THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

2-Thermometers 1.2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.1.1-Nessler Cylinder.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.2.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.3.Types of Stomata 2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.1.2.2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.2.) Desv 177 1.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.1.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.1.2-Sieves 1.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.2.2.5.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.1.4.2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.2.1.2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.1.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2. 1.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.1.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.1 Testing Drugs 2.2.1.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.1.2.

3.2.2.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.3 Limit Tests 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.3.1.3.3.1.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.5-Limit Test for lead 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.2-Refractive Index 2.3.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.Weights and Measures 5.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3.3.

would be deemed to have been amended vii .). Vol. II. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. II would be official. II.P. the Dangerous Drugs Act. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable.I. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. Part-I. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Part-I. Vol. Part-I. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. In general. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). Vol. 1930 and the Poisons Act. accordingly.

Mesh Number . If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. Italics . Synonyms .Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. Odour and Taste . it is described as having odour. When the term “drop” is used. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. If the odour persists to be discernible. substances or processes described in Appendix. English. distribution and method of collection. Purity and Strength . as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . indicated in monograph. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. Introductory Para .Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. Identity. if any. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. viii .Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs.GENERAL NOTICES Title . The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. Hindi.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml).Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Weights and Measures .

V. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. sliminess. fungi.L.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. which he uses. the expression per cent (%). alcohol-soluble extractive. moisture content. Part-I. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance.Under this head. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. wherever given. micro-organisms. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. colour. pests. mould or other evidence of deterioration. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . water-soluble ash. according to circumstances. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. in 100 grammes of product. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. ix . Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. and other animal matter including animal excreta. even by applying known reference standards.g. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. water.) . Standards .soluble extractive.For statutory purpose. is used. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. total ash. The quantitative tests e.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. ether-soluble extractive. shall constitute standards. acid-insoluble ash. pesticides.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. Constituents . if of equivalent accuracy. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. statements appearing in the API. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. Vol. with one of the four meanings given below. and Identity. and show no abnormal odour. Percentage of Solutions . arsenic and heavy metals. those of definition of the part and source plants. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. Constant Weight . In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. may be substituted for the tests and assays described.C. Purity and Strength. However.In defining standards. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. under Description. However.

Percentage of alcohol . unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs.56 oC.000 parts x . Statements of solubilities. thermometric scale.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). and dust particles. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. fibres. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known.000 parts More than 10. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. Reagents and Solutions . all solutions are prepared with purified water. are intended to apply at that temperature. at a stated temperature. Solubility . Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. such as fragment of filter papers. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Temperature . Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Solutions .The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices.

IN. mg.P. 1M. mm. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. Part –I and Part-II. PS. 0. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. 0.1 N.5 N. TS.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. ml.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. l. unless otherwise stated. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. µ.I. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Kg. cm. g. Fam. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.

Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Tub. Beng. Assam. Punj. Pl. Rt. Bk. xii . Rz. Tel. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Bk. St. Mal. Ori. Kan. Wd. Ht. Guj. Mar.Sansk. Tam. Eng. Fr. Wd. Wh. Rt. St. Kash. Sd. Lf.

Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. tapering slightly at both ends.1. Akarakara Akkaraka. 53. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. cambium 2-5 layered. slightly aromatic. brown.2 . Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. parenchymatous cells. bark upto 3 mm thick. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. not easily separable. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Akalakarabha.8 µ in width. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. 7-15 cm in length. (Fam. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. an annual. thin-walled. 1. vessels pitted. cylindrical. b) Microscopic Root . Asteraceae). taste. xylem fibres thick-walled. shrivelled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro.231 µ in 1 .37-28. external surface rough. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. odour. Akravu Akkalakara. Akallakara.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. characteristically astringent and pungent. more and wider vessels found towards peripery.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. Akarakarabha (Rt. elongated. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.

NaÀ¶¡rtava. Appendix 2.4.5 -1 g. secondary phloem and medullary rays. Pittahara. uniseriate rays very rare. radially elongated. Svedakara. Danta¿£la DOSE . 2.2.length having narrow lumen. Grdhras¢.0.2. secondary phloem and medullary rays. IDENTITY. secondary phloem.2. Kaphahara. áv¡sa.Kum¡ry¡sava. Buddhivardhaka. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. of the drug in powder form. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. Appendix 8 percent.7. á£laroga. 2 . bi to tri and multiseriate. áotha. 2. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. running straight. Udararoga. medullary rays numerous.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin).3. also gives positive tests for inulin. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. D¢pana. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. K¡sa.6. Appendix 2 percent.2. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . ray cells thick-walled. Appendix 10 percent. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 22 percent. áukrala. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.Prati¿y¡ya. shows vessels having scalariform thickening.Ash coloured. Powder .2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. V¡jikara. 2. Aj¢rna. 2.

) large deciduous. Akshoda (Cotldn. broken pieces. parenchymatous cells. under this. coriaceous. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. odour. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. Juglandaceae). taste. collapsed. Powder . endosperm mostly single layered. (Fam.2. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. oily sweet. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled.Shows 1-2 layered. not distinct. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells.Cream coloured. creamish-brown. radially elongated. followed by more or less compressed. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. 3 . small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. irregularly corrugated. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. Sailabhava. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Cotyledon . shows groups of cells of cotyledon. slightly curved. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. thin-walled.

Appendix Not less than 7.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. DOSE . Balya.0 percent. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. V¡taroga. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. Appendix Not less than 10.4. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 2.2. V¤Àya.2. áukral.10 . 4 . Appendix 2. KÀaya. Appendix Not more than 0.3.6.0 percent.2.IDENTITY. Sara. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.5 percent. 2.25 g. 2.Walnut oil and Tannin. ViÀ¶ambhi. CONSTITUENTS . B¤´ha¸a.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.7.KÀata. Kaphakara. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.

Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. Ranambo Ambada. Ambazham. curved. Amvara -Mampusli. a few outer cells exfoliated.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. consisting of tangentially elongated.Bk. Jangali Ambo.3. internal surface reddish-yellow. a small aromatic. tangentially elongated. grey having lenticels. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. upto 27 m high and 2. radially arranged. Ambalam. Amrata (St. deciduous tree. with reddish-brown contents. which are thick-walled towards periphery. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Mampuiti. thin-walled cells. Anbalamu. Stem Bark. parenchymatous. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. and 5 . Ranamba. fracture.. S. S. laminated. Ambado. non Gamble (Fam.5 m in girth. f. Kurz. Wild Mango Ambeda. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. thin. Ambadam Amratakamu. Amra Indian Hog Plum. parenchymatous cells. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Syn. external surface smooth. acuminata Roxb. mangifera Willd. Amra. Jangli Aam Ambate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Anacardiaceae).

Not more than 1 per cent. D¡ha DOSE . Powder . KÀaya. simple. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.96. of the drug in powder form for decoction.5-10 g. thick-walled. 2.Light brown. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. Ka¸¶hya. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.33. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.C. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.L.2. 0. Under U.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.33. T.2. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Rucik¤t.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix Not more than 0.6. V¡tahara. 6 . phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width. 2.87 (blue) and 0.C. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.7.V. Pittakara. IDENTITY.KÀata.2. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.(greyish brown).40 and 0. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.2. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. Appendix 2. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex.87 (all greyish brown).. shows cork cells. 0. CONSTITUENTS . THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.3. stone cells. lignified. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres.L. Raktapitta.4. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.96 (blue). Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara.2. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.5 per cent.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. 2. 2.75-14 µ in dia. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. prominent lysogenous cavities are present.

opposite. stamens 5. 0. sessile. not distinct. yellowish-brown. a stiff. membranous. actinomorphic. Leaf . numerous.) Amaranthaceae). erect. obovate. bisexual.9 m high herb. hairy. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. rough due to presence of some root scars. dorsifixed. secondary and tertiary roots present. (Fam. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. Kharamaµjar. subsessile. Apamarga (W. PratyakpuÀpa. branched. exstipulate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . odour.free.Cylindrical tap root.0. gradually tapering. the perianth lobes. 0. Flower .0. one spine lipped.4. perianth segments 5. May£raka. wavy margin. yellowish-brown. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. contorted or quincuncial.P. slightly ribbed. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita.0 cm in thickness. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. greenish-white.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. erect. filament short. bracteate with two bracteoles. hypogynous. solid. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. opposite. anther. hollow when dry.3 .3-0. Stem .Simple.1-1.5 cm in cut pieces. cylindrical. 7 . two celled. decussate.

vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. oval to rectangular. xylem composed of usual elements.Shows a single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. 3-4 celled stalk. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. brown. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. scalariform and pitted. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. cortex 6-10 layered. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. endospermic. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region.Shows crescent-shaped outline.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. Fruit . round at the base. epidermis single layered. unilocular with single ovule. spiral. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. Stem . lignified. LeafPetiole . pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings.Sub-cylindric.gynoecium bicarpellary. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. present in pith. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. either separate throughout or found in some cases. style. tangentially elongated. cortical and pith cells. thin layers of cambium. on both surfaces. thin-walled. elongated. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. vessels simple pitted. truncate at the apex. two medullary bundles. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. thin-walled cork cells. parenchymatous cells. vessels annular. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. demarcating the xylem rings. rectangular.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. fibres being absent. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. followed 8 . 2-5 celled. Seed . small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. Midrib . thin-walled cork cells. stigma. b) Microscopic Root . perianth and bracteoles. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. composed of parenchymatous cells. syncarpous. fibres pitted. ovary superior. single. capitate.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. 9 .0 on lower surface.2.2. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. 2. Apac¢. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Kaphahara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. non-lignified cells. Lamina .by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. mm. shows fragments of elongated.0-20. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. Medoroga DOSE . more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder . spiral. 2.2. V¡maka. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.5-9. thin-walled epidermal cells. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent.0-11. aseptate fibres. slightly elongated in upper. palisade ratio 7. 2. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. V¡tahara.2. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. vein islet number 7-13 per sq.6.0 on upper surface. Medohara. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. Chedana.7. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. Udara Roga. Ka¸·u. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger.3. IDENTITY. Tikta Sara.Light yellow. P¡cana.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. rectangular. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. vessels with annular.Shows single layered.20-50 g. of the drug for decoction.4. 2. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. stomatal index 4. scalariform and pitted thickening. 9. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.á£la. Ar¿a.2. Gu·apippali.2. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

secondary xylem consists of usual elements. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. a few showing slit-like pits. a few solitary fibres also present. lightbrown. taste. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. very long. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. vessels pitted with oblong. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. cylindrical. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. thin-walled. bitter. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. Aparajita (Rt. medullary 10 . b) Microscopic Root . Fabaceae). a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. colour. fibrous. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. fracture. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. 1-5 mm in thickness. polygonal. (Fam. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡.5. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. secondary phloem consists of usual elements.

.L.Mi¿raka Sneha. Pittahara. IDENTITY. phloem and xylem parenchyma.2.Yellowish-brown.Tannin.2. KuÀ¶ha.79 (dull yellow) in visible light.. Buddhiprada. Vra¸a DOSE . 0. 0.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya.2. oblong and pitted. CONSTITUENTS . found in secondary cortex. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.3. 2. 2. Resin.rays 1-5 cells wide.L. Appendix per cent. Medhya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.6. Tikta.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf.2.54 and 0.á£la. Appendix per cent.1 . measuring 3-13 µ in dia. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form.3 g.79 (blue).C. 2. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia.V. V¡tahara.7.79 (grey). Under U. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. áotha. Appendix 2.2. 0. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. 2. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. Powder . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. Starch. ViÀahara.79 (both yellow).4. M£traroga. 0. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. shows simple and compound starch grains. 11 . Taraxerol & Taraxerone. T.

isodiametric. Inji Allamu. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate.5-6. pieces 5-15 cm long. radially arranged cells of inner cork. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . thin-walled. reaching up to 90 cm in height. widely cultivated in India. Adrak Injee. oblique branches on upper side. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. lakottai. fracture. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. (Fam. 1. pungent Rhizome . Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. taste. Allam. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. tangentially elongated. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. short with projecting fibres.6. gingery.5 cm thick. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. Ardraka (Rz. irregularly arranged.Shows a few layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. buds and roots are removed and washed well.) Zingiberaceae). each having a depressed scar at its apex. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. colourless. Ale -Adi. odour.

dia. Appendix 8 per cent. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. 0.08. 0.63 (light violet).63 & 0. vessels 2-5 in number. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.47.69 (grey). phloem.76. 0.35 (light violet).35. larger bundles consists of 2.92 (all yellow). Under U.4. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.16. small cells of sieve tube.6.16 (blue). 0.03.35. 0.47 (light violet). 0. vessels showing reticulate. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. Appendix 2. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.13.2. oleo-resin cells abundent. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. 0.2. 0.5 per cent.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. Appendix 90 per cent. numerous closed. 0. 0.2. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Appendix 1 per cent. 0. Appendix 2 per cent. 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. CONSTITUENTS .69.08 (violet).2. reticulate and spiral vessels. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. 0.V.L.83 & 0.2. 2. 0. 0. Powder -Light yellow. Appendix 5 per cent. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.7. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.76 (violet) & 0.L. collateral. 0. 0. fibrovascular bundles of two types. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. walls of oil cells suberised.63. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.2. filled with abundant starch grains. septate fibres with oblique.63 (grey) & 0. free from starch. 0.3. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. 0. conjoint.C.l6 (brownish violet). composed of xylem.69 (all light yellow). endodermis single layered. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0.16. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. 13 . 2. 0. IDENTITY. 2. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. elongated pits on their walls.2. 0. 2.. 2.92 (violet).9 T.69 (light violet).C. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele.7 vessels.

Kaphahara. H¤dya. 14 . S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Bhedana. Svarya. V ¤Àaya. Rocana.á£la. DOSE . Ka¸tharoga. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. áopha.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Vibandha. Ën¡ha. RukÀa.

not distinct. secondary phloem wide. internally light brown to reddish-brown. fibres and crystal fibres. exfoliating in irregular scales. Arimeda (St. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. parenchyma. characteristic of dry regions. consisting of sieve elements. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0.Bk. (Fam. with tapering 15 . found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. all traversed by medullary rays. rough. odour and taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. fracture. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. upto 3 m in height. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. Fabaceae).5-1 cm thick. hard. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres thin-walled. stone cells and phloem cells. thinwalled cortical cells. square to rectangular cells. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. Pilobaval. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. incurved. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. Velvelam. lignified.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree.7. Sadabala -Haramibaval. fibrous.

0.L. crystal fibres elongated. IDENTITY.3-5 g in powder form.LC. 2. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. Powder . K¤mi.n-Hexacosanol. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Appendix 13 per cent.áopha. Atis¡ra. P¡¸·u. Meda¿oÀaka. Udardapra áamana DOSE . shows groups of cork cells.ends. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. 2. Meha.C. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.7. 2.40 g for decoction.39 and a spot at Rf.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . ViÀajavra¸a. T. Visarpa. Appendix 14 per cent.2. sclereid.0 to 0. 0 to 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. 2.2. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.69 (grey) is seen in visible light.91 (yellow). KuÀ¶ha.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.3. 16 .91 (both blue). thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.2. fibres. radially elongated cells. 0. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.0. Appendix 2.78 and 0. K¡sa.39 and a spot at Rf.e. Appendix 1 per cent.2. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. Dantaroga. β -Amyrin. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Mukharoga. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. composed of thin-walled.6. Ka¸·u. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga).Reddish-brown. Appendix 11 per cent.4.

fracture. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone.) Combretaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. a large deciduous tree. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. Mathichakke. consisting of sieve tubes. 0. Arjuna. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. flat.& A. Neermatti. Vellamaruthi. companion cells.5 cm thick. in the middle and outer phloem region.8. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. short in inner and laminated in outer part. Mattimora. bitter and astringent. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. P¡rtha. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. traversed by phloem rays. Sajada Arjuna Matti. (Fam. recurved. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. Torematti Arjuna. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. curved. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. Bilimatti.Bk.2-1. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. Kellemasuthu. channelled to half quilled. taste. Arjuna (St.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . mostly simple.Medoroga. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. starch grains. 2. Arjuna Gh¤ta. Appendix 1 per cent. Pittahara. sometimes upto 5 components. elliptical.2. 2. 2.2. Appendix 20 per cent. fibres.2. Appendix 2. shows fragments of cork cells. starch grains simple and compound.3. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. Vra¸an¡¿ana. H¤droga. of the drug in powder form. present in most of the phloem parenchyma.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara.in dia.Reddish-brown. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.6. THERAPEUTIC USES . 18 . T¤À¡. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. Vya´ga. compound of 2-3 components.3-6 g. alternating with fibres..4. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. 2. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. a few rhomboidal crystals.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. Vra¸a. round to oval.2. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate.2. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. KÀatakÀaya. alata).7.. Kaphahara. µ Powder . H¤dya. uniseriate phloem rays.2. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. Prameha.. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. elliptic. 4-12 cells high. Appendix 25 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 20 per cent. IDENTITY. round to oval. measuring 260-600 µ in dia.

