THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.2.1.Types of Stomata 2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1.1.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.1.2.3.1 Testing Drugs 2.2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.2.1.2.2.2.1.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2.1.1.1.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.2. 1.) Desv 177 1.5.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.4.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2-Thermometers 1.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.1.2-Sieves 1.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1.2.2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .1.1-Nessler Cylinder.2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.

3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.3.1.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3 Limit Tests 2.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.2.3.1.3.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.2-Refractive Index 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.3.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.3.Weights and Measures 5.2.

Vol. II. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. II would be official.). accordingly. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. Vol.I. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. the Dangerous Drugs Act. Vol.P. Part-I. would be deemed to have been amended vii . Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. In general. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. II. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). Part-I.

Weights and Measures . distribution and method of collection.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Ayurvedic Formulary of India.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. Introductory Para . The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. Odour and Taste . Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. English. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. If the odour persists to be discernible. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. viii . Purity and Strength .GENERAL NOTICES Title . if any. Identity. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. Mesh Number . Hindi. When the term “drop” is used.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Italics . Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Synonyms . This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. indicated in monograph.The metric system of weights and measures is employed. it is described as having odour. substances or processes described in Appendix.

statements appearing in the API. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. and Identity. acid-insoluble ash. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. The quantitative tests e. colour. micro-organisms. Part-I. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. may be substituted for the tests and assays described.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. arsenic and heavy metals.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. with one of the four meanings given below. in 100 grammes of product.Under this head. alcohol-soluble extractive. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. even by applying known reference standards. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. However. Standards . is used. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method.L. total ash. the expression per cent (%). volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. V. according to circumstances. sliminess.C. Constant Weight . pesticides. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. Percentage of Solutions . Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. moisture content. and show no abnormal odour. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. water-soluble ash. under Description. ether-soluble extractive. those of definition of the part and source plants. However. Constituents . and other animal matter including animal excreta. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. Thin Layer Chromatography (T.g.) . mould or other evidence of deterioration. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . shall constitute standards. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. which he uses. fungi. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. wherever given. Vol. if of equivalent accuracy. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. ix . Purity and Strength.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated.soluble extractive.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination.In defining standards. pests. water. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents.For statutory purpose. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method.

The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. Temperature . Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. all solutions are prepared with purified water.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15.000 parts More than 10. Solutions .000 parts x . unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. at a stated temperature. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. fibres. and dust particles. Solubility . Statements of solubilities. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Percentage of alcohol .Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). Reagents and Solutions . are intended to apply at that temperature. thermometric scale.56 oC. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. such as fragment of filter papers.

001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. IN. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. mm. TS. unless otherwise stated.P. Kg.I. mg. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally.1 N. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. l. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. µ. 0. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. g. 1M. cm.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. ml.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. Part –I and Part-II. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. 0. PS.5 N. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. Fam.

Mar. Guj. Mal. Wh. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Assam. Tam. Rt. Wd. Tel.Sansk. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. St. Wd. St. Lf. Ori. Bk. Beng. Kash. Rz. Eng. Sd. Punj. Pl. Kan. Bk. xii . Tub. Fr. Ht. Rt.

xylem fibres thick-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro.8 µ in width. parenchymatous cells. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. Akallakara.231 µ in 1 . more and wider vessels found towards peripery. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.1. an annual. tracheids and xylem parenchyma.37-28. vessels pitted. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. 7-15 cm in length. slightly aromatic. thin-walled. Akarakarabha (Rt. Asteraceae). (Fam. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 53. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. cambium 2-5 layered. shrivelled. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. not easily separable. taste. Akarakara Akkaraka. bark upto 3 mm thick. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. Akalakarabha. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels.2 . more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. odour. elongated. brown. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. 1. b) Microscopic Root . Akravu Akkalakara. tapering slightly at both ends. external surface rough. cylindrical. characteristically astringent and pungent. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara.

