THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1.1.1.1.2-Sieves 1.1 Testing Drugs 2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.2-Thermometers 1.2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.Types of Stomata 2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .1-Nessler Cylinder.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.1.) Desv 177 1.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.2.4.2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.5.2.1.2.2.1.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2. 1.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2.2.1.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.2.2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.3.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.1.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.2.1.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.2.1.

1-Powder Fineness 2.3.3 Limit Tests 2.3.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.2.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.2.3.3.3.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.5-Limit Test for lead 2.2-Refractive Index 2.1.3.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .Weights and Measures 5.3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.1.3.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.

II would be official. Part-I. Vol.P.). It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. would be deemed to have been amended vii . the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part-I. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted.I. Part-I. II. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Vol. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. accordingly. In general. Vol. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. II. the Dangerous Drugs Act.

GENERAL NOTICES Title .Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. Mesh Number . which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. distribution and method of collection. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. viii . Hindi.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Odour and Taste .Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. English.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. If the odour persists to be discernible. Weights and Measures . When the term “drop” is used.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . indicated in monograph. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. it is described as having odour. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Synonyms . Introductory Para . Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Purity and Strength . The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Identity. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. Italics . if any.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). substances or processes described in Appendix.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour.

soluble extractive. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . mould or other evidence of deterioration. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead.In defining standards. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. pesticides. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. total ash. alcohol-soluble extractive. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. micro-organisms.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. arsenic and heavy metals. the expression per cent (%). statements appearing in the API. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. acid-insoluble ash. those of definition of the part and source plants. Part-I. under Description. Constant Weight . sliminess. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. However. ix . water-soluble ash. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. in 100 grammes of product.L. according to circumstances. with one of the four meanings given below. which he uses. if of equivalent accuracy. water. Vol. and Identity. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. Standards . Thin Layer Chromatography (T.For statutory purpose. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. pests. moisture content.g.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. However. is used. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. fungi.C. and show no abnormal odour.Under this head. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. The quantitative tests e. colour.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. V.) . wherever given. shall constitute standards. and other animal matter including animal excreta. Percentage of Solutions . even by applying known reference standards. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. Constituents . groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. ether-soluble extractive. Purity and Strength. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations.

56 oC.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. and dust particles.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). all solutions are prepared with purified water.000 parts More than 10. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. thermometric scale. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product.000 parts x . When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Statements of solubilities. Percentage of alcohol .Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. are intended to apply at that temperature. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. Solubility . Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Reagents and Solutions . such as fragment of filter papers. fibres. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Temperature .When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Solutions . which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. at a stated temperature.

the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. g. 1M. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. 0. IN.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent.P. Fam.I. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m.5 N. mm. mg. l. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. Kg. PS. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. ml. Part –I and Part-II. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.1 N. TS. unless otherwise stated. 0. µ. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . cm.

Fr. Bk. Rt. Wh. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl.Sansk. Mar. Punj. Rz. Lf. Pl. St. Ht. St. Bk. Rt. Wd. Kash. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Tub. xii . Assam. Ori. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Wd. Beng. Sd. Tam. Tel. Mal. Eng. Kan. Guj.

Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough.2 . external surface rough. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. b) Microscopic Root . characteristically astringent and pungent.1. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. (Fam. brown. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. bark upto 3 mm thick. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. Akallakara. taste. Akarakarabha (Rt. Akravu Akkalakara. 7-15 cm in length.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC.8 µ in width. tapering slightly at both ends. cambium 2-5 layered. shrivelled. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. cylindrical. an annual. not easily separable. xylem fibres thick-walled. slightly aromatic. Akarakara Akkaraka.37-28. 1. Akalakarabha. odour. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. elongated. 53. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. vessels pitted. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Asteraceae).231 µ in 1 . thin-walled. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.

Buddhivardhaka. NaÀ¶¡rtava. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. Appendix 8 percent. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.2. ray cells thick-walled.2. Appendix 10 percent. K¡sa. IDENTITY. secondary phloem. Grdhras¢. V¡jikara.2. medullary rays numerous. Udararoga. CONSTITUENTS . secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.6. áv¡sa. of the drug in powder form. running straight.3.2. Pittahara.Ash coloured. Appendix 2. also gives positive tests for inulin.length having narrow lumen. radially elongated. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent.2. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. á£laroga. D¢pana. Appendix 2 percent. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows vessels having scalariform thickening.7. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. secondary phloem and medullary rays. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Svedakara. 2. áotha. 2. uniseriate rays very rare.2. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡.5 -1 g. Danta¿£la DOSE .Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin).4. Aj¢rna.Kum¡ry¡sava. Kaphahara. Powder . Appendix 22 percent. 2 . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma.0. secondary phloem and medullary rays. áukrala.Prati¿y¡ya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. bi to tri and multiseriate.

2. followed by more or less compressed. under this. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. coriaceous. irregularly corrugated. thin-walled. taste. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots.Cream coloured. broken pieces. shows groups of cells of cotyledon.) large deciduous. endosperm mostly single layered. collapsed. Akshoda (Cotldn. radially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. oily sweet. Sailabhava. Powder . (Fam. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn.Shows 1-2 layered. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. 3 . Cotyledon . odour. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. not distinct. slightly curved. Juglandaceae). creamish-brown. parenchymatous cells. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present.

0 percent. ViÀ¶ambhi.3.2.2. 2.2. V¤Àya.5 percent. áukral. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.2. Appendix Not less than 10. Appendix Not more than 0. 2. KÀaya.IDENTITY. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.KÀata.Walnut oil and Tannin. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. Appendix Not more than 2 percent.2.4.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . B¤´ha¸a.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.0 percent. 4 .25 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. Balya. 2. 2. Appendix Not less than 7. Sara.7. DOSE . V¡taroga. Kaphakara.10 .6.

first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Stem Bark. radially arranged. consisting of tangentially elongated. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Amra Indian Hog Plum. grey having lenticels. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. external surface smooth.5 m in girth. with reddish-brown contents.3. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. thin-walled cells. and 5 . Ranambo Ambada. parenchymatous cells. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. S. Wild Mango Ambeda. curved. Jangli Aam Ambate. Amrata (St. a small aromatic.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Anbalamu. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. mangifera Willd. Syn. Amvara -Mampusli. Anacardiaceae). deciduous tree. Mampuiti. acuminata Roxb. tangentially elongated. Ranamba. non Gamble (Fam. upto 27 m high and 2. thin.Bk. laminated. Ambadam Amratakamu. S. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. Ambado.. Jangali Ambo. internal surface reddish-yellow. parenchymatous. Amra. f. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Kurz. Ambazham. Ambalam. fracture. a few outer cells exfoliated.

KÀaya.L. stone cells. 0. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. Under U. 6 .. shows cork cells.33.2. simple.Light brown. 0.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.3. 2.V.6. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. 0. 0.87 (blue) and 0.2. Pittakara.7.2. thick-walled. D¡ha DOSE . secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Powder . Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. lignified.40 and 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.75-14 µ in dia. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. 0. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. T.5 per cent. Appendix 2.(greyish brown). similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.KÀata. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.2. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.2.96. Rucik¤t. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. Raktapitta.96 (blue).87 (all greyish brown).33. IDENTITY. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. Not more than 1 per cent. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. 2.5-10 g. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. V¡tahara. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf.L.C. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. 2. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.C. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. Appendix Not more than 0. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Ka¸¶hya.

a stiff. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. stamens 5.free. sessile. solid.Simple. Leaf . contorted or quincuncial. 0. decussate. opposite. Kharamaµjar. odour. May£raka. secondary and tertiary roots present. gradually tapering. anther. opposite.4. PratyakpuÀpa.9 m high herb.P. the perianth lobes. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. perianth segments 5. 0.0. membranous.0. one spine lipped. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. greenish-white.1-1. bracteate with two bracteoles. hairy. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . yellowish-brown.Cylindrical tap root. filament short. wavy margin. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. hollow when dry. bisexual. branched.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. exstipulate.) Amaranthaceae). Apamarga (W. subsessile. 7 . Stem . hypogynous. not distinct. obovate.3 . cylindrical.3-0. two celled. actinomorphic. dorsifixed. slightly ribbed.0 cm in thickness. (Fam. yellowish-brown. Flower . áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. rough due to presence of some root scars. numerous. erect. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. erect.5 cm in cut pieces.

each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels.Sub-cylindric. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. on both surfaces. single. truncate at the apex. thin-walled cork cells. thin-walled. oval to rectangular. scalariform and pitted. Stem . micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Midrib . lignified.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. cortex 6-10 layered. elongated. style.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. xylem composed of usual elements. thin-walled cork cells. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. unilocular with single ovule. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. either separate throughout or found in some cases. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers.Shows a single layered epidermis. two medullary bundles. endospermic. vessels simple pitted. demarcating the xylem rings. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres.gynoecium bicarpellary. capitate. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. present in pith. LeafPetiole . b) Microscopic Root . fibres being absent. followed 8 . perianth and bracteoles. parenchymatous cells. stigma. Fruit . brown. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. tangentially elongated. epidermis single layered. Seed .Shows crescent-shaped outline. rectangular. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. vessels annular. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. round at the base. spiral. composed of parenchymatous cells. cortical and pith cells.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. 3-4 celled stalk. thin layers of cambium. ovary superior. fibres pitted. 2-5 celled. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. syncarpous. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements.

2. 2. Chedana.3.0 on upper surface. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. Kaphahara. non-lignified cells.0-11. Medoroga DOSE . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues.0-20. IDENTITY. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. palisade ratio 7. V¡maka.á£la.5-9.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. Apac¢. Lamina . thin-walled epidermal cells.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. mm.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra.4. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. stomatal index 4. scalariform and pitted thickening. 9. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface.2. 9 . P¡cana. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent.Shows single layered.0 on lower surface. Gu·apippali. Powder . Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Tikta Sara. aseptate fibres. Udara Roga. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. spiral. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. Ka¸·u. Ar¿a. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent.2. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . vessels with annular. 2. Medohara. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.2. of the drug for decoction. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. V¡tahara. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. rectangular.2. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.7.Light yellow. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. Appendix 2. slightly elongated in upper. shows fragments of elongated.2. 2.20-50 g. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.

phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. vessels pitted with oblong. b) Microscopic Root . distributed in the lower half of the cortex. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. Aparajita (Rt. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. fibrous. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. secondary xylem consists of usual elements.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. cylindrical. fracture. 1-5 mm in thickness. bitter. (Fam. medullary 10 . thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. thin-walled. lightbrown. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. colour. a few showing slit-like pits. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. very long. polygonal. Fabaceae). Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. taste.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular.5. a few solitary fibres also present. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.. M£traroga. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. 0.2. Appendix per cent.Mi¿raka Sneha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. áotha.Tannin. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. 0. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. found in secondary cortex. Starch. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.54 and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.6. Powder .79 (both yellow).79 (grey). 0. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.2.C. T. Kaphahara. shows simple and compound starch grains. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Medhya. 2.L..4. IDENTITY.79 (blue).á£la. Under U. 11 .2. Buddhiprada. 2. 0. ViÀahara.2. Taraxerol & Taraxerone.C. Pittahara. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1 .Yellowish-brown. Appendix per cent.3.2. Vra¸a DOSE .3 g. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2. Tikta. Appendix per cent.7.L. KuÀ¶ha.V. V¡tahara.rays 1-5 cells wide.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. CONSTITUENTS .2. 2. phloem and xylem parenchyma. Resin. oblong and pitted.

5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. 1. irregularly arranged. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. Ardraka (Rz. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. each having a depressed scar at its apex. oblique branches on upper side. isodiametric. fracture. Allam.6. Adrak Injee. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. pieces 5-15 cm long. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. odour. taste. reaching up to 90 cm in height. short with projecting fibres. buds and roots are removed and washed well. (Fam. lakottai. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal.) Zingiberaceae).5 cm thick.Shows a few layered. widely cultivated in India. gingery. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. tangentially elongated. radially arranged cells of inner cork. Ale -Adi. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled.5-6. colourless. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. Inji Allamu. pungent Rhizome . thin-walled.

2.08.03.35. endodermis single layered.63 & 0. filled with abundant starch grains.13. 0. IDENTITY. elongated pits on their walls.16 (blue). scalariforrn and spiral thickening. conjoint. 0. larger bundles consists of 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene.V. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 2.2. 2. 0. 0. vessels 2-5 in number. 13 . 0.08 (violet). isodiametric cells of parenchyma.L. 0. 0. 2..C.l6 (brownish violet).Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.7. septate fibres with oblique. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. reticulate and spiral vessels.3.2.76 (violet) & 0.92 (violet). Appendix 90 per cent. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. fibrovascular bundles of two types. numerous closed. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. 0. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.35 (light violet). 0.5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. 2.47 (light violet).63 (grey) & 0. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. Under U.6. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.76. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0.69 (all light yellow). shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Appendix 8 per cent. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. Appendix 5 per cent. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. collateral. 0. Appendix 2 per cent. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.7 vessels. vessels showing reticulate. small cells of sieve tube. 0. 0.2. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. Powder -Light yellow.83 & 0. oleo-resin cells abundent.92 (all yellow).dia.2. composed of xylem. walls of oil cells suberised. 0.63. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. Appendix 1 per cent.2.35. 0. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.9 T.16.L. 0.69.16.4. free from starch. 0. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. phloem. Appendix 2. 0. 0.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.47. 0.63 (light violet).C.69 (grey). 2.69 (light violet). parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.

THERAPEUTIC USES . V ¤Àaya. Kaphahara. áopha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. Svarya. Vibandha. Bhedana. RukÀa. Ka¸tharoga. DOSE . Ën¡ha. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. 14 .2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey.á£la.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. V¡tahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H¤dya. Rocana.

sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. upto 3 m in height. exfoliating in irregular scales. lignified. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. incurved. parenchyma. Arimeda (St. thinwalled cortical cells. not distinct. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Fabaceae). fibrous. rough. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. (Fam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0.Bk. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. square to rectangular cells. odour and taste. fracture. fibres and crystal fibres. Velvelam. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. Sadabala -Haramibaval.5-1 cm thick. characteristic of dry regions. phloem fibres thin-walled. Pilobaval. secondary phloem wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. stone cells and phloem cells. hard. consisting of sieve elements.7. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. with tapering 15 .) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. all traversed by medullary rays. internally light brown to reddish-brown.

Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga).3. Ka¸·u.91 (both blue).e. Dantaroga. Visarpa. β -Amyrin.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . P¡¸·u. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0 to 0. Appendix 13 per cent.2.n-Hexacosanol. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.2. radially elongated cells. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. Appendix 14 per cent. 2.áopha. K¡sa. Udardapra áamana DOSE .6. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.LC. 2.78 and 0. K¤mi.40 g for decoction.ends. 2. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. KuÀ¶ha.2. Appendix 2. 0. fibres. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side.2. crystal fibres elongated.Reddish-brown. Meda¿oÀaka. Meha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES .3-5 g in powder form.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.39 and a spot at Rf.C. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.91 (yellow). Mukharoga.2. shows groups of cork cells. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.0 to 0. Atis¡ra. 16 . β-Sitosterol and Tannin. 2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. ViÀajavra¸a.2.0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Appendix 11 per cent. composed of thin-walled. IDENTITY.7.39 and a spot at Rf. Powder .69 (grey) is seen in visible light. sclereid. T.L.4. Appendix 1 per cent.

curved. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. Arjuna (St.5 cm thick. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. a large deciduous tree. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. Torematti Arjuna. Kellemasuthu. traversed by phloem rays.) Combretaceae). inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. companion cells. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. taste. Vellamaruthi. bitter and astringent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . 0. flat. short in inner and laminated in outer part. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. recurved. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. in the middle and outer phloem region. P¡rtha. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells.8. consisting of sieve tubes. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma.Bk. Mattimora. Sajada Arjuna Matti.2-1. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. channelled to half quilled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. Neermatti.& A. Arjuna. fracture. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. Mathichakke. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Bilimatti.

THERAPEUTIC USES . measuring 5-13 µ in diameter.2. Appendix 1 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum.. Appendix 2. 2. Prameha. elliptical. Appendix 20 per cent. DOSE . H¤dya. KÀatakÀaya. Appendix 25 per cent. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. round to oval. elliptic. Kaphahara. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. present in most of the phloem parenchyma.3. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T.7. a few rhomboidal crystals. measuring 260-600 µ in dia.2. 18 . Vra¸a.in dia. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 20 per cent. shows fragments of cork cells.Medoroga.2. mostly simple. starch grains simple and compound.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. fibres. µ Powder . uniseriate phloem rays. round to oval. 2. Vya´ga.4. Vra¸an¡¿ana. Arjuna Gh¤ta. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. starch grains. H¤droga. IDENTITY. sometimes upto 5 components. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .. alternating with fibres. alata). Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. T¤À¡.2.3-6 g. 2. compound of 2-3 components. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa.2. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate.2. Pittahara. 4-12 cells high.Reddish-brown.6.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a..

