externally and pale. violet internally. 30 . bracts about 3 mm long and broad. slender. entire or serrate. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. much branched. externally purplish-brown to black. (Fam.3.5-3 cm long hairy. characteristic. Flower . lower lip 170 . calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. elliptic oblong. Leaf . upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular.6 . branched. petiole thin. Thulasi. K¤À¸atulas¢. hairy. soft. sub quadrangular. Stem . internally cream.72. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi.Thin. shortly apiculate. about 1. obtuse or acute. taste. Lamiaceae). pedicels longer than calyx. coloured. found throughout the country. fracture. pubescent. woody. hairy. small in close whorls. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡.

epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. Fruit . glandular trichomes short. odour. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. vessels pitted. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. xylem surrounded by phloem. odour.1 cm long. pubescent. vessels pitted. fibres and parenchyma. Stem . slightly compressed. slightly mucilaginous. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. each with one seed. long. no odour. aromatic. three vascular bundles situated centrally.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. thin-walled. Midrib . thin-walled. slightly notched at the base. xylem consists of vessels. nearly smooth. aromatic. phloem consisting of sieve elements. membranous. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. 0. brown. fibre tracheides. thin-walled. pungent. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. measuring 22-27 in dia. enclosed in an enlarged. Seed . consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. middle one larger than other two. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. pungent. 171 .shows somewhat cordate outline. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic.A group of 4 nutlets. in groups and rarely in singles. found scattered in phloem. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. taste.Rounded to oval. elongated. taste. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. veined calyx.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. mucilaginous when soaked in water. pungent. b) Microscopic Root . fibres with pointed ends. occasionally a few cells collapsed. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. taste. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. lateral two short and central two largest. round to oval polygonal. Leaf- Petiole .epidermis. filled with brown content. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. thin-walled. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. rectangular. phloem consists of sieve elements. pitted with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. tracheids. corolla about 4 mm long.

KaÀ¡ya Laghu. RukÀa.Essential Oil.35. Rucya. Pittavardhin¢. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.7. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. palisade ratio 3.2. Appendix 1.15 . caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. T. Appendix 8 per cent.7. IDENTITY. vein islet number 31 . Kaphahara.Lamina . slightly raised above the level of epidermis. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.minutes Under observation. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. H¤dya. Appendix 4 per cent.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole.Greenish: shows thin-walled. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. parenchymatous cells.2. CONSTITUENTS .2. V¡tahara.1.5 per cent. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings.8.16 on lower surface. Durgandhihara 172 . Rf. rounded to oval. 2.2. Appendix 10 per cent. 2.C. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . Record Rf. On cooling spray. in thoroughly vanillin . thin walled fibres. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.6. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. oil globules.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . value 0. Appendix 2. Powder . simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components.C.3. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). a few containing reddish brown contents. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.4.2.L.2.L. Tikta. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. 2. 2.

K¡sa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. KuÀ¶ha. Hikk¡.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¤miroga. áv¡sa.A¿mar¢. Chardi.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. Netraroga. 173 .

thin. 174 b) Microscopic .) 30-60 cm high.2 cm wide. petiole 1. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. rarely slightly reflexed at tip.6-3.5-3 cm long. obtuse or acute. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. Lamiaceae). middle one larger than the other two. upper epidermis. glandular trichomes short. and 2-8 celled. balloon-shaped head. characteristic. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan.5-5 cm long. much branched annual herb. taste. entire or serrate. three vascular bundles situated centrally. Tulasi (Lf. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. measuring 22-27 µ dia. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. elliptic-oblong. 1.shows cordate outline. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. (Fam. an erect.. K¤À¸atulas¢. Holy Basil Tulasi. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. hairy. pubescent on both surfaces. found throughout the country. odour. covering trichomes multicellular. consisting of xylem and phloem. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil.73. petiolate. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. LeafPetiole . enclosed in a cuticular bladder. aromatic.

L. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.83. 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.21. 0. Lamina .04. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. palisade and spongy parenchyma. 2. 175 . 0. T.83 (blue). 0. 0.V. CONSTITUENTS .8. 0.3.54.54 (blue).93 (pink) & 0.).98 (blue). 0. 0. 0.12 (light green). 0. 0.45.04.33.2.2. vein islet number 31-33.08 (violet). anomocytic and diacytic stomata. Appendix per cent.2.45 (yellowish green). 0. 0. 2. 0. 0.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.7. Appendix 2. 0.33 (violet).45. palisade ratio 3. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. 0. Appendix per cent.2.epidermis. Under U. 0.75.03 (dark green). Powder . shows fragments of polygonal. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.75 (violet).6. 0. Appendix per cent. 2.Midrib . 0. 0.85 (blue). 0.33 (both green) 0. 0.45 (violet). 0.4.08.83 (all pink) 0.08 (both green).21. 0.12. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.C. 0. Nerol and Camphene etc. 0.C.88 and 0.85 & 0..2.Light-green.33.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.93 (both light green).30.21 (brown). Appendix per cent.12 (light violet). 0.93 (violet) and 0. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.L. 0.04. 2. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.93 (all0 yellow). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.98 (blue). Caryophyllene. IDENTITY.

THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta. áv¡sa. 176 . Hikk¡. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Pittahara.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Prati¿y¡ya. Kaphahara.2-3 g. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. of the drug in powder form. H¤dya. V¡tahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. K¤miroga.Aruci. KuÀ¶ha. RukÀa. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.

Gora-bach Baje. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. and 0. Vekhandas -Varch. somewhat collenchymatous. Araceae). transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes.74. fracture. upper side marked with alternately arranged.) semiaquatic herb. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. buff coloured intemally. aromatic. Ghodavaca Vasambu. thin-walled cells of various sizes.Shows single layered epidermis. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. pungent and bitter. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side.5 cm thick. large. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. (Fam. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. smaller. short. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. broadly. taste. Ghodvach Bach. enclosing large air spaces. triangular. Rhizome . Ugr¡. cells towards periphery. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. Vacha (Rz.5-1. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. present in this 177 b) Microscopic .

2.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.L. Petroleum ether-No change ii. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.region. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. reticulate.2. shows fibres. Appendix per cent. 2.Buff coloured. starch grains simple. stele composed of round.2. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside).2.C.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. Appendix 2.2.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. Appendix per cent. Chloroform-Light green iii. Powder . 2. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.6. 0. Appendix per cent.. present in cortex and ground tissue. Appendix per cent.L.Yellowish-cream b. CONSTITUENTS . Extracts in i. 2. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. Powder as such: . parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. endodermis distinct.4. 2.3.2. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. Eugenol and Asarone). 178 . spherical.2. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent.10 T.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Starch and Tannin.14 (violet) and 0.C. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a.

V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. S¡rasvata. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Kar¸a Sr¡va. Vibandha. Tikta Laghu. Unm¡da. DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. K¡sa. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Ka¸¶hya.2 g. Ëdhm¡na. K¤mihara.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Apasm¡ra. áv¡sa. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. 179 . 1.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢.á£la. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .Vac¡di Taila. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Medhya. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. C£r¸a. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila.

in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. Naabhi Bachnak. thin-walled. Teliya Bish Basanalli. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. conical. cartilaginous. rough due to root scars. taste. Meethabisha. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi.) (Fam.4 . odour indistinct. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. parenchymatous cells. Vatsanabhi. papillose on outside. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Mithalelia. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Vatsanabhi. Sth¡varaviÀa. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. occasionally separated due to breakage. fracture.5 cm. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Vatsanabha. ViÀa Vajran¡ga.8 cm thick.1. tapering downwards to a point. 0. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . ovoid. plant is an erect. Ranunculaceae). poisonous. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. small portions of stem sometimes attached. Nabhi. Bachhnaag. 2-4. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Mahura. dark brown to blackish-brown. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. suberised. Mithatelia Vasanaavi.75. perennial herb. Basanaag Bisa. roots are generally collected late in September. rarely 5 cm long. without or with a few intercellular spaces. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. Beesh. Vatsanabha (Rt. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish.