secondary phloem and medullary rays. PakÀ¡gh¡ta.5 -1 g. Powder . Aj¢rna. Udararoga. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.Ash coloured. 2 . Grdhras¢. Appendix 2. D¢pana. Appendix 8 percent. 2.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. Appendix 2 percent. running straight.3. Buddhivardhaka.length having narrow lumen. also gives positive tests for inulin. 2. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. radially elongated.0. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma.Kum¡ry¡sava. secondary phloem. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. Appendix 22 percent. IDENTITY.4. áotha. Kaphahara. áukrala. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. áv¡sa.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). V¡jikara. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex.7.2.2. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . á£laroga. Appendix 10 percent. 2.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Danta¿£la DOSE . ray cells thick-walled. Pittahara. CONSTITUENTS . NaÀ¶¡rtava. 2. shows vessels having scalariform thickening.2.2. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. secondary phloem and medullary rays. Svedakara.Prati¿y¡ya. uniseriate rays very rare. bi to tri and multiseriate. K¡sa. of the drug in powder form. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. medullary rays numerous.

small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. parenchymatous cells. odour.2. Juglandaceae).) large deciduous. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. thin-walled. (Fam.Cream coloured. Cotyledon . slightly curved. Akshoda (Cotldn. Powder . raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. followed by more or less compressed. collapsed. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. oily sweet. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. broken pieces. irregularly corrugated. parenchymatous cells. coriaceous. under this. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. 3 . taste. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. creamish-brown. radially elongated.Shows 1-2 layered. thin-walled. not distinct. Sailabhava. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. endosperm mostly single layered.

2.IDENTITY. Appendix Not less than 10. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. Appendix 2.6. Appendix Not more than 0. Balya. V¤Àya. 2.0 percent. CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix Not less than 7.KÀata. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara.2.7. 2.5 percent. B¤´ha¸a. ViÀ¶ambhi.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.10 .25 g. 2. Sara. KÀaya. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. DOSE .2.0 percent. 4 .4. Kaphakara. V¡taroga. áukral.2.2.Walnut oil and Tannin.3.2.

Amvara -Mampusli. Ranambo Ambada. Syn. Mampuiti. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. mangifera Willd. Stem Bark. a small aromatic. with reddish-brown contents. Amra Indian Hog Plum. Wild Mango Ambeda. radially arranged. consisting of tangentially elongated. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn.Bk. Ambalam. non Gamble (Fam. and 5 . Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. acuminata Roxb. Amrata (St. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells.. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. grey having lenticels. parenchymatous. f. Ranamba. parenchymatous cells. S. Ambazham. fracture.5 m in girth. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. thin. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Amra. Ambado. internal surface reddish-yellow. a few outer cells exfoliated. Anbalamu. curved. tangentially elongated.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. Kurz.3. Anacardiaceae). upto 27 m high and 2. external surface smooth. thin-walled cells. Jangli Aam Ambate. S. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Jangali Ambo. Ambadam Amratakamu. laminated. which are thick-walled towards periphery. deciduous tree.

prominent lysogenous cavities are present. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. 0.L. 2. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.C.L.3. Pittakara.2. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara.KÀata. Appendix 2. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. Under U. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.87 (blue) and 0. IDENTITY. T.96. stone cells. lignified.5 per cent. simple. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.33. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya.96 (blue).2. 2.5-10 g.87 (all greyish brown).4. Not more than 1 per cent.7.6.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.40 and 0. shows cork cells. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width.2. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. 0.V. Rucik¤t. V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form for decoction. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. Ka¸¶hya. Powder . 0. thick-walled.2. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. Raktapitta. 2. 0. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. 6 .33. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. KÀaya. D¡ha DOSE .Light brown. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not more than 0. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. round to oval starch grains measuring 2. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf.75-14 µ in dia. 0. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.2.(greyish brown)..

a stiff. branched. perianth segments 5. 7 . greenish-white. anther. membranous.P. hollow when dry. gradually tapering.Simple. Leaf . yellowish-brown.5 cm in cut pieces. 0.4. two celled.9 m high herb. obovate. odour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra.0. Stem . rough due to presence of some root scars. subsessile. Apamarga (W. stamens 5. one spine lipped.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. slightly ribbed.) Amaranthaceae). hypogynous. hairy. May£raka. cylindrical. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Flower . secondary and tertiary roots present.1-1. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. erect. the perianth lobes. exstipulate. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. opposite.0 cm in thickness. numerous.3-0. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. contorted or quincuncial. erect. Kharamaµjar.Cylindrical tap root. yellowish-brown. not distinct. bisexual. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . decussate.0. actinomorphic. PratyakpuÀpa.free. opposite. sessile. 0. wavy margin. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. bracteate with two bracteoles.3 . (Fam. solid. dorsifixed. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. filament short.

pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. elongated.Sub-cylindric. endospermic. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. on both surfaces. followed 8 . ovary superior.Shows crescent-shaped outline. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. truncate at the apex. 2-5 celled. vessels simple pitted. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. stigma. cortical and pith cells. thin-walled.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. thin layers of cambium. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. thin-walled cork cells. either separate throughout or found in some cases. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cork cells. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. 3-4 celled stalk. single. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. syncarpous. style. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. capitate. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. brown. rectangular. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. b) Microscopic Root . demarcating the xylem rings. xylem composed of usual elements. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. perianth and bracteoles. spiral. fibres being absent. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. unilocular with single ovule. Fruit . round at the base. cortex 6-10 layered. present in pith.gynoecium bicarpellary. Midrib . two medullary bundles. fibres pitted. composed of parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma.Shows a single layered epidermis. vessels annular. lignified. scalariform and pitted. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. Stem . epidermis single layered. LeafPetiole . oval to rectangular.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. Seed .

Kaphahara. aseptate fibres. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. vessels with annular. thin-walled epidermal cells. of the drug for decoction. P¡cana. scalariform and pitted thickening. 2.0-20. Medohara. spiral.0-11. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . stomatal index 4.0 on upper surface. Lamina . Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. Ar¿a. vein islet number 7-13 per sq.2. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces.3. V¡tahara. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. Udara Roga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . mm. Chedana.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. Ka¸·u. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick.2.0 on lower surface. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Light yellow. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . shows fragments of elongated. V¡maka. 2. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. Tikta Sara. palisade ratio 7.2.20-50 g. slightly elongated in upper. 9 . Medoroga DOSE . idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.4. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2.7. Gu·apippali.5-9.2.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. Abhay¡ Lava¸a. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent.2. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. 2.Shows single layered. Apac¢. IDENTITY. rectangular.6. 9.á£la. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. Powder . stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. 2. non-lignified cells.

a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. b) Microscopic Root . fracture. (Fam. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. bitter. vessels pitted with oblong. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. cylindrical. 1-5 mm in thickness. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. taste. a few showing slit-like pits. Aparajita (Rt. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. a few solitary fibres also present. thin-walled. medullary 10 . very long. fibrous.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. Fabaceae). a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. lightbrown. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. colour. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. polygonal.5.

Yellowish-brown. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.2. M£traroga.4. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf. 0. 0.7. áotha. Tikta.Mi¿raka Sneha. KuÀ¶ha.2. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. Appendix per cent. Powder . 2. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. 11 . IDENTITY. Resin.2. 0. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .L.3 g.2. of the drug in powder form. found in secondary cortex. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.2. 2.79 (grey). Pittahara. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.54 and 0. T.V. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.79 (both yellow). Appendix per cent. V¡tahara.L.6.C.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. Buddhiprada. Appendix per cent. Vra¸a DOSE . Taraxerol & Taraxerone. Appendix 2.. phloem and xylem parenchyma. Medhya. Starch.1 . shows simple and compound starch grains.. 2. CONSTITUENTS . vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.rays 1-5 cells wide. measuring 3-13 µ in dia.79 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf.á£la. oblong and pitted. ViÀahara. Under U.C. Kaphahara.3. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia.2.Tannin.

Inji Allamu. lakottai. Ardraka (Rz. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. odour. each having a depressed scar at its apex. Allam. thin-walled. oblique branches on upper side. reaching up to 90 cm in height. Ale -Adi. Adrak Injee.) Zingiberaceae). buds and roots are removed and washed well. short with projecting fibres. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. taste. gingery.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. (Fam.5 cm thick. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal.6. irregularly arranged. colourless. tangentially elongated. pungent Rhizome .5-6. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. 1. isodiametric. fracture. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. widely cultivated in India.Shows a few layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. radially arranged cells of inner cork. pieces 5-15 cm long.