Scramkotati Nallajidi. shining with residual receptacle. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp.5-3 cm long. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. Nallajidiginga Baladur. drupaceous. 19 . (Fam. nut 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. 30-40 layers thick. smooth.) Anacardiaceae). in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. dark brown. Bhallataka (Fr.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion.9. obliquely ovoid. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. mesocarp and endocarp. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Fruit . mesocarp a very broad zone.

ether.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A.F. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 0. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Tikta. Appendix 2.6. P¡cana. CONSTITUENTS . Graha¸¢.3.5 per cent. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.7. KuÀ¶ha. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). Ën¡ha. 2. IDENTITY.. Snigdha. Kaphahara. 2.2.1. Appendix 5 per cent.Dark-brown. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2. Krimi.2.. chloroform.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Powder . being highly thickened. innermost prismatic.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Bhedi.Ar¿a. Note . Gulma. Appendix 4 per cent. Chedi.2.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Appendix 11 per cent.2 g.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. 2.4.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . very much elongated radial walls. Part-I 20 .I. 2. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Ka¶u. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. DOSE .

5 cm long. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. occasionally rooting at nodes. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces.2. M¡rkava. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. together on unequal axillary peduncles. rough due to oppressed white hairs.Opposite. cylindrical. Stem . sessile to subsessile. sub-acute or acute. spreading.3 cm wide. disc flowers 21 . occasionally brownish. ovate. erect or prostrate.) herbaceous annual.P. white. lanceolate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja.50 cm high. obtuse or acute. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. involucral bracts about 8. Bhangro Bhangara. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. 1. usually oblong.10. greenish.Well developed. scarcely as long as bracts. Keshavardhana. ray flowers ligulate. greyish. Kesari -Bhangaro. Soppu. Knnunni Bhangra. Bh¤´ga. Tekar¡ja. (Fam.Solitary or 2. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. strigose with oppressed hairs. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. sub-entire. Leaf . Karisalanganni. ligule small. Asteraceae). Kesuriya.2 . Karisalai Guntakalagara.. not toothed. node distinct. upto about 7 mm in dia. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 2. branched. Gurugada. much branched.Herbaceous. Flower . 30 . Bhringaraja (W. herbaceous.8. Bhringiraja.2 . strigosely hirsute. often rooting at nodes. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. cylindrical or flat.

covered with striated cuticle. brown. ovary inferior. Leaf- Petiole . xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. ray cells pitted. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. corolla often 4 toothed. epidermis followed by wide cortex. b) Microscopic Root . fibre tracheids. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. dark brown.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. consisting of rounded cells. drum-shaped. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends.Achenial cypsella. pitted. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. non-glandular. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. xylem composed of vessels. uniseriate. fibre tracheids.25 cm long. unilocular with one basal ovule. pistil bicarpellary.2 . covered with warty excrescences. in macerated preparation vessels small. hairy and non endospermic. Seed . Fruit . and with pointed apical cell. fibres and xylem parenchyma. found scattered throughout wood. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. traversed by xylem rays. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. tangentially elongated cells. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. Midrib .tubular. warty. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . cuneate. phloem rays broader towards periphery. vessels numerous.0. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. epidermis followed by cortex. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. free. one seeded. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. pappus absent. filaments epipetalous. trichomes of two types. with very pointed tips. xylem ray distinct. stamen 5. simple. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations.0. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. rarely slightly oblique. externally covered with cuticle. 0. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side.1 cm wide. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. run straight in tangential section. with a narrow wing. 1-5 celled.

shows a dorsi ventral structure. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. pointed. pointed tips and pitted walls. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides.8 -4. Lamina . xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate.Dark green. pitted with spiral thickening. Powder . peg-like outgrowth. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. while the section cut at apical region. septa thick-walled. vascular bundles in a ring. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. externally covered with cuticle. the cork where formed. palisade ratio 3. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. a few often bifurcate and a few other large.5.5 -26. normally biseriate and uniseriate. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. hairs stiff. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. externally covered with cuticle. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. stomatal index 20. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. warty. some elongated with simple perforations. endarch.0-22.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. trichomes entire or in pieces. wide at the base. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls.collenehymatous cells on both sides. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. about 3 celled. pericyclic fibres distinct. middle cells longest. Stem . arranged in tangential strands. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. xylem consists of large number of vessels. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. collateral.0 on lower surface. uniseriate. 23 . xylem fibres with wide lumen. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening.5 on upper and 23. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. more abundant on lower surfaces. secondary cortex composed of large. epidermis single layered. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.

Appendix per cent. P¡¸·u.Alkaloids. 2.áotha. Yak¤droga. H ¤droga. áv¡sa. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Appendix per cent.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 12 .2. Ke¿ya.36 g. Tekar¡ja marica. CakÀusya.3. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent.2. Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY.2. áirah á£la. Ëmahara. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. Dantya.7. DOSE . K¡sa. K¤miroga.2. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. 24 . 2.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. 2. 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 2.2.6 ml of the drug in juice form. ViÀahara. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. Tikta RukÀa. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Tvacya.6.4. CONSTITUENTS .3 .

Brahmi (W. branched creamish-yellow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. (Fam.) Wettst. Ondelaga. Brahmi. found throughout India in wet and damp places.Thin. pedicels 6-30 mm long. slightly bitter. opposite. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. a glabrous.& K. sessile.Simple. Scrophulariaceae). soft. nodes and internodes prominent. small. glabrous. small. taste. Leaf .B. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. Flower . ovoid and glabrous. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root ..11.) H. 25 . about 1-2 mm thick.Capsules upto 5 mm long. Valabrahmi.P. green or purplish green. succulent. obovate-oblong. Fruit . axillary and solitary.Thin.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Syn. slightly bitter. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi.Small. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. 1-2 cm long. wiry. green. Stem . Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. prostrate or creeping annual herb. taste. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. decussate.

round and oval starch grains.6. 2. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. Powder . round to oval. measuring 4-14 µ in dia.2.7. endodermis single layered.2. IDENTITY. vascular ring continuous. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.0 µ in dia.0-14.2. 2.0 x 2.Root . starch grains simple. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix per cent. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Ras¡yana. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. Praj¡sth¡pana. glandular hairs. respectively.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. endodermis single layered. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings.2. Stem .2. Tikta. 2.4. and 8.Yellowish-brown. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. no distinct midrib present. glandular hairs sessile. b) Microscopic 26 . subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. pericycle not distinct. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers.. V¡tahara. Svarya. Appendix per cent. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. Appendix per cent.3. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. 2. Appendix 2. simple.5-9. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre.2.Shows a single layer of epidermis. Matiprada. ViÀahara. ËyuÀya. Medhya. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . cortex having large air cavities. Appendix per cent.

Ratnagiri Rasa. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . Prameha. 27 . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. áopha. P¡¸·u.1-3 g in powder form. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. S¡rasvata C£r¸a.KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES .S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Jvara.

long.. no distinct odour and taste. Papparamulli. parenchyma and stone cells. woody.15 layers of thin-walled. Heggulla. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars.5 cm in dia. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Solanaceae). phloem parenchyma much abundant.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Brihati (Rt. Badikateri Kirugullia. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content.9 layers of thin-walled. pale yellowish-brown. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. Ubhibharingani. b) Microscopic Root . upto 1. a very prickly. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. ribbed. (Fam. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai.8 m high.12. oval and tangentially elongated cells. much branched perennial under shrub. cylindrical. cork cambium single layered. secondary cortex composed of 5 . Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. 1-2. thin-walled. Chichuriti. traversed by phloem rays. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . tangentially elongated. Putirichunda Dorli.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. short and splintery. fracture. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. varying greatly in shape and size. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. DOSE . rounded to oval starch grains.3. 2. 2. thick-walled. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.2.5 per cent. Powder . measuring 5.2. all elements being lignified. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. H¤droga. CONSTITUENTS . cells radially elongated and pitted. Appendix 2. 2. aseptate fibres.10-20 g. Agnim¡dya.6.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. 2. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. fibres and xylem parenchyma. 29 . Kaphahara.2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.11. measuring 5. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not more than 6.á£la. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.2. vessels with simple pits. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. xylem rays uni to biseriate.7. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.Cream coloured.5 . vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. P¡cana. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.5 -11.2.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. áv¡sa..2. of the drug for decoction. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. traversed by xylem rays.6 µ in diameter. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. H¤dya. shows groups of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. tracheids.4. V¡tahara. Jvara. phloem and medullary rays.6 µ in diameter.

P. a glabrous. fracture. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. short. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. tracheid. nodes and internodes distinct. (Fam. brownish cells. officinarum DC. Chavya -Kattumulaku.13. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. greyish-brown.0 cm in width. Piperaceae). endodermis single layered. secondary cortex a wide zone. plenty of simple starch granules present. cultivated mainly in Southern India. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. Syn.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. peppery. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. cork cambium not distinct. acrid. thin-walled. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. fibres and xylem parenchyma. consisting of round. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. oval to rectangular. odour. Chavya (St.. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. chaba Hunter non Blume. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. b) Microscopic Stem . isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 .5-2. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. taste. fleshy climber. P.

7. medullary rays multi seriate. fibres and simple.4. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Appendix 10 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .pitted and reticulate thickenings. 2. Powder . round to oval. 2. of the drug in powder form. Pl¢h¡ Roga.Ar¿a.2.Alkaloids. Appendix 1. Glycosides and Steroids. á£lal DOSE . P¡cana. Recana. round to oval starch grains.3. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Ën¡ha.2. Appendix 2. 31 . fibres needle and spindle-shaped. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. Krimi. starch grains. cells thin walled. Appendix 3 per cent.6.2. Kaphahara. shows fragments of vessels.2.Greyish-brown. filled with simple. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. D¢pana.5 per cent. Udara Roga. Gulma.1-2 g. RukÀa. IDENTITY.2. 2.2. Appendix 6 per cent.

outer hills of Himalayas between 900. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen.14. taste. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. wedge-shaped.2 cm wide. found growing wild in the warm valley.6 cm long. cotyledons coiled.5-0. sweetish-sour. endosperm absent. Powder . round. LohitapuÀpa. 0. beneath this. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. oil globules. round to oval. parenchymatous cells. (Fam.Reddish-brown. thin walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. Seed . starch grains present in testa. 32 . Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. angular. Maadalai. triangular and rectangular. containing a few oil globules. Madalam Danimma Anar. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. Punicaceae). parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. oval.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. shows stone cells. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. Dadima (Sd.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. simple. 0.1-0. consisting of oval to polygonal.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. about 2-3.2-1. subacute. ciliate. acute. 1-2.16. corolla.5 cm across. 3-9 cm long. taste. ovate or ovate.25 cm long.) Lamiaceae). zig-zag. taste.5 cm wide. globose. smooth. upto 4 mm thick.P. about 0. 1. 1.Yellowish-green. Inflorescence . scaberulous. fine rootlets.9 m in high. long with numerous wiry. 10 dentate with a villous throat. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. 1-2. (Fam. stout herb.Light greenish-yellow. serrate. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. white. more or less pubescent. tubular. nodes and internodes distinct.5 cm long and 0. taste. Gumma. an annual.lanceolate. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . size variable. white. hairy on upper part.3-0. thin. Dronapushpi (W. fibrous. glabrous in lower part. Stem . crenate. slightly bitter. crowded in dense.7-2 cm 37 . Leaf . slightly curved. fracture. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. characteristic. pungent.35 cm wide.Cylindrical. lanceolate.Sessile. surface rough.6-0. erect. calyx. hairy.

vessels long with spurs. composed of oval to rectangular. smooth. Stem . Seed . lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. 4 . cortex consisting of single layered. Midrib . fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. some having simple pits. thin-walled. lateral lobes small. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. tracheids.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. wooly. Fruit . Leaf- Petiole .shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. thin-walled 38 . bilipped. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. nutlets 3 mm smooth. parenchymatous cells. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. thin-walled cells. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. trigonous. tracheids. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. round to angular collenchyma. upto 8 cells high. dark brown. xylem consists of vessels. present in centre. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. followed by round to oval parenchyma. secondary xylem consists of vessels. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. vascular bundles 4. Lamina . phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. palisade single layered. consisting of barrel shaped.1 cm wide. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. fibres and xylem parenchyma. endoderm is single layered. tangentially elongated.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular.0.long.7 layered. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls.vascular bundle arc-shaped.shows a single layered epidermis. thin-walled cells. upper lip about 4 mm long.tangentially elongated. brown. oblong.3 cm long and 0. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. parenchymatous cells. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. consists of a single layered epidermis.Schizocarpic carcerule. irregular.

aseptate fibres. Ka¶u Guru.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. 2. a few veins present in this region.cells.Alkaloid. Tamaka áv¡sa.2. palisade ratio 7-9. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. 2. RukÀa. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.2. stomata diacytic. present on both surfaces. Powder . K¡mal¡. Bhedani. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.6-40. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent.7. 39 .7 on upper surface. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.áotha. ViÀamajvara DOSE . Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. 2.6-30. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. Agnim¡ndya.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. Appendix 2.Dull yellow. Pittakara.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. 2. CONSTITUENTS .5 on lower surface.6. V¡takara.2. stomatal index 16.2. Lava¸a. Glycoside. 16.4. K¡sa.3. pitted and spiral vessels.

0.7-10 cm long. surface smooth. sweetish oily. shows stone cells. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. straight. parenchymatous. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. -Kakur. Hastipani. creamish-yellow. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. an annual creeping herb. parenchymatous cells. C. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed.3-0. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. Karka¶¢. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. cotyledons two. utilissimus Roxb. cultivated in many parts of the country.4 cm wide. B¤hatphala. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. more or less ellipsoid. thin-walled.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var.17. 40 . utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. (Fam. radially elongated to squarish. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. glossy. covered with thick cuticle. Cucurbitaceae). Ervaru (Sd. Vellarika Kakadi. taste. mesophyll cells thinwalled. rounded and tangentially elongated. Hastipani. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily.

IDENTITY. Raktapitta.19.V.2.C.L. T¤À¸¡.97 (all yellow) .35.5 per cent. Tikta Guru. 0. 0. 0. 0. 2. Appendix 4 per cent.Oil & Sugars.64. Appendix 5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.51. of seeds. 0.6.58.97 (all grey).58.0. 0. 0.91 and 0.64.D¡ha. 0.3-6 g.91 and 0. V¡takara. A¿mar¢.83.91 (blue) under U. Pittahara. Gulma.4.51.77.77.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0.3.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.C.7. T. (366 mm).35. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.83. RaktadoÀakara. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Kaphakara. Appendix 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.L. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .26. 41 . Jvara. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .2. Appendix 0. 2. Rucya. 2. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.26.0.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.2.2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.19.0. D¢pana.2.

0 cm in diameter and 2. odour and taste not distinct.0-3. Gajapippali (Fr. brownish-grey.4-0. odour and taste not disticnt. greyish-brown with a dent.4 cm wide.5 cm thick. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.6 cm long. a large epiphytic climber.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. 0.18.Shows more or less loosely arranged. rough and scaly. 0. b) Microscopic Fruit . thin-walled. (Fam. Orissa.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried.0-3. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. 42 . shiny. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Araceae).3-0.Kidney-shaped. cut surface has a central core. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . smooth. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. Seed .

0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. áv¡sa. oval to polygonal. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.V.93 (all yellow). Ka¸¶hya. 0.93 (all blue) are visible. shows lignified. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.2. 2. Appendix T.65.93 (brown).3. 0. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.Dark brown. thick-walled.2. 2. IDENTITY.27. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. Ka¸ha Roga.2.Atis¡ra. 0.Seed .C.6. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.5 per cent. 2.7. 2.20.27. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. Powder . Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. non-lignified.65 and 0.73 (both light brown) and 0. K¤miroga. DOSE .2-3 g.65. 0.73 and 0. 0. oval to polygonal.73 and 0. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 43 . Sugars & Fixed Oil. V¡tahara. Malavi¿oÀana. Agnivardhaka. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.4. T. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. thick-walled. thin-walled. 2. Three spots appear at Rf.Shows a single layered.L. Kaphahara. 0.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. 0.C. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains.2.L. Stanya. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. Punarnav¡sava. CONSTITUENTS .áiv¡gutik¡. oval to polygonal. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. in extract (Phant) form.Glucosides viz. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.2. 0. 2-4 layered.65. pitted and with concentric striations. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.

parenchymatous cells. Sr¢par¸¢.A drupe.) unarmed tree. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel.5-2. cotyledons consisting of single layered. K¡¿marya. oily. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. 0. thin-walled cells. seed coat thin. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. taste. surface smooth.Seed ovate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. Verbenaceae). Seed . Hannu -Kumbil. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. fleshy mesocarp.4-0. (Fam. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. thin-walled. 0.0 cm long.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. 1. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. b) Microscopic Fruit . ovoid. radially 44 . crinkled. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. P¢takarohi¸¢. light yellow. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric.19. black.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. two seeded. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. Gambhari (Fr.5-1 cm long. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . Shivani. multilayered. sometimes one seeded. tangentially elongated. Seed . taste. papery. parenchymatous cells.6 cm wide. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. sweetish sour.