Fruit . smooth. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion.) Anacardiaceae). obliquely ovoid. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. mesocarp a very broad zone.5-3 cm long. shining with residual receptacle.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. (Fam. Nallajidiginga Baladur. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. Scramkotati Nallajidi.9. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. 19 . mesocarp and endocarp. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. nut 2. 30-40 layers thick. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. drupaceous. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. dark brown. Bhallataka (Fr.

. being highly thickened.4. Powder . Bhedi. V¡tahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Graha¸¢. Appendix 2.1. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former.F. DOSE .Ar¿a. CONSTITUENTS .2 g. Krimi.2. Note . Ka¶u. Appendix 5 per cent. Snigdha. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A.7. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Part-I 20 . Appendix 4 per cent. very much elongated radial walls. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. 2.2. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent..2. Kaphahara. 2. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. Appendix 11 per cent. IDENTITY.2. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. 2. Gulma.5 per cent.6. 2.2. Tikta.Dark-brown. Ën¡ha.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.I. ether. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES .3. chloroform. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. innermost prismatic.endocarp consists of two distinct layers.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Chedi. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. KuÀ¶ha. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). Appendix 0. P¡cana.

rough due to oppressed white hairs. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. usually oblong.Well developed. not toothed. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. erect or prostrate. Soppu. ray flowers ligulate. Leaf . a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. Keshavardhana.2 . cylindrical or flat. herbaceous.. white. M¡rkava. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. occasionally rooting at nodes.8. strigose with oppressed hairs. sub-acute or acute. Tekar¡ja. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. scarcely as long as bracts. greyish. branched. cylindrical.2 .Herbaceous. Kesuriya.P. ligule small. (Fam. 1. lanceolate.2. upto about 7 mm in dia. Bhringaraja (W. involucral bracts about 8. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . spreading. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. much branched. Kesari -Bhangaro. Bhangro Bhangara.Opposite. Karisalanganni. Gurugada.Solitary or 2. obtuse or acute. occasionally brownish. Karisalai Guntakalagara. 2. node distinct. Knnunni Bhangra.5 cm long. strigosely hirsute. Stem . 30 . together on unequal axillary peduncles.50 cm high. sub-entire.10.3 cm wide. Asteraceae). Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. often rooting at nodes. ovate. sessile to subsessile. Bhringiraja. Flower . Bh¤´ga. greenish. disc flowers 21 .) herbaceous annual.

hairy and non endospermic. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. non-glandular. Fruit . ray cells pitted.tubular. in macerated preparation vessels small. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. run straight in tangential section. uniseriate. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. and with pointed apical cell. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. brown. cuneate. unilocular with one basal ovule. fibre tracheids. Leaf- Petiole . xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. stamen 5.2 . rarely slightly oblique.25 cm long. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. consisting of rounded cells. epidermis followed by wide cortex. phloem rays broader towards periphery. pitted. tangentially elongated cells. dark brown. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. ovary inferior. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. with very pointed tips. covered with warty excrescences. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. corolla often 4 toothed. found scattered throughout wood. b) Microscopic Root .Mature root shows poorly developed cork. vessels numerous. covered with striated cuticle. free. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. traversed by xylem rays. Seed . consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. pappus absent. xylem ray distinct. 1-5 celled. xylem composed of vessels. trichomes of two types.Achenial cypsella. epidermis followed by cortex. fibres and xylem parenchyma. externally covered with cuticle. Midrib . simple. fibre tracheids. warty. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse.0. 0.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. drum-shaped. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells.0. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. with a narrow wing. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both.1 cm wide. pistil bicarpellary. one seeded. filaments epipetalous. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. in singles or in groups of various shape and size.

8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. xylem fibres with wide lumen. epidermis single layered. trichomes entire or in pieces.5 -26.collenehymatous cells on both sides. normally biseriate and uniseriate.0-22. pitted with spiral thickening. while the section cut at apical region. Powder . centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. some elongated with simple perforations. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays.5 on upper and 23. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. Stem . phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. about 3 celled. septa thick-walled. endarch. vascular bundles in a ring. 23 . a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. arranged in tangential strands. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. warty. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. stomatal index 20. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis.5. externally covered with cuticle. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. more abundant on lower surfaces. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate.8 -4. middle cells longest. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. uniseriate. hairs stiff. Lamina . collateral. xylem consists of large number of vessels. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. externally covered with cuticle. secondary cortex composed of large. wide at the base. palisade ratio 3. pointed tips and pitted walls. the cork where formed.shows a dorsi ventral structure. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. pericyclic fibres distinct. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.0 on lower surface. peg-like outgrowth. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. pointed. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells.Dark green. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces.

Appendix 2.2. 24 . Tvacya. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix per cent. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila.áotha. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Appendix per cent. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. 2.2. Yak¤droga. Tikta RukÀa.2. Ke¿ya. DOSE .Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . ViÀahara. 2. Dantya. Ras¡yana.6 ml of the drug in juice form. K¤miroga. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya.4. K¡sa.2.7. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent. áirah á£la. Appendix per cent.36 g.IDENTITY. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.3.2. CakÀusya.2. Ëmahara.3 . H ¤droga.Alkaloids. P¡¸·u. Tekar¡ja marica. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6. áv¡sa. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Kaphahara. 12 . Ecliptine and Nicotine.

Simple. Herpestis monnieria (LiM.P. Flower . a glabrous. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi.11. Fruit .& K. small.Small. wiry. taste. decussate. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . soft. sessile. glabrous. green.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Brahmi. Scrophulariaceae). prostrate or creeping annual herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢.Thin. pedicels 6-30 mm long. found throughout India in wet and damp places. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. taste. branched creamish-yellow.. 25 .Capsules upto 5 mm long. succulent. Stem . about 1-2 mm thick. 1-2 cm long. slightly bitter. ovoid and glabrous. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. bracteoles shorter than pedicels.) H. Leaf . opposite. Syn. slightly bitter.Thin. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. nodes and internodes prominent. Valabrahmi. small. obovate-oblong. Ondelaga. Brahmi (W.) Wettst. green or purplish green.B. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. (Fam. axillary and solitary.

KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2. Appendix per cent. Medhya. Powder . subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. Ras¡yana. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.2.6.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7. ViÀahara. glandular hairs. V¡tahara.2. vascular ring continuous. endodermis single layered. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. Svarya. 2. 2.Yellowish-brown.4.Shows a single layer of epidermis. round and oval starch grains. b) Microscopic 26 .3. Appendix 2. 2.2. 2. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . starch grains simple.2. respectively.. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle.2. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter.5-9. Appendix per cent.0-14. cortex having large air cavities. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. pericycle not distinct. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Stem . ËyuÀya. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. Appendix per cent. Praj¡sth¡pana.0 µ in dia. and 8.0 x 2. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. round to oval. glandular hairs sessile. Tikta. simple. no distinct midrib present. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.Root . endodermis single layered. Matiprada. measuring 4-14 µ in dia.

Jvara. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. áopha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Prameha. 27 .1-3 g in powder form.KuÀ¶ha.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. P¡¸·u. Ratnagiri Rasa. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES .

a very prickly. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. upto 1. much branched perennial under shrub. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. cork cambium single layered. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. woody. (Fam. pale yellowish-brown. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. tangentially elongated. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. no distinct odour and taste. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . short and splintery. Papparamulli. Ubhibharingani.9 layers of thin-walled. ribbed. thin-walled. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. parenchyma and stone cells. oval and tangentially elongated cells. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. long. cylindrical. Chichuriti. Brihati (Rt. Badikateri Kirugullia. a number of secondary roots and their branches present.12. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina.5 cm in dia. traversed by phloem rays. 1-2. Solanaceae). fracture.15 layers of thin-walled. Heggulla. b) Microscopic Root . Putirichunda Dorli. phloem parenchyma much abundant. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. secondary cortex composed of 5 . mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m.8 m high.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn.. varying greatly in shape and size.

occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays.2.2.5 .5 -11. measuring 5. 2. 2. phloem and medullary rays. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. rounded to oval starch grains. xylem rays uni to biseriate.5 per cent. 29 . 2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not more than 6.6 µ in diameter.2.6 µ in diameter.Cream coloured.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. Agnim¡dya. aseptate fibres. tracheids. 2. measuring 5. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . simple and rounded to oval starch grains. V¡tahara.3. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. shows groups of thin-walled. all elements being lignified. Kaphahara. áv¡sa. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits.2. H¤dya. vessels with simple pits.á£la. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. H¤droga.10-20 g. Jvara. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.7.2. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. IDENTITY. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. thick-walled.2.11. DOSE . Appendix 2. P¡cana.4. parenchymatous cells.6. traversed by xylem rays. of the drug for decoction. cells radially elongated and pitted.

cork cambium not distinct.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. P.. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Syn. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. plenty of simple starch granules present. P. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. Chavya -Kattumulaku. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . tracheid. fleshy climber.13.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. nodes and internodes distinct. oval to rectangular. a glabrous. endodermis single layered. peppery.0 cm in width. thin-walled. officinarum DC. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. Piperaceae). xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. odour.5-2. secondary cortex a wide zone. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. greyish-brown. brownish cells. b) Microscopic Stem . Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. cultivated mainly in Southern India. acrid. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. chaba Hunter non Blume. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. (Fam. fracture. taste. Chavya (St. short. consisting of round.

2.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . medullary rays multi seriate.Ar¿a. IDENTITY. shows fragments of vessels. Gulma. Powder . P¡cana. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. starch grains.2.1-2 g.2. Pl¢h¡ Roga. RukÀa. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. filled with simple.2.4. 2. of the drug in powder form.2. Appendix 3 per cent.pitted and reticulate thickenings. 2. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter.3. Appendix 1. round to oval starch grains. Appendix 2. Appendix 10 per cent. 31 .7. THERAPEUTIC USES . D¢pana. Glycosides and Steroids. round to oval. Ën¡ha. 2. 2.6. Appendix 6 per cent. cells thin walled. Recana. CONSTITUENTS . measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.5 per cent. á£lal DOSE . Udara Roga.Alkaloids. fibres and simple.Greyish-brown. Krimi. Kaphahara.

endosperm absent.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen.5-0.6 cm long.2 cm wide. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. shows stone cells.14. Punicaceae). 0. Maadalai. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. wedge-shaped. thin walled. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. angular. triangular and rectangular. LohitapuÀpa. Powder . Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. containing a few oil globules. sweetish-sour. Seed . Dadima (Sd. parenchymatous cells. oval. cotyledons coiled. (Fam. oil globules. found growing wild in the warm valley.Reddish-brown. 0. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. starch grains present in testa. Madalam Danimma Anar. round. simple.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. taste. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. consisting of oval to polygonal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. round to oval. 32 .1-0. beneath this.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

slightly curved.Light greenish-yellow. subacute. an annual. white. about 2-3. corolla. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. glabrous in lower part. Stem .3-0. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. smooth. Dronapushpi (W.Yellowish-green. acute.2-1. erect. Gumma. fracture. fibrous.9 m in high.P. slightly bitter. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5 cm long and 0. long with numerous wiry. scaberulous. Leaf . calyx. upto 4 mm thick.35 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. ovate or ovate. taste. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. ciliate.5 cm across. tubular. globose.7-2 cm 37 . Inflorescence . nodes and internodes distinct. hairy. more or less pubescent. surface rough.lanceolate.Sessile.6-0.Cylindrical. thin. stout herb. white. 3-9 cm long. pungent. hairy on upper part.16.) Lamiaceae). 10 dentate with a villous throat. 1. size variable. (Fam.25 cm long. taste.5 cm wide. 1-2. serrate. characteristic. crenate. 1-2. 1. crowded in dense. taste. fine rootlets. about 0. zig-zag. lanceolate. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng.

tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. thin-walled cells.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface.7 layered. tangentially elongated. lateral lobes small. bilipped. trigonous. secondary xylem consists of vessels.vascular bundle arc-shaped. xylem consists of vessels. followed by round to oval parenchyma. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. wooly.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. Midrib . b) Microscopic Root . round to angular collenchyma.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows.tangentially elongated. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. composed of oval to rectangular. nutlets 3 mm smooth.1 cm wide. tracheids. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. oblong. Lamina . tracheids. endoderm is single layered. fibres and xylem parenchyma.Schizocarpic carcerule. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. vessels long with spurs. smooth. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. consisting of barrel shaped. Seed . 4 . Stem . consisting of 3-5 layers of circular.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. thin-walled 38 . present in centre. dark brown. parenchymatous cells. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. Leaf- Petiole .0. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. irregular. parenchymatous cells. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. vascular bundles 4. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. upper lip about 4 mm long. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. thin-walled.long. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. Fruit . consists of a single layered epidermis.shows a single layered epidermis. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. cortex consisting of single layered. some having simple pits. upto 8 cells high.3 cm long and 0. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. thin-walled cells. brown. palisade single layered. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one.

Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. stomatal index 16. K¡sa. Pittakara. 2. 16.6-30.6. aseptate fibres. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.1-3 g of the drug in powder form.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.2.7 on upper surface. present on both surfaces.áotha.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. Lava¸a. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.Alkaloid.5 on lower surface. a few veins present in this region. 2.cells. IDENTITY.Dull yellow. Tamaka áv¡sa.4. CONSTITUENTS .3. stomata diacytic. ViÀamajvara DOSE . Appendix Not less than 14 per cent. Ka¶u Guru. 2. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.7.6-40.2. 2. Appendix 2. K¡mal¡. V¡takara. 39 . pitted and spiral vessels. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Glycoside.2. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Powder . Agnim¡ndya. palisade ratio 7-9. RukÀa. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. Bhedani. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.2.2.

taste. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. parenchymatous. parenchymatous cells. shows stone cells. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed.7-10 cm long. Karka¶¢. creamish-yellow. utilissimus Roxb. cultivated in many parts of the country. 40 .4 cm wide. C. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. cotyledons two. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. B¤hatphala. rounded and tangentially elongated. sweetish oily.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. (Fam. consisting of single layered epidermal cells.17. straight. surface smooth. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri.3-0. 0. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. -Kakur. Hastipani. covered with thick cuticle. 0. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. mesophyll cells thinwalled. glossy. Ervaru (Sd. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. thin-walled. Hastipani. more or less ellipsoid. Vellarika Kakadi. radially elongated to squarish. an annual creeping herb. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. Cucurbitaceae).

35. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Jvara. 41 .L. Kaphakara. D¢pana. Appendix 4 per cent.0. 0. T¤À¸¡.97 (all yellow) . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.L.58.83.V.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.2.64.91 (blue) under U.2. 2. Appendix 2.97 (all grey).2.7. 2. T. Appendix 5 per cent.Oil & Sugars. 0.4. RaktadoÀakara. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Gulma.19.19. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.5 per cent. 0. 0. 0.35.D¡ha. 0. 0.91 and 0. 0.C.2.26. 0.2.77.C.51. 0. (366 mm). 0.0.6. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 10 per cent. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.0. A¿mar¢.3.3-6 g. Appendix 0. 0.64. Raktapitta. of seeds. Rucya.91 and 0.83. Tikta Guru. Pittahara. 0.77. 2. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.IDENTITY. V¡takara. 0.2.51.26.58. 0.

Shows more or less loosely arranged. odour and taste not distinct. shiny. Gajapippali (Fr. brownish-grey. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. b) Microscopic Fruit . found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. Orissa. Seed . a large epiphytic climber.Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2.6 cm long.5 cm thick. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.0-3. 42 . (Fam.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. cut surface has a central core. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands.18. Araceae). odour and taste not disticnt.4 cm wide. smooth. 0. rough and scaly. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. 0.3-0.Kidney-shaped.0 cm in diameter and 2.4-0. greyish-brown with a dent.0-3.

sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. 0.L. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.4. V¡tahara. T. Agnivardhaka. 2. 0. thin-walled.5 per cent. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. Kaphahara.L. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.73 and 0. Ka¸ha Roga.73 and 0.2. 2. Malavi¿oÀana.Glucosides viz. DOSE . oval to polygonal. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. 43 . Punarnav¡sava. 2. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains.C. Powder . 2-4 layered. 0. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.7.2.6.2.93 (all yellow). Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. 0.Atis¡ra. 0.Shows a single layered. 0. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.93 (brown).C. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.Seed . shows lignified. Sugars & Fixed Oil.2.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. oval to polygonal. 0. Stanya. oval to polygonal.93 (all blue) are visible.65.20. thick-walled. CONSTITUENTS .27.Dark brown. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.65.2-3 g. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. Appendix T. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. 0. non-lignified.2. K¤miroga. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. in extract (Phant) form. 0. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. áv¡sa. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.V. pitted and with concentric striations. IDENTITY.65. 2. 0.áiv¡gutik¡. Three spots appear at Rf.73 (both light brown) and 0. Ka¸¶hya. THERAPEUTIC USES . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U.27.65 and 0. thick-walled.