69 (light violet).L. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.2.4.3.16 (blue).92 (violet). IDENTITY. fibrovascular bundles of two types. 0.63. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. free from starch. 0.2. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele.76. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. 0. 0. 0. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. vessels 2-5 in number.63 (grey) & 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. phloem. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. 2.63 & 0. 0. collateral. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. 2. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.92 (all yellow)..16.L. 2.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.C. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. Powder -Light yellow.2.08 (violet). vessels showing reticulate. 0. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 0.7. 0. composed of xylem. septate fibres with oblique.63 (light violet).V.35 (light violet). Appendix 1 per cent.2. 0.47 (light violet). small cells of sieve tube. reticulate and spiral vessels. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol.69 (all light yellow).83 & 0. walls of oil cells suberised. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T.08. 0. 0.47. numerous closed. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. endodermis single layered.16. Appendix 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.35.76 (violet) & 0.6. 0. 0. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. 0.13.5 per cent. 0.69 (grey).69.l6 (brownish violet). filled with abundant starch grains.7 vessels. 13 .9 T. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. 2.C. Appendix 90 per cent. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. 2. 0.35.dia.2. oleo-resin cells abundent. Under U. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. conjoint. Appendix 2 per cent. 0. 0. elongated pits on their walls. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 8 per cent.03. 0. Appendix 5 per cent. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. larger bundles consists of 2.2.

Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. Bhedana.á£la. THERAPEUTIC USES .2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. DOSE . Rocana. áopha. Ka¸tharoga. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Ën¡ha. H¤dya. V¡tahara. RukÀa. V ¤Àaya. Vibandha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Svarya. Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. 14 .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru.

all traversed by medullary rays. not distinct. internally light brown to reddish-brown. Pilobaval. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary phloem wide. square to rectangular cells. fracture. phloem fibres thin-walled. (Fam. incurved. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. odour and taste. Velvelam. fibres and crystal fibres. parenchyma. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays.7. Sadabala -Haramibaval. Arimeda (St. stone cells and phloem cells.Bk.5-1 cm thick. rough. with tapering 15 . sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. consisting of sieve elements. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. lignified. hard. thinwalled cortical cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. upto 3 m in height. fibrous. characteristic of dry regions. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. Fabaceae). Vi·khadir -Guyababla. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. exfoliating in irregular scales.

ends. Appendix 13 per cent. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. composed of thin-walled.4. Appendix 2. KuÀ¶ha.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). Appendix 14 per cent.91 (yellow). ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.40 g for decoction. K¡sa. Udardapra áamana DOSE .39 and a spot at Rf. 16 . Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Dantaroga. T.0. Appendix 11 per cent. Powder . Mukharoga. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0 to 0. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements.n-Hexacosanol. Meda¿oÀaka.L.3.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. K¤mi.LC. 2. 2.3-5 g in powder form. crystal fibres elongated. ViÀajavra¸a.2.2. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡¸·u.2.2. 0. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.0 to 0. Meha.78 and 0. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.C. IDENTITY. β-Sitosterol and Tannin. Visarpa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . β -Amyrin. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta.7. Atis¡ra. shows groups of cork cells. 2.91 (both blue).2.áopha. 2. Ka¸·u. Appendix 1 per cent.Reddish-brown. 0. radially elongated cells.39 and a spot at Rf.2.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . sclereid.6.e. fibres. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0.

& A. Torematti Arjuna.) Combretaceae). (Fam. consisting of sieve tubes. taste. a large deciduous tree.Bk. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. bitter and astringent.5 cm thick. fracture. P¡rtha. companion cells. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. short in inner and laminated in outer part. in the middle and outer phloem region. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. flat. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. Mattimora. Bilimatti. recurved. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. Mathichakke. channelled to half quilled. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Vellamaruthi. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. Kellemasuthu. Arjuna (St.2-1. Sajada Arjuna Matti. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. curved. traversed by phloem rays. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. Neermatti. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. Arjuna. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces.8. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. 0. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen.