08.93 and 0. Ke¿ya.98 (orange).42.. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru. T¤À¸¡. Appendix 8 per cent. Resin and Saccharine.V.94 and 0. V¡tahara.2.98 (yellow) in visible light. Medhya.Arvind¡sava. H¤droga. 0. IDENTITY. 0. 2.2.4 per cent. 0. 0.22.2. 0. 0. Appendix 25 per cent. KÀaya.7. Rakta Pitta DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 45 .03.98 (all yellow). Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.D¡ha. Appendix 2. Appendix 6 per cent.98 (all blue). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. 0. H¤dya. 0.C. Pittahara. M£trak¤cchra. Ras¡yana.18. Sara.2.L. T.Butyric acid.elongated epidermal cells. KÀata. 0. CONSTITUENTS . filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.03. Powder . Tartaric acid. THERAPEUTIC USES . oil globules and aleurone grains.L. of the drug in powder form. 0. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. 2. Alkaloid.52. 0. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. Appendix 0.1-3 g.2. Under U.6. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Blackish-brown. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.12.C. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.26.4.3. shows stone cells. Amla.

found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. Grewia populifolia Vahl. Syn. elliptical.. a shrub 0. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. 1. secondary cortex wide. fracture. taste. a few stone cells. consisting of 12-20 layered. blunt tips and moderately long in size. thin-walled. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. consisting of tangentially elongated. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. arranged in radial groups.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. fibrous. traversed by wide phloem rays.5-5 cm long. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces.Bk. channelled. Tiliaceae). external surface smooth. (Fam.) Aschers & Schwf. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.0 m high. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. parenchymatous cells. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. radially arranged cells.6-1. thick-walled.20. 46 . Gangeru (St. mucilaginous. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. rectangular. light yellow. oval.Shows a wide cork. fibrous. moderately large in size.

4.Powder . 0.35. CONSTITUENTS . 0.J¢rak¡di Modaka. β-amyrin etc.2.08 (blue) 0. Ka¶u.). 2.6.2. 0. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.V.27.41.L.Vra¸a.Light yellow and fibrous. 0. Amla. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. Appendix per cent.Sugar. 0. 0. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. of the drug in powder form. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. Tikta.35 (dark blue). under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. T. 47 .48.64 (blue).61. 0.17. α-amyrin. IDENTITY. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.17 (light violet). 0. 0.88 (light violet). 2. Two spots are seen at Rf.08.2.68 (light violet) & 0.27 (light violet). 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Under U.88 (all yellow). 0. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent. 0.13 (blue). 0. 0.L. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol.35 (both light yellow) in visible light.2-3 g. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). Pittavik¡ra.C.7.48 (violet).3. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2. 0.35 (violet).2.2.68 & 0. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent.08 (violet). 0. 0.C.55.17. 2. DOSE .2.55 (blue) & 0.29 (blue). 0.

surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. slightly corky. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. cork cambium. becoming mildly bitter. some with brownish content. exfoliating in small flakes. Gurivinda Ghongchi. thinwalled. b) Microscopic Root . Ghungchi Guluganji. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. fruits ripen during winter. light brown. taste. soft.21. most often irregularly curved. spreading throughout the plains. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. odourless. present at short intervals. flowering in August-September. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . feebly sweetish. when distinct.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. smaller than stone cells. Fabaceae). bark thin. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. Chonotee Ratti.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. gulagunja -Kunni. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. Gunja (Rt. (Fam. a climber. tangentially elongated cells. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. simple or branched. pitted walls. Kundumani Guriginga. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. Kakananti Rati Kunch. cylindrical. Chanothee. composed of 1-2 cells wide. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white.

annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. 2. thin-walled and rectangular. Tikta á¢ta. Powder .5 per cent. Appendix 2.6. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. IDENTITY. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. vessels of varying sizes with thick.2. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. small groups of sclerenchyma. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.2. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.Indralupta. xylem vessels with pitted walls.2. stone cells. CONSTITUENTS .2.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin).3 g. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. Appendix 2. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. 49 . cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. pitted walls. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region.4. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 10 per cent. DOSE .5 -13.5-13. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 4 per cent.75 µ in diameter. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.2. parenchyma thin-walled. wood composed of narrow concentric.7.2. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. numerous xylem fibres. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. 2. Mukha¿oÀa. áula.1 .diverging towards periphery. Pittahara.75 µ in diameter. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present.3. Appendix 9 per cent. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. THERAPEUTIC USES .Greyish-brown. shows fragments of cork. 2.

grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. solid. besides the xylem and phloem elements. odour. smooth.22. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. Poaceae). each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. Ikshu (St. distinct node and internode. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. characteristic. more numerous and closer towards periphery. conjoint. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. Serdi Ikha. taste. juicy and sweet. (Fam. cylindrical. with. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled.) shrub. 50 . lignified.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. scattered throughout the ground tissue. closed type of vascular bundles. b) Microscopic Stem . each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity.

2. 51 .4. 2. 2.7. Appendix Not more than 2.5 per cent.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. ground tissue. V¡tahara. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. vessels and sclerenchyma. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Balya.200 . shows pieces of epidermis. V¤Àya.2. Pittahara.Raktapitta. M£tra KÀaya. THERAPEUTIC USES .6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Sara.2. Kaphahara. IDENTITY.Sucrose. 2. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.Powder light brick red. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. 2. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.2.3.Bal¡ Taila. Appendix 2.2.400 ml in the juice form. DOSE .Powder .

Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. thick walled. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. áatakratulat¡. Indramanoa. consisting of vessels. Bitter apple Indravaran. occurring throughout the country. xylem forms bulk of root.5 cm thick. dull yellow. slightly twisted. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. parenchyma and medullary rays. Tuntikai. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. thin walled.23. an annual or perennial. parenchymatous cells. Valiya Pekkumatti. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. Tumbi Paikamatti. mostly simple or rarely 52 . Indravaruni. cylindrical. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. tangentially elongated. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth.2-2. (Fam. Havumakke. fibres aseptate. fibres. lying around vessels. composed of sieve elements. Indrayanalata. parenchyma and medullary rays. taste. pitted. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. Indravaruni (Rt. Indrayan. Paythumatti. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. short. 0. intensively bitter.5 µ in dia. a few filled with dark brown contents. thick-walled. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. longitudinal fissures present. fracture. Indravarana Gothakakucti. b) Microscopic Root . Gav¡kÀ¢.5-7.) Cucurbitaceae). elongated with pointed ends. Varithummati. tangentially elongated cork cells.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. 57 . Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. brownish-black.. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. taste. Myrtaceae). astringent. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. Seed .800 m.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. cuminii Druce. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. a large evergreen tree. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured.Brown coloured. Jambu (Sd. smooth. E. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. thin-walled. rounded starch grains. 1 cm wide. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval.25. oval. b) Microscopic Powder . Eugenia jambolana Lam. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed.. coriaceous covering. 1 cm long. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. (Fam. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. oval or roundish.) Skeels Syn.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.

On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. 0.2. 0. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. 58 .2. Tannin. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.30 (blue).2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.C. 0.20.95 (all violet). Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya Guru. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.3.3-6 g.30 and 0.6. T. Appendix per cent.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent.C. Kaphahara. 0.V.IDENTITY. Udakameha. CONSTITUENTS .30 and 0.20.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .L.12. 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4.2. Appendix per cent. three spots appear at Rf.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.Glycoside (Jamboline). DOSE . Amla. 2. Appendix per cent. Pittahara.Madhumeha.95 and 0. 2. ViÀ¶ambhi.95 (all yellow).L. 0.7. 2. 2.

light grey to ash coloured. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. cuminii Druce. rough. and phloem rays. Jamu. short and splintery. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. oval to angular. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem.5-2. Jamneralae. internal surface fibrous. forming a rhytidoma. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. Myrtaceae).) Skeels Syn. a large evergreen tree.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Raja Jambu Merale. and reddish brown. Neralamara -Njaval. 0. Jambu (St. Jam Jammu Naaval. cork cambium not distinct. younger bark mostly channelled.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. fracture. taste. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1.800 m. E. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Jambu.. Eugenia jambolana Lam. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. lower cork thin and colourless. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces.26. astringent.5 cm thick. elongated. stratified and reddish-brown. Mahamaram. fibres aseptate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. stone cells. (Fam.Bk. Navval Sambu. upper few layers thick. Jambuda Jomuna.

Appendix per cent. DOSE . Appendix per cent. Stambhaka. IDENTITY.3. Pittahara.2. Kaphahara. stone cells. Appendix per cent. 2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.7. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Appendix 2.4.6. of the drug for decoction. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . reddish-brown content.region. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. round to oval starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. round to oval starch grains. Raktapitta.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. single or in groups. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. Appendix per cent.Light brown. 2. oval to angular.10-20 g.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. aseptate fibres. elongated.Atis¡ra. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .U¿¢r¡sava. V¡tala. measuring 5-11µ in diameter.2. 60 .2.2.

no marked odour. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed.Shows a hard testa. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Jayapala (Sd. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. ovate. Japala. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. Nervala -Nervalam. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Tinti·¢phala. kernel yellowish and oily. b) Microscopic Seed . slightly quadrangular. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. Neervalam. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. thin-walled cells. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. oblong. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. consisting of an epidermal layer.27. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. filled with brownish content. Japal beej. 5-7 m high. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa.) small evergreen tree. Euphorbiaceae). convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. found throughout tropical India. (Fam. slightly bent at middle. dull cinnamon-brown. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. consisting of a large endosperm. 61 . Neervalam Jepal.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Appendix 2.7. Udararoga.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. 2. Appendix 3 per cent. of the drug in powder form. 0. IDENTITY. 0. 2.2.6-12 mg.6.3.C. T.84 (all violet). Appendix 7 per cent. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.White with black particles of testa.90 (all yellow).2. Powder . a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. 2. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.54 (yellow). CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent.2. Appendix 0. Resins & Phorbol esters. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.39. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules.C. 62 .2. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. 0. 0.10. Vibandha DOSE . On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .54 and 0.L. 0.L.29.Fixed oil.4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Pittahara.V.63 and 0.2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. Appendix 15 per cent. 0.Jvara.49. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.34. 0. 0.34 (grey).84 (brown). 0.

mucronate to acuminate. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. Fabaceae). Jayanti Jaita. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. aegyptiaca Pers. polygonal. 63 .8 cm wide. 7. consisting of thin-walled. a quick growing. jayata Arinintajinamgi. Karijimangai. -Semp. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. present on both surfaces. glabrous. having secretory cavities in phloem. 0. 1.3-0. Jay¡. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. S.5 cm long..5-15. (Fam. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells.3 cm long. pith small.) Merr.shows single layered epidermis. very shortly stalked. opposite. Jayanti (Lf. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. oblong.7 layered round.0-3. paripinnate.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. Arishimajingai. short lived shrub.28. Atti. á£kÀma patra. Lamina . 1. leaflets 6-16 pairs. entire. palisade single layered.8-6 m high. Jalugu. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.Syn. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . linear. stomata anisocytic.

Appendix per cent. 0. 0.C. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. in powder form. ViÀaroga.2.7. Galaga¸·a.11.M£trak¤cchra. Powder .2. 0.56 (all pink) and 0. Pittahara. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.2.L.11. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.48.V. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.C. V¡tahara. Calcium and Phosphorus. 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.4. 2. 0.05.56. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. 0.29.11. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. palisade cells. Appendix per cent.05. 0.29. 0.2. 64 .2. T.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. 0. DOSE . 2. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. Appendix 2. 0. 0.91 and 0. 0. 2.56.Protein.6. THERAPEUTIC USES .Ratnagiri Rasa. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.3. 0.19. CONSTITUENTS . 2. 0.48.97 (all grey).97 (yellow).37. 0.19. 0.2.69. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa.25-4. shows spongy parenchyma. 0.05. 0.97 (all yellow).29. IDENTITY. Ras¡yana. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.37.91 and 0.Dull green.3-6 g.19. palisade ratio 3.

ripe seeds. Seed . light to dark brown. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. (Fam. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. taste.hard.29. unpleasant. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Gangunge beeja. Jyotishmati (Sd. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. brownish-orange.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. bitter. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin.5-3. seed without aril also prescent. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril.35 mm in breadth. a large climbing shrub. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . surface generally smooth and. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. collapsed. colour. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. Celastraceae). Gangunge humpu. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces.

L.54 (both blue). Meddhya 66 .4. Appendix 9 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.54.94 (yellow). of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.89.L.82. 0.composed of polygonal. 0.2.3. V¡tahara. Appendix 20 per cent.5 per cent.C.35.2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.15. Appendix 1. UÀ¸a.94 (yellow) in visible light.C.04. 2. stone cells. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.82 (pink) & 0.2.20. 0. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.35. dark brown.2. Tikta Sara. Appendix 2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). (all blue) & 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS . D¢pana. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 2.2. thin-walled. Appendix 6 per cent.82. 0. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. 0. áirovirecanopaga. 2. 0. 2. V¡maka.2. 2. 0. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. Oil and Tannins.Alkaloids.2.V.89 (both greenish blue).63. 0.Oily.6. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. Under U. Virecaka. Appendix 45 per cent.7. 0.89 (all yellow).54.82 & 0.8 IDENTITY. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.V. Powder .

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . 67 . Oil : 5-15 drops. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.Seed: 1-2 g. Sm¤tidaurbalya.V¡tavy¡dh¢.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. ávitra. DOSE .

Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. large tree. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Kadappai. Kadamba mara. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Kadam Kadam.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Kadambu Needam. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Rubiaceae). most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kadavala. Vellaikhadambu. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. Kadamba (St. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. phloem composed of sieve tubes.Bk. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Indulam. Kadamba Nipo. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Syn. (Fam. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. rectangular cells. composed of thin-walled. 68 b) Microscopic . bitter. a few cells with brown contents. traversed by uni to triseriate. taste.. some cells contain chlorophyll. Priyka Roghu. a deciduous. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. elongated cells of phloem rays. A. Rich. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. Kadamba Kadamba. Vellai Kadambam. indicus A.30.

Appendix 3 per cent.2. shows fragments of cork cells. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.Brown. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 g. Lava¸a. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .4.63 (yellowish grey).79.C. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a).2.21.L. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.6. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.31. 2. V¡tahara.3.Alkaloids. 2.70 (orange yellow).03. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. L C. Appendix 2.2. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. 0.83 and 0. DOSE . Powder . companion cells and phloem parenchyma. T.57. 0.5 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. 0. Vra¸a. 0. fibres.90 (grey). 0.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.D¡ha.0.5:10) shows under U.7. phloem cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. YonidoÀa. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. 0.79 (grey) and 0.13. 2. Appendix 9 per cent.1. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. cells distinct and slightly elongated. Appendix 1. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. CONSTITUENTS .2. 0. 2. Vra¸aropa¸a. Raktapitta. 69 .2.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. Steroids. 0.phloem fibres.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.64. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.2.5 .

30-45 cm high.) Solanaceae). peduncles 6-20 mm long. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. oblong. ovary globose. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi.25 mm long. sinuate. obtuse. (Fam. 2. anther 1. Manitakkali. bark thin. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. white or pale violet.Erect.2-2. Manatakkali. very slender. slender. obtuse notched at apex. Kakamachi (W. pedicels 6-10 mm long. hairy in lower part. hairy at base. slightly woody and branched. road sides and gardens. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. style cylindric. ovate or oblong. pale brown. filaments short. corolla 4-8 mm long. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. petiolate. Manaththakkali. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. glabrous.P. flattened. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . ganike. 1. quite common in cultivated lands. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. oblong.Simple.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. narrowed at both ends. Ganikegida. five lobed. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. a herbaceous annual weed. Pikachia. Leaf . externally smooth.5 cm wide. 3-8 flowered cymes. found throughout the country in dry parts. green. sub-umbellate. calyx 2-3 mm long.Small. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. glabrous or pubescent. extra-axillary. Flower . thin.5-8. Stem . 70 . Ganikesopu. yellowish.5 cm long and 2. toothed or lobed.31. glabrous.5 mm long.

obtuse.Fruit . filled with starch grains.. compactly arranged. arc71 . b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. parenchyma 4-6 layered. covering trichomes. vascular bundles-collateral. yellow. yellow or black. covered with striated cuticle.. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. epidermis single layered. tangentially elongated. embedded in perimedullary zones. Midrib . trichomes similar to those found on petiole. uniseriate. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. phloem rays uniseriate. conjoint and open. minutely pitted. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces.. single or with two or rarely 3 components. covered with thick. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. phloem consists of thin-walled. arcshaped. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. slightly elongated. smooth shining Seed .' oval parenchymatous cells. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. xylem rays homogenous. endoderrnis single layered. polygonal cells. bicollateral. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. 6mm in dia.5-8.Shows single layered. starch grains. composed of thin-walled.5-11 µ in dia. 1.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. uniseriate.5 mm in dia.10 layered in angular parts. radially elongated cells. in small or large patches. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. measuring 2. uniseriate. usually accompanied by fibres.Discoid. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. rays composed of thin-walled. Stem . internal phloem. measuring 2. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. cambium 2-4 layered. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells.25 µ in dia.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. trichomes multicellular. but 4. smooth. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. covered with striated cuticle. oval to round starch grains. central vascular bundle shallow.. cortex of large. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. pith large. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. LeafPetiole . slightly striated cuticle. usually purplish-black but sometimes red.A berry.

epidermis with irregular outline. 2. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. CONSTITUENTS . stomata anisocytic. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. 034 and 0.34 (both pink). 0. Appendix per cent.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent.2.6.Creamish-green. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.7. Lamina .2.V.2.Shows thin.11 µ in diameter.06 & 0.C. vein islet number 7-10.3.34 (both brown) in visible light. single. unicellular hairs.97 (all yellow). pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. Appendix 2. 2.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. Fruit . papery epicarp. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. a few broken pieces of pointed. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.C.L.5 . seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit.06 & 0. Powder . present beneath palisade parenchyma. 0. 2.2.4. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. measuring 2. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. 72 . T. 0.06. 2. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Appendix per cent. palisade single layered.L. palisade ratio 2-4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. both upper and lower epidermis single layered.Alkaloids and Saponins.dorsiventral. Under U. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.