6 cm wide. taste. tangentially elongated. Sr¢par¸¢. Verbenaceae). light yellow. papery. black. taste. 0. sweetish sour.A drupe. Hannu -Kumbil. Shivani. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. P¢takarohi¸¢. Gambhari (Fr. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. 0. thin-walled cells. two seeded.0 cm long. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . sometimes with portion of attached pedicel.Seed ovate. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered.5-1 cm long. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells.19. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. b) Microscopic Fruit . parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m.) unarmed tree. parenchymatous cells. multilayered.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed.4-0. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. (Fam. ovoid. sometimes one seeded. crinkled. thin-walled. Seed . parenchymatous cells. seed coat thin. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree.5-2. radially 44 . 1. cotyledons consisting of single layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. fleshy mesocarp. K¡¿marya. surface smooth. oily. Seed .

98 (yellow) in visible light. T¤À¸¡. Resin and Saccharine. V¡tahara. Sara.elongated epidermal cells.C. 0.12. 0.08. Appendix 25 per cent.Butyric acid. 0. Rakta Pitta DOSE . oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. Appendix 0.L. KÀaya.26. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder . 45 . 0.98 (all blue). Appendix 2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittahara.V.Blackish-brown.2. M£trak¤cchra.94 and 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru. CONSTITUENTS . 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. Appendix 8 per cent.98 (orange). Under U. Ke¿ya.03. 0. Medhya. IDENTITY. KÀata.03.6.7. H¤droga. Appendix 6 per cent. Tartaric acid. 2. 0. 0.4 per cent.22. 0.L.3. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. Ras¡yana.C. shows stone cells.D¡ha.2.42.98 (all yellow). 2. H¤dya. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Amla. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2. T.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.18. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. 0.1-3 g.52. THERAPEUTIC USES .93 and 0. Alkaloid.2.Arvind¡sava. 2.2. of the drug in powder form..4. 2.

a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Shows a wide cork. blunt tips and moderately long in size. 46 . mucilaginous.6-1. rectangular. traversed by wide phloem rays.0 m high. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. thin-walled. Grewia populifolia Vahl. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. a shrub 0. Tiliaceae).Bk. parenchymatous cells. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. 1. fibrous. a few stone cells. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. (Fam. external surface smooth. fracture. consisting of tangentially elongated.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. fibrous. Syn. secondary cortex wide. arranged in radial groups. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. channelled.) Aschers & Schwf. elliptical. taste. Gangeru (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. consisting of 12-20 layered. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.5-5 cm long. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. moderately large in size. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . thick-walled. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.. light yellow. oval. radially arranged cells.20.

0. Appendix 2.Sugar. 2.08 (violet). under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. Tikta. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). 0. T. IDENTITY. 0.64 (blue).35 (dark blue). 0. Appendix per cent.6.68 & 0.55.35. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.L.17.35 (violet). (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. of the drug in powder form.68 (light violet) & 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara.Light yellow and fibrous. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Pittavik¡ra. 0. 0.C.2. Amla. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0. β-amyrin etc.17.27.C. Ka¶u. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.3.Vra¸a. 0.88 (all yellow). α-amyrin.08.29 (blue).2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.17 (light violet).). 2.2. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. Appendix per cent. 2. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 47 . stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.55 (blue) & 0. 0.Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.V.2. 0.13 (blue).88 (light violet).2-3 g. THERAPEUTIC USES .48 (violet).08 (blue) 0.61.48.27 (light violet). 0. Appendix per cent. Two spots are seen at Rf.L.41.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent.4.J¢rak¡di Modaka. Under U.2. DOSE .7. 0.

Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . fruits ripen during winter. pitted walls. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root.21. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. Fabaceae). internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. a climber. composed of 1-2 cells wide. simple or branched. Kakananti Rati Kunch. slightly corky. Gunja (Rt. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. bark thin. flowering in August-September. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. present at short intervals. most often irregularly curved. some with brownish content. cylindrical. Ghungchi Guluganji. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. soft. cork cambium. (Fam. when distinct.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. gulagunja -Kunni. Kundumani Guriginga. Gurivinda Ghongchi. smaller than stone cells. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. becoming mildly bitter. odourless. light brown. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. Chonotee Ratti. b) Microscopic Root . tangentially elongated cells. taste. exfoliating in small flakes. spreading throughout the plains. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. Chanothee. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. feebly sweetish. thinwalled.

pitted walls. thin-walled and rectangular.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.7. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. 2. numerous xylem fibres. vessels of varying sizes with thick. CONSTITUENTS .3. xylem vessels with pitted walls.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). Powder . wood composed of narrow concentric.75 µ in diameter.diverging towards periphery. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple.4. 2. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. small groups of sclerenchyma. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral.1 . Tikta á¢ta.5 -13.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Pittahara. Appendix 2. shows fragments of cork. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.2. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. parenchyma thin-walled. Mukha¿oÀa. áula.Indralupta. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region.2. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 49 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.Greyish-brown.6. Appendix 9 per cent. of the drug in powder form.2. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. DOSE . rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. Appendix 10 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. Appendix 4 per cent.2.5-13.75 µ in diameter. 2.5 per cent. stone cells.3 g.

50 . Serdi Ikha. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow.) shrub. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi.22. scattered throughout the ground tissue. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. distinct node and internode. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. juicy and sweet. Ikshu (St. cylindrical. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. conjoint. with. Poaceae). rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. solid. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. b) Microscopic Stem . characteristic. besides the xylem and phloem elements. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. closed type of vascular bundles. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. smooth. odour. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. more numerous and closer towards periphery. lignified. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. taste. (Fam. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre.

2. V¤Àya. 2.Powder light brick red.2.6.Powder . shows pieces of epidermis. 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Not more than 2. ground tissue. Pittahara. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa.7. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Appendix 2. Kaphahara. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. 51 . Sara.2.400 ml in the juice form. 2.2. V¡tahara.Raktapitta.Bal¡ Taila. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.3. vessels and sclerenchyma. DOSE . M£tra KÀaya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.5 per cent. Balya.2.Sucrose. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.4.200 . IDENTITY.

dull yellow. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical.) Cucurbitaceae). Paythumatti. Tuntikai. tangentially elongated. thick-walled. composed of sieve elements. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. thick walled. (Fam. mostly simple or rarely 52 . thin walled. intensively bitter. lying around vessels. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. cylindrical. fibres. parenchyma and medullary rays. slightly twisted. Valiya Pekkumatti. Tumbi Paikamatti. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. Indrayan. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. áatakratulat¡.5-7. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings.5 µ in dia. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke.23. Varithummati.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. short. occurring throughout the country. pitted. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. a few filled with dark brown contents. consisting of vessels. fracture. fibres aseptate. elongated with pointed ends. parenchyma and medullary rays. Indravarana Gothakakucti. an annual or perennial.2-2. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal.5 cm thick. Indravaruni (Rt. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. parenchymatous cells. longitudinal fissures present. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. Gav¡kÀ¢. b) Microscopic Root . wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. taste. Bitter apple Indravaran. tangentially elongated cork cells. xylem forms bulk of root. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Indramanoa. Indravaruni. Havumakke. Indrayanalata.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

cuminii Druce. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. astringent. Jambu (Sd. Seed . b) Microscopic Powder .25. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. oval or roundish. 1 cm wide. a few schizogenous cavities are also found.Brown coloured. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. smooth.. rounded starch grains. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. Eugenia jambolana Lam. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. (Fam. taste.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. 1 cm long. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. thin-walled. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. brownish-black.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. 57 . a large evergreen tree. E.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.. coriaceous covering.800 m. Myrtaceae).) Skeels Syn. oval.

PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.95 and 0. 0. Pittahara. 2.3. 0.IDENTITY.4. 2.3-6 g. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. of the drug in powder form. Tannin.2. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.Madhumeha.20. ViÀ¶ambhi. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. 58 .20. Appendix per cent. 0.30 and 0. three spots appear at Rf.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Glycoside (Jamboline). RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.2. Appendix per cent.12. Udakameha.95 (all violet).2. Appendix 2. 2.7. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V.6.2.L. T. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.C.95 (all yellow). THERAPEUTIC USES . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Amla. CONSTITUENTS .30 and 0.30 (blue).2. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Kaphahara.2.

Bk. stone cells. astringent. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Raja Jambu Merale. Eugenia jambolana Lam. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. cuminii Druce. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. light grey to ash coloured. Jamu. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. elongated. 0. fracture. rough. and reddish brown..6 m with a bole up to 15 m.5-2. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. internal surface fibrous. upper few layers thick. (Fam. Mahamaram. oval to angular. Jambu (St. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem.800 m.26. cork cambium not distinct. younger bark mostly channelled.5 cm thick. Navval Sambu. lower cork thin and colourless. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Jamneralae. Jam Jammu Naaval. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. E. Jambuda Jomuna. stratified and reddish-brown.) Skeels Syn. Neralamara -Njaval. Myrtaceae). fibres aseptate. Jambu. a large evergreen tree. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. forming a rhytidoma. and phloem rays. short and splintery.

measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder .6. Appendix per cent.4.2. DOSE .region. single or in groups.3.U¿¢r¡sava. Appendix 2. IDENTITY.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. stone cells. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. Appendix per cent.10-20 g. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. Appendix per cent. 2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.Atis¡ra. oval to angular. Appendix per cent. 2. 2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. 60 . Kaphahara. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. round to oval starch grains. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug for decoction.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Stambhaka.7.2. Pittahara.2. Raktapitta. round to oval starch grains. elongated. aseptate fibres. V¡tala. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. reddish-brown content.Light brown.

a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. Jayapala (Sd. Neervalam Jepal. oblong. dull cinnamon-brown. Japala. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. Nervala -Nervalam. 5-7 m high. found throughout tropical India. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. b) Microscopic Seed . thin-walled cells. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. no marked odour. Tinti·¢phala. consisting of a large endosperm. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. filled with brownish content. Euphorbiaceae). terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. consisting of an epidermal layer. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. ovate. slightly quadrangular. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape.27. (Fam.Shows a hard testa. Japal beej. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed.) small evergreen tree. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Neervalam. 61 . convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. kernel yellowish and oily. slightly bent at middle.

0.34 (grey). Resins & Phorbol esters.L. 0.2.54 (yellow). central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.C.6-12 mg. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.V.63 and 0.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.84 (all violet).endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Appendix 2.2. 0. 0.54 and 0. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Jvara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Fixed oil. 2.84 (brown). IDENTITY. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa.90 (all yellow).Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES .6. 62 . T.White with black particles of testa. 0.2.5 per cent.3.2. Vibandha DOSE . Udararoga.C.34.39. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Pittahara.L. of the drug in powder form. Powder . 2. Appendix 7 per cent. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. 2. CONSTITUENTS .10. Appendix 3 per cent.2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.7.49. Appendix 15 per cent. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. (366 nm) three spots at Rf. 0. Appendix 0.29. 0. 0.4.

1. entire. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. pith small. having secretory cavities in phloem. polygonal.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. Arishimajingai. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. Atti. paripinnate.3-0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. Karijimangai. á£kÀma patra. opposite. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. Jay¡.5-15. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta.shows single layered epidermis. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. Jalugu.0-3. short lived shrub. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. 0. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. linear. glabrous. S. Fabaceae). stomata anisocytic. palisade single layered. (Fam. present on both surfaces.8 cm wide. -Semp. parenchymatous cells.3 cm long. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. mucronate to acuminate. Jayanti Jaita. 63 . jayata Arinintajinamgi. consisting of thin-walled. aegyptiaca Pers.5 cm long. 7.7 layered round. Jayanti (Lf. a quick growing. oblong. Lamina ..Syn.28. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.) Merr. 1. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . leaflets 6-16 pairs.8-6 m high. very shortly stalked.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn.

T. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. 0. 0.37. 2.11. Appendix per cent. 0. DOSE . 0. 0.25-4. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.29.2. 0. 0.3.29.C.91 and 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.97 (all yellow).V. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. Ras¡yana. 2. 0.4. Appendix per cent.05. ViÀaroga. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0.05. Galaga¸·a. 2. Appendix 2. palisade ratio 3. 0.2.C.97 (yellow).6. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.M£trak¤cchra. 2.48.05. 0.L.2. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.37.69.3-6 g.56 (all pink) and 0. IDENTITY.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. 64 . 0. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .56.2. Appendix per cent. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. Pittahara.56. 0.Ratnagiri Rasa.91 and 0. Calcium and Phosphorus.11.L. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.19. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0. Powder . THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. V¡tahara.29. 0.Dull green.11.48.2. CONSTITUENTS .97 (all grey). 0. in powder form.2. Appendix per cent. 0.19.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.19. 0. 0.Protein. 0. shows spongy parenchyma.7. palisade cells.

tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. bitter. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. Gangunge humpu.29. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. (Fam. colour. ripe seeds. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni.35 mm in breadth. Celastraceae). Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried.5-3. seed without aril also prescent.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. Gangunge beeja. Jyotishmati (Sd. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. light to dark brown.hard. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. unpleasant. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . brownish-orange. surface generally smooth and. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. Seed . collapsed. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. taste. odour. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. a large climbing shrub. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.

35. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains.89 (both greenish blue). 0. 0.89 (all yellow).7. 0. 2. dark brown. Kaphahara.82 & 0.54 (both blue). Oil and Tannins.C. Tikta Sara. 0. thin-walled. 2. V¡tahara. 2.89.composed of polygonal.8 IDENTITY. (all blue) & 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.V. Appendix 9 per cent.2.5 per cent.2.82 (pink) & 0. 2.04. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf.15.82.2. Appendix 6 per cent.Alkaloids. Meddhya 66 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).L. áirovirecanopaga. Powder . under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.35. 0. D¢pana. Appendix 45 per cent.63. 0.82.6.2. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. Appendix 1.3. 0.54. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Oily. Appendix 2. 0.2. stone cells. 0.54. UÀ¸a. Appendix 20 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.94 (yellow). 0. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. 0.L.4. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.2.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Under U. V¡maka.2.94 (yellow) in visible light. Virecaka. 2.20.V.

Oil : 5-15 drops. DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Seed: 1-2 g. Sm¤tidaurbalya. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. 67 .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. ávitra. THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡tavy¡dh¢.

Bk. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Kadamba Kadamba. a deciduous. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Syn. A.30. Rubiaceae). indicus A. Kadamba (St. 68 b) Microscopic . composed of thin-walled. Indulam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Rich. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Vellaikhadambu. Kadappai.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. taste. Priyka Roghu. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. elongated cells of phloem rays. Kadamba mara. some cells contain chlorophyll. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. a few cells with brown contents. Kadavala. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Kadambu Needam. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Vellai Kadambam. (Fam. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. rectangular cells. Kadam Kadam.. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. bitter. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. Kadamba Nipo. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. traversed by uni to triseriate. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. large tree.

phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. Appendix 3 per cent.2.D¡ha. CONSTITUENTS . fibres. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. DOSE .31. YonidoÀa.90 (grey). Steroids. cells distinct and slightly elongated.2.5:10) shows under U.C. Powder . T.83 and 0. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. 0.phloem fibres. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.70 (orange yellow).64. 2.1. 0. shows fragments of cork cells.79 (grey) and 0. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. 2.5 per cent. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. 2.5 g.57. 0.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.03.2. 0.2. 69 . Appendix 9 per cent.21. Appendix 5 per cent.0.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. phloem cells.2.63 (yellowish grey). and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. 0.4. 0. 0. V¡tahara. Raktapitta.7. Appendix 1. Appendix 2.3.Brown. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. Vra¸aropa¸a. L C. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Lava¸a. of the drug in powder form.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.2. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.Alkaloids.13. 0.5 .79. 2.6. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. Vra¸a.L. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. glabrous. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. externally smooth. Kakamachi (W. white or pale violet. Manatakkali. Ganikesopu. ovary globose.Simple. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. a herbaceous annual weed. anther 1. 3-8 flowered cymes. Ganikegida. Pikachia. 30-45 cm high. ovate or oblong. flattened. toothed or lobed.2-2. hairy at base. obtuse notched at apex. ganike. thin. 1. Flower . 2. quite common in cultivated lands. glabrous. road sides and gardens. pedicels 6-10 mm long. style cylindric.Small. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood.) Solanaceae). yellowish. narrowed at both ends. petiolate. five lobed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. bark thin. filaments short. found throughout the country in dry parts.5 mm long.5 cm wide. 70 . peduncles 6-20 mm long. obtuse.P. sinuate. Stem . Manaththakkali. pale brown.31.25 mm long.5-8. slender. oblong. corolla 4-8 mm long. (Fam. very slender. hairy in lower part. calyx 2-3 mm long. Leaf . rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. glabrous or pubescent.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . oblong.5 cm long and 2. sub-umbellate. green. slightly woody and branched. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. extra-axillary.Erect. Manitakkali.

. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. smooth shining Seed . bicollateral. cambium 2-4 layered. covered with striated cuticle. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls.. LeafPetiole . internal phloem. in small or large patches. epidermis single layered. measuring 2. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. central vascular bundle shallow. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. slightly elongated. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. measuring 2. tangentially elongated. composed of thin-walled. minutely pitted. pith large. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. oval to round starch grains. single or with two or rarely 3 components. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma.5-8. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. endoderrnis single layered. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. 1. phloem rays uniseriate. filled with starch grains. arc71 . yellow or black. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma.. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. rays composed of thin-walled.. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round.' oval parenchymatous cells. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. covering trichomes. yellow. cortex of large. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces.Discoid.5 mm in dia. slightly striated cuticle. smooth. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. Stem .10 layered in angular parts. conjoint and open. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. Midrib . compactly arranged.Fruit . trichomes multicellular.5-11 µ in dia. 6mm in dia.Shows single layered. covered with thick. vascular bundles-collateral. starch grains. parenchyma 4-6 layered. obtuse. phloem consists of thin-walled. xylem rays homogenous. covered with striated cuticle.A berry. embedded in perimedullary zones. but 4. uniseriate. radially elongated cells. uniseriate. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. usually accompanied by fibres.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.25 µ in dia. polygonal cells. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. arcshaped. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. uniseriate. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4.