2. mostly simple. Pittahara.2. sometimes upto 5 components. 18 . compound of 2-3 components.2. 4-12 cells high. 2.Medoroga. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. alternating with fibres.2.Reddish-brown. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma.6. 2. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum.7.3. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 20 per cent. T¤À¡. round to oval. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .3-6 g. 2.in dia. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. Vra¸an¡¿ana.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a.2.2. Appendix 25 per cent... in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. IDENTITY. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. Vya´ga.4. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 1 per cent. starch grains simple and compound. shows fragments of cork cells. alata). fibres. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. KÀatakÀaya. 2. Prameha. H¤dya. elliptic. DOSE . a few rhomboidal crystals. starch grains. round to oval. Appendix 2. µ Powder . elliptical. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. uniseriate phloem rays. Vra¸a. H¤droga.. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. Arjuna Gh¤ta. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Kaphahara. Appendix 20 per cent.

composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles.) Anacardiaceae). Fruit . (Fam. mesocarp a very broad zone. 19 . Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. shining with residual receptacle. Bhallataka (Fr.9. 30-40 layers thick. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. Scramkotati Nallajidi. mesocarp and endocarp. dark brown.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. smooth. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. nut 2. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened.5-3 cm long. Nallajidiginga Baladur. obliquely ovoid. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. drupaceous. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells.

KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Note .A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. ether.6.F.. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Chedi.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Krimi. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. Kaphahara. 2.2. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Graha¸¢.1.Dark-brown.2. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in Ksirapaka form. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Tikta.2. Appendix 2. Bhedi. P¡cana.endocarp consists of two distinct layers.2. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Snigdha. KuÀ¶ha. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Ka¶u. Appendix 0.. Part-I 20 .Ar¿a. Gulma.3. very much elongated radial walls. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.7.2. innermost prismatic. 2. Appendix 11 per cent.2. V¡tahara. Ën¡ha. Powder . DOSE . chloroform.4.I. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. 2.2 g. IDENTITY. being highly thickened.

Bhringiraja. Bhringaraja (W.P. greenish.2 . a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. ovate. spreading. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. Bhangro Bhangara. Kesari -Bhangaro. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. involucral bracts about 8.. Keshavardhana.2. ray flowers ligulate. not toothed. occasionally rooting at nodes. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. white. often rooting at nodes. sub-acute or acute. obtuse or acute. M¡rkava. (Fam. usually oblong. strigosely hirsute. ligule small. 2. herbaceous. occasionally brownish. Karisalanganni. sub-entire. Stem . Bh¤´ga. erect or prostrate. node distinct. Asteraceae).Herbaceous. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni.) herbaceous annual. scarcely as long as bracts. rough due to oppressed white hairs. together on unequal axillary peduncles. Flower .Opposite.10. sessile to subsessile. branched.Well developed. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. Leaf . Knnunni Bhangra. a number of secondary branches arise from main root.8. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . much branched. upto about 7 mm in dia. Tekar¡ja.50 cm high. cylindrical or flat. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. lanceolate. strigose with oppressed hairs. disc flowers 21 . greyish. 30 . Kesuriya. cylindrical.2 .3 cm wide.5 cm long. Karisalai Guntakalagara. Gurugada. Soppu. 1.Solitary or 2.

five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. fibre tracheids. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening.2 . hairy and non endospermic. with a narrow wing. consisting of rounded cells. xylem composed of vessels. run straight in tangential section. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. corolla often 4 toothed. b) Microscopic Root . in singles or in groups of various shape and size. epidermis followed by wide cortex. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. pistil bicarpellary. found scattered throughout wood. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. epidermis followed by cortex. xylem ray distinct. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. ovary inferior. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations.0. externally covered with cuticle. stamen 5.1 cm wide. 1-5 celled. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. warty. with very pointed tips. tangentially elongated cells. and with pointed apical cell. drum-shaped. Seed . vessels numerous.25 cm long. Midrib . uniseriate. ray cells pitted. 0.Achenial cypsella. simple. fibre tracheids.tubular. pitted.0. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. traversed by xylem rays. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. filaments epipetalous.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. one seeded. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. unilocular with one basal ovule. covered with warty excrescences. Fruit . xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. rarely slightly oblique. phloem rays broader towards periphery. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. dark brown. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. pappus absent.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. cuneate. non-glandular. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. free.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. Leaf- Petiole . trichomes of two types. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. covered with striated cuticle. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. brown. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. fibres and xylem parenchyma. in macerated preparation vessels small.