Sara. 73 . Ka¸·u. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Chardi.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Rasar¡ja Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta Laghu. KuÀ¶ha.5 -10 ml.áotha. V¡tahara. Netraroga. Prameha.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Pittahara. Kaphahara. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . H¤droga. of the drug in juice form. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Jvara. H¤dya. DOSE . Hikk¡. Svarya. Ar¿a. Ras¡yana.

broken pieces also occur. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. 1. 2-4 cm long. Chenthamara. Kamala (Fl. gynoceium apocarpous. aquatic herb with creeping stem. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. Nymphaeaceae). crimp led. dark brown. anther.. Tavare. starchy and large.4-2 cm long. crimpled. Syn. gynoecium and thalamus. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. Aravindan. elliptic. Aravinda. black. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Naidile. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Salaphool Lotus Kamal.3-2 cm wide. Venthamara. Kanwal Kamal. Pamposh Tamarai. linear 1. Sarojam Kaluva. Kamalam.32. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. obtuse. sepals leaf-like. Padma. free. Thamaraipoo. extended into clavate appendages. petals numerous. seed hard. erect. membranous. (Fam. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. 3-5 cm long. 74 . androecium. carpels many. corolla. Kalh¡ra.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Paduman. 1. embedded in a creamy. Kamal. Sitopala. comprising of calyx. finely veined. yellowish-brown. a large.5-3 cm wide. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe.

of the drug for decoction.Dusty brown. Appendix per cent. ViÀavik¡ra.Aravind¡sava. 2. columnar. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter.shows four chambered anther. followed by ground tissue of oval. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. having smooth exine and intine.2. Appendix per cent. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. Sant¡pahara.2. Stamen Filament .2. Anther .7. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. vascular bundle single. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . composed of thin-walled.12 -24 g.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. rectangular.2.2. IDENTITY. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. angular. spore sac contains yellow. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. Powder . 2. spherical. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Tikta. Visarpa. . parenchymatous cells. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. 2.3. Appendix per cent.2. parenchymatous cell. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. M£tra Virajan¢ya.filament appears circular in outline. DOSE . two on either sides.6. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha.Raktapitta. yellow pollen grains. ground tissue consisting of polygonal.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. Pittahara. 2.4.

Syn. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . Bilvara. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. having longitudinal ridges and furrows.Reddish-brown. axillary thorns.) Swingle. Belalu. elephantum Correa (Faro. parenchymatous cells. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. glabrous tree with strong. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Kavataleal. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. thin-walled. Belada hannu. hard. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. found throughout the plains of India. Pulp. often cultivated in many parts of India. F. 76 . triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. odour. stone cells. straight. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. a deciduous. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. found in groups. sour. taste. Haminamara -Vilar maram. Powder . slightly triangular and oval. rough. Balada. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. Kapittha (Fr. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. sharp. stone cells. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. reddish brown.33. Rutaceae). semicircular. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha.shows irregular. aromatic. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. Siwalik range and forests.

V¡mi. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. Pittav¡tahara. Hikk¡. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya.91 (violet) and 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .91 (blue) and 0.50. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. 0. 77 . 6. 0. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. T. 0. 0.6.L.7. Vra¸an¡¿aka.12. 0. DOSE . Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. 2.C.37. Appendix per cent. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.14 (sky blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES .95 (violet) . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. Under U. Gr¡h¢.91 (grey) in visible light.2. 0. 0. Appendix 2.C. 0.Citric acid and Mucilage.2.áv¡sa.06. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. CONSTITUENTS . Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. 2.12 (brown).95 (blue).V.3.L. Ripe-T¤À¡. 0.37 (brown).2.2. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.95 (all yellow). 0. of the drug in powder form.1-3 g. Agnim¡ndya. Appendix per cent. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf.91 and 0. Appendix per cent. Lekhana.4.2. Sangr¡h¢. Unripe Pulp: Amla. Amla.50 (violet). 2.

Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. light in weight. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. fracture. internal surface grey and smooth. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. shows single and groups of stone cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. flat or slightly curved pieces. sometimes cultivated. (Fam . simple and compound starch grains. met throughout India in wild state. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres.Bk. starch grains simple.34. tubular. and compound having 2-3 components. external surface brownish-grey.) Apocynaceae). measuring 3-7 µ in dia. rough due to longitudinal striations.Greyish-brown. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. b) Microscopic Powder . 78 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. Karamarda (St. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. short. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. Pittakara.KuÀthahara.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. 0.V.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. DOSE .35. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Appendix per cent.7.2. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. 79 .90 (pink) and 0. 0.2. Appendix per cent.L.3. 2. 2.C.52 (light sky blue).97 (violet). 2.2.L.58 (both light grey).C. 2.2. 0. T.48 g. CONSTITUENTS .2. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.2. of the drug for decoction.6.

tangentially elongated cells. due to peeling off. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. fracture. a glabrous tree. tangentially elongated. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Merr. traversed by phloem rays. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. Naktam¡la.) glabra Vent. Karanja (Rt. thin-walled.35. single cells of varying shape and size.. secondary phloem very wide. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. external surface rough.. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. most of phloem 80 . 3-11 µ in dia. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. Bk. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. internally. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. (Fam. fibrous. Syn. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. cells. Nakt¡hv¡. very bitter. P. Fabaceae).

0.04 (blue). Ëntravidradhi. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 2. mostly straight. Ka¸·£ghna.98 (all yellow). parenchymatous cells. 0.L. consisting of thin-walled.18.13 (Sky blue).2. 0. phloem fibres.80 (light blue). 0.25 (sky blue).09.18 (blue) 0.51 (light blue).2.47. THERAPEUTIC USES .47.C.31 (sky blue). 0.5 per cent. 0. cork cells.4.2. similar to those present in secondary cortex.08 (greenish blue).37 (greenish yellow).80 and 0. Yoniroga. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.C. Appendix 2 per cent.2. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. phloem rays many. DuÀ¶avra¸a. 0.K¤miroga. CONSTITUENTS . KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. T. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. Ka¸·u.V. 0. 1-2 seriate.51. Appendix 17 per cent. Powder -Creamish-yellow.37. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. Appendix 11 per cent. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0.6. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. IDENTITY. 0. V¡tahara.31. most of ray cells contain starch grain.47 (greenish yellow). 2.42 (sky blue).2.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.1-3 g. Pittahara. DOSE . of the drug for decoction. 0.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.L. Appendix 2. 81 .7. 2. Tikta. KuÀtha. 0. ViÀaghma.2. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows thin-walled. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 3. 0. 0. 0. 0. Prameha.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. 2.Flavones Kanugin.

secondary phloem a very wide zone. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.. bark does not easily separate from xylem. fracture. 3-11 µ in dia. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. thin-walled. P. tangentially elongated cells. internally light yellow. irregularly distributed. bitter. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. rounded to oval in shape. Syn.36. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. cells. Karaµjaka.. Karanja (Rt. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. Nakt¡hv¡. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. rough due to the presence of numerous. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. consisting of 82 . light in weight. reddish-brown or dull brown. Fabaceae). bark. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular.) Vent. a glabrous tree. tangentially elongated. 1-2 seriate. (Fam. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. taste. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Merr.

2. Vra¸a¿odhana.2. fibres and parenchyma. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. 2. Powder -Light yellow. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Appendix per cent. 2. of the drug in powder form.Methylfisetin. tracheids.2. Pittahara. shows fibres in singles or groups. tangentially elongated towards outer region. Ëntravidradh¢. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.6. ViÀaghna.2. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent.. 2. more. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta. 2.DuÀ¶avra¸a.3. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely.7. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. Prameha. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells.radially elongated. V¡tahara.1-2 g. KuÀ¶ha. Vidradh¢. consisting of 2-3 components.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. CONSTITUENTS . starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. 83 . measuring 3-11 µ in dia.2. Ka¸·£. IDENTITY. K¤miroga. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. Kanugin. Yoniroga.4. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. Demethoxy-kanugin. rounded to oval in shape. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.Karanjin. thin-waned cells towards inner region. starch grains. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled.

upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. Karanja. bitter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.. thin-walled. alternating with stone cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. 84 . beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. a glabrous tree. (Fam. thick-walled cells. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. parenchymatous cells. Karanja (St. forming a continuous or discontinuous band.37. recurved. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. b) Microscopic Bark . at some places lenticels also appear. traversed by medullary rays. fibre small. phloem parenchyma. fracture. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. composed of rectangular. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. usually 0. tangentially elongated. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.Bk.2-1 cm thick. slightly quilled. taste. short and fibrous. arranged in a tangential manner.) Merr. phloem fibre and stone cells. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured.) glabra Vent. unpleasant. Fabaceae). Karaµjaka. Nakt¡hv¡. odour. lenticellate pieces.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. more or less smooth. Syn. filled with reddish-brown content. P.

Ëntravidradh¢. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. Gamatin. K¤miroga. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. Prameha. V¡tahara. 3" 7 : 8). elongated. THERAPEUTIC USES . flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2".polygonal.DuÀ¶avra¸a.2.2. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. Ka¸·u. Vidradh¢. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. KuÀ¶ha. present in secondary cortex.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Pittahara. 3". measuring 3-14 µ in dia. and rarely. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. IDENTITY.2. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.. CONSTITUENTS .2.7. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. usually 2-4 cells wide. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Pinnatin. medullary rays wavy.6. starch grains simple. Yoniroga DOSE .1-2 g. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder -Yellowish-cream. Kanugin. Pongapin. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. Appendix 1. rounded to oval. Appendix 13 per cent. Ka¶u.2. Tikta.2. Appendix 2.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. 2. ViÀaghma. 5Methoxyfurano (2". 85 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 18 per cent. Kaphahara. 2. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. Appendix 3 per cent. Demethoxy- kanugin. 2. simple and compound starch grains. of the drug in powder form.4.5 per cent. oil globules. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. aseptate fibre and stone cells. 2. thin-walled and aseptate. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin.3.

Syn.3 cm wide.5 cm long and 3. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Pongana Ganuga.circular in outline. xylem vessels arranged radially.8 cm. 6. Hulagilu -Pungu. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex.9-8. (Fam.) Merr. Karanja. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule .) Vent. a glabrous tree. Ungu. leaflets 2-3 pairs. Karanja (Lf. 0. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. epidermis single layered. traversed by xylem rays. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Fabaceae). isodiametric. P. 86 . a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of xylem and phloem.5-0. Dithouri Honge. dark green. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins.11.. cortex consisting of angular. petiolule short.2 . glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. Unu. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. covered with cuticle. Kanajo Karuaini. Nakt¡hv¡. arcshaped. Karaµjaka. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.38. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. vascular bundle single. consistig of tabular cells.

vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. V¡tahara. Ka¸·ughna.6. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.6. phloem and pith.(4".5 per cent. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 .6. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. 7) -flavone. shows spiral xylem vessels. Appendix 10 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .7. Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. stomatal index 12. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.shows single layered epidermis.2.5-50. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. cortex consists of round to oval. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Appendix 16 per cent. covered with thick cuticle.3. K¤imihara. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.A new Furanoflavone -3' .4. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.2.2. present in lower surface.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". . Appendix 3. mesophyll cells. Kaphahara. 2. consisting of tabular cells. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".5". Pittavardhaka. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. 5". 2.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. palisade ratio 3.2.Mid rib . vascular bundle. 2. Ka¶u. Appendix 11 per cent.2.5-20. 2. Tikta. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. stomata anisocytic.6. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring.2. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. Powder -Green.5) . spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. collateral. palisade two layered. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. 5" .

Vra¸a.J¡ty¡di Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . Ka¸·au. 88 .For external use only.K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

fusiform.4.2.2. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds.7. 2. oblong.5 per cent. Kakiral. Appendix 6 per cent. (Fam. Appendix 28 per cent.2. Nil Appendix 8.6. Appendix 2. Appendix 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. 2. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.6 per cent.) Cucurbitaceae). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . extremely bitter. IDENTITY. usually pointed or beaked. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa.5 . upto an altitude of 1500 m. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. K¡ravall¢. Kathilla. pendulous.Fr. Varivall¢.2. Karavallaka (Fresh.2. surface rough.3.39. 3 valved at the apex when mature. 2. 2. taste.2. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation.25 cm long.

Kaphahara.98 (all blue).Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. CONSTITUENTS . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.96 (sky blue). 0. Prameha. 0.C. Jvara.03.46. K¡sa. 0. K¡mal¡.L. 0. 0.10 . Aruci.98 (red & sky blue). 0. 0. P¡¸·u.23 (red).60.15 ml.50. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. 0.16.T.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. 0.98 (all yellow).34.17.L. 0. K¤miroga. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. H¤dya.V.75. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . KuÀ¶ha.áv¡sa. D¢pana.C.43. V¡tahara.81 and 0. 0. Raktavik¡ra. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U.67 and 0. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 90 .61 (light sky blue). T. juice of fresh drug. 0. 0.

externally greyish-brown. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex.05-0. taste. Katki.40. Kaurohi¸¢. Katuka rohini Kutki.1 cm in diameter. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. cortex single layered or absent. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. inner surface black with whitish xylem. mostly attached with rhizomes. subcylindrical. . fracture.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. primary cortex persists 91 . pleasant. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. b) Microscopic Rhizome . (Fam. kaur Katuka rohini. Katuku rohini. pleasant. suberised cells. Sutiktaka. Kauka.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. straight or slightly curved. fracture. Scrophulariaceae). a perennial.Thin. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. bitter. 0. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. short. Kav¢. Katuka (Rz. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . Root . cork cambium 1-2 layered.2. short. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. Rhizome is cut into small pieces.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. 5-10 cm long. Rohi¸¢. odour. taste. bitter. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Tiktarohi¸¢. dusty grey. cylindrical. odour.

of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. 0. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf.2.62. vessels have varying shape and size. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.C. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. some cylindrical with taillike. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. 0.10. thick-walled. 0.4. tracheids long. parenchyma and fibres.3.L. 0. IDENTITY.84 (all yellow).7. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. measuring 25 . Appendix per cent.30. 0. Powder . On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.in some cases.35 (green).21.104 µ in diameter. 0. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. parenchyma. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. hypodermis single layered.C.05 (blue). 2. secondary xylem consists of vessels. 0.17.30. 2.V. 92 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent.2.2.Dusty grey. simple round to oval. abundantly found in all cells. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape.L.72 and 0.10. cortex 8-14 layered. consisting of oval to polygonal.37.. 2.30 (blue) and 0. 0.6. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. Appendix per cent. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. fibres aseptate. 0.41. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.2. 0. starch grains. starch grains.2.84 (all brownish grey). Appendix per cent. thick-walled. 0. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. tracheids. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends.17. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. 2. Appendix 2. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. T. thick-walled. 0.05.21. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 0. secondary phloem poorly developed. tracheids. thick-walled. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. lignified. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. 0. simple round to oval.41 and 0. tapering ends. cambium 2-4 layered. thick-walled cells of endodermis.

Arocaka. Bhedin¢.áv¡sa. D¢pan¢. 93 . of the drug in powder form. ViÀamajvara. THERAPEUTIC USES .CONSTITUENTS . D¡ha. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3 g.1 . K¡mal¡. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. KuÀ¶ha. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. DOSE . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Jvara.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). Tiktaka Gh¤ta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Pittahara.