97 (all yellow). warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. 0. 2. T. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle.Shows thin.7. unicellular hairs. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.5 . Fruit . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.2. Appendix per cent.34 (both brown) in visible light. Appendix per cent. 0.L. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. 2. palisade ratio 2-4.C. 2. Lamina .V.34 (both pink). a few broken pieces of pointed.2. palisade single layered. Powder .06 & 0. papery epicarp. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 72 . both upper and lower epidermis single layered.4. Appendix 2. single. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. measuring 2. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit.Alkaloids and Saponins.Creamish-green. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. IDENTITY. 0. present beneath palisade parenchyma. Under U. stomata anisocytic.06 & 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.2. epidermis with irregular outline.06.C.3.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally.11 µ in diameter.6. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.L. 034 and 0. vein islet number 7-10.2. 2.dorsiventral.

Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. V¡tahara. H¤droga. Svarya. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Prameha. Tikta Laghu. Chardi. THERAPEUTIC USES . Hikk¡.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara.áotha.5 -10 ml. Ka¸·u. H¤dya. Ras¡yana. 73 .H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Ar¿a. Pittahara. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Jvara. Netraroga. DOSE . Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Sara. KuÀ¶ha. of the drug in juice form.

Aravinda. a large. Kamala (Fl. linear 1. Kanwal Kamal. obtuse. Aravindan. elliptic. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. black. Syn. Tavare. yellowish-brown. Kamalam. Kalh¡ra. erect. androecium. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. starchy and large.32. Pamposh Tamarai. 2-4 cm long. free. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Padma. (Fam. Tavaregedd -Tamara.3-2 cm wide. 74 . 1. petals numerous. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. comprising of calyx.. 1. gynoceium apocarpous. Sitopala. sepals leaf-like. broken pieces also occur. embedded in a creamy.5-3 cm wide. seed hard. anther. Naidile. fruit an etaerio of achenes. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. gynoecium and thalamus. aquatic herb with creeping stem. crimpled. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. membranous. Sarojam Kaluva.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown.4-2 cm long. crimp led. extended into clavate appendages. corolla. finely veined. 3-5 cm long. Paduman. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Kamal. Nymphaeaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. carpels many. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. Chenthamara. Venthamara. Thamaraipoo. dark brown.

Appendix per cent. spore sac contains yellow.7.2. IDENTITY.Aravind¡sava. Tikta.filament appears circular in outline. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. two on either sides. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. of the drug for decoction. 2. . 2. 2.Raktapitta. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.shows four chambered anther. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. Stamen Filament . parenchymatous cells. Appendix 2.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.2. vascular bundle single. parenchymatous cell. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. composed of thin-walled. DOSE . spherical. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . rectangular. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent.2. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . yellow pollen grains.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle.2.2. M£tra Virajan¢ya.12 -24 g. columnar. Appendix per cent.Dusty brown. ground tissue consisting of polygonal.6. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.3. Pittahara. followed by ground tissue of oval. ViÀavik¡ra. having smooth exine and intine. Appendix per cent.Alkaloid (Nelumbine).4. Sant¡pahara. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. Appendix per cent. Visarpa. Powder . shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Anther . angular. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.

F.33. parenchymatous cells. axillary thorns. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. straight. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. found in groups. hard.) Swingle. odour. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp.Reddish-brown. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Haminamara -Vilar maram. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. elephantum Correa (Faro. Belalu. Kavataleal. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Powder . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. slightly triangular and oval. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Syn. thin-walled. stone cells. Balada. reddish brown. Bilvara. sour. sharp. Siwalik range and forests. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. often cultivated in many parts of India. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m.shows irregular. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. Belada hannu. Rutaceae). Kapittha (Fr.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. stone cells. semicircular. found throughout the plains of India. Pulp. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. glabrous tree with strong. aromatic. rough. a deciduous. taste. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . 76 .

Vra¸an¡¿aka. 0. Lekhana.06. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form.95 (blue).V.1-3 g. Agnim¡ndya. Ripe-T¤À¡. Hikk¡.2.95 (all yellow). CONSTITUENTS . 0. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.2. 0. 0.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.37 (brown).14 (sky blue). 6. 2. 2. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.C. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Amla.91 and 0. 0. Gr¡h¢. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.50. Unripe Pulp: Amla.91 (grey) in visible light.2. V¡mi. Under U.12. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.12 (brown).50 (violet).C. 0. 77 . Appendix per cent.Citric acid and Mucilage.7.2.áv¡sa.4. 0.6. DOSE . 2.91 (violet) and 0.L. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. 0. Pittav¡tahara. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. T. Sangr¡h¢. KaÀ¡ya.2. Appendix 2. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.95 (violet) . V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .91 (blue) and 0. Appendix per cent. 2.37.2. Appendix per cent.L.IDENTITY.3.

34. (Fam . cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3.Greyish-brown. and compound having 2-3 components. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. rough due to longitudinal striations.Bk. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. external surface brownish-grey. Karamarda (St. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. tubular. flat or slightly curved pieces. starch grains simple. internal surface grey and smooth. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. simple and compound starch grains. sometimes cultivated. met throughout India in wild state. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Powder . short. measuring 3-7 µ in dia.) Apocynaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. light in weight. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. 78 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. shows single and groups of stone cells. fracture. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres.

2. 2. 79 . 2. 0.58 (both light grey).6. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.7. DOSE .2.90 (pink) and 0.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.IDENTITY. 0. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.2. T.35. of the drug for decoction. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.3. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.C.C.2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. 2.4.V.48 g. Appendix per cent. 0. CONSTITUENTS .Marma Gu¶¢k¡. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .97 (violet).L.52 (light sky blue). Pittakara.KuÀthahara.L. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .

internally. fracture.) glabra Vent. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. a glabrous tree. Syn.. Bk. Fabaceae). very bitter. Karanja (Rt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka.) Merr. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. taste.35. traversed by phloem rays. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. external surface rough. 3-11 µ in dia. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. single cells of varying shape and size. most of phloem 80 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. fibrous.. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Nakt¡hv¡. tangentially elongated cells. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary phloem very wide. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. due to peeling off. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. cells. Naktam¡la. P. tangentially elongated. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. thin-walled. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam.

Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 2.47 (greenish yellow).C.2.2. parenchymatous cells. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.V.31 (sky blue).1-3 g. phloem fibres. Ka¸·u.3. shows thin-walled. 0.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals.47. similar to those present in secondary cortex.31. 0. mostly straight. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. 0. Appendix 2 per cent. 0.04 (blue). Appendix 2.80 and 0.5 per cent.18 (blue) 0. Ëntravidradhi. DuÀ¶avra¸a.4.25 (sky blue). Appendix 11 per cent.42 (sky blue). KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. DOSE .Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. V¡tahara. Yoniroga.2. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. Appendix 17 per cent. 0.Flavones Kanugin.80 (light blue).C.09. Prameha. 0. Pittahara.7. 0.2. KuÀtha.51 (light blue). CONSTITUENTS . 1-2 seriate. Appendix 3.2. most of ray cells contain starch grain. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. 0.L. cork cells. 0. 2.6. Tikta. 0. Ka¸·£ghna.51.08 (greenish blue). radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2. 2.18. of the drug for decoction. 0. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. T. consisting of thin-walled. 81 .98 (all yellow).K¤miroga.37 (greenish yellow). phloem rays many. 0. 0. Powder -Creamish-yellow. 0. 0. IDENTITY.37. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .47.L. 0. ViÀaghma.13 (Sky blue).

1-2 seriate.) Vent. internally light yellow. (Fam. a glabrous tree. tangentially elongated cells. secondary phloem a very wide zone. tangentially elongated. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Karanja (Rt. Fabaceae). cells. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes.. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. consisting of 82 . rounded to oval in shape. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. reddish-brown or dull brown.) Merr. thin-walled. bitter. Nakt¡hv¡.36. irregularly distributed. Karaµjaka. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. fracture. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. light in weight. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. Syn. P. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja.. taste. rough due to the presence of numerous. bark does not easily separate from xylem. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. bark. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. 3-11 µ in dia.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. Appendix per cent. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Kaphahara.radially elongated. Demethoxy-kanugin. shows fibres in singles or groups. 2. tangentially elongated towards outer region.4. Appendix per cent. Vidradh¢. DOSE . rounded to oval in shape. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2.2. Pittahara. K¤miroga. 2. thin-waned cells towards inner region. KuÀ¶ha. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.DuÀ¶avra¸a. Yoniroga. CONSTITUENTS .2..3.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. ViÀaghna. 2. consisting of 2-3 components.Karanjin. V¡tahara. Ka¸·£.7. starch grains. IDENTITY. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.1-2 g.2. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. Appendix 2.Methylfisetin.2. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. Vra¸a¿odhana. fibres and parenchyma. Powder -Light yellow. Appendix per cent. 83 . THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Kanugin. Tikta.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . more. of the drug in powder form. Appendix per cent.2. 2. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. Ëntravidradh¢. tracheids. Prameha.

outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. at some places lenticels also appear. thin-walled. thick-walled cells. phloem fibre and stone cells.) Merr. odour. unpleasant.37. Syn. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells.. Fabaceae). lenticellate pieces. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells.Bk. Karanja (St.2-1 cm thick. Karaµjaka. more or less smooth. alternating with stone cells. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. a glabrous tree.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. taste. filled with reddish-brown content. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Karanja. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. P. slightly quilled. tangentially elongated. composed of rectangular. 84 . fracture. fibre small. recurved. traversed by medullary rays. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. b) Microscopic Bark . secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. parenchymatous cells. Nakt¡hv¡. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. short and fibrous. bitter. arranged in a tangential manner. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. (Fam. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. phloem parenchyma. usually 0.) glabra Vent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.

4. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. 5Methoxyfurano (2". oil globules. starch grains simple.5 per cent. 2. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. Appendix 3 per cent. Kaphahara.6.2.. Appendix 2.2. Pongapin. Prameha. medullary rays wavy. 3". rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. Appendix 1. Appendix 18 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . elongated.2.7. usually 2-4 cells wide.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.polygonal. and rarely. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components.3. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 85 . K¤miroga. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. Tikta. Ka¶u. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. Powder -Yellowish-cream. Gamatin. simple and compound starch grains. aseptate fibre and stone cells. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. rounded to oval.DuÀ¶avra¸a. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.2.2. of the drug in powder form. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. present in secondary cortex. Pittahara. Demethoxy- kanugin. V¡tahara. Kanugin.2. Vidradh¢. ViÀaghma. Ka¸·u. 2. Appendix 13 per cent. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. 2. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Yoniroga DOSE . Ëntravidradh¢. 2.1-2 g. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. KuÀ¶ha. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 3" 7 : 8). thin-walled and aseptate. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. Pinnatin. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin.

Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. cortex consisting of angular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. traversed by xylem rays. Nakt¡hv¡. dark green.9-8.5 cm long and 3.. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate.) Vent.8 cm. Hulagilu -Pungu. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins.3 cm wide. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Kanajo Karuaini. arcshaped. (Fam.2 .11. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Karaµjaka.) Merr. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. isodiametric. 6. Dithouri Honge. xylem vessels arranged radially. vascular bundle single. covered with cuticle. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Ungu. Unu.38.circular in outline. a glabrous tree. consisting of xylem and phloem. Karanja (Lf. Pongana Ganuga. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. 0. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. leaflets 2-3 pairs. 86 . Fabaceae). petiolule short. epidermis single layered. Syn. P. Karanja. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji.5-0. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consistig of tabular cells.

epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. Pittavardhaka. collateral. consisting of tabular cells. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.4.3.2.6. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. covered with thick cuticle. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.shows single layered epidermis. K¤imihara.5". 2. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. Tikta.5-50. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . palisade two layered. 5" .methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.6. shows spiral xylem vessels.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4".Mid rib . central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. vascular bundle. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. stomatal index 12.7.5-20.6. 5". 2. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square.2. Appendix 3. mesophyll cells. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Ka¸·ughna. stomata anisocytic. present in lower surface.5) . Powder -Green. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 7) -flavone.2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 11 per cent.2.A new Furanoflavone -3' .5 per cent. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. phloem and pith. Appendix 10 per cent. cortex consists of round to oval. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. 2. V¡tahara. 2. Appendix 16 per cent. Appendix 2. Ka¶u.6.(4". palisade ratio 3. . Kaphahara.2.

For external use only.K¤miroga. 88 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . KuÀ¶ha.J¡ty¡di Taila. Ka¸·au. DOSE . Vra¸a.

39. usually pointed or beaked.3.5 . Appendix 0. Karavallaka (Fresh. Appendix 6 per cent. taste. Kathilla. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. 2. oblong.2. IDENTITY. fusiform. 3 valved at the apex when mature. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 .) Cucurbitaceae). ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. 2.25 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella.2. Kakiral. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. Nil Appendix 8. upto an altitude of 1500 m.6 per cent. Varivall¢.4. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.2.Fr.5 per cent.7. (Fam. K¡ravall¢. Appendix 2. extremely bitter. Pavackkai Karla Kalara.2. Appendix 28 per cent. surface rough.6. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2.2.2. 2. pendulous. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation.

THERAPEUTIC USES .81 and 0. CONSTITUENTS .98 (all yellow). 0.C.96 (sky blue). Raktavik¡ra. V¡tahara. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. K¡mal¡. juice of fresh drug. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. Prameha. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi.61 (light sky blue). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¤miroga.67 and 0.46.16. D¢pana. K¡sa. 0. Kaphahara.V.áv¡sa. Aruci. DOSE .T. H¤dya. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.43. 0. 0. 0.50.C.15 ml.23 (red).98 (all blue). KuÀ¶ha. 0. 0. P¡¸·u.98 (red & sky blue). 0.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides.17.75. 0.60. 0.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.L. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.34. T.10 .03. Jvara. 90 .L.

kaur Katuka rohini. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. Root . Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . mostly attached with rhizomes. 5-10 cm long. externally greyish-brown. straight or slightly curved. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu.40. Sutiktaka. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. pleasant. Scrophulariaceae). Rohi¸¢. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. Katki. short. cortex single layered or absent. dusty grey. cork cambium 1-2 layered. bitter.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. taste. bitter. Katuka (Rz. primary cortex persists 91 .Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. Katuku rohini. cylindrical. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. short. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. subcylindrical.2. suberised cells. Kaurohi¸¢. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. Kauka. pleasant. fracture. taste. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. . at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. (Fam. Kav¢. inner surface black with whitish xylem.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Tiktarohi¸¢. Katuka rohini Kutki. fracture. a perennial. 0.1 cm in diameter.05-0.Thin. b) Microscopic Rhizome . odour.

measuring 25-104 µ in dia.4. cortex 8-14 layered. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent.. 0. starch grains. 0.05 (blue). 1-2 layers of cork cambium.72 and 0.3. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered.L. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. 2. 0. hypodermis single layered. 0. thick-walled.17. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. simple round to oval. secondary xylem consists of vessels.37. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY.2.41. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells.2. tapering ends. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. vessels have varying shape and size.2.62.21.V. Appendix per cent. 0.C.30 (blue) and 0. 0.2.84 (all brownish grey).2. simple round to oval. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. cambium 2-4 layered. 0.10. secondary phloem poorly developed.30. 0. 0.84 (all yellow). measuring 25 . 0.05.2. thick-walled.7. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. 92 . Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. Appendix per cent. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. abundantly found in all cells. some cylindrical with taillike. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. parenchymatous cells. starch grains. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. Appendix 2. 0. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. 0. 0. 0. tracheids long. parenchyma and fibres. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.6. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. 2. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. tracheids.35 (green). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. consisting of oval to polygonal. parenchyma.104 µ in diameter. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. Powder .10.in some cases.C. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. T. 0. 2. 2. lignified.41 and 0. thick-walled cells of endodermis. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. thick-walled.L.21. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. fibres aseptate. tracheids.Dusty grey.17. 0. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.30. thick-walled. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs.

DOSE . Jvara.áv¡sa.Glucoside (Picrorhizin).CONSTITUENTS . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. D¡ha. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta.3 g. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. K¡mal¡.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. 93 . Arocaka. KuÀ¶ha. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Bhedin¢.1 . Pittahara. ViÀamajvara. of the drug in powder form. D¢pan¢. THERAPEUTIC USES .