10.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. 0.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour.39 and 0.20.7.39.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. occupying more than half the radius. 2. Powder .L. cambium having 6 10 angles.96 (both orange). consisting of round to oval cells. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. xylem exarch.2. CONSTITUENTS .74 and 0. IDENTITY. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre.6. Appendix 8 per cent. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. RukÀa. Sv®dala. Appendix 2 per cent. 2.2. often forming 'V' shaped ring. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C.endodermis. ÙikÀ¸a. 0.5 per cent. Appendix 24 per cent.2. UÀ¸a. Trid°Àahara. Appendix 2. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. a few aseptate fibres.Light grey. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia.56.3.2. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. containing a few groups of phloem strands. T.2. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. inner bark parenchymatous. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. Appendix 5. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. Anandabhairava Rasa. metaxylem vessels met in centre. 2.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. 2. some scattered.L. present in cortical cells.2. 0. Laghu. S £tasekhara Rasa. Viyav¡yi. 0. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. shows vessels.

DOSE .THERAPEUTIC USES .30 mgs of the drug in powder form.V¡taroga. 182 . Sannip¡ta. V¡takaphajvara. Jvar¡tis¡ra. Kanharoga.15 . Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.

taste. usually does not break. cut surface creamish-brown. Vid¡rik¡. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Bhumikusmanda. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Bhoikolu. thinwalled. Eagio. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. stone cells moderately thick-walled. sweetish. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Gumadi belli. Nelagumbula. Nelagumbala. outer surface reddish-brown. (Fam.76. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m.Rt. starchy and somewhat porous. but pliable. Vidari (Tub. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Fabaceae). thin-walled cells.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Bhuikumra Vidari. smooth except for protuberances at some places. Bhonykoru. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root.

P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). 2. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4. phloem fibres much elongated. somewhat round.5 . xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. Pittahara. radially elongated cells. V¡tahara. 2. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. Ras¡yana.2. Stanyada.13. present in all parenchymatous cells.5 . CONSTITUENTS .75 µ in dia.Buff coloured.Gluconic and Malic acids. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.D¡ha. Angmarda. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. Appendix 17 per cent. highly thickened. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. Powder . consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. having central hilum and striations. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. Daurbalya. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. Balya. Svarya. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.3. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Raktapitta.2.6. IDENTITY.13. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. Var¸ya.3-6 g. M£trala. 184 . THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 4 per cent. a few latex duct also present. Appendix 24 per cent. áoÀa.2. fragments of cork. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. J¢van¢ya. of the drug in powder form. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content.5 per cent.2. and also rarely in stone cells. distributed throughout this region. 2.Marma Gu¶ik¡.75 µ in dia. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. measuring 5. lignified with narrow lumen. DOSE .2.and pits. Appendix 4. Appendix 2. angular to oval.7.

pale-greenish-yellow. sclerenchymatous fibres. odour. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. Yava (Fr.2-0. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata.77. followed by 2-3 layers. spongy parenchymatous cells. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. polygortal inner epidermal cells. not distinct. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. square or quadrilateral. Syn. Jav Barley Cheno. cultivated chiefly in North India. elliptic. seed coat appears as a colourless line. round to oval wavy walled cells. an annual. (Fam. followed by more or less. smooth. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau.3 cm wide. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. erect herb. sativum Pers. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. H.) Poaceae). taste. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. oblong. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. about 1 cm long and 0. 50-100 cm high. thick-walled. sweetish-acrid.