5 cm long. Hygrophila spinosa T. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. whitish to brown. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara.3 cm long. Kolarind. externally greyish-brown. corolla 3. stout. Nirchulli. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. Kettu. entire and hairy. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Stem . Leaf . lanceolate. Kalsunda --Golmidi. Flower . bracts about 2.Anders (Fam.5-1 cm wide.Greenish-brown.41.Mostly adventitious. a spiny.6 cm long. tube 1. acute.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. didynamous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura.Usually unbranched. which are 1.Acanthaceae).P. second pair 94 . stamens 4. no characteristic odour and taste. no characteristic odour and taste.6-2 cm long. swollen at nodes.2 cm long. Nirguvireru. upper sepal 1. all linear-lanceolate. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. sub-quadrangular. Kokilaksha (W. Vayalculli Talikhana. common in water logged places throughout the country. Culli. Syn. calyx 4-partite.Yellowish-brown. annual herb. fasciculate. IkÀuraka. Kolavankal ---. with long white hairs. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. 1-7 cm long. 0. subsessile. broader than the other three. abruptly swollen at top. widely 2 lipped.

cortical cells thin-walled. Stem . thin-walled. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. filament quite glabrous. consisting of round to polygonal cells. phloem narrow. stigma simple. peripheral ones larger. oblong. 95 . fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. ray cells thin walled. 0. transversely elongated in secondary phloem.8 cm long. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. rectangular to cubical. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. Fruit . inner cells smaller. composed of transversely elongate. fibres thick-walled. endodermis single layered. involute with a fissure on upper side. 4seeded.1 . ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. vessels with spiral thickenings. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. light brown. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. ray cells thin-walled. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers.Two celled. truncate at the base. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. fibre walls uniformly thickened. pointed. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. b) Microscopic Root . with a number of large air cavities. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. a few thick-walled. moderately thick-walled. arranged in radial rows. variable in size. compressed.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. single or in groups of 2-3. radially elongated in secondary xylem. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. having small intercellular spaces. polygonal cells. Seed . flat or compressed. glabrous. style filiform. phloem fibres thick-walled. arranged radially having spiral thickenings.2-0. vessels angular. anthers two celled. capsule about 0. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. broader towards centre. subequal. scattered throughout the phloem region. round. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.15 cm wide. radially arranged. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. pubescent. hairy but appearing smooth. composed of polygonal. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. pith large. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. brownish cells.25 cm long and 0.Ovate. thin-walled cells. linear-oblong.0. arranged radially. xylem present in a ring.larger. radially elongated in xylem region.

2. stomatal index 17. palisade ratio 6. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. sclerenchymatous cells.Shows concavo-convex outline.78.2. Appendix per cent. vein islet number 17-42.2. Amla. elongated fibres. thin-walled. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening.24-30.6. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. covered with thick cuticle. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. Rucya. 2. M£trala. Appendix per cent. Powder . 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. palisade. stomata diacytic.2. V¡jikara. oval to hexagonal. collenchyma 2-5 layered.2. 2.75.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. Appendix per cent. 2. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. tangentially elongated cells. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. shows aseptate.7. parenchymatous cells. thick-walled.2. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Lamina . . epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. Seed . lignified.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . Appendix 2.25-15. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. palisade 1-2 layered.4. unicellular hairs and globules. Tikta Picchila. composed of thin-walled.3. parenchymatous. V¤Àya.Light brown.LeafMidrib . Fruit .2. IDENTITY. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. Appendix per cent.

of the drug in powder form.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE .3 -6 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ëmav¡ta áotha. V¡tarakta.T¤À¸¡. 97 .P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra).

secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. thin-walled. Hygrophila spinosa T. Nerugobbi. stout. Kolavulike. 98 . epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. IkÀuraka. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. branches on nodes.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Syn. thinwalled cells. Kokil¡kÀ¢. a spiny. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Culli --. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. Anders (Fam. common in water logged places throughout the country.Acanthaceae). most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. the size of these cells. annual herb. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Root-Appears circular in outline. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. no characteristic odour and taste. consisting of small. slightly transversely elongated. polygonal cells. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana.42. whitish to brownish. Kokilaksha (Rt. secondary phloem narrow. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli.

2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. 2.7. IDENTITY. 2. Tikta Picchila. V¡tahara. radially elongated in the xylem region.2.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. M£trala.Ëmav¡ta áotha.3. vessels with spiral thickening.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. shows fragments of pitted. V¡tarakta. 2. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. Appendix per cent. ray cells thin-walled. scattered throughout the phloem region. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. Appendix per cent. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. broader towards centre. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.3 -6 g. each group composed of 2-6 cells. angular. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. fibre walls uniformly thickened.Light brown to ash coloured. THERAPEUTIC USES . secondary xylem forms continuous ring.6.4.2. lignified fibres. 99 .2. Powder . A¿ma¤¢. having spiral thickening. Amla. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. Appendix per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. of the drug for decoction. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent.

Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. common in water logged places throughout the country. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. a spiny. Maradarishina -Maramannal. Swelling Index . annual herb. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. truncate at the base. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. Hygrophila spinosa T. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Acanthaceae). Maradarishana. IkÀuraka. Powder . the 100 . Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Daruhuladur Darhald. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. shows hairs and oil globules. Anders. oil globules present in this region. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. stout.43. b) Microscopic Seed .8 -10. flat or compressed. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. white. thinwalled. taste. Kokilaksha (Sd. (Fam. hairy but appearing smooth.Greyish-brown. light yellowish-brown.

0.52 and 0.4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.L.C. 0. Lipase.31 (dark brown). DOSE . enzymes like Diastase. 101 . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.41 (light blue). 0.L.72 (all yellow). T. 0.93 (sky blue).Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. 0.03. 0. Appendix per cent. Protease and an Alkaloid. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. Kaphahara. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. V¤Àya. V¡tarakta. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0..31.2. CONSTITUENTS .áotha. Pitt¡¿mar¢. 2.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.55 (light blue). 0.2. 0. including any sticky mucilage.An yellow semi-drying oil. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.24. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. Add 25 ml of water.2. 0.24 (red).3 -6 g.72 (dark brown).3.V. of the drug in powder form. IDENTITY.10 (light brown).24 (dark brown). 0. Santarpa¸a. 2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. 0.2. 0.2. Appendix per cent. 0. Appendix per cent.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. Appendix 2.17 (light brown).52 (dark brown) and 0. related to 1 g of seeds.17.C. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.38 (light brown). Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.76 (sky blue) and 0. 0.03 (light brown). and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.38.6. 0.

less in number. very delicate and soon falling off. Gho¶ik¡. sub-sessile.Cylindrical. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. oblique. smooth and greenish-brown. oblong. stamens 8-12. swollen at the nodes. 0.5 cm long and 0. Pulikkirai. Chhotalunia.P) Portulacaceae). 50 cm long.Simple. Kozuppa. rounded and truncate at the apex. Kozhuppa. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. Loni. prostrate herb. Kuzuppa (W. Badi Lona Dudagorai. Badanuni. Lonika. found throughout the country.A few. Flower . petals obovate. fracture. sepal 0. dehiscing above the base. style 5-6 fid. Kulfa. (Fam. Leaf . 0. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. spathulate. Kozhuppu Pappukura. Peddapavila Kura.25-0. short. cuneiform. Moti Luni Khursa. 0.4 cm long. secondary roots. 3-4 leaves. bright yellow. 0. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn.1 to 0. 0. -Baraloniya. at terminal heads. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .3 cm long.2 cm in diameter. subtended by an involucre.An ovoid capsule. Loni -Koricchira. branched.6 cm wide.Almost cylindrical. Payilikura. surface smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. ribbed. short. root hairs abundant in upper region. Stem .1 to 0.4 cm long. fracture. Doddagoni Soppu. characteristic.5 cm long. an annual succulent. odour. small. Ghola -Lonak. Fruit .35-0. 102 . Baranunia Garden Purslane. brownish-grey.3 to 2.44. Kwfa Pasalai. Loni. Khurfa. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Paruppukkeerai.

shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. pericycle fibre present in patches. with reddish-brown content in a few cells.2. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. black. Appendix per cent. Stem . 2. phloem and xylem parenchyma. Appendix per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.Wavy in outline.3. having 2-3 components.7. thick-walled with wide lumen. parenchyma abundant. palisade single layered. 2. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces.2. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. measuring 6-14 µ . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. simple as well as compound. ray cells and pith. shows groups of oval to polygonal. fragments of cork cells. having intercellular spaces.06-0. solitary or in groups of 2-5. phloem. thin-walled. Appendix per cent. Powder . oval. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. arranged in radial rows.2. 2.4. secondary xylem composed of vessels.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. vessels. b) Microscopic Root . reniform. tracheids and parenchyma.6. present in mesophyll cells.07 cm across.. minute. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. Appendix 2. . 0. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. parenchymatous cells.2.Greyish-brown. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. 2.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. oval cells. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. covered externally with a thick cuticle. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening.2. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. tracheids and parenchyma. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. tracheids. stomata paracytic type. Lamina . as well as compound. dark brown.Seed -Numerous. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. having simple pits and spiral thickening.2. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. pitted and spiral vessels. parenchymatous cells. LeafMidrib . secondary xylem consists of vessels.

CakÀuÀya. 0.10. Under U. 0. Prameha. 0. Vra¸a DOSE .98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. Carbohydrates. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C.41. 0.C.68 (yellow) and 0.10. 0.Marma Gu¶ik¡.76 (all pinkish red). (both green).61. 0. 0. 0. 0.Agnim¡ndya.L. of the drug in powder form. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.L.10. T.50.6 g. 0. 0.T. Gulma.76 and 0. 0.Protein.. Pittakara.41. 0. 104 . On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.68.08. RukÀa.3 . áotha. V¡tahara. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.68 and 0. Ar¿a.52 (both faint green).08. THERAPEUTIC USES .76 (green) in visible light.52.V. 0. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.

varying in length. Stem . covered with long.5 cm in dia. stipulate. fracture hard. yellowish-green. Machikegida.week bristles longitudinally grooved. bark fibrous. Lajauni Muttidasenui. Lajamani Chhuimui. 105 . alternate. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. taste. tapering.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. Fabaceae). (Fam. sparsely prickly. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. upto 2 cm thick. Leaf . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Cylindrical. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. linear lanceolate. hairy pinnae. easily separable from wood.Cylindrical.3-0. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. internal cut surface grey.45. slightly astringent.4 cm broad. Lajavanti. obliquely rounded at base. woody. external surface light brown. rependant . found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. bark fibrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. nearly glabrous. Adamalati Lajaka. sessile. 25-50 cm high. acute. sensitive to touch.6-1.2 cm long. petiolate. with secondary and tertiary branches. 0. greyish brown to brown. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Var¡kr¡nt¡.P) diffused undershrub. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. Lajjalu (W. odour. distinct. 0. upto 2.

rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. calyx very small. 3-25 chambered.4-0. ovary sessile. thick-walled. consisting of large. glabrous. a number of lignified. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. respectively. filled with reddish-brown contents. corolla pink. stamens 4. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings.6 cm long. thick-walled. 0. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. 0. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. ovules numerous. secondary cortex wide. fibres single or in groups.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face.Lomentum. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. dry. xylem rays radially elongated. b) Microscopic Root .Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. tangentially elongated cells. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. tangentially elongated to oval.3 long. fibres of two types.3 cm long. scattered throughout. 2. parenchymatous cells. Seed . lobes 4. peduncles prickly. 1-1. starch grains.Compressed. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. crystal fibres thick-walled. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. straw coloured. spreading bristle at sutures. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. pith consisting of polygonal. oval-elliptic. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. ovate oblong. radially elongated. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. moderately thick-walled. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. phloem rays thick-walled. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. brown to grey.Flower . secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.Pink. simple. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. scattered throughout secondary xylem. arranged in tangential bands. fibres. rarely multiseriate. crystal fibres elongated. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. 0. 2-3 seriate more common. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. thick-walled. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. parenchyma. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. Stem . phloem fibres single or in groups. Fruit . in globose head. 106 . much exserted.

mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. palisade single layered. Appendix per cent. Fruit .C. with 2 . measuring 6-25 µ in dia. palisade cells non glandular. Appendix 2. fibres. pitted vessels.V.3. vascular bundle single. parenchymatous cells. 2.2. Appendix per cent. lignified cells followed by single layered. single and compound starch grains.Leaf- Petiole . crystal fibres. thin-walled.shows single layered epidermis. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. parenchymatous cells. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.2.L. branched.6. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. reticulate. Appendix per cent. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. one in each wing. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. 2. covered with thin-cuticle. shaggy hairs.shows epidermis on both surfaces. 2.69 (all blue) and 0.C.3 components IDENTITY. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. 0. endocarp of thick-walled. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. Midrib . Powder .Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. 0.81 (bluish-pink). a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade.2.4. shows.2. parenchymatous cells Seed .2. pericycle arranged in a ring. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. spongy parenchyma single layered.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. shaggy hairs.L. T. pericycle same as in petiole.7.35. spongy parenchyma. branched. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .Reddish-brown. Appendix per cent. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. Lamina .shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.62. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.

PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. Raktapita DOSE . Yoniroga. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. CONSTITUENTS . Atis¡ra. 0.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. 0.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. 108 .spots appear at Rf. D¡ha. KuÀ¶ha. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.35 and 0.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. Vra¸a. Ku¶aj¡valeha.áopha.35 (orange). áv¡sa.

Hippenara. Ippa. Mahua Katiluppai. taste. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. ovate lanceolate. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. M. Mahawash tree Mahudo. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. Madhuka (Fl. Androecium . epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle.46. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. erect 0. basifixed. latifolia (Roxb. followed by thin-walled. lanceolate. Eppimara -Irippa. Iluppa.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Bassia latifolia Roxb. reddish-brown. corolla fleshy. short. Ilippa. a few 109 .) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). and also cultivated. Sapotaceae) .Petal shows a single layered epidermis. Madhuka.Gmel. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. b) Microscopic Corolla . Halippe. Kattu Iluppai.) Macbride. tabular. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Hippe. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. epipetalous and arranged in two series. sweet. epipetalous. anther sub-sessile. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. (Fam.F. Syn.5-2 cm long.

2.2. KÀata. V¡tahara. 110 . T¤À¸¡.Madh£k¡sava. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. KÀaya. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. áramahara.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. 2. El¡di Modaka. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. lignified cells.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. shows fragments of epidermal cells.10 . Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.unicellular hairs present on one side. spherical.2.2. Appendix 0. round. of the drug. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.2.Dark brown.2.3. Powder .2.6.15 g. Ah¤dya.áv¡sa.4.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . Pittakara. Balya. 2. tapetum not distinct. IDENTITY. oval shaped.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . pollen grains single or in groups. 2. árama DOSE . 2.7. endothecium composed of radially elongated. Appendix 25 per cent. Appendix 70 per cent. D¡ha. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. unicellular hairs.

0. nodiflora R..Flower in small axillary sessile heads. cream to grey. weak.6 cm diameter. white often tinged with pink. Leaf .47. bracteoles 111 . obtuse or subacute. Amaranthaceae).. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. A. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. Stem .) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.3-2 cm wide. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. repens Gmel.) R.5 cm long. fracture. Br. linear-oblong. denticulata R.1. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. or elliptic.. A. A. triandra Lam.P. often rooting at lower nodes. Br.1-0. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . (Fam..Herbaceous. yellowish-brown to light-brown. short. Bahli. no characteristic odour and taste. 0. Br. Gandal¢.. 2.5 cm wide. short. Flower . numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. Matsy¡duni. Matshyakshi (W. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. Syn. nodes and internodes distinct. no characteristic odour and taste. with spreading branches from the base. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. fracture.5-5 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste. non Link.Cylindrical.3-7. sessile. A. internodes 0. sometimes reaching 10 cm long.

composed of thin-walled. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. acute.dorsiventral. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. pith consisting of thin-walled. compressed with thickened margins. Leaf- Midrib . Lamina . collenchymatous cells. Fruit . parenchymatous cells.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. shows wavy or undulate. each consisting of xylem and phloem. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. xylem tissues lignified. Stem . a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. sepals ovate.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. no characteristic odour and taste. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. compressed. with are conjoint.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. capitellate. open and exarch. parenchymatous cells. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. radially arranged cork cells. 112 . no characteristic odour and taste. pith distinct. ovary obcordate. orbicular. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. thin. thin-walled round or oval. single layered.5-3 mm long. present in the centre. bicollateral. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. isodiametric. palisade ratio 3-5. scarious. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. vascular bundles three.1. isodiametic cells.5 mm long. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. perianth 2. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. thin-walled. irregular. with anomalous secondary growth. 1. consisting of thin-walled cells. numerous.Utricle. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. round to oval. palisade 2-3 layers. round or oval. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. style very short. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. parenchymatous cells. consistig of thin-walled. stomata paracytic. parenchymatous cells.2 cm long. secondary cortex narrow. vascualr bundles radially arranged. ovate. b) Microscopic Root . covered wtith striated cuticle.