3 cm long.Yellowish-brown. fasciculate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. common in water logged places throughout the country. Syn. with long white hairs.5 cm long. Kokilaksha (W.2 cm long. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. Kalsunda --Golmidi. broader than the other three. didynamous. Nirguvireru. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .P. a spiny. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. acute. Leaf .Mostly adventitious. no characteristic odour and taste. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali.Usually unbranched. widely 2 lipped. abruptly swollen at top. Stem . all linear-lanceolate. tube 1. Nirchulli. Kolavankal ---. upper sepal 1. swollen at nodes. 0. sub-quadrangular. Kettu. stamens 4. stout.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. Hygrophila spinosa T.41. corolla 3.Greenish-brown. Flower . Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. no characteristic odour and taste. whitish to brown. second pair 94 .Anders (Fam. calyx 4-partite. annual herb. bracts about 2.6-2 cm long.6 cm long. externally greyish-brown. lanceolate. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. Culli. IkÀuraka.5-1 cm wide. entire and hairy. Kolarind. which are 1. Vayalculli Talikhana. 1-7 cm long.Acanthaceae). subsessile.

thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. 95 . inner cells smaller. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. endodermis single layered. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. cortical cells thin-walled. rectangular to cubical. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. vessels with spiral thickenings. broader towards centre. peripheral ones larger. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. Seed . having small intercellular spaces.15 cm wide. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells.25 cm long and 0. capsule about 0. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. thin-walled. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. phloem narrow. variable in size. Fruit . pubescent. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage.larger. phloem fibres thick-walled. arranged radially. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. 0. pointed. pith large. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. style filiform. brownish cells. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. fibres thick-walled. composed of polygonal. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. anthers two celled. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.0. stigma simple. moderately thick-walled. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.8 cm long. filament quite glabrous. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. with a number of large air cavities. vessels angular. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. scattered throughout the phloem region. xylem present in a ring. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. compressed. arranged in radial rows. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. flat or compressed. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles.Two celled. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. ray cells thin-walled. a few thick-walled. polygonal cells. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. involute with a fissure on upper side. truncate at the base.2-0. round. consisting of round to polygonal cells. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. glabrous. light brown. composed of transversely elongate. radially arranged. Stem . radially elongated in xylem region. linear-oblong. subequal. ray cells thin walled.1 . 4seeded. fibre walls uniformly thickened. single or in groups of 2-3. oblong. b) Microscopic Root . thin-walled cells. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. hairy but appearing smooth. radially elongated in secondary xylem.Ovate. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs.

78. lignified. thin-walled. palisade 1-2 layered.3. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . elongated fibres. covered with thick cuticle.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. 2. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. 2. Appendix 2. vein islet number 17-42. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. Appendix per cent.Light brown. palisade ratio 6. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.2. thick-walled. Rucya. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Lamina . stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. sclerenchymatous cells. Amla.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. M£trala.7. composed of thin-walled.2.2.2. palisade. Fruit .4. Appendix per cent. collenchyma 2-5 layered. 2. parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated cells. parenchymatous.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. oval to hexagonal. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . Seed .2.2. 2. IDENTITY. shows aseptate. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. Powder . V¤Àya. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells.LeafMidrib . Appendix per cent. stomata diacytic.6. Tikta Picchila. unicellular hairs and globules.Shows concavo-convex outline. Appendix per cent. stomatal index 17. .75.24-30. V¡jikara.25-15.

T¤À¸¡.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). V¡tarakta. 97 . THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug in powder form. DOSE .3 -6 g. Ëmav¡ta áotha.

thinwalled cells.Acanthaceae). inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Kokilaksha (Rt. common in water logged places throughout the country. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. whitish to brownish. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. Kokil¡kÀ¢. Anders (Fam. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. Kolavulike. IkÀuraka. the size of these cells. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. Root-Appears circular in outline. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. annual herb. 98 . a spiny. Hygrophila spinosa T.42. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Syn. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. no characteristic odour and taste. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. stout. secondary phloem narrow. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. slightly transversely elongated. thin-walled.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Nerugobbi. Culli --. polygonal cells. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. consisting of small. branches on nodes.

R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug for decoction. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. 99 . each group composed of 2-6 cells. A¿ma¤¢. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . 2. 2. M£trala. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.2.6. fibre walls uniformly thickened.2.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. V¡tahara. having spiral thickening. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. scattered throughout the phloem region.2.2.4. 2. Appendix per cent. lignified fibres.2. V¡tarakta.3. 2. Tikta Picchila. IDENTITY. Amla. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2.Ëmav¡ta áotha. ray cells thin-walled. radially elongated in the xylem region. broader towards centre. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Powder .Light brown to ash coloured. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex.3 -6 g. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. Appendix per cent. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. Appendix 2. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. angular. vessels with spiral thickening. THERAPEUTIC USES .phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. shows fragments of pitted.

Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. annual herb. oil globules present in this region. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. hairy but appearing smooth.Greyish-brown. shows hairs and oil globules.43. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. light yellowish-brown. parenchymatous cells. stout. flat or compressed. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Daruhuladur Darhald. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. Maradarishina -Maramannal. Kokilaksha (Sd. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. a spiny. (Fam. taste. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. IkÀuraka.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees.8 -10. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Swelling Index . Syn. Maradarishana. thinwalled. Hygrophila spinosa T. Powder . Anders. Acanthaceae). the 100 . Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. b) Microscopic Seed . common in water logged places throughout the country. truncate at the base. white.

03.24. Lipase.. 0.2. 0.3 -6 g. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. 0.24 (dark brown). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.31. Protease and an Alkaloid. 2.24 (red).41 (light blue). including any sticky mucilage. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. Appendix per cent. Add 25 ml of water.2.38 (light brown).72 (all yellow).03 (light brown). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.L. 0.2. 0. 0.An yellow semi-drying oil. 0. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. Appendix 2. T. Kaphahara.38.2.2. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 101 . IDENTITY.áotha. V¡tarakta.6. 0.4.L.52 and 0.V.55 (light blue). 2. Appendix per cent.3.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. 0.C. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .72 (dark brown). 0.31 (dark brown).52 (dark brown) and 0. 0.93 (sky blue). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. 0.17 (light brown).internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. 0. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.C. Pitt¡¿mar¢. Santarpa¸a. of the drug in powder form. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. V¤Àya.76 (sky blue) and 0.10 (light brown). enzymes like Diastase. 0. related to 1 g of seeds. DOSE .2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.17.

4 cm long. Ghola -Lonak. Gho¶ik¡.5 cm long and 0. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Kuzuppa (W. Badi Lona Dudagorai.2 cm in diameter. stamens 8-12. branched.6 cm wide. ribbed. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. an annual succulent. short. brownish-grey. Loni. Pulikkirai. smooth and greenish-brown. 102 . style 5-6 fid. rounded and truncate at the apex. Lonika.Cylindrical. -Baraloniya.P) Portulacaceae). Fruit .35-0. Loni. found throughout the country. 3-4 leaves. Chhotalunia.44. fracture. 50 cm long. Badanuni.Simple. characteristic. less in number. 0. (Fam. bright yellow. secondary roots. petals obovate. at terminal heads. Flower . odour. Stem . sub-sessile. Baranunia Garden Purslane. root hairs abundant in upper region. 0. 0.Almost cylindrical. fracture.An ovoid capsule. Paruppukkeerai. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .1 to 0. short. Khurfa. swollen at the nodes. Doddagoni Soppu. surface smooth.3 cm long. Peddapavila Kura. oblique. Payilikura. Kozuppa. Leaf . ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas.5 cm long. 0. sepal 0. cuneiform. Kulfa.3 to 2. very delicate and soon falling off. Kozhuppa. Loni -Koricchira. oblong. small. subtended by an involucre. Kozhuppu Pappukura. dehiscing above the base. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. Moti Luni Khursa.1 to 0. prostrate herb.25-0. 0. Kwfa Pasalai. spathulate.A few.4 cm long.

phloem. Appendix per cent. simple as well as compound. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. ray cells and pith. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. 2. having simple pits and spiral thickening. solitary or in groups of 2-5. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple.2. phloem and xylem parenchyma. palisade single layered. .2. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. pitted and spiral vessels. having 2-3 components.2. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex.3. covered externally with a thick cuticle. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. dark brown. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. fragments of cork cells.Wavy in outline. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.Greyish-brown. thick-walled with wide lumen. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells. shows groups of oval to polygonal. having intercellular spaces. stomata paracytic type. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells.4.2. tracheids and parenchyma.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. reniform. oval cells. oval. tracheids and parenchyma.Seed -Numerous. 2. parenchymatous cells. arranged in radial rows. IDENTITY.2. Appendix per cent.07 cm across. Appendix per cent. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged.2.6. thin-walled. 2. Stem .Shows 5-15 layers of cork. Appendix per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. secondary xylem consists of vessels. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. pericycle fibre present in patches. tracheids.06-0. secondary xylem composed of vessels. as well as compound. present in mesophyll cells. measuring 6-14 µ . Appendix 2. parenchyma abundant. b) Microscopic Root . vessels. Powder .. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. Lamina . black. minute. 0. 2. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. LeafMidrib .shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells.7.

Carbohydrates.6 g. 0. 0.68 (yellow) and 0. 0.61. RukÀa. 0..Agnim¡ndya.V.50. Under U.41. Vra¸a DOSE .10. of the drug in powder form.68 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.52 (both faint green). 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.52.76 and 0.C.3 . 104 . 0.76 (all pinkish red).68.Protein.41. Gulma.10. Ar¿a. 0.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . 0.10.L.08. 0. V¡tahara. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . T. 0. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .76 (green) in visible light.08.L. 0. áotha. CakÀuÀya. (both green). 0. Prameha. 0.C. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.T. Pittakara.Marma Gu¶ik¡. 0.

obliquely narrow or linear oblong. bark fibrous.5 cm in dia. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. external surface light brown. bark fibrous. Lajavanti. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country.P) diffused undershrub. sessile.6-1.4 cm broad. 25-50 cm high. Lajamani Chhuimui. upto 2 cm thick.2 cm long. (Fam. Stem . nearly glabrous. Var¡kr¡nt¡. with secondary and tertiary branches. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. internal cut surface grey. woody. upto 2.Cylindrical.Cylindrical. 0. greyish brown to brown. covered with long.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. yellowish-green. tapering. taste. Lajauni Muttidasenui. linear lanceolate. Adamalati Lajaka. rependant . varying in length. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. Lajjalu (W. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi.week bristles longitudinally grooved. distinct. hairy pinnae. odour. slightly astringent. petiolate. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. obliquely rounded at base. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. alternate. acute. sparsely prickly.45. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 0. easily separable from wood.3-0. fracture hard. leaflets 10-20 pairs. sensitive to touch. Machikegida. Leaf . 105 . stipulate. Fabaceae).

ovules numerous. fibres single or in groups. parenchyma.Pink. lobes 4. glabrous. respectively.3 cm long. Fruit . moderately thick-walled. dry. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. brown to grey. corolla pink. thick-walled.Flower . 3-25 chambered. arranged in tangential bands. 0. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated to oval. calyx very small. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. Seed . fibres of two types. Stem . spreading bristle at sutures. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. thick-walled. phloem fibres single or in groups. stamens 4.Compressed. in globose head. consisting of large. fibres. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. crystal fibres elongated.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. 2-3 seriate more common. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. secondary cortex wide. ovate oblong. filled with reddish-brown contents.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. starch grains. parenchymatous cells. 106 . secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 0. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. peduncles prickly. radially elongated. crystal fibres thick-walled.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. 2. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. rarely multiseriate. ovary sessile.6 cm long. much exserted. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 1-1. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. oval-elliptic. straw coloured. scattered throughout. simple. thick-walled.Lomentum. phloem rays thick-walled. scattered throughout secondary xylem. xylem rays radially elongated. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. a number of lignified. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays.3 long.4-0. 0. pith consisting of polygonal. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. b) Microscopic Root . secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. tangentially elongated cells.

palisade cells non glandular. 2.2. Appendix per cent. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. shaggy hairs. pitted vessels. covered with thin-cuticle. shaggy hairs.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.69 (all blue) and 0. branched. Midrib . Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.2. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. embryo straight with short and thick radicle.2. single and compound starch grains. measuring 6-25 µ in dia.L. crystal fibres. pericycle same as in petiole. Powder . 2. vascular bundle single.7. with 2 . pericycle arranged in a ring. 0.35. Lamina .shows epidermis on both surfaces.2. parenchymatous cells. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. branched.3. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf.Shows single layered radially elongated cells.4. reticulate. Appendix per cent.6.C. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. Fruit . 2. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. fibres.81 (bluish-pink). On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 . mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular.C. endocarp of thick-walled.2. palisade single layered. parenchymatous cells Seed . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. 0. lignified cells followed by single layered.2.Reddish-brown. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. shows.62.shows single layered epidermis.Leaf- Petiole . endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. spongy parenchyma single layered. parenchymatous cells. one in each wing.3 components IDENTITY.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. thin-walled. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. T. spongy parenchyma. 2. 0.V. Appendix per cent.

B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS . D¡ha. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 0. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. KuÀ¶ha. Atis¡ra.35 and 0.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Kaphahara. 0. Raktapita DOSE .spots appear at Rf. Yoniroga.áopha.35 (orange).10-20 g of the drug for decoction.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Vra¸a. áv¡sa. 108 .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. Ku¶aj¡valeha. THERAPEUTIC USES .

reddish-brown. M. Hippe.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Kattu Iluppai.Gmel. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. corolla fleshy.46.5-2 cm long. (Fam. sweet. latifolia (Roxb. and also cultivated. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. erect 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Androecium . a few 109 . Halippe.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Madhuka (Fl. tabular. Iluppa. epipetalous. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). Madhuka. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. anther sub-sessile. Mahua Katiluppai. epipetalous and arranged in two series. short. b) Microscopic Corolla . Syn. Mahawash tree Mahudo. Sapotaceae) . Hippenara. lanceolate. ovate lanceolate. Eppimara -Irippa. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree.) Macbride. basifixed. followed by thin-walled. Ippa. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India.F. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). Ilippa. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. taste.

round.2. KÀaya.Dark brown. Appendix 0.Madh£k¡sava. 110 .2. Appendix 2.2. árama DOSE .unicellular hairs present on one side. Ah¤dya.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. 2. endothecium composed of radially elongated. unicellular hairs. áramahara. T¤À¸¡. 2.15 g. 2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug. oval shaped.10 . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. El¡di Modaka. 2. Appendix 70 per cent. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. Appendix 10 per cent. spherical. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS .2.6. Pittakara. Appendix 5 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 25 per cent. 2.4.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . D¡ha. tapetum not distinct. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac.3. lignified cells. V¡tahara. Powder .2. IDENTITY. pollen grains single or in groups.5 per cent.7.2.áv¡sa. shows fragments of epidermal cells. Balya. KÀata.

Cylindrical.1. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. Stem .5 cm long..3-7. short.. with spreading branches from the base.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. Br. 0. A.Herbaceous. Br. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. sessile. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. nodiflora R. short. Flower .47. Gandal¢. non Link. bracteoles 111 ..6 cm diameter. linear-oblong. cream to grey. 0. white often tinged with pink. Br. or elliptic.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. Leaf . numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets.3-2 cm wide. no characteristic odour and taste. A.5 cm wide. weak.P.. no characteristic odour and taste. Amaranthaceae).) R. often rooting at lower nodes. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. internodes 0. nodes and internodes distinct. Matsy¡duni. A. A. Matshyakshi (W. 2. fracture. denticulata R. Syn.1-0. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. triandra Lam. repens Gmel. fracture. Bahli. (Fam.5-5 cm long. no characteristic odour and taste.. obtuse or subacute. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. yellowish-brown to light-brown.

stomata paracytic. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 1. isodiametric. isodiametic cells. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. no characteristic odour and taste. vascualr bundles radially arranged. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. parenchymatous cells.dorsiventral. consisting of thin-walled cells. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. scarious. with anomalous secondary growth. irregular. Stem . pith distinct. compressed. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. 112 . a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. palisade 2-3 layers.Utricle.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.5-3 mm long. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. capitellate. open and exarch. thin-walled round or oval. consistig of thin-walled. style very short. acute. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. collenchymatous cells. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. sepals ovate. Leaf- Midrib . radially arranged cork cells. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Lamina . perianth 2.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith.5 mm long. pith consisting of thin-walled. numerous. thin. composed of thin-walled.2 cm long. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. no characteristic odour and taste. bicollateral. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. each consisting of xylem and phloem. secondary cortex narrow. b) Microscopic Root . round to oval. shows wavy or undulate. Fruit . vascular bundles three. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. present in the centre. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. orbicular. covered wtith striated cuticle. xylem tissues lignified. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. single layered. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. round or oval. with are conjoint. compressed with thickened margins.1. palisade ratio 3-5.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. ovate. ovary obcordate. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells.

Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.16. 0.94 and 0. 0. paracytic stomata. V¡tahara.44.L. 0. 113 . Appendix 4.2.4.44 (all green). 0. 2.5 per cent. Appendix 2.Sugar. of the drug in powder form. 2. Under U..44.96 (all yellow). (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.18.2. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.C. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2 -3 g. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. 2.C. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.KuÀ¶ha.35.2.Powder . 2.L.33 and 0.Olive green.33. 0.V. Tikta. CONSTITUENTS .81.3. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 19 per cent.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. 0. T.2.6. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent.7. Pittavik¡ra. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. 0. 0. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . 0.16.25. 0. IDENTITY.54 and 0.59. 0.2.68 (all red).2. 0. Kaphahara.

cells flat at base. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. odour. taste. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. thin-walled. bitter. varying in size. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.walled. covered externally with thick cuticle. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium.Seed shows a layer of thick. smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. 0.5 cm long. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. 0. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. Methi (Sd.2-0. pleasant. very hard. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region.35 cm broad. annual herb. cultivated throughout the country. (Fam. b) Microscopic Seed .) aromatic. parenchymatous cells. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side.48. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part.15-0. 30-60 cm tall. several layers of thin walled. dull yellow. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. Fabaceae). 114 . mucilaginous cells. columnar palisade.

Sapogenins and Mucilage. oil globules. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. 2. of the drug in powder form. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. 2. Jvara.3-6 g.3. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa.2. aleurone grains. Appendix 0. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent.2.5 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll.6. Appendix 5 per cent. Rucya. IDENTITY. Appendix 2.Yellow. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. 115 . Powder .Graha¸¢.2. Kaphahara.4.2.Alkaloid.Mustak¡riÀ¶a.2. 2. Aruci DOSE . Appendix 4 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Prameha. CONSTITUENTS .

Slender. upper most leaves simple. sometimes brown red.1-1. seplas 6. coarsely toothed. blade obovate. slightly pungent.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.Flower in long terminal raceme. Flower . petiole 5-5. petals 1. bisexual. 0. hollow. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . taste. variable size and thickness. compressed.Root cylindrical. odour. Leaf .Lower leaves hairy. Muli. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . oblong. an annual or biennial bristly herb. (Fam. regular. bright green. having a few longitudinal striations.P. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula.7-2. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. Mulaka (W. sub-marginate at the apex. cylindrical. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally.3 cm long. sub-linear but narrowed at the base.49. complete 1-2 cm long.5-10 cm long. pedicel with scattered hairs. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. Stem . not distinct. Rakhyasmula Mulaka.. lyrate. yellowish-green.) Brassicaceae).0 cm in dia.2 cm long.

anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. present in cortex and phloem.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. Stem .4 cm thick. cork cells. pith a wide zone of polygonal. solitary or ingroups. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. Leaf- Petiole . 10-12 ovuled. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. round to oval. 3-9 cm long and 0. Midrib . single layered. Lamina . parenchymatous cells. irregularly globose.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. green or brown-purple. occasionally pale purple. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. starch grains simple. phloem. greenish-yellow. round to oval.1. thin-walled. 2 mm wide.8. two outer smaller and four inner longer. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. thin-walled. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. parenchymatous cells. Fruit .measuring 6-14 µ in dia. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. cylindrical. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. sometimes flattened. medullary rays four to many cells wide. hairs unicellular. epidermis followed by 6. elliptical. oily. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. erect.dorsiventral. longitudinally sulcatus. one central and two lateral. vascular bundle three in number. parenchymatous cells. endodermis at some places. 1-2 chambered.Siliqua. traversed by xylem rays.appears biconvex in outline. epidermis single layered. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers.purple vein. palisade 2-3 layers. stamen 6 in two whorls. taste. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. style about 4 mm long. 2-4 mm long. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. covered with thick cuticle.Reddish-brown. traversed by phloem rays. radially arranged. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. present only on upper side. 117 . surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. ovary superior. b) Microscopic Root . continuous or more or less constricted. Seed . present in cortex. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides.

Seed . covered with thin. of columnar cells.2. shows aseptate fibres. H¤dya. 118 .Agnim¡ndya. covered with a thin-cuticle. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. tangentially elongated. Ar¿a. 2. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. 2. Appendix 2. parenchymatous cells.3.M£lakakÀ¡ra.2. straight cuticle.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. Gandhaka Va¶¢. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.Fruit .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. reddish-brown.Shows a single layered epidermis. P¡cana. IDENTITY.4. thin-walled.Glucoside. DOSE .2.6. P¢nasa. parenchymatous cells present. oil globules and round to oval starch grains. spiral vessels.7. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. CONSTITUENTS . Gulma. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded.Yellowish-green. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Kaphahara. of the drug in juice form. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. 2. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal.20 . 2. Appendix per cent. thinwalled. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. Pittahara. Ud¡varta.40 ml. Svarya. Tikta Laghu. Appendix per cent. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. Appendix per cent.2. Powder . Rucya.

2. rarely sweet. Mula Muli Moolangi. Mulaka.4. Visra. Appendix per cent.) annual or biennial bristly herb. taste.3. cylindrical. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent.7. 2. slightly or strongly pungent. Brassicaceae).2. white in colour. fusiform. Mullangi.2. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. having a few lateral fibrous roots. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. Appendix per cent.2. Rakhyasmula Mula.6. Moclangi gadde. IDENTITY. Saleya.50. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. Appendix per cent. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Appendix per cent. 119 .2. variable in size. (Fam. usually 25-40 cm in length. 2. Appendix 2.2. 2. Mulaka (Rt.2.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.

T.04. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.LC. P¢nasa.T. Vrana. Tikta Laghu. Gulma. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara. Ar¿a.49 & 0.Glucoside. K¡sa.V. Ud¡varta DOSE . of the drug in the juice form 120 .Agnim¡ndya.04 & 0.L. 0. Kaphahara.09.04.15-30 ml. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.09 (both blue). Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. 0. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Galaroga. áv¡sa. Dadru.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. H¤dya. Rucya. 0.34. 0. Netraroga. Svarya. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. Pittahara. 0. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.69 (all yellow). 0. P¡cana.09 & 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.

5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. a perennial herb. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. traversed by xylem rays. odour. consisting of tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi.51.3 . Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC.1. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. taste. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . Mura (Rt. fibres and parenchyma. colour. Root .) DC. traversed by phloem rays. slightly bitter. Daitya. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . Syn. Apiaceae ). secondary cortex composed of rounded. secondary phloem shows wide zone. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. tenuifolium Wall. aromatic. S. thin-walled cells. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige.Shows 10 .4 m tall. cambium 2-4 layered. inner cells thin-walled. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.42000 m. 6-12 cm long and 0. thin-walled cells. rectangular cells. tangentially elongated. dull brown. (Fam. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated.6 . parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Gandhakuti. 0.2.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated.

Tikta. composed of radially arranged. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter.5 per cent. Ka¶u.áv¡sa. starch grains simple. Appendix 3. parenchymatous cells. 2..6.4. Sucrose and Mannitol. 122 . D¡ha. secondary phloem. IDENTITY. secondary xylem and medullary rays.Brown. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .2. measuring 7-55 µ in dia.2.7. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . somewhat oval cells. oil globules and simple starch grains. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Jvara. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. Powder .2. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). of the drug in powder form. present in secondary cortex. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. M£rchha. Bhrama. 2.3. xylem and phloem rays. secondary phloem. CONSTITUENTS .1-3 g. fibres aseptate. Appendix 2. secretory canals numerous. distributed throughout secondary cortex. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara.Arvind¡sava. Appendix 17 per cent.having spiral thickenings.2. round to oval. 2. 2. secretory canals. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. Appendix 9 per cent. short with blunt ends.2. Appendix 9 per cent. xylem parenchyma. shows groups of cork cells.

followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. twining shrub. some filled with reddish-brown contents. Koratige. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. resin cells present irregularly in this region. Kallu Shambu. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness.Shows a cork. slightly bitter. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. phloem fibres absent. phloem rays 1 123 . fracture. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. taste.52. Jartor Koratige Hambu. Halukaratige. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size.) Asclepiadaceae). indistinct. tangentially elongated. odour.5-3 cm thick. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. Murva (Rt. & Am. b) Microscopic Root . externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. similar to those present in secondary cortex. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. (Fam. Madhusrava. rectangular cells. a large stout. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. bark easily separable from wood. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells.

of the drug in powder form.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3. V¡tahara. Appendix 7 per cent.5-22 µ dia. Appendix 5 per cent. Jvara.2. fragments of cork. Appendix 14 per cent. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . fibres. IDENTITY. simple and compound starch grains. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. Meha. 2. measuring 5. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittahara. tracheids. of the drug for decoction. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . vary in shape and size with borderd pits. shows a number of stone cells.6.. Appendix 0. vessels with pitted walls.2. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Light brown. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 . composed of vessels. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Tikta Guru. consisting of small tangential. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. Mukha áosa. 2.5 per cent. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. fibres. T¤Àn¡. Appendix 2.tracheids. Raktapitta.22 µ in diameter. fibretracheids.Ar¿a.2. 2. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. Prameha Mihira Taila. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. 2. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. Powder .2-6 g. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.7. DOSE . 124 ..4. H¤droga.3 cells wide. 10-20 g. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls.2. K¤miroga.2. present in parenchymatous tissues. Ka¸·£. Medoroga. 5. starch grains simple.

8 . Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute.0 cm long. N¡gapuÀpa. Assam. connective and filament. 125 . evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. filament 0. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Konkan. basifixed. Pilunagkesar. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. filiform. parenchymatous cells. connective not visible with naked eye. exine and intine distinct. Veluthapala.9-1. Nagakesari -Nangaa. astringent. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. linear. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. Nahar Nageshvara. Nauga. N¡ga. shows elongated cells of filament.) evergreen tree.Anther shows golden-brown. fragrant.53. yellowish and thin-walled.5 cm long. Nagppu. Hem¡. distinct protuberances on walls. Guttiferae). b) Microscopic Androecium .1. an Ke¿ara.Brown. more or less twisted. slender. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. consisting of thin-walled. taste. thick-walled. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. soft to touch. containing pollen grains. Powder . Sachunagkeshara. Nagachampakam. coppery or golden brown. Nagchampa. odour. Naugaliral. Bengal. (Fam. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. anther about 0.9 cm long. quite brittle. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Nagakesar (Stmn. each stamen 0. Peri. often buttressed at the base. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring.

Essential oil and Oleo-resin. Tikta. Appendix per cent.Raktapitta.2.IDENTITY. 2. Appendix per cent. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara.4. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.7. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Var¸ya. Vastiroga DOSE . áopharoga. 126 .Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. of the drug in powder form.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. Appendix per cent.2.2.3. 2.1-3 g. V¡tarakta. Kum¡ry¡sava. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. 2. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.

Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. no characteristic odour and taste. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. (Fam. pith composed of round to oval. Nili (Lf. Fabaceae).2. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. pale green to greenish-black.8 m high.54. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili.1.5 cm long and 0.) shrub. leaflet 1-2.3-1. 127 .2 cm wide. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. 1. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. N¢l¢n¢.

Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tarakta.Greenish-grey. Appendix 10 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Udararoga. collateral and crescent shaped. Appendix 7.. 128 . paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . IDENTITY. 2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells.7. shows groups of mesophyll cells. V¡tahara.6. pitted vessels. 2. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered.3. K¤imiroga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. aseptate fibres. epidermis.shows epidermis.. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 2 per cent. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .5 per cent.. similar as in petiole.Glycoside (Indican). vascular bundle single. Ke¿ya. Jvara. Appendix 25 per cent.2.2.2. Gulma.2. 2.50-100 g.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. similar as in petiole and midrib.2. K¡sa. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.2. cuticle and hair.Ëmav¡ta. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Ud¡varta. Lamina . CONSTITUENTS . cuticle and hair.4. palisade 2-3 layers. Pl¢haroga.shows dorsiventral structure.Midrib . Appendix 2. of decoction.

consisting of rectangular to polygonal. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. Karunili. Neeligida. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma.55. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. consisting of usual elements. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. Olleneeli -Amari. Gari Nili Kadunili. (Fam. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.5 cm thick. 1. Neeli Nili. group of fibres. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. cylindrical..2-1. Nili (Rt. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. hard. with lenticels.) shrub. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Nila -Neel Avuri. Nil.1 -1.10 layers of tangentially elongated. rectangular. 0. woody. Rangapatr¢. taste. Nili. Indian Indigo Gali. slightly bitter. thin-walled cells. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. Nila Nili. secondary cortex a narrow zone. thin-walled cells.8 m high. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. Nili Chettu. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. odour not distinct. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. 129 . Fabaceae). parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels.

0. 0. T.81. K¡sa.40 (blue). Appendix 2. 2. Pl¢h¡roga.Arvind¡sava.75 (blue).91 (all grey). measuring 3-11 µ in dia. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. round to oval.81 (blue). 0.75. 0. 2.7.40. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.L. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. Ud¡varta. simple and compound starch grains.86. 0. 0. 0. and 0. 2. 0. Recan¢.3. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. Powder .06. Ke¿ya. 0. V¡tarakta.Creamish-brown.48 g..63. 0.33. 0. IDENTITY.80. 0.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.0.50.63 (bluish green).40.7 per cent. Ëmav¡ta. 0. 0.2. phloem. V¡tahara. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.27.58. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.30 (bluish green). 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.58. shows aseptate fibres. 0. 130 . CONSTITUENTS . 0.58 (blue).27. Appendix 6 per cent.2.47 (blue).75.14 (blue).10.Gulma. ViÀavik¡ra.91 (blue). 0. present in cortex. Appendix 0. Udararoga.2. K¤imiroga. 0.L.10. 0. 0. 0.0.2. 0.2. 0.6.14..C.63. of drug for decoction. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .21. 0.4. DOSE .Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.86 and 0.33.86 (green) and 0. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. 0. 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.50.C.V. xylem parenchyma and rays.14. Appendix 3 per cent. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . pitted vessels. starch grains simple.06.2.91 (all yellow).

Aryaveppu. Limado. Kahibevu. Bevinama -Veppu. Nimba Nimba. 131 . Melia azadirachta Linn. odour. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Limbado. acute. Arulundi. Kohumba Nim. opposite. Oilevevu. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Veppu. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Veppan Vemu. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba.0-1.1 cm thick. Juss Syn. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. leaflets with oblique base. Bakan. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Veppa Balantanimba. Meliaceae). serrate.7 cm wide. indistinct. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline.Compound. lanceolate. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. 7-8. slightly yellowish-green. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. Bakayan. Nimba (Lf. rachis 15-25 cm long. taste. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. (Fam. Nim Vemmu. Limba. alternate.56.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. exstipulate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Nim. Nimbam. Bevu. 0.5 cm long and 1. crystals also present in phloem region.

covered externally with thick cuticle.6. composed of thin walled.0-14.4.5 on lower surface and 8.Lamina . anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tal¡.Jvara.7. epidermis on either surface.2.Green. thin-walled cells. 2. Appendix per cent. traversed by a number of veins. Appendix per cent.Triterpenoids and Sterols. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .0-4. KuÀ¶ha. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta.0-11. fibres. of the drug in powder form. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. stomatal index 13. tangentially elongated cells. Netraroga. Prameha. 2. ViÀarogas DOSE . 132 .2.3.shows dorsiventral structure.2. CONSTITUENTS . palisade ratio 3. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. Vrana. palisade single layered. Appendix per cent.1-3 g. 2.2. Powder . 2.5 on upper surface. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.5. shows vessels. Ëma¿otha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. K¤miroga.2. IDENTITY.

in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. Kadunimb. odour. woody. (Fam. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. evergreen tree.57. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Bakam Veppai. characteristic.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Syn. Vembu Vemu. fibrous. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. extemal surface rough. Kahibevu. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Juss. fracture. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Oilevevu -Veppu. considerably thick in older barks. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. fissured and rusty-grey. Nimba (St. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. taste. Limba Nimba Nim. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Nimba. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Nimb Bevu. Meliaceae). Melia azadirachta Linn. a moderate sized to fairly large. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Nimba. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a.

0.2.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. Powder .72 (blue). cork cells. stone cells mostly in groups. 2. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. 2. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.75-5 µ in diameter. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.90 (green). Vra¸a¿odhanakara. Appendix 5 per cent. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . simple. 0.45. T. Pittahara.90 (all blue). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. 0.6. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. Kaphahara. 0.2. having wide lumen and distinct striations.L.outer surface. secondary cortex absent in most cases.2. and 0.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.V. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. starch grains. Appendix 1. 0.2. Appendix 2. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. Appendix 6 per cent.Reddish-brown.2.63 and 0. simple starch grains.measuring 2.4. lignified rectangular to polygonal.86 (blue).C. 2.20.C. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem.2.5 per cent. round with central hilum. Appendix 7 per cent. IDENTITY.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. measuring 2. CONSTITUENTS . most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. ViÀaghna. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7.

Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .D¡ha.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Rakta Pitta. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. K¤miroga. Prameha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Decoction should be used externally. Jvara. KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·u.2-4 g. of the drug in powder form. 135 . Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Vra¸a DOSE .. Nimb¡di C £r¸a.