palisade ratio 3. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region.0-22.collenehymatous cells on both sides. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. epidermis single layered. while the section cut at apical region. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. externally covered with cuticle. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. xylem consists of large number of vessels. hairs stiff. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma.Dark green. externally covered with cuticle.5. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. pointed tips and pitted walls. Stem . Lamina . normally biseriate and uniseriate. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. pericyclic fibres distinct. more abundant on lower surfaces. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. uniseriate. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. middle cells longest. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width.5 on upper and 23. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. vascular bundles in a ring. xylem fibres with wide lumen. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. collateral. stomatal index 20. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. warty.5 -26.shows a dorsi ventral structure. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. about 3 celled.8 -4. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. pointed.0 on lower surface. endarch. pitted with spiral thickening. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. arranged in tangential strands. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. wide at the base. Powder . the cork where formed. septa thick-walled. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. peg-like outgrowth. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. 23 . some elongated with simple perforations. secondary cortex composed of large. trichomes entire or in pieces.

3 .4. CONSTITUENTS . Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.2. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix 2. Dantya. P¡¸·u. Ke¿ya. Yak¤droga.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. Ecliptine and Nicotine.2. DOSE . 2.2. Kaphahara.áotha. 2. K¡sa. ViÀahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara. CakÀusya. THERAPEUTIC USES .Alkaloids.2. Appendix per cent.2. 12 . 2. K¤miroga.6.3. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila.36 g. Appendix per cent. Tvacya. áv¡sa. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent.7. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana.IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix per cent. Tekar¡ja marica. Tikta RukÀa. Ëmahara. H ¤droga. 2. 24 . áirah á£la.6 ml of the drug in juice form.

Valabrahmi. nodes and internodes prominent. soft. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Brahmi (W. glabrous. wiry.B. opposite.& K. pedicels 6-30 mm long. Ondelaga. slightly bitter..Thin.) H.11. bracteoles shorter than pedicels.) Wettst. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi.Simple. green. Fruit . branched creamish-yellow.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn.Thin. decussate. Flower . ovoid and glabrous. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. (Fam. green or purplish green. Leaf . a glabrous.P. found throughout India in wet and damp places. obovate-oblong. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. succulent. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. 25 . Syn. small. Brahmi. small. prostrate or creeping annual herb. taste. sessile. about 1-2 mm thick. slightly bitter. axillary and solitary.Capsules upto 5 mm long.Small. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. 1-2 cm long. Stem . Scrophulariaceae). taste. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi.

round and oval starch grains. and 8. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Tikta. Svarya. Praj¡sth¡pana. b) Microscopic 26 . Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells.4. V¡tahara. vascular ring continuous. 2. 2.2. pericycle not distinct. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. simple. ViÀahara. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. Ras¡yana.2. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces.. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. 2. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. respectively.2.Yellowish-brown.0 µ in dia.Root .2. Medhya. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.0 x 2. endodermis single layered. IDENTITY. no distinct midrib present. starch grains simple. ËyuÀya.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.0-14.7. Appendix per cent. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces. cortex having large air cavities.5-9. endodermis single layered.3.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. Matiprada. 2. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. round to oval. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. glandular hairs. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter.Shows a single layer of epidermis. glandular hairs sessile.2.6. Stem . Powder .

27 . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Jvara.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. P¡¸·u.KuÀ¶ha. Prameha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1-3 g in powder form. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Ratnagiri Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . áopha. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.

cork cambium single layered. traversed by phloem rays. parenchyma and stone cells. Chichuriti. (Fam.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. pale yellowish-brown. ribbed. a very prickly. upto 1. long.9 layers of thin-walled. oval and tangentially elongated cells. Papparamulli. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani.12. Badikateri Kirugullia. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. Brihati (Rt. short and splintery. tangentially elongated. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. thin-walled. 1-2. Putirichunda Dorli. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. fracture. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . a number of secondary roots and their branches present. b) Microscopic Root . Solanaceae). no distinct odour and taste. cylindrical. Heggulla. Ubhibharingani.. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai.5 cm in dia. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. much branched perennial under shrub.8 m high.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . varying greatly in shape and size. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata.15 layers of thin-walled. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. woody. phloem parenchyma much abundant. secondary cortex composed of 5 .