2. Appendix 2.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. IDENTITY. Appendix 19 per cent. 2.35.44. 0. Appendix 3 per cent. 2.2. 0.2.C. Kaphahara.59. Tikta. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. 0.2 -3 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.C.18. 0.25. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.94 and 0. paracytic stomata.L.L.6. 0. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view.. of the drug in powder form.16.Sugar. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. CONSTITUENTS .Powder . V¡tahara. 0. 2. Raktavik¡ra DOSE .2. Under U.3.44 (all green). 0.2. 0. Pittavik¡ra.V. 0.54 and 0. 0.33 and 0.Olive green.68 (all red). Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .16. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.33. Appendix 4.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.81. 0. T.96 (all yellow). 113 . 0. Appendix 10 per cent.KuÀ¶ha.7. 0.44.2.5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.

an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. dull yellow. 30-60 cm tall. thin-walled.15-0. columnar palisade.48. b) Microscopic Seed .) aromatic. 0. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. Methi (Sd. taste.Seed shows a layer of thick. several layers of thin walled. cells flat at base. bitter. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side.walled. parenchymatous cells. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. (Fam. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. mucilaginous cells.2-0. pleasant.35 cm broad. cultivated throughout the country. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. 114 . mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. smooth. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. covered externally with thick cuticle. Fabaceae). varying in size. annual herb.5 cm long. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. very hard. 0. odour.

3.4.6. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.Yellow.2. aleurone grains.2. Jvara. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. Appendix 2. 115 .rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Mustak¡riÀ¶a. THERAPEUTIC USES .Alkaloid. 2.Graha¸¢. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. Sapogenins and Mucilage. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules.3-6 g. Appendix 0. Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS . Powder . Prameha.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Rucya. Appendix 4 per cent. Aruci DOSE . Appendix 5 per cent.5 per cent. 2. of the drug in powder form.2. oil globules. IDENTITY.

slightly pungent. yellowish-green. sometimes brown red. upper most leaves simple. seplas 6. Stem .3 cm long.2 cm long. compressed. variable size and thickness. oblong. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. an annual or biennial bristly herb.Root cylindrical.Slender. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Leaf . Muli. Flower . Mulaka (W.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. regular. odour.0 cm in dia. blade obovate.P.) Brassicaceae). not distinct.5-10 cm long. coarsely toothed. having a few longitudinal striations.1-1.. hollow. pedicel with scattered hairs. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. complete 1-2 cm long. petiole 5-5. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . (Fam.7-2. cylindrical.Lower leaves hairy. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. sub-marginate at the apex. lyrate. 0.49.Flower in long terminal raceme. bisexual. taste. bright green. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. petals 1. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. sub-linear but narrowed at the base.

endodermis at some places.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. Midrib . Stem . taste. elliptical. Seed . traversed by xylem rays. epidermis followed by 6. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. longitudinally sulcatus. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. covered with thick cuticle. phloem. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle.8. continuous or more or less constricted. 2 mm wide. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. round to oval. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. style about 4 mm long. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. solitary or ingroups. greenish-yellow. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. 117 . tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. present in cortex.purple vein. 10-12 ovuled. b) Microscopic Root . cylindrical. palisade 2-3 layers. starch grains simple. present in cortex and phloem. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers.4 cm thick. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. 2-4 mm long. stamen 6 in two whorls.1. irregularly globose. two outer smaller and four inner longer. epidermis single layered. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. Lamina . secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. oily. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. vascular bundle three in number. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. medullary rays four to many cells wide. ovary superior. present only on upper side.measuring 6-14 µ in dia.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.Reddish-brown. 1-2 chambered. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. occasionally pale purple.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. radially arranged.dorsiventral. green or brown-purple. cork cells. parenchymatous cells. hairs unicellular. traversed by phloem rays. erect. sometimes flattened. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. round to oval.appears biconvex in outline. one central and two lateral. Leaf- Petiole . single layered. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. Fruit .Siliqua. 3-9 cm long and 0. pith a wide zone of polygonal.

Kaphahara. CONSTITUENTS . reddish-brown.6.3.2. Ar¿a.4. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. covered with thin. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal.Yellowish-green. tangentially elongated. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. spiral vessels. 2. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. Appendix per cent.Fruit . Powder . covered with a thin-cuticle. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. P¢nasa.2. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. 2.2.M£lakakÀ¡ra. Svarya.2. Tikta Laghu.7. Appendix per cent. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated.40 ml. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 118 . Gandhaka Va¶¢. thinwalled. Gulma. of columnar cells. 2.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. 2. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. DOSE . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Glucoside. thin-walled. straight cuticle. P¡cana.Agnim¡ndya.Shows a single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. H¤dya. parenchymatous cells present. Appendix per cent. Seed . IDENTITY. Rucya. Appendix 2. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. of the drug in juice form. shows aseptate fibres. Ud¡varta.2.2.20 .

white in colour. taste.2. (Fam. 119 . Mulaka (Rt. Mulaka. Appendix per cent.7.2. 2. Visra. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Moclangi gadde.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. usually 25-40 cm in length. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. 2.) annual or biennial bristly herb.2. fusiform. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Saleya.2.4. having a few lateral fibrous roots.3.2. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. slightly or strongly pungent.6. Appendix 2.2.50. Mullangi. 2. variable in size. cylindrical. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. Mula Muli Moolangi. Appendix per cent. Brassicaceae). 2. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Rakhyasmula Mula. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. rarely sweet.

(366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.T. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . áv¡sa. Ar¿a. Kaphahara. 0.09 (both blue).34.C.L. Pittahara. Jvara. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. 0.Agnim¡ndya. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .49 & 0. T.09. Galaroga.04 & 0.69 (all yellow). Ud¡varta DOSE .V.09 & 0. Dadru.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.04. P¡cana. Rucya.LC. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Svarya. H¤dya. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. Tikta Laghu. 0. K¡sa. of the drug in the juice form 120 . 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Vrana.Glucoside. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Gulma.15-30 ml. Netraroga. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. P¢nasa.04. 0.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .

Apiaceae ). tenuifolium Wall. cambium 2-4 layered. Daitya. rectangular cells. odour.4 m tall. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. fibres and parenchyma.2. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. thin-walled cells. dull brown. aromatic.Shows 10 . colour. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 .6 .42000 m. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. Mura (Rt. 6-12 cm long and 0. tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. S. secondary phloem shows wide zone.3 . Syn. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. consisting of tangentially elongated. taste. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. (Fam. Gandhakuti.51. a perennial herb. inner cells thin-walled.1.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. traversed by phloem rays. slightly bitter. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. traversed by xylem rays. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . thin-walled cells. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. 0. Root . secondary cortex composed of rounded.) DC. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.

Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .7. Sucrose and Mannitol.3. secondary phloem. 2. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. starch grains simple. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 17 per cent.having spiral thickenings. xylem parenchyma. 122 . Ka¶u. shows groups of cork cells.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.áv¡sa. Appendix 2. xylem and phloem rays. Powder . present in secondary cortex. M£rchha. secretory canals numerous. fibres aseptate.4. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 9 per cent.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. secretory canals. somewhat oval cells.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). Appendix 3. of the drug in powder form. 2. secondary phloem.2. parenchymatous cells. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. distributed throughout secondary cortex. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . Appendix 9 per cent. measuring 7-55 µ in dia.2.2. composed of radially arranged.Brown. Tikta. 2. Bhrama.. Jvara.Arvind¡sava.6. secondary xylem and medullary rays.2. IDENTITY. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. oil globules and simple starch grains. short with blunt ends. 2.1-3 g. D¡ha. round to oval.

52. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Koratige. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. bark easily separable from wood. rectangular cells. slightly bitter.) Asclepiadaceae). twining shrub. a large stout. fracture. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. phloem fibres absent. Kallu Shambu.Shows a cork. & Am. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. odour. Halukaratige. Jartor Koratige Hambu.5-3 cm thick. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. Murva (Rt. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. indistinct. some filled with reddish-brown contents. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. phloem rays 1 123 . prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. b) Microscopic Root . taste. similar to those present in secondary cortex. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. resin cells present irregularly in this region. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. (Fam. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. Madhusrava.

concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains.7. Tikta Guru. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure.Light brown. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. starch grains simple. fibres. fragments of cork.. of the drug for decoction. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix 14 per cent.5 per cent. shows a number of stone cells. DOSE . Prameha Mihira Taila.22 µ in diameter. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. Mukha áosa. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. measuring 5. consisting of small tangential. 2.4.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of the drug in powder form. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS ..6. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. IDENTITY.5-22 µ dia. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. H¤droga. K¤miroga.2. 2. 10-20 g. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. V¡tahara.2. 124 . Medoroga. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. Ka¸·£. Appendix 5 per cent. simple and compound starch grains. Pittahara.Ar¿a.2. fibretracheids.2-6 g. fibres. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 0. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 5. Powder . vessels with pitted walls. tracheids. T¤Àn¡. present in parenchymatous tissues. Raktapitta.2.5 .2.tracheids. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. composed of vessels. 2. 2. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. Appendix 7 per cent. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. Meha.3. Jvara.3 cells wide. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.

about 15-18 m high with short trunk.9-1. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. exine and intine distinct.5 cm long. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. (Fam. filament 0.8 . shows elongated cells of filament.Anther shows golden-brown. Naugaliral. Nagchampa. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. taste. Bengal.) evergreen tree. linear. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. Nagakesar (Stmn. Sachunagkeshara. N¡gapuÀpa. an Ke¿ara. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. filiform. distinct protuberances on walls. coppery or golden brown. astringent. Nahar Nageshvara. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. connective and filament. thick-walled. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. yellowish and thin-walled. Konkan. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. containing pollen grains. parenchymatous cells. soft to touch. Nauga. Assam. slender. Guttiferae). Nagakesari -Nangaa. anther about 0. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Pilunagkesar. b) Microscopic Androecium . Veluthapala. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards.1. consisting of thin-walled. N¡ga. 125 . Peri. basifixed.53. Hem¡. often buttressed at the base. Powder . many pollen grains having 1-3 minute.Brown. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara.9 cm long. odour. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar.0 cm long. Nagachampakam. each stamen 0. fragrant. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. Nagppu. more or less twisted. quite brittle. connective not visible with naked eye.

7. of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent. Tikta.IDENTITY. 2.1-3 g.2. V¡tarakta.6. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.2.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.Raktapitta. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Vastiroga DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. 126 .Essential oil and Oleo-resin. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. 2.4. 2. Var¸ya. áopharoga. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.3. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. Kum¡ry¡sava.2.

1.2.5 cm long and 0. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.2 cm wide. vascular bundles collateral and three in number.) shrub. (Fam. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. Nili (Lf. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. leaflet 1-2. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. Fabaceae). a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡.54.3-1. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. pith composed of round to oval. no characteristic odour and taste. N¢l¢n¢. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu.1. 127 . Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole .8 m high. pale green to greenish-black. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.

V¡tarakta.Glycoside (Indican).Ëmav¡ta. vascular bundle single. Pl¢haroga. similar as in petiole. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .2.2. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.50-100 g.. cuticle and hair. Ke¿ya. 2. Appendix 25 per cent.shows dorsiventral structure.3. 2.4. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. IDENTITY. Lamina .7.shows epidermis. epidermis.5 per cent. cuticle and hair. K¤imiroga. similar as in petiole and midrib. Gulma. V¡tahara.2. Jvara.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.2. aseptate fibres.6. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2 per cent.Greenish-grey. shows groups of mesophyll cells. 2. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. palisade 2-3 layers. collateral and crescent shaped. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2.Midrib . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 128 .. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . 2. Udararoga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.. Ud¡varta.2. pitted vessels. K¡sa. Appendix 10 per cent. of decoction. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma.2. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 7.

0. with lenticels. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. Nili (Rt. slightly bitter. rectangular. Fabaceae). Neeligida. Gari Nili Kadunili. Nili. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. Nila -Neel Avuri. secondary cortex a narrow zone. Neeli Nili. Olleneeli -Amari. thin-walled cells. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. hard. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. woody.55. consisting of usual elements. Nili Chettu. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen.8 m high.5 cm thick. wood occupies bulk parts of the root.. Rangapatr¢. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits.2-1.1 -1. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. group of fibres. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. 129 . Karunili.) shrub. (Fam. Nila Nili. cylindrical. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. 1. odour not distinct. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels.10 layers of tangentially elongated. thin-walled cells. Indian Indigo Gali. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. taste. Nil.

starch grains simple.27. 0. K¤imiroga. 0.14.10.58..40 (blue). 0.V. xylem parenchyma and rays. 0.6. V¡tahara. Powder .63. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 4 per cent.81. 0. pitted vessels.40. 0.33.80.91 (blue). 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0.06. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. shows aseptate fibres.75 (blue). present in cortex. and 0.. 0.21. phloem. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .0. Pl¢h¡roga.7.40. 2. 0.L.75.86 and 0.4.50.2. Udararoga. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.27. 0. ViÀavik¡ra. CONSTITUENTS .2. Appendix 6 per cent.58.7 per cent. Appendix 2.14.58 (blue).86. T. 0.2. 0.3.50. 0.Creamish-brown. 0. 2.C. Appendix 0. 0.86 (green) and 0.Gulma. 0. Appendix 3 per cent.47 (blue). 0.0. 0.33. 0. K¡sa.30 (bluish green).63 (bluish green). 0.14 (blue).48 g.L.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. IDENTITY. Ud¡varta. 0. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 0. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.10. 0. 0. Ke¿ya. round to oval.C. 0.75. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. 2.63. of drug for decoction. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. DOSE .06.Arvind¡sava.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. Ëmav¡ta. 0. simple and compound starch grains. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.91 (all yellow). (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.2. V¡tarakta.81 (blue).91 (all grey). Recan¢. 130 .

Nim. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Limba.1 cm thick. Aryaveppu. (Fam. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nimbam.Compound. alternate. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. serrate. crystals also present in phloem region. Veppu. Arulundi. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Juss Syn. leaflets with oblique base. Bevinama -Veppu. Limbado. odour. Bakan. Bakayan. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. taste. Kohumba Nim. Bevu. Meliaceae). Limado. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Veppan Vemu. exstipulate. lanceolate. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. rachis 15-25 cm long. 7-8. Oilevevu. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. indistinct.5 cm long and 1. Kahibevu. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. opposite.7 cm wide.56. 131 . Veppa Balantanimba. Nimba (Lf. Nimba Nimba. slightly yellowish-green.0-1. acute. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. 0. Nim Vemmu.

Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. Powder . K¤miroga. composed of thin walled. palisade single layered. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered.7. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. covered externally with thick cuticle.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. 2.2. KuÀ¶ha. epidermis on either surface. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. shows vessels. stomatal index 13. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Ëma¿otha. IDENTITY.Jvara.Triterpenoids and Sterols. ViÀarogas DOSE . fibres.shows dorsiventral structure. thin-walled cells.5 on lower surface and 8.5 on upper surface. CONSTITUENTS . 2.4. tangentially elongated cells. Prameha.Lamina .0-4.2.6. palisade ratio 3.3.Green. 132 . Appendix per cent.0-14. 2. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only.2. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. Appendix 2. Vrana. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.2.2.0-11. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Netraroga. V¡tal¡. of the drug in powder form. 2.1-3 g. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha.5. traversed by a number of veins.

characteristic. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. fissured and rusty-grey. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Meliaceae).57. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. fracture. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. odour. evergreen tree. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Vembu Vemu. Juss. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Syn. Nimba (St. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. a moderate sized to fairly large. (Fam. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. considerably thick in older barks. Nimba. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. taste. Limba Nimba Nim. extemal surface rough. Bakam Veppai. Nimb Bevu.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Melia azadirachta Linn. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. woody. Kahibevu. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Oilevevu -Veppu. Nimba. fibrous. Kadunimb. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 .

Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.63 and 0. 2. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. 2.V.outer surface. having wide lumen and distinct striations.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. IDENTITY.6. 0.20.4.3. stone cells mostly in groups.5 per cent. round with central hilum.72 (blue). 0. Kaphahara. T. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .L. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.75-5 µ in diameter. 0.2.90 (green). secondary cortex absent in most cases. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.2. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.Reddish-brown. cork cells. Appendix 2. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. and 0. measuring 2.2. simple starch grains. Appendix 7 per cent.measuring 2. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.2. ViÀaghna.2. lignified rectangular to polygonal. Powder . 0.90 (all blue). most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.45. 2. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. Appendix 1.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate.C. simple. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem.C. Appendix 6 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 5 per cent. starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Pittahara.2. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.86 (blue).7. 2.

Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. of the drug in powder form. KuÀ¶ha. Prameha. Pa´canimba C£r¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Decoction should be used externally. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. K¤miroga.2-4 g. Ka¸·u. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara. 135 .Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Rakta Pitta.. Vra¸a DOSE .D¡ha.

58. Khakhapado Dhak. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. Palash. greyish to pale brown. curved. rectangular 136 .Bk) Fabaceae). Camata. Tesu Muttug. Chettu Dhak. rhytidoma 0. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. moderately thick-walled. often in groups. 12 . internal surface rough. 0.1 cm thick. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline.) Kuntze (Fam.5 . rectangular. thin-walled. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. pale brown. 5-10 or more layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Muttuga. Muttala -Plasu. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. taste. exposing light brown surface. dark-brown. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. except in very arid parts. Modugu.15 m high with irregular branches. Khakharo. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. slightly astringent. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. dark brown. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. cork cells. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. having brown colour. Tesu Purasu. Palasha (St.2 cm thick usually peels off. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. Plas. Dhak. Paras Moduga. fracture. tanniniferous cells.