Palasha (St. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. internal surface rough. Dhak. dark-brown. dark brown. Paras Moduga. often in groups. greyish to pale brown.58. Camata. Khakharo.Bk) Fabaceae).5 . 0. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. rhytidoma 0. 5-10 or more layered. Chama Tha Palas -Palash.15 m high with irregular branches.2 cm thick usually peels off. Tesu Purasu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Modugu. Tesu Muttug. fracture. taste. tanniniferous cells. exposing light brown surface. Muttuga. 12 . Chettu Dhak. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. thin-walled. slightly astringent. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. cork cells. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. having brown colour. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. curved. except in very arid parts.1 cm thick. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m.) Kuntze (Fam. Muttala -Plasu. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. rectangular 136 . and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. rectangular. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. moderately thick-walled. Khakhapado Dhak. pale brown. Palash. Plas.

10.L.2.6. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. 7 .48 and 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. 0.50 cells in height. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . dark brown coloured cells.75 . starch grains simple and compound with 2 .3.67 (all yellow).Reddish-brown. phloem rays multiseriate 4 .Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. crystal fibres. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. 0.10. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.V. measuring 2.2.2.L. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. Appendix 2. T. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. 137 .65 (all blue). 2.7.18.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.cells followed by a zone of 2 .48.C. Appendix 12 per cent.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.4.12 cells wide. 0. 0. 0.2.2. thin-walled cork cells. phloem parenchyma. 2.13. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.4 layers of sclereids. Appendix 1. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. companion cells. Powder .C.67 (all violet)...48 and 0. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. sclereids mostly in groups. 2. phloem fibres. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.10. traversed by phloem rays. Appendix 14 per cent.75 µ in dia. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. straight. 0. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.5 per cent.3 components. CONSTITUENTS .

Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Vra¸a. KaÀ¡ya Sara. Agnid¢paka. 138 . Graha¸¢. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. K¤miroga.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.5-10 g. DOSE . Gulma. Tikta.Ar¿a. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . S¡raka .

also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine.5-2. yellowish to cream coloured. inner bark fibrous.Bk) Fabaceae). (Fam. radially arranged and thin-walled.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. exfoliating in narrow strips. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. secondary cortex consists of large. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. parenchymatous cells.0 cm thick. stone 139 . b) Microscopic Stem Bark . a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. tangentially elongated to squarish. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. Mulmurumgai Badisa. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. Paribhadra (St. Pangara Hongar. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. medium sized.59. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. smooth. quick growing tree.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

of drug in powder form. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡tarakta...CONSTITUENTS . V¡taroga DOSE . Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru.2-4 g. V¤Àya. Balak¤t.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. Volatile Oil.Alkaloids. 148 . Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

sclerenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. 0. b) Microscopic Seed . hilum present at the apex of round edge. Priyalam. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. Syn. latifolia Roxb.5 cm wide. taste.4-0. Priyala (Sd. odour. collapsed cells of integument. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. micropyle superior. mottled with darker brown lines. linear. funicle stout. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. sweetish-oily. Piyar. Saraparuppu Sara. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. Shalichokha Piyal. Chowl.3-0. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . which are of various size. pleasant. (Farn. followed by remnants of disorganised.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. pitted. Satdhan -Charal.63. thick-walled. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural.6 cm long. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. creamish-brown. large. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. Korka. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima.) Anacardiaceae). B. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. occurring mostly in groups.

Kaphakara. Oil and Starch.0 µ in dia. 2. áukrakara. IDENTITY.27.98 (all yellow).5-5. of the drug in powder form. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. V¤Àya.D¡ha. procambium bundles. KÀata. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.V.91. 0.08.2.0 µ in dia.54.5 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. Balya. BrÆha¸a.84.98 (all violet).54. H¤dya.Albuminoids.measuring 2.3. KÀaya.6. and oil globules. Appendix 0. 0.2. 0. Powder . 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. T.5-5. and sclerenchymatous cells.4.10 .08.72 and 0. Priy¡la Taila. Appendix 7 per cent. Sara. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.L.7. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.94 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . DOSE . On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Appendix 2. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. 2. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.C.C.2. Raktapitta. V¡tahara.91.L. 0.type.P£gakha¸·a. 2.72. Bhagnas¡dhaka.94 (blue).72. shows numerous mesophyll cells. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. 0.2. 150 .94 and 0. 0.A creamish-brown paste.27. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. 0.2. 0.20 g.

densely hairy. 4 lobbed spreading.3 mm in dia. an erect. long. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs.2. anther ovate. densely clothed with wooly hairs.5 cm across. (Fam. style.0.Shows more or less wavy outline. basifixed. tubular. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical.2.Cymose. brown.5-7. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. hairy. and abundant in Bengal plains. 2. Priyangu (Infl. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. epipetalous.64.) Verbenaceae). Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. brown.5 . corolla. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. parenchymatous cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . b) Microscopic Peduncle . Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. 1. bell-shaped. Flower . stigma minutely capitate. filament very long. peduncle cylindrical. 1. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . calyx.4 m high shrub. ovary 2-4 celled. equal in size. thin-walled.5 cm long. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. stamens 4.

Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Daurgandhyahara. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Powder .4. CONSTITUENTS . Ku´kum¡di Taila. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. N¢lik¡dya Taila. fibres aseptate. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara. Pakv¡tis¡ra. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent.fibres. spiral vessels. 2.Brown. DOSE .D¡ha. of the drug in powder form. 2.2. Vra¸aropa¸a. Rakta. Appendix 2. groups of thin-walled. Resin and Saponin. (Mukharoga).7. THERAPEUTIC USES . 152 .2. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Kanaka Taila. Appendix per cent. El¡di C£r¸a.Glycosides.3. Sandh¡n¢ya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.2. Sved¡dhikya. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. IDENTITY. M£travirajan¢ya. Phenolic compound. Appendix per cent.2. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. elliptical. Pras¡dana.2. Appendix per cent.1-3 g. Terpenes. Rakta-Pitta.6. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya.2. aseptate fibres. xylem consists of usual elements. Jvara.

Corava. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Paddy Shalichokha. Chawl. Shali (Rt. cylindrical. thick-walled. Dhana. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. composed of thick-walled. pitted vessels and 153 .Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Powder . Cala. Bhata. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. Akki -Ari. Dhan Rice. Sali. Dhana Bhatto. both consisting of round to oval. Nellu. sclerenchymatous cells. Bhatta.65. Bhata Chamul -Dhan.05-0. Nellu Tandulamul. Biyyamu Chaval. Nivara -Chaval. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. an annual herb. Nelver Dhanyamu. Jhona Arishi. Dh¡nya.Greyish-cream. Poaceae). smooth. soft. 5-15 cm in length and 0.) cultivated throughout India. Vr¢hi. b) Microscopic Root . Damgara. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Coke Chaval. sclerenchymatous cells. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Dhanarmul. exodermis 1-2 layered. (Fam. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Odalu. thin. cortex differentiated into three zones. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal.

2. M£trala. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . CakÀuÀya. Rucya.2. H¤dya.2.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 154 . Var¸ak¤t. Appendix 2. of the drug for decoction.3. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.2. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .4.2. Svarya. 2. Kaphahara.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. 2. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. Balya. IDENTITY. BrÆha¸a. Laghu.50 g.StanyakÀaya.7.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. 2.

solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. Karakhuratt.66. hairy.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. Sankhapuspi.5 cm broad.Shortly petiolate. yellowish-brown to light brown.White or pinkish. stamen 5. light green. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. sparsely hairy. sub-erect. cylindrical. 0.P. perennial herb with a woody root stock. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Kakkanangudi. sepals narrowly. acute. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. epipetalous. spreading.4 cm thick. inserted deep in the corolla tube. 0. 1-5 cm long.Slender. 155 . Leaf . corolla shortly discoid. a prostrate. Sankhahuli Kakattam. alternate with the petals. hairy on both surfaces. cylindrical. linear-lanceolate. found throughout the country. Shankhavela. Stem . about 0. Flower .Usually branched.5-2 cm long and 0. Shankhapushpi.1-0. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. Sankha pushpin (W. free.1-0. ovary superior and bicarpellary. light green.) Convolvulaceae). linear-lanceolate.

8 µ in dia. . a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. simple and compound starch grains. fibres and parenchyma. mm.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. measuring 3 . cortex differentiated in two zones. 13. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith.0. present on both surfaces. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem.walled cells.Light yellowish-green. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. covered with thick cuticle. phloem a narrow zone. Seed .. at places unicellular hairs present. thick-walled cells. hairs unicellular. phloem. covered with thick cuticle.Fruit . vein islet number 21-25 per sq. round to oval in shape.8-17. tanniniferous. phloem composed of sieve elements.. pale brown pericarp. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. present in cortex. oblong globose with coriaceous.Shows single layered epidermis. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. elongated. both having round to oval. Stem . fibres and tracheids.Capsule. minutely puberulous. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. xylem consists of vessels. thin. b) Microscopic Root . vascular bundle bicollateral. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. endoderrnis single layered. LeafMidrib . palisade ratio 6-9. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct.Appears nearly circular in outline. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. xylem consisting of usual elements. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated.Brown. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. secretory cells present in this region. xylem rays and parenchyma. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. simple and composed of 2-3 components. starch grains solitary or in groups. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Powder . vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. elliptical. epidermis single layered. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. Lamina . 156 . spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. unicellular hairs. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. mm. palisade two layered.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side.

Medhya. Appendix 2. Clitoria ternatea Linn. ËyuÀya.2. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Ras¡yana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Agastyahar¢tak¢. Br¡hma.IDENTITY.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Kaphahara. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. Ras¡yana.2.3.4. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Appendix per cent. 2.7. Ras¡yana. 2.2. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Pittahara.2. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.M¡nasaroga. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Tikta.3-8 g. Appendix per cent.6.2.

Bilikalli. Siju. 3. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. having a few secondary roots. greenish-yellow. annual herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. (Fam. Saptala (W. 2.Capsule.1. a much branched. gland semilunate. lobes short.P. filament pubescent. Carmas¡hv¡. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. Flower . Kalli -Chasma Lantha. solitary. linear. 1 mm long. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. odour and taste not distinct. ciliolate.5 mm across at the mouth. free to the base. cylindrical. Fruit .8 cm wide. Joyachi. fracture. style. 0.7-7 cm long. smooth. short. horned. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Small.) Euphorbiaceae). sub-sessile. 20-40 cm high. ovate. sessile.Involucre broadly campanulate. lanceolate or linear oblong. subacute.5-2 mm thick. 3-4 mm in dia. shortly 2-fid at the apex. 158 . 0. 4-5 cm long. gradually tapering. glabrous outside and pubescent inside.67.celled with or without attached pedicel. odour and taste indistinct. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Leaf . Chagulputputi Satala. ribbed. pale brown.2-0. trilocular.

groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. measuring 5. vessels having simple pits. tangentially elongated elliptical. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. rarely a few oil globules also present. solitary or in groups. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. b) Microscopic Root . found scattered in phloem region. leprous tuberculate testa. rounded at the base. circular to oval.shows slightly convex outline.3 mm long. covered externally with thick. secondary phloem narrow. thickwalled and lignified. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. tracheids and medullary rays. Stem . starch grains simple. stone cells oval to elongated. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. elliptical.25 µ in diameter. traversed by numerous xylem rays. secondary xylem consists of vessels. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. filled with yellowish-brown content. all elements thick-walled and lignified. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. centre occupied by a pith. striated cuticle. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs.Young root shows exfoliated. composed of sieve elements. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. fibres. thick-walled lignified. fibres and tracheids. fibres and vessels having simple pits. flattended. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. lignified cells with wide lumen. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem composed of vessels. palisade single layered present on both sides. parenchymatous cells.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. epidermis single layered. secondary cortex consists of 4.75 µ in dia. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. fibres elongated and aseptate.Seed . consisting of thick-walled. all elements. 159 . small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. rounded to oval. grooved at one side. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. some rounded.6 layers of oval. rounded to oval. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated cells.5-19. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. with wide lumen present in this region. single layered epidermis. Leaf- Midrib . 2. mature root shows thin walled cork. simple. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. elliptical. endodermis not distinct. rectangular.

Light yellow. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 2.L. Ud¡vartta. 0. 0. V¡tal¡. Udararoga.C.Ën¡ha.C. Mi¿raka Sneha.3.2.2. Gulma. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent.46. simple. RukÀa. RaktadoÀahara. 160 . Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .50 g. rounded to oval starch grains. Pittahara.04 and 0.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.6. lignified with wide lumen. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. IDENTITY. and 0.V. Visarpa. DOSE . Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.Powder . oval to elongated. 2. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.2. T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.4.0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.7.67. CONSTITUENTS .2. elliptical. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. 0. of the drug for decoction.2. aseptate fibres. shows vessels with simple pits. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara.2.04. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.46 (brown) and 0.87 (violet). Vibandha. stone cells thick-walled.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.57 (all yellow).

A. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. filiform and incospicuous. akin to caraway. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. graveolens Linn. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. slightly sharp taste. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. dorsal 161 . brown. ex Flem. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. mesocarp. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. 4 mm long. Apiaceae). and a warm. (Fam. glabrous. Sulpha.. odour. Shulupa. often stalk attached. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. Shepa. mericarps usually separate and free. Peucedanum sowa Roxb.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. yellowish membranous wings. graveolens DC. Syn. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. a tall. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. Satahva (Fr.. parenchymatous. A. sowa Roxb. var. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. vittae. slightly raised. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. broadly oval and compressed dorsally.68. P.. glabrous. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. dark brown. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. b) Microscopic Fruit . graveolens Benth.

Kaphahara. Appendix 2. 162 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. CONSTITUENTS .2.2.L. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.59 (blue) and 0.5 per cent. V¡tahara.10 T. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. cellulosic.6. Jvara.costae three. 2.Brown. Appendix 4 per cent.7. Vra¸a. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.á£la.59 and 0. carpophore split. Atis¡ra.37 (pink) 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent.2.2.2. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Appendix 14 per cent.C.3-6 g. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.3.4. Appendix 15 per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Powder . shows spiral vessels. 2. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. 2. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. Appendix 1. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. each costae with vascular strands.Essential Oil. Appendix 3 per cent.68 (all yellow). parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.L.68 (violet).2. Netra Roga DOSE . IDENTITY. 2. of the drug in powder form. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels.C.

found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Bahala. parenchymatous cells. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. Shigru (Lf. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. pericycle forming a broken ring. leaflet 1. Munga.2-2 cm long and 0. Rachis . Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. vascular bundle collateral. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Sekato. central region 163 b) Microscopic . entire. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Tishnagandha. pith and phloem parenchyma. Segata pana. AkÀ¢va.Rachis shows single layered epidermis.5-1 cm wide. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. Muringa Elai Sevaga. thickened. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Muringa. parenchymatous cells. ovate or obovate. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. and articulated at the base. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. (Fam. palisade single layered. Leaflet . T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. slender. Sajna. Shewgachi pane Sajana. elliptic. thin walled.69. a small or medium sized tree. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Syn. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. commonly cultivated throughout the country. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. Moringaceae). Segata. Mungna Neegge.) Gaertn. Nugge ele -Murinna. oval to elliptical. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. odour and taste not distinct.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. Mocaka -Sajina.

2. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.occupied by a crescent-shaped.Carbohydrate.69 (yellow).2. Sirovirecaka 164 . pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. Pittahara.L. 0.0. Appendix per cent. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.V. 2.05. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.05.2. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. 0. RukÀa. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.2. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. 0. Under U.30 (pink).4. Medohara.53 (yellow). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 2.87 (blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.36 (green).7. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.36 (yellowish green).82 (yellow) and 0.20.26. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. stomata anornocytic. 0. 0.46 (all red) & 0.38. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.18. 0.46 (green). present on both surface but more on lower sur face. 0.52 (green).94 (yellow) in visible light. 2. 0. Appendix per cent. 0. 0. 0. B ¤Æhana. CONSTITUENTS . Protein.36. 0. 0. 0. palisade cells.C. áukra N¡¿aka.6.26.94 (blue).26 (all green). spiral vessels. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.2. 0. 0. 0. 0. K¤mihara.46 (dark green) & 0. 0.94 (violet). 2.3.05.59 (blue). V¡tahara.C. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.18. vein islets number 50-65. Powder -Greyish-green.69 (blue) and 0.L.46 (both blue). T. (all green).2. palisade ratio 6-11. IDENTITY.

ViÀatinduka Taila. Pl¢haroga.Ratnagiri Rasa.áopha. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Galaga¸·a. Vidradhi.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . Gulma. Medoroga. K¤miroga.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.10 . 165 .

Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. thin walled. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. perisperm consists of polygonal. parenchymatous cells. 0. (Fam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3 cm wide. brown to dark brown. membraneous aril. spicy pungent. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. sclerenchymatous. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. Sthulaela (Sd.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. taste. aromatic. thin-walled. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. Beraelam.70.4 cm long. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. odour. perispenn encloses the 166 .) Zingiberaceae). cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . polygonal. Tikta Laghu. Appendix 5 per cent.S¡rivady¡sava. V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form. K¡sa. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.2. Mukha¿odhaka. Appendix 1. 167 . Powder .2. RukÀa. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. 2. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.3. simple. THERAPEUTIC USES . both composed of polygonal.7.endosperm and embryo. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Rocaka.0.5 -1 g. perisperm cells. rich in protein. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. parenchymatous cells. oil globules. Mukharoga.6. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. (Seed). DOSE . 2. thin-walled.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). Ka¸·u.2.Light brown. shows fragments of testa. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.2.áv¡sa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta.5 per cent.4.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. 2. IDENTITY.(Seed). Appendix 2. Kaphahara. Appendix 4 per cent. H¤ll¡sa. Note .10 CONSTITUENTS . thin-walled. Chardi. 2. Appendix 14 per cent.2. rounded to oval. 2. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.2. T¤À¸¡.

an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. rather deeply furrowed. lignified.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places.) Roxb. short.1-0. Z. Rutaceae). Tejovanti -Thumboonal. Tumburudra. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. thin-walled. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. Syn. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. fracture. aromatic pungent. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. brownish. thick-walled cells. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . phloem fibres thickwalled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. parenchymatous cells. odour. taste. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. (Fam. Tejovati (St. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. Thumbooni. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. armed with long. Tumbura. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. stem and branches. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. external surface pale brown.0. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. stone cells found in 168 . light yellow to pale brown.2 cm thick. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. internal surface smooth. sharp prickles.71. aromatic. Jimmi.Bk.

Medhya. Ëmav¡ta. Appendix 1.5 per cent. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). 169 .3. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . stone cells. 2. Kaphahara. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. shows fragments of cork cells.2. DOSE . round and oval measuring 2.13. 2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS .4. Appendix 12 per cent.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Appendix 2. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. áv¡sa.75 . phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Appendix 8. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. measuring 2.2. aseptate fibres. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.6.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Rucya. Powder . Hikk¡. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mukharoga.13.Aruci.2.75 . oil globules and starch grains. starch grains round and oval. Appendix 13 per cent. 2. of the drug for decoction. K¡sa.Yellowish-brown. P¡cana. 2.75 µ in diameter.10-20 g.5 per cent.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem.7. a Volatile Oil and Resin.75 µ in diameter.2.

herbaceous. 30 . Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. lower lip 170 . entire or serrate. about 1. found throughout the country. wiry. pedicels longer than calyx. internally cream. fracture. hairy. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. Leaf . Lamiaceae). small in close whorls. aromatic.2 cm wide. much branched. elliptic oblong. hairy.Purplish or crimson coloured. annual herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. obtuse or acute.60 cm high.72.5-3 cm long hairy. petiole thin. Stem .Thin.Erect. Tulasi (W.3. blackish-brown externally and pale.) an erect. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. pubescent on both sides. Shree Tulasi. coloured. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. Thulasi.5-5 cm long 1. pubescent. externally purplish-brown to black. branched. violet internally. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. taste. sub quadrangular. odour. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. slender.2.P. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. K¤À¸atulas¢.6 . Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. odour faintly aromatic. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . branched. (Fam. characteristic. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. shortly apiculate. Flower . woody. soft.

measuring 22-27 in dia. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region.A group of 4 nutlets. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. Fruit .Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. lateral two short and central two largest. phloem consisting of sieve elements. mucilaginous when soaked in water. thin-walled. pungent. fibres and parenchyma.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. parenchymatous cells. each with one seed.1 cm long.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. 0. slightly mucilaginous. three vascular bundles situated centrally. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. odour. xylem surrounded by phloem. found scattered in phloem. aromatic. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic.Rounded to oval. Midrib . filled with brown content. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. odour. glandular trichomes short. fibres with pointed ends. slightly notched at the base. vessels pitted. round to oval polygonal. nearly smooth. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. vessels pitted. b) Microscopic Root . rectangular. parenchymatous cells. pungent. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. taste. phloem consists of sieve elements. enclosed in an enlarged. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. membranous. pubescent. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. aromatic. fibre tracheides. taste. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells.shows somewhat cordate outline.epidermis. long. in groups and rarely in singles. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. xylem consists of vessels. thin-walled. no odour. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. tracheids. thin-walled. thin-walled. middle one larger than other two. veined calyx. corolla about 4 mm long. Leaf- Petiole . covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. parenchymatous cells. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. taste. Stem . slightly compressed. pungent. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. 171 . brown. occasionally a few cells collapsed. pitted with pointed ends. elongated. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. Seed .

Durgandhihara 172 .7.5 per cent. 2.3. oil globules. value 0. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings.2. V¡tahara. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. Powder .Lamina . Record Rf. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. H¤dya.2.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . Appendix 8 per cent. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.15 .2. Appendix 10 per cent.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2. IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.Essential Oil.2. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. in thoroughly vanillin . Appendix 4 per cent.C.16 on lower surface. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). Rucya.7.C. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.35.L. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . palisade ratio 3. Rf. rounded to oval. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.Greenish: shows thin-walled. On cooling spray. Appendix 1.6. Tikta. Pittavardhin¢. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.8. vein islet number 31 .minutes Under observation.1. 2.2.4. a few containing reddish brown contents. parenchymatous cells. Kaphahara. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. thin walled fibres. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.L. RukÀa. T. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Chardi. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . Netraroga. Hikk¡. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .A¿mar¢. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). 173 .1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. áv¡sa. K¡sa. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. KuÀ¶ha. K¤miroga.

entire or serrate. measuring 22-27 µ dia. 1. three vascular bundles situated centrally. taste. hairy.shows cordate outline. LeafPetiole . obtuse or acute.73. elliptic-oblong. and 2-8 celled. aromatic. consisting of xylem and phloem. balloon-shaped head.6-3. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. upper epidermis. middle one larger than the other two. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. (Fam. thin. covering trichomes multicellular. 174 b) Microscopic . found throughout the country. petiolate. petiole 1. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. an erect. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. Tulasi (Lf. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. much branched annual herb. Lamiaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. odour. glandular trichomes short. pubescent on both surfaces.5-5 cm long. enclosed in a cuticular bladder.) 30-60 cm high. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk.5-3 cm long. characteristic.2 cm wide. Holy Basil Tulasi.. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. K¤À¸atulas¢.

0.93 (both light green). except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.2.83 (blue). 0.04. 175 . 0. 0. Appendix per cent. 0.93 (pink) & 0. Appendix per cent. 0.08 (violet).12 (light green). 0.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.83.83 (all pink) 0.04. Lamina . 0.93 (all0 yellow). Under U. 2.33.7. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.V. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.2. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.L.Midrib .45. T.54 (blue).C. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. 0.).85 (blue).93 (violet) and 0.2..45 (yellowish green). 0.L.75. 0.54.2.12. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view.08. 0.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.33 (violet).2. 2.75 (violet). palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. 0.85 & 0.03 (dark green). 0. 0. 0. vein islet number 31-33.30. IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.12 (light violet). palisade and spongy parenchyma.98 (blue). anomocytic and diacytic stomata. 0.8. 2. 0.45 (violet).45. 2. 0.4.3. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.04.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. 0.Light-green. 0.98 (blue).epidermis.21. palisade ratio 3. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. Appendix per cent.21.88 and 0. 0. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.33. 0. Caryophyllene. Nerol and Camphene etc. shows fragments of polygonal. Powder .C.33 (both green) 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.08 (both green). 0. 0. 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.21 (brown). Appendix 2. 0.6. Appendix per cent. 0.

Tikta. 176 . K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. K¡sa. RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Prati¿y¡ya. K¤miroga. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. KuÀ¶ha.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Hikk¡. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. áv¡sa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2-3 g. Pittahara.Aruci. of the drug in powder form. H¤dya. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa.

fracture.) semiaquatic herb. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. cells towards periphery. Ghodavaca Vasambu. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. Gora-bach Baje. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present.Shows single layered epidermis. Ghodvach Bach.5-1. aromatic. odour. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . triangular. (Fam. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. short. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡.5 cm thick. broadly. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. Ugr¡. and 0. large. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. upper side marked with alternately arranged. Araceae). smaller. somewhat collenchymatous. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. thin-walled cells of various sizes. enclosing large air spaces. Vacha (Rz. Vekhandas -Varch. Rhizome . Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. buff coloured intemally. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. taste. pungent and bitter.74. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents.

2.4. shows fibres. Chloroform-Light green iii. 2. Eugenol and Asarone). starch grains simple. 0. Appendix per cent. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. Starch and Tannin.region.2.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). Extracts in i.C.Yellowish-cream b. Appendix 2. Petroleum ether-No change ii.10 T.14 (violet) and 0.L. stele composed of round. reticulate.Buff coloured.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.2. 2.2. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.3. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains.. 2. 2.2. spherical.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Appendix per cent. Powder as such: .2. 2.2. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Powder . parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.6. CONSTITUENTS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.L.7. endodermis distinct. Appendix per cent. 178 . Appendix per cent. present in cortex and ground tissue.

Sm¤ti daurbalya.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form.2 g. Ëdhm¡na.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. S¡rasvata. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Apasm¡ra. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. K¡sa. 1. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. V¡tahara. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. C£r¸a. Medhya. DOSE .á£la. 179 . S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara. K¤mihara.Vac¡di Taila. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Vibandha. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. áv¡sa. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Ka¸¶hya. Kar¸a Sr¡va. Tikta Laghu. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Unm¡da.

tapering downwards to a point. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. small portions of stem sometimes attached. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. Vatsanabhi. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. taste. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. Naabhi Bachnak.1. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Vatsanabhi. Bachhnaag. 2-4.75.5 cm. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. Nabhi. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Meethabisha. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Basanaag Bisa. conical. 0. odour indistinct. roots are generally collected late in September. Sth¡varaviÀa. papillose on outside. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. suberised. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. without or with a few intercellular spaces. dark brown to blackish-brown. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Ranunculaceae). rough due to root scars. Vatsanabha. cartilaginous. perennial herb. plant is an erect.) (Fam. ovoid. Beesh. Teliya Bish Basanalli. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. Mithalelia. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. poisonous. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf.4 . Mahura. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. Vatsanabha (Rt. parenchymatous cells. fracture. occasionally separated due to breakage. thin-walled.8 cm thick. rarely 5 cm long. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . Mithatelia Vasanaavi.

L. cambium having 6 10 angles. 2. containing a few groups of phloem strands. Appendix 5. occupying more than half the radius. present in cortical cells. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.96 (both orange).C. often forming 'V' shaped ring.6.39 and 0. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. RukÀa.C.2. Appendix 8 per cent.5 per cent.10. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Viyav¡yi.L.74 and 0. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. 2. CONSTITUENTS .Light grey.2.56. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. Sv®dala.endodermis. 0. IDENTITY.2. some scattered. T.39. a few aseptate fibres. Appendix 2. 0.3. 0.20. 2. Trid°Àahara.2.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Appendix 2 per cent.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. metaxylem vessels met in centre. shows vessels. Appendix 24 per cent. 2. 0. S £tasekhara Rasa. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. Powder . xylem exarch.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. inner bark parenchymatous. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a. Laghu. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.2. UÀ¸a. 0. Anandabhairava Rasa. consisting of round to oval cells. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf.7. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre.

THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡taroga. V¡takaphajvara. Kanharoga. Sannip¡ta. DOSE .15 .30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Jvar¡tis¡ra. 182 . Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.

Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. usually does not break. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . cut surface creamish-brown. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda.Rt. stone cells moderately thick-walled. Fabaceae). Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Bhuikumra Vidari. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. Bhumikusmanda. Gumadi belli. outer surface reddish-brown. Nelagumbala. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. thin-walled cells. taste.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular.76. Eagio.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. smooth except for protuberances at some places. but pliable. thinwalled. Vid¡rik¡. starchy and somewhat porous. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. Bhoikolu. (Fam. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. Bhonykoru. Nelagumbula. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Vidari (Tub. sweetish.

present in all parenchymatous cells. Appendix 2. Balya. 184 . V¡tahara.2. Appendix 4 per cent.7. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. Var¸ya. angular to oval. 2. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. J¢van¢ya. 2.. Appendix 4. Powder .5 . of the drug in powder form. Ras¡yana. highly thickened. áoÀa. Svarya.13. a few latex duct also present.13. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5.6. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). Angmarda. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. IDENTITY.2. distributed throughout this region.2. fragments of cork. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Appendix 17 per cent.Marma Gu¶ik¡. having central hilum and striations.75 µ in dia.3. Stanyada. Daurbalya.2. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a.3-6 g. 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.5 per cent. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.Gluconic and Malic acids. measuring 5.D¡ha. CONSTITUENTS . sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.5 . phloem fibres much elongated. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. lignified with narrow lumen. Raktapitta. M£trala.and pits. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 24 per cent.75 µ in dia. THERAPEUTIC USES . B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.4. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements.Buff coloured. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. Pittahara.2. radially elongated cells. 2. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . and also rarely in stone cells. somewhat round. DOSE .

erect herb. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. not distinct. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. about 1 cm long and 0. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. sativum Pers.2-0.77. Yava (Fr. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka.3 cm wide. elliptic.) Poaceae). perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . Syn. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. 50-100 cm high. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. H. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. sclerenchymatous fibres. thick-walled. odour. taste. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. sweetish-acrid. (Fam. cultivated chiefly in North India. pale-greenish-yellow. round to oval wavy walled cells. polygortal inner epidermal cells. followed by 2-3 layers. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. spongy parenchymatous cells. seed coat appears as a colourless line. oblong. Jav Barley Cheno. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. square or quadrilateral. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. followed by more or less. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. an annual. smooth.

36.2.92 (all grey). Appendix 1.45.68. Orientin. Pur¢Àak ¤t.5 per cent. round to oval.31.22. 0. 0. V¡tak¤t. 2.24.14. 0. Kaphahara.2.L. 2.92 (yellow). 0. Sugars. 0.4. 0. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. Appendix 4 per cent.2. Pittahara. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.L. endosperm divided into two zones.31.3.53. 0.V.C. Lekhana. V¤Àya.10. 0. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.65 & 0. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. 0.6. Vitexin etc. 2. sclerenchymatous fibres.16.2. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.Creamish-white. and the rest starch layers. 0. 0. Appendix 5. Globulin. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. Powder .5 per cent.10. starch grains simple. 2. simple starch grains.) CONSTITUENTS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Svarya.Starch. Sthairyakara. 0. M£trahara. Appendix 2. 0. Fats. Orientoside.2. 0.2.5 2.7 T.06. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.C. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. Proteins (Albumin. Var¸ya 186 . Appendix 2.2. 0.68.5 per cent.31.72 (all pink.83 and 0.44.narrow lumens. 0. 0.56. Appendix 4 per cent. IDENTITY.83 (all violet) and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. 0. 0. Medahara.22. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.

100 . K¡sa. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Prameha.áv¡sa. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Kanharoga. T¤À¸¡. Gandharvahasta Taila. 187 . of the drug. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Urustambha. Dh¡nvantara Taila. El¡dya Modaka. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Tvagroga DOSE .200 g. Medoroga. P¢nasa.

secondary and tertiary root absent. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. terete. dark brown. (Fam. branched. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Duralabha -Venkatithura. gradually tapering.1-1 cm thick. sharp axillary spines upto 3.) Fabaceae). elliptical. secondary cortex almost 188 . alternate.2-1 cm thick. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. striate. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. Stem . mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat.5-0. 20-30 cm long and 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . stipules green. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. Javasa. filled with reddish-brown contents. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. mucronate obtuse.Cylindrical. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. nearly 0. drooping. glabrous. hard.8 cm long. slightly rough at basal region with slender. Y¡sa. oblong. Desv. 0. Leaf . extipulate. no taste and odour.Simple. glabrous. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. a small thorny shrub. Neladangara. cork cambium single layered.5-1 cm long. 0. Punjab. opposite. radially arranged cork cells. ballidurabi.P. short. fracture.Well developed.7 cm broad. Yavasaka (W.78.

parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. elongated. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. pith composed of a few thin-walled.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. 189 . 5. fibres. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. rounded to oval. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. tracheids and fibres. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. pitted vessels. Leaf- Petiole . 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. phloem composed of sieve elements. xylem consists of vessels.Greenish-brown.75 µ in dia. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. simple. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. tanniniferous cells. a few with thick wall and simple pits. epidermis single layered. starch grains simple. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. parenchymatous cells. phloem composed of sieve elements. tracheids. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays.appears biconvex in outline. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. filled with tannin.14.5-14. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. present throughout the region. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. hypodermis 2-3 layered.5. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. xylem fibres. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region.75 µ in diameter. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. parenchymatous cells.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. parenchyma and fibres. Powder . thin-walled. hypodermis 1-2 layered.absent. tangentially elongated cells. filled with tannin. Stem . some cells filled with tannin. tracheids.appears circular in outline. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Lamina . covered externally with thick cuticle. vascular bundle collateral. covered with cuticle. 3-45 cells long. xylem consists of vessels. Midrib . thin-walled. angular. xylem situated above phlome.

CONSTITUENTS . D¢pana. 2.50 g. Tikta. 2. Visarpa DOSE .3.2. Arimed¡di Taila. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.Chardi.5 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. 190 . Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. V¡tarakta.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.IDENTITY. Jvara. Raktapitta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Invert Sugars). Kaphahara. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2.20 . Appendix 13. T¤À¸¡.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Sugars (Melizitose. Appendix 2. Sucrose. THERAPEUTIC USES .4.2. 2. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. of the drug in powder form for decoction.2.6. Appendix 2 per cent. Appendix 2.5 per cent. 2.7. K¡sa.

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