2. V¡tahara. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.Cream coloured.2.4.11. aseptate fibres.. measuring 5. all elements being lignified. Kaphahara.6 µ in diameter.5 .2. thick-walled.á£la.6 µ in diameter. Jvara. measuring 5. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. áv¡sa. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Appendix 2. traversed by xylem rays. rounded to oval starch grains. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. 29 . IDENTITY. Agnim¡dya. 2. H¤dya. xylem rays uni to biseriate.5 -11. of the drug for decoction.6. Appendix Not more than 6. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. cells radially elongated and pitted.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. tracheids. phloem and medullary rays.3. 2.10-20 g. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays.2. H¤droga. Powder .Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. vessels with simple pits. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. shows groups of thin-walled.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. 2. 2.7. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.2. P¡cana. parenchymatous cells. DOSE . Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent.2. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.

secondary cortex a wide zone. short. officinarum DC. P. cultivated mainly in Southern India. tracheid. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. a glabrous. plenty of simple starch granules present. (Fam. odour. Chavya (St. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. chaba Hunter non Blume. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Piperaceae). Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. taste. endodermis single layered. peppery. cylindrical and somewhat twisted.5-2.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . fleshy climber. oval to rectangular. P. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. acrid. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. fracture. b) Microscopic Stem . consisting of round. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels.0 cm in width.13. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. Syn. thin-walled. brownish cells.. nodes and internodes distinct.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. greyish-brown. cork cambium not distinct. Chavya -Kattumulaku. fibres and xylem parenchyma. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles.

ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.5 per cent.Greyish-brown.2.2. Gulma. 2. P¡cana. Appendix 1. Ën¡ha. Appendix 6 per cent.pitted and reticulate thickenings. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 31 . Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. fibres and simple. of the drug in powder form.2. Appendix 3 per cent. 2.1-2 g. cells thin walled.4.Ar¿a.7.Alkaloids.3. medullary rays multi seriate. D¢pana. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. Udara Roga.6. Powder .Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. filled with simple. Pl¢h¡ Roga. THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. á£lal DOSE . round to oval. CONSTITUENTS . RukÀa. 2. Kaphahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. Appendix 2. round to oval starch grains. Krimi.2. starch grains. Glycosides and Steroids. Recana. shows fragments of vessels. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Appendix 10 per cent.2. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter.2.

) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. shows stone cells. simple. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. triangular and rectangular.1-0.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. oval. Seed . angular. cotyledons coiled. consisting of oval to polygonal. 32 . endosperm absent. (Fam.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. Madalam Danimma Anar.5-0. wedge-shaped. starch grains present in testa.6 cm long. Powder .2 cm wide. taste. found growing wild in the warm valley. Punicaceae). round to oval. 0. round. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. containing a few oil globules.14. parenchymatous cells. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. beneath this. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. LohitapuÀpa. thin walled. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. Dadima (Sd. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada.Reddish-brown. oil globules. sweetish-sour. Maadalai.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

5 cm long and 0. about 0. an annual. calyx.) Lamiaceae). serrate. size variable. crowded in dense. 1-2.Cylindrical.Yellowish-green.16. nodes and internodes distinct.Light greenish-yellow. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . corolla.35 cm wide. hairy.9 m in high. long with numerous wiry. surface rough. globose. fibrous. pungent. (Fam.5 cm across. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. erect. ciliate. white.5 cm wide.lanceolate. fracture. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. crenate. subacute.3-0. glabrous in lower part. slightly curved. lanceolate. thin. tubular.7-2 cm 37 . Inflorescence . Stem .6-0. 1. 1-2. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country. taste.2-1. 1. about 2-3. fine rootlets. stout herb. Leaf .25 cm long. taste. ovate or ovate. acute. slightly bitter.P.Sessile. characteristic. white. 10 dentate with a villous throat. more or less pubescent. zig-zag. upto 4 mm thick. taste. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Gumma. smooth. scaberulous. 3-9 cm long. Dronapushpi (W. hairy on upper part.