5 per cent. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem. dark brown coloured cells.65 (all blue). 2. Appendix 12 per cent.2. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. traversed by phloem rays.cells followed by a zone of 2 .67 (all yellow). measuring 2. phloem fibres.2.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.10. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.10. T. Appendix 14 per cent. 0. Powder .48 and 0. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . 0. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.2. sclereids mostly in groups. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. crystal fibres. 0. 2. 0. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. 0. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma.C.V. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends. 0.3 components. thin-walled cork cells.12 cells wide.2.4 layers of sclereids.13. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . CONSTITUENTS .48.7.18. phloem parenchyma. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.50 cells in height.48 and 0..L. 2. companion cells.2.3.75 . 2. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.C.Reddish-brown. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.67 (all violet).75 µ in dia. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. Appendix 2.6.L.. straight.10. Appendix 1. 7 . 137 .

KaÀ¡ya Sara. Gulma. Tikta.Ar¿a. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 138 . Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. Graha¸¢. DOSE .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Vra¸a. Agnid¢paka. of the drug in powder form for decoction. K¤miroga. S¡raka .5-10 g.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra.

distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. medium sized.5-2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Paribhadra (St.Bk) Fabaceae). quick growing tree. exfoliating in narrow strips.59. radially arranged and thin-walled. tangentially elongated to squarish. yellowish to cream coloured. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. secondary cortex consists of large. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. smooth. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Pangara Hongar.0 cm thick. (Fam. inner bark fibrous. Mulmurumgai Badisa. stone 139 . parenchymatous cells.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

Alkaloids. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Balak¤t. Volatile Oil.2-4 g. of drug in powder form. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS ... Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.CONSTITUENTS .V¡tarakta. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. V¤Àya. V¡taroga DOSE . 148 .

which are of various size.5 cm wide. Saraparuppu Sara. 0. Piyar. collapsed cells of integument.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 .6 cm long. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. latifolia Roxb. funicle stout. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. pitted. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. taste. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer.) Anacardiaceae). Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. sclerenchymatous cells. odour. micropyle superior. pleasant. b) Microscopic Seed . linear. Priyala (Sd. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. occurring mostly in groups. mottled with darker brown lines. B. Priyalam. sweetish-oily. thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. Shalichokha Piyal. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. hilum present at the apex of round edge. large. Satdhan -Charal. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. followed by remnants of disorganised.63. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. Syn. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. (Farn. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. Chowl. Korka.4-0. creamish-brown.3-0. 0.

5-5. 0.72 and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0.0 µ in dia.Albuminoids. V¡tahara. Priy¡la Taila. T. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells.7. and sclerenchymatous cells. procambium bundles.94 and 0. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form.L. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. Appendix 0. H¤dya.10 .6. 150 .C. 0. Appendix 10 per cent.4.V.C. Appendix 7 per cent. 0.3.27.D¡ha. 2. KÀata.2. Powder . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.84. BrÆha¸a.54. Pittahara. Balya. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. 0.98 (all violet).94 and 0. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf.72. 2. KÀaya. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .20 g.2.72. 0. IDENTITY.2. shows numerous mesophyll cells.type. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.L. Sara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.91. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. 0. 0.2.A creamish-brown paste.08. DOSE .27. Kaphakara.measuring 2.5 per cent.08.2. V¤Àya.2. 0.94 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Raktapitta. 0. 2. Oil and Starch.0 µ in dia.91.P£gakha¸·a. 2.54. Bhagnas¡dhaka.98 (all yellow). and oil globules. CONSTITUENTS .5-5. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. áukrakara.

2. parenchymatous cells. densely clothed with wooly hairs.Shows more or less wavy outline. hairy. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. densely hairy. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. brown.Cymose. tubular. stamens 4. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . corolla. basifixed. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl.2. and abundant in Bengal plains. brown. 4 lobbed spreading. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. Flower . Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. bell-shaped. 1.5-7. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. an erect. style. 2. b) Microscopic Peduncle .5 cm across. filament very long. Priyangu (Infl. calyx.5 cm long. ovary 2-4 celled. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. thin-walled. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs.64.3 mm in dia.0. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.) Verbenaceae). peduncle cylindrical. (Fam. equal in size. epipetalous. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs.4 m high shrub. 1. long. anther ovate.5 . stigma minutely capitate.

Appendix per cent.3. IDENTITY. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Kanaka Taila. Powder . fibres aseptate. Appendix per cent. aseptate fibres. Vra¸aropa¸a. V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent. 152 .4.Glycosides. DOSE . (Mukharoga). KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. elliptical.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. 2. Daurgandhyahara. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Pras¡dana. Resin and Saponin.2.2.7.2. 2. spiral vessels. M£travirajan¢ya. Pakv¡tis¡ra. CONSTITUENTS . Terpenes. Sved¡dhikya. N¢lik¡dya Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . groups of thin-walled. 2.1-3 g. Jvara. Sandh¡n¢ya.D¡ha. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. Rakta. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. Ku´kum¡di Taila. El¡di C£r¸a. 2.2.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent.2. Phenolic compound.Brown.fibres. Rakta-Pitta. xylem consists of usual elements.2.

Dhanarmul. soft. Nellu. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Damgara. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Corava. Vr¢hi. Dhana Bhatto. Nelver Dhanyamu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. (Fam. Nivara -Chaval. Poaceae). Akki -Ari. Chawl. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. sclerenchymatous cells. Dhan Rice. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Biyyamu Chaval. Cala. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. thin.65. Dh¡nya. smooth. sclerenchymatous cells. pitted vessels and 153 . cylindrical. cortex differentiated into three zones. Odalu. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces.Greyish-cream. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Sali. composed of thick-walled. Shali (Rt. an annual herb.05-0. Coke Chaval. thick-walled. both consisting of round to oval. Nellu Tandulamul. Dhana. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. exodermis 1-2 layered. Bhata Chamul -Dhan.) cultivated throughout India. Powder . creamish-brown to greyish-brown. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Jhona Arishi. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Bhatta. b) Microscopic Root . Paddy Shalichokha. Bhata.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled.

M£trala. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Br¡hma Ras¡yana. KaÀ¡ya Guru. H¤dya. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. V¡tahara.4. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent.3. Balya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY.50 g. Laghu. Kaphahara. of the drug for decoction. Var¸ak¤t. Baddh¡lpavarcasa.2.2. BrÆha¸a.2. Rucya. 154 . 2. Appendix 2. 2.2.2.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.7. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . 2. Appendix per cent. Svarya. Appendix per cent. CakÀuÀya. Pittahara.StanyakÀaya.

Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.66. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. found throughout the country. light green.1-0.5 cm broad. ovary superior and bicarpellary. perennial herb with a woody root stock.) Convolvulaceae). sepals narrowly.1-0. cylindrical. Flower .1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. 0. Shankhapushpi.White or pinkish. linear-lanceolate. sub-erect.Usually branched. light green. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. about 0. 1-5 cm long. cylindrical.4 cm thick. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. 155 . acute.5-2 cm long and 0. corolla shortly discoid. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . yellowish-brown to light brown. Karakhuratt.Shortly petiolate. Kakkanangudi. Stem . inserted deep in the corolla tube. Leaf . Sankhapuspi. Sankha pushpin (W. hairy on both surfaces.P. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. stamen 5. spreading. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. alternate with the petals. hairy. linear-lanceolate. a prostrate.Slender. Sankhahuli Kakattam. Shankhavela. sparsely hairy. 0. epipetalous. free.

mm. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. fibres and parenchyma. fibres and tracheids. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. 156 . 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers.8-17. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. mm. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. xylem consists of vessels. covered with thick cuticle. xylem consisting of usual elements. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. epidermis single layered. Lamina .appears convex in lower and concave in upper side.. covered with thick cuticle. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. palisade two layered. minutely puberulous. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. phloem a narrow zone. oblong globose with coriaceous.8 µ in dia. simple and compound starch grains. thick-walled cells. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. phloem composed of sieve elements.Capsule. present on both surfaces. at places unicellular hairs present. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres.Brown. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. cortex differentiated in two zones. present in cortex.. vascular bundle bicollateral. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits.Appears nearly circular in outline. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. both having round to oval. tanniniferous. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered.Fruit . fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. elliptical. unicellular hairs. LeafMidrib . elongated. hairs unicellular. .walled cells. round to oval in shape.Shows single layered epidermis. measuring 3 . starch grains solitary or in groups. Powder .Light yellowish-green. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. Seed . endoderrnis single layered. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. phloem. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. 13. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. palisade ratio 6-9. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated.0. thin. secretory cells present in this region. b) Microscopic Root . vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. xylem rays and parenchyma. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. Stem . pale brown pericarp. simple and composed of 2-3 components.

2.2.2. Medhya. Tikta. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Pittahara. Kaphahara.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana. Appendix 2.7. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 2.3.2.6.2. Appendix per cent. Br¡hma.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. 2. ËyuÀya.4.3-8 g. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Ras¡yana. Agastyahar¢tak¢.M¡nasaroga. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Ras¡yana.

odour and taste indistinct. 1 mm long.celled with or without attached pedicel. trilocular. cylindrical. ribbed. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. lobes short.5 mm across at the mouth. Chagulputputi Satala.) Euphorbiaceae). filament pubescent.Involucre broadly campanulate. 3. pale brown. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . found throughout India in the plains and low hills. Fruit . horned. linear. 20-40 cm high. greenish-yellow. Bilikalli. fracture.7-7 cm long. subacute.Small.67. Leaf . glabrous outside and pubescent inside. ciliolate. 0. Carmas¡hv¡. short.1. Flower .5-2 mm thick. solitary. gland semilunate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. 4-5 cm long. a much branched. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. sessile. ovate. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni.2-0. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate.P. having a few secondary roots. 2.8 cm wide. annual herb. 0. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. smooth. lanceolate or linear oblong.Capsule. Siju. Saptala (W. sub-sessile. 3-4 mm in dia. gradually tapering. free to the base. (Fam. 158 . odour and taste not distinct. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. Joyachi. shortly 2-fid at the apex. style.

covered externally with thick.3 mm long. Stem . secondary xylem consists of vessels. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. fibres. parenchymatous cells. fibres and tracheids. secondary phloem narrow. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. all elements thick-walled and lignified. rounded to oval. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. simple. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. mature root shows thin walled cork. thickwalled and lignified. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. measuring 5. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. tracheids and medullary rays. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. lignified cells with wide lumen. grooved at one side. endodermis not distinct. all elements.Seed . rectangular. palisade single layered present on both sides. tangentially elongated cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. found scattered in phloem region. secondary cortex consists of 4. vessels having simple pits. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. with wide lumen present in this region. elliptical. traversed by numerous xylem rays. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. 159 . epidermis single layered. b) Microscopic Root . rounded to oval. circular to oval.5-19. stone cells oval to elongated. composed of sieve elements. striated cuticle. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade.shows slightly convex outline. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. Leaf- Midrib . Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. tangentially elongated elliptical. thick-walled lignified. leprous tuberculate testa. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular.25 µ in diameter.75 µ in dia. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. rounded at the base. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. consisting of thick-walled. starch grains simple. fibres elongated and aseptate. parenchymatous cells.6 layers of oval. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. elliptical. rarely a few oil globules also present. filled with yellowish-brown content. 2. fibres and vessels having simple pits. some rounded. centre occupied by a pith. single layered epidermis. solitary or in groups. flattended. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. secondary xylem composed of vessels. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells.Young root shows exfoliated. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres.

Light yellow. V¡tal¡. RukÀa. Appendix per cent.L. T. Appendix 2. Ud¡vartta.3. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. of the drug for decoction. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 160 .67.L.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).46 (brown) and 0. Udararoga. RaktadoÀahara.87 (violet).7. Pittahara.2. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 2. 2. 2. oval to elongated.2. CONSTITUENTS .2.04.C. Mi¿raka Sneha.0. Vibandha. IDENTITY.57 (all yellow). Appendix per cent. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. 0. Gulma.Powder . elliptical.V. Appendix per cent. simple. Visarpa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. lignified with wide lumen.46. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. stone cells thick-walled. rounded to oval starch grains.50 g.4.2. 0.C. aseptate fibres. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.6.2. shows vessels with simple pits. 2. DOSE . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. Appendix per cent.04 and 0.Ën¡ha. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . and 0.

Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. parenchymatous. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. var. vittae. glabrous. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. dorsal 161 . yellowish membranous wings. often stalk attached. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. (Fam. odour. slightly raised. akin to caraway. graveolens DC. Syn. slightly sharp taste. graveolens Linn. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. A. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. mericarps usually separate and free. Shulupa. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening.. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. 4 mm long. brown. ex Flem. b) Microscopic Fruit . a tall. Satahva (Fr. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. and a warm. A. dark brown. P. Shepa. filiform and incospicuous. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated.68. sowa Roxb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls.. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. Sulpha. graveolens Benth. mesocarp. glabrous.. Apiaceae). broadly oval and compressed dorsally.

Atis¡ra. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. 2.3-6 g. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Netra Roga DOSE . B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.5 per cent. cellulosic.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. each costae with vascular strands.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Appendix 15 per cent.2.C.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. 0. carpophore split.2.2. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent.Brown.10 T.6.L. IDENTITY.á£la. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. Appendix 3 per cent. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels.Essential Oil.68 (violet). Powder .2.37 (pink) 0. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .C. 0. 2. V¡tahara. shows spiral vessels. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. Vra¸a. Appendix 14 per cent.costae three.59 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . Jvara.59 (blue) and 0.7. 162 .3.68 (all yellow). of the drug in powder form.2. Appendix 2. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.L. 2. 2.2. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. Kaphahara. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. Appendix 1. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.

vascular bundle collateral. odour and taste not distinct. Segata pana. Shigru (Lf. pith and phloem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. and articulated at the base. Rachis . Nugge ele -Murinna. Mocaka -Sajina. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. (Fam. Shewgachi pane Sajana. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. a small or medium sized tree. Tishnagandha. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. parenchymatous cells.2-2 cm long and 0. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Leaflet . Muringa. thickened. central region 163 b) Microscopic . Munga. Sajna. palisade single layered. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. entire. Syn. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. AkÀ¢va. Segata.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. oval to elliptical. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. leaflet 1. slender. thin walled. elliptic. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Mungna Neegge.69. Muringa Elai Sevaga. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. commonly cultivated throughout the country. Moringaceae). Saragavo Parna Shajoma.5-1 cm wide. ovate or obovate. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. pericycle forming a broken ring. Bahala. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces.) Gaertn. Sekato.

0.69 (yellow).36 (green).2.38. 0. Protein. 0. 0. 0.18. áukra N¡¿aka.59 (blue). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.2.82 (yellow) and 0. 0.0.46 (green). V¡tahara.26. 0. Appendix 2. RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. Appendix per cent. 0.4. 0. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.26 (all green).18.87 (blue). 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. 0.94 (yellow) in visible light.94 (blue).2. CONSTITUENTS . 0.53 (yellow). present on both surface but more on lower sur face. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. Appendix per cent.26. palisade cells. B ¤Æhana. stomata anornocytic.3.30 (pink). stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder -Greyish-green. IDENTITY.occupied by a crescent-shaped. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. spiral vessels. 2. 0. Sirovirecaka 164 . 0. Appendix per cent. 0.46 (both blue).46 (dark green) & 0. 2. 0. T.Carbohydrate. Pittahara.V. 0.05.2.05.C. 0. 0.36 (yellowish green). 0. (all green).05. vein islets number 50-65.L.L.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.2.7. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. 2. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.36.20. 0. 0. palisade ratio 6-11. Under U.94 (violet). Medohara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.69 (blue) and 0. K¤mihara. Appendix per cent.46 (all red) & 0. 0.C. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.6.52 (green).

Galaga¸·a. Gulma.Ratnagiri Rasa.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . 165 . DOSE .10 . Vidradhi.áopha. ViÀatinduka Taila. Pl¢haroga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¤miroga. Medoroga.

Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. spicy pungent. brown to dark brown. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. thin walled. perisperm consists of polygonal. sclerenchymatous. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. Sthulaela (Sd. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. (Fam.) Zingiberaceae). perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. parenchymatous cells.4 cm long. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. 0. taste. odour. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. thin-walled. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Beraelam. aromatic. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. membraneous aril. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam..70. perispenn encloses the 166 .3 cm wide. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia.

Karp£r¡dy¡rka.5 per cent. 2.2.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. Mukha¿odhaka. 2. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. simple. oil globules. Kaphahara. V¡tahara. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.(Seed).7.2. Tikta Laghu. Appendix 1. of the drug in powder form.10 CONSTITUENTS . starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter.2. 2. polygonal. thin-walled.endosperm and embryo. 2. Appendix 14 per cent. thin-walled. Chardi.áv¡sa.S¡rivady¡sava.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. RukÀa.2. both composed of polygonal. IDENTITY. Powder . K¡sa. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Ka¸·u. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.3. H¤ll¡sa.Light brown. Appendix 5 per cent. Rocaka. shows fragments of testa. DOSE . 167 .6. Note . perisperm cells. parenchymatous cells. Appendix 4 per cent. Mukharoga. rich in protein. (Seed). rounded to oval.5 -1 g.4. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). T¤À¸¡.0. Appendix 2. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.