KaÀ¡ya M¤du.56.L.24. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.10.06.68. simple starch grains.7 T. sclerenchymatous fibres.45.2. Pittahara. Lekhana. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.3. Sthairyakara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. 0.5 per cent. 0.Creamish-white. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.31. 2. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.72 (all pink. Appendix 4 per cent.2. endosperm divided into two zones.6.2. 0. 0. Sugars.5 per cent. Globulin.5 per cent. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. Appendix 4 per cent. V¤Àya.65 & 0. M£trahara. 0.14.22. 0.83 (all violet) and 0.31.31. 2. Orientoside.5 2. 0.83 and 0.2. 0.53. V¡tak¤t. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.C. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.44. IDENTITY.92 (all grey). Appendix 2.68. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.V. 0.C. 0.36. and the rest starch layers. Appendix 5. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.22. Pur¢Àak ¤t. 0.Starch.4.L.narrow lumens. 0. 0. 0.) CONSTITUENTS . 2.92 (yellow).10. Vitexin etc.16. Var¸ya 186 . 0. Appendix 2.2. 0.2. Svarya. Proteins (Albumin. Fats. 0. Medahara. round to oval. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Orientin. 2. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. 0. Powder . Kaphahara. 0. Appendix 1. 0. 0. starch grains simple. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.

of the drug.áv¡sa. El¡dya Modaka. Medoroga. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Tvagroga DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.100 . P¢nasa. Gandharvahasta Taila. Kanharoga. Dh¡nvantara Taila. K¡sa. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Prameha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Urustambha. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.200 g. 187 . T¤À¸¡.

20-30 cm long and 0. radially arranged cork cells.7 cm broad. Neladangara. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. alternate. Leaf . no taste and odour. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. mucronate obtuse. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. (Fam.Simple. 0. sharp axillary spines upto 3. striate. hard. glabrous. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb).5-1 cm long. stipules green. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . branched. Yavasaka (W. Punjab. Stem .5-0. extipulate. oblong. short. slightly rough at basal region with slender.Well developed. ballidurabi. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. filled with reddish-brown contents.78. elliptical. glabrous. cork cambium single layered. drooping. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. fracture. Desv. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. terete. gradually tapering. a small thorny shrub. secondary cortex almost 188 . 0. opposite.8 cm long. Y¡sa. nearly 0. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown.Cylindrical. dark brown.) Fabaceae).2-1 cm thick. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. secondary and tertiary root absent. Javasa.1-1 cm thick.P.

tanniniferous cells. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. tracheids and fibres.appears biconvex in outline. 189 . Leaf- Petiole .5-14. pitted vessels. filled with tannin. simple.75 µ in dia. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. starch grains simple. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. Lamina .epidermis consisting of single layered cells. phloem composed of sieve elements. phloem composed of sieve elements. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. covered externally with thick cuticle.75 µ in diameter. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. parenchymatous cells. elongated. thin-walled. covered with cuticle. epidermis single layered.Greenish-brown. tangentially elongated cells. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. Stem . 3-45 cells long. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. pith composed of a few thin-walled. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. fibres.5. xylem fibres. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. hypodermis 2-3 layered. Midrib . xylem consists of vessels. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. a few with thick wall and simple pits. angular.appears circular in outline. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. parenchymatous cells. present throughout the region. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. hypodermis 1-2 layered. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. tracheids. xylem consists of vessels. thin-walled. filled with tannin. parenchyma and fibres. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. 5. vascular bundle collateral. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. tracheids. rounded to oval. xylem situated above phlome. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll.absent. Powder . medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded.14. some cells filled with tannin. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin.

6.IDENTITY. 2.20 . Appendix 2. Raktapitta. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2.2. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Visarpa DOSE .2. Appendix 10 per cent.5 per cent. Sucrose.Chardi. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Sugars (Melizitose.2.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Tikta. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. D¢pana.7. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. K¡sa.2. 190 . of the drug in powder form for decoction. T¤À¸¡. Invert Sugars). Jvara.2.4. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Kaphahara. V¡tarakta. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.3. Appendix 13.50 g.5 per cent. Appendix 2 per cent. Arimed¡di Taila. CONSTITUENTS .