) Roxb. brownish.1-0. (Fam. phloem fibres thickwalled. stone cells found in 168 . rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. Tumbura. aromatic. parenchymatous cells. fracture.2 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. Syn. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Z. cork 15-20 layers of tabular.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. Thumbooni. aromatic pungent. external surface pale brown. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. rather deeply furrowed. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. Rutaceae). Tumburudra. light yellow to pale brown. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m.0. short. odour. thin-walled. armed with long. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Tejovati (St.Bk. lignified. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. Jimmi.71. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. sharp prickles. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. thick-walled cells. stem and branches. taste. internal surface smooth.

2. starch grains round and oval.5 per cent.4.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . a Volatile Oil and Resin. Powder . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.75 . 2.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.75 µ in diameter. oil globules and starch grains. Appendix 12 per cent. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.13. Mukharoga. Appendix 8. Ëmav¡ta. stone cells. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). measuring 2. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high.75 µ in diameter. P¡cana. DOSE . Kaphahara. Appendix 1.2.5 per cent.Aruci.10-20 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. IDENTITY. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . aseptate fibres. Appendix 2. Rucya.3.13. áv¡sa.2. shows fragments of cork cells. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.2. Medhya. K¡sa. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. 2.75 . 2. round and oval measuring 2.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.Yellowish-brown. of the drug for decoction. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.6. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.7. Hikk¡.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 13 per cent. 169 .

Flower . Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi.3. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . small in close whorls. hairy. herbaceous. hairy. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. obtuse or acute. petiole thin. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. internally cream. violet internally. found throughout the country.2. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. entire or serrate. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. pubescent on both sides.Purplish or crimson coloured. branched. taste.Thin. sub quadrangular. woody.) an erect. shortly apiculate. Lamiaceae). aromatic. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. elliptic oblong. wiry.6 .2 cm wide. Thulasi. bracts about 3 mm long and broad.Erect. Leaf . characteristic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. (Fam. lower lip 170 .72. soft. pedicels longer than calyx.5-5 cm long 1.5-3 cm long hairy. odour. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. externally purplish-brown to black. Tulasi (W. coloured.P. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. blackish-brown externally and pale. much branched. about 1. 30 . branched. K¤À¸atulas¢.60 cm high. Shree Tulasi. annual herb. fracture. pubescent. odour faintly aromatic. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Stem . slender.

multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. corolla about 4 mm long. pitted with pointed ends. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. in groups and rarely in singles. enclosed in an enlarged. pubescent. no odour. elongated. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. mucilaginous when soaked in water. Stem . middle one larger than other two. fibres with pointed ends. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. thin-walled. slightly notched at the base.Rounded to oval. parenchymatous cells.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. glandular trichomes short. filled with brown content. lateral two short and central two largest.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. 171 . rectangular. thin-walled. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. aromatic. Leaf- Petiole . thin-walled. tracheids. three vascular bundles situated centrally. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. xylem consists of vessels. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. b) Microscopic Root .longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. phloem consists of sieve elements.1 cm long. pungent. round to oval polygonal. xylem surrounded by phloem. vessels pitted.shows somewhat cordate outline. slightly mucilaginous. odour.epidermis. Seed . fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. nearly smooth. measuring 22-27 in dia. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. pungent. parenchymatous cells.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. each with one seed. pungent. taste. long. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. occasionally a few cells collapsed. Fruit .A group of 4 nutlets. slightly compressed. fibres and parenchyma. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. veined calyx. brown. taste. found scattered in phloem. vessels pitted. aromatic. membranous. thin-walled. phloem consisting of sieve elements. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. fibre tracheides. odour. 0. taste. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. Midrib .

xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. Appendix 1. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.L. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. Appendix 10 per cent. rounded to oval.minutes Under observation. V¡tahara.C.2. 2. Tikta. thin walled fibres.Lamina . oil globules.2.15 . palisade ratio 3. Appendix 8 per cent.7.8. Appendix 2. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.4. Powder .35.L.2. CONSTITUENTS . Durgandhihara 172 .Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front. Rf. T.1. Kaphahara. value 0.5 per cent. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 2. vein islet number 31 . a few containing reddish brown contents.2. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces.6.7.2. in thoroughly vanillin .2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pittavardhin¢. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .3. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. RukÀa. parenchymatous cells. On cooling spray.Greenish: shows thin-walled.16 on lower surface. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.Essential Oil. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. 2. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). H¤dya. Appendix 4 per cent. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. IDENTITY. Record Rf. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. Rucya.

M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed).IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áv¡sa.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. K¡sa. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. Netraroga. Chardi. 173 .A¿mar¢. KuÀ¶ha. Hikk¡. K¤miroga. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa.

lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. aromatic.. and 2-8 celled. measuring 22-27 µ dia. Holy Basil Tulasi. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. thin. middle one larger than the other two. Tulasi (Lf.) 30-60 cm high. entire or serrate. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. LeafPetiole . upper epidermis. (Fam. hairy. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. obtuse or acute.5-3 cm long. consisting of xylem and phloem.6-3. odour. elliptic-oblong. pubescent on both surfaces. characteristic.shows cordate outline.5-5 cm long. balloon-shaped head. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. 174 b) Microscopic . covering trichomes multicellular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. Lamiaceae). 1. petiole 1. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. found throughout the country. much branched annual herb. an erect.2 cm wide. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. petiolate. taste. glandular trichomes short.73. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. K¤À¸atulas¢. three vascular bundles situated centrally.

7.83 (blue). 0. 0. 2.83 (all pink) 0. 0.93 (pink) & 0.75 (violet). 0.21.21. IDENTITY.93 (all0 yellow).2.4. 0. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. 0.45 (violet).2. 0. 0. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. Lamina . 2.33. Caryophyllene. 0. 175 . 0. 0. Appendix per cent.93 (both light green). Nerol and Camphene etc. Appendix per cent. 0.C. Powder .21 (brown).08 (violet).03 (dark green).33.45. Appendix 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. anomocytic and diacytic stomata. 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. T.L.04. 0.12.33 (both green) 0. 0. 0. 0.2. CONSTITUENTS .45 (yellowish green). 0.epidermis. 0. 0.08 (both green).Essential Oil (Carvacrol. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 0.C.54. Under U.98 (blue). 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. 0. 2. 0.).Midrib .. 0. palisade and spongy parenchyma. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.04. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.2. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. 2. 0.08.12 (light violet). shows fragments of polygonal.33 (violet). 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. 0.2.L. vein islet number 31-33.3.75.93 (violet) and 0.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.6.30. palisade ratio 3.12 (light green).45. 0.98 (blue).88 and 0.83.85 (blue). 0.54 (blue). 0.8.V. Appendix per cent.85 & 0.04. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.Light-green. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE .Aruci. Tikta. RukÀa. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara. K¤miroga. K¡sa. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. KuÀ¶ha. 176 . H¤dya. áv¡sa. Hikk¡.2-3 g. Pittahara.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. THERAPEUTIC USES . Prati¿y¡ya. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Kaphahara.

fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. enclosing large air spaces. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. taste. Araceae). cells towards periphery. aromatic.74. fracture.5-1. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. upper side marked with alternately arranged. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. Vacha (Rz. large. Rhizome . smaller.) semiaquatic herb. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side.Shows single layered epidermis. odour. (Fam. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. Gora-bach Baje. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. somewhat collenchymatous. broadly. pungent and bitter. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. Ghodvach Bach. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. and 0. buff coloured intemally. thin-walled cells of various sizes. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. short. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . Ghodavaca Vasambu. Vekhandas -Varch. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. triangular. Ugr¡.5 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡.

measuring 3-6 µ in dia.C.. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.2. 2. present in cortex and ground tissue. shows fibres. reticulate. 2. Powder . 2. Appendix per cent.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. endodermis distinct.2. 0.6.2. Powder as such: .4. Chloroform-Light green iii. Appendix 2.14 (violet) and 0. Extracts in i. Petroleum ether-No change ii. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains.10 T. stele composed of round. Appendix per cent.7. Starch and Tannin.2.C. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. 2. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. Appendix per cent.region. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol.L.2. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.L. spherical. Eugenol and Asarone). starch grains simple. 178 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 2.3.Yellowish-cream b.Buff coloured.

Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. áv¡sa. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Ëdhm¡na.á£la. DOSE . K¡sa. Unm¡da.Vac¡di Taila. V¡tahara. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Kaphahara. Medhya. Sm¤ti daurbalya. K¤mihara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. 1. C£r¸a. Vibandha. Ka¸¶hya. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . S¡rasvata.2 g. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. 179 . Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Kar¸a Sr¡va. Apasm¡ra. Tikta Laghu.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.

) (Fam. Vatsanabha. fracture. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. conical. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. poisonous. Vatsanabha (Rt. Nabhi. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. without or with a few intercellular spaces. rarely 5 cm long. parenchymatous cells. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. plant is an erect. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Ranunculaceae). Beesh. perennial herb. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. Vatsanabhi. occasionally separated due to breakage. Meethabisha. tapering downwards to a point. Basanaag Bisa. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. small portions of stem sometimes attached. 0.5 cm.4 . Mithalelia. papillose on outside. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. roots are generally collected late in September. odour indistinct.75. Bachhnaag. ovoid. suberised. cartilaginous. Mahura. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Teliya Bish Basanalli. thin-walled. Naabhi Bachnak. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. dark brown to blackish-brown. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Sth¡varaviÀa.1. 2-4. taste. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. rough due to root scars. Vatsanabhi. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 .8 cm thick.

UÀ¸a.Light grey.C. 0. S £tasekhara Rasa.L. 0. ÙikÀ¸a.96 (both orange). and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. 0. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex.2. Appendix 24 per cent.2. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. 0.39. Anandabhairava Rasa. inner bark parenchymatous. metaxylem vessels met in centre.74 and 0. 2. 2. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.7.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.endodermis. 2. shows vessels. 2. containing a few groups of phloem strands. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . a few aseptate fibres. Appendix 5. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. occupying more than half the radius. CONSTITUENTS . Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. Viyav¡yi.2.39 and 0. Laghu. cambium having 6 10 angles.20. Appendix 2 per cent. some scattered.6. Appendix 8 per cent. T.2.C.10. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf.4. Powder . Appendix 2. xylem exarch. consisting of round to oval cells. 0. present in cortical cells. IDENTITY.5 per cent.2. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. Sv®dala. RukÀa.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. Trid°Àahara. often forming 'V' shaped ring. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. 0.L.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.56.2. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia.

V¡taroga. V¡takaphajvara. DOSE . Jvar¡tis¡ra. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. 182 . Kanharoga.30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Sannip¡ta.THERAPEUTIC USES .15 .

sweetish. Bhuikumra Vidari. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Vid¡rik¡. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. Vidari (Tub. cut surface creamish-brown. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. thin-walled cells. Eagio. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. Bhumikusmanda. outer surface reddish-brown. thinwalled. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . (Fam. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. starchy and somewhat porous.76. Gumadi belli.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. taste. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. smooth except for protuberances at some places.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. Nelagumbala.Rt. Nelagumbula. but pliable. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Bhoikolu. Fabaceae). yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . stone cells moderately thick-walled. usually does not break. Bhonykoru.

angular to oval. measuring 5. radially elongated cells.13.2. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.3. phloem fibres much elongated. M£trala. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. and also rarely in stone cells. Appendix 4. Daurbalya. áoÀa.5 .. 2. CONSTITUENTS . J¢van¢ya. DOSE .Marma Gu¶ik¡. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. Pittahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. Var¸ya. a few latex duct also present. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. V¡tahara. lignified with narrow lumen.5 . Ras¡yana.2. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. somewhat round. 2. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. Stanyada. Powder . Manmath¡bhra Rasa. fragments of cork. 2. present in all parenchymatous cells. Balya. highly thickened.and pits.Buff coloured.Gluconic and Malic acids.D¡ha.13. Svarya. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.5 per cent.3-6 g.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Raktapitta.7. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah).75 µ in dia.2. distributed throughout this region. IDENTITY. Angmarda.2. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 17 per cent. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. Appendix 2. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. Appendix 24 per cent. 184 .75 µ in dia. having central hilum and striations.6.

Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. seed coat appears as a colourless line. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. an annual. followed by more or less. elliptic.3 cm wide. taste. Jav Barley Cheno. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. odour. sclerenchymatous fibres. round to oval wavy walled cells. pale-greenish-yellow. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells.2-0. thick-walled. about 1 cm long and 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. sativum Pers. H. (Fam. spongy parenchymatous cells. sweetish-acrid. followed by 2-3 layers.77. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. polygortal inner epidermal cells. 50-100 cm high. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic .) Poaceae). square or quadrilateral. not distinct. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. cultivated chiefly in North India. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. Yava (Fr. Syn. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. erect herb. smooth. oblong.

and the rest starch layers. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Proteins (Albumin. Pittahara.5 per cent. V¡tak¤t. Appendix 2.5 per cent.3. 0. 0.68. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Appendix 5. IDENTITY.2. Medahara. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. 0.L. Appendix 4 per cent. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. 0. round to oval. simple starch grains. Appendix 1.44. V¤Àya.31. 0.83 (all violet) and 0. 2.2. Pur¢Àak ¤t. Lekhana. 0.narrow lumens. 0. 0. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.92 (all grey). 0. M£trahara. 0.22.31.10. Sugars. Fats. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.72 (all pink.Creamish-white.14.2. 2.2.68.56. Orientoside. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. Appendix 2.7 T. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. 0.) CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. Sthairyakara. 2.6. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. sclerenchymatous fibres.C.22. 0. starch grains simple.65 & 0.5 per cent.5 2.Starch.83 and 0.92 (yellow).V. 0.16. KaÀ¡ya M¤du. 0.L.06. Svarya.2. Orientin. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers. Globulin.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.31. 0.45.24.53. Var¸ya 186 . shows groups of fragments of polygonal.36. Vitexin etc.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 2. Kaphahara. 0. endosperm divided into two zones.4. Powder .10. 0.2.

El¡dya Modaka. 187 . Kanharoga. Dh¡nvantara Taila. T¤À¸¡.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Tvagroga DOSE . Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Urustambha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¡yasth¡dya Vartti.100 . Gandharvahasta Taila. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.áv¡sa. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Medoroga. P¢nasa. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug.200 g. Prameha. K¡sa.

opposite. fracture. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated.Well developed.7 cm broad. slightly rough at basal region with slender. alternate. Punjab. Yavasaka (W.2-1 cm thick. filled with reddish-brown contents. terete. 0.Simple.Cylindrical. drooping. Leaf . Neladangara. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. 0. Y¡sa.1-1 cm thick. 20-30 cm long and 0. gradually tapering. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb).P. Duralabha -Venkatithura. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. secondary and tertiary root absent. Stem . secondary cortex almost 188 . mucronate obtuse. hard. short. sharp axillary spines upto 3. no taste and odour. ballidurabi. branched.5-0. Desv. nearly 0. cork cambium single layered. radially arranged cork cells. striate. a small thorny shrub.) Fabaceae). Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root .78. (Fam.5-1 cm long. oblong. dark brown. elliptical. glabrous. glabrous.8 cm long. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Javasa. stipules green. extipulate. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole.

paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. Lamina . Leaf- Petiole . xylem consists of vessels. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. tanniniferous cells. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. simple. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. a few with thick wall and simple pits.Greenish-brown. covered externally with thick cuticle. Stem . tangentially elongated cells. Powder . tracheids and fibres thick-walled.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. Midrib . phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. rounded to oval. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. 189 . rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. 3-45 cells long.absent. hypodermis 2-3 layered. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. parenchymatous cells. parenchyma and fibres. parenchymatous cells.5-14. some cells filled with tannin.5. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. epidermis single layered. pitted vessels. elongated.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. hypodermis 1-2 layered. xylem fibres. thin-walled. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits.14. filled with tannin. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. starch grains simple. phloem composed of sieve elements. vascular bundle collateral.75 µ in dia. xylem consists of vessels. tracheids and fibres. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. 5. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. covered with cuticle. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin.75 µ in diameter. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. fibres. tracheids. thin-walled. phloem composed of sieve elements. filled with tannin. angular.appears circular in outline. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. tracheids. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle.appears biconvex in outline. xylem situated above phlome. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. present throughout the region. pith composed of a few thin-walled.

Arimed¡di Taila. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.20 .2. Appendix 2.Chardi. 2.2. Tikta. Raktapitta. 190 . KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Sucrose.2. Jvara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara.7. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. K¡sa.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS . Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.6.2. D¢pana.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.IDENTITY. of the drug in powder form for decoction. 2. V¡tarakta.3. 2.4.5 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. Visarpa DOSE . Appendix 2 per cent.5 per cent. Appendix 13. T¤À¸¡.50 g.2. 2. Invert Sugars).Sugars (Melizitose. Appendix 2.

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