shows a single layered epidermis. thin-walled 38 . wooly. secondary xylem consists of vessels.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. trigonous. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. Stem . endoderm is single layered. dark brown. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes.0. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. thin-walled cells. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. irregular. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. some having simple pits. consisting of barrel shaped. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. 4 .7 layered. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. thin-walled cells. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. Lamina . lateral lobes small. followed by round to oval parenchyma.long. vascular bundles 4. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. Seed . bilipped. tracheids. Midrib . b) Microscopic Root .Schizocarpic carcerule. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Leaf- Petiole .shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes. brown. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma.1 cm wide. upper lip about 4 mm long. tracheids. fibres and xylem parenchyma. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends.tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells.3 cm long and 0. Fruit . composed of oval to rectangular. round to angular collenchyma. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. consists of a single layered epidermis. smooth. present in centre.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. vessels long with spurs. xylem consists of vessels. upto 8 cells high. parenchymatous cells. cortex consisting of single layered. tangentially elongated. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. oblong. palisade single layered. nutlets 3 mm smooth. medullary rays 1-2 seriate.vascular bundle arc-shaped. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled.

7.2. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. Ka¶u Guru. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 16.7 on upper surface. Tamaka áv¡sa. aseptate fibres.6-40. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. K¡sa.2. Bhedani. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. THERAPEUTIC USES .5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. Pittakara. palisade ratio 7-9.6.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.4.áotha. RukÀa. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. pitted and spiral vessels. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. 2. CONSTITUENTS . uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata. a few veins present in this region.6-30. 2. stomatal index 16. 2. K¡mal¡. present on both surfaces. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.3. Lava¸a. IDENTITY.2. 39 . Glycoside. Appendix 2. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.2. Agnim¡ndya. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.Dull yellow. stomata diacytic.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. ViÀamajvara DOSE . Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.2.Alkaloid. V¡takara.5 on lower surface. Powder .2.cells.

parenchymatous cells. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. surface smooth. shows stone cells. Karka¶¢.7-10 cm long.17. 0. Ervaru (Sd. B¤hatphala. rounded and tangentially elongated. C. sweetish oily. 40 . 0. (Fam.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. Hastipani. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. an annual creeping herb. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay.4 cm wide. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. cotyledons two. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. Cucurbitaceae).3-0. creamish-yellow. -Kakur. straight. radially elongated to squarish. utilissimus Roxb. Vellarika Kakadi. parenchymatous. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. thin-walled. more or less ellipsoid. mesophyll cells thinwalled. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. glossy. Hastipani. covered with thick cuticle. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. cultivated in many parts of the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. taste. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains.

D¢pana.7. 0. 2.19. 0. 0. T¤À¸¡.0. 2.64.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.2. 0. Kaphakara. V¡takara.58.91 and 0. of seeds.0. 0. 2.97 (all grey).58. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.77.91 and 0. Appendix 0. 0. 41 . On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 2.5 per cent.Oil & Sugars. Appendix 10 per cent.97 (all yellow) .C. Jvara.64. 0.D¡ha.35. T.2. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. 0.35. Gulma. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara. Appendix 4 per cent.2.IDENTITY.L.0. A¿mar¢. 0.2.26.L. 0. RaktadoÀakara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.3. 0. Appendix 5 per cent. Rucya. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .83. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2. 0. 0.19. CONSTITUENTS .6.2.3-6 g.C.4.2.51.91 (blue) under U. (366 mm). 0.V.51. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .77.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. Raktapitta. Tikta Guru.83.26.

5 cm thick.6 cm long. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. a large epiphytic climber. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. Gajapippali (Fr. b) Microscopic Fruit .) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried.0 cm in diameter and 2. thin-walled. Orissa. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.0-3. 42 .Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. cut surface has a central core. smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. 0.18.Shows more or less loosely arranged.3-0.4-0.Kidney-shaped. Seed . (Fam. brownish-grey. greyish-brown with a dent. odour and taste not distinct.4 cm wide. 0. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. rough and scaly.0-3. odour and taste not disticnt. Araceae). shiny.

oval to polygonal. Powder . Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. in extract (Phant) form. pitted and with concentric striations.2. 0. Sugars & Fixed Oil. Malavi¿oÀana.7. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. 2. non-lignified. Stanya.5 per cent.Dark brown.2. shows lignified. 2.73 and 0. 2. áv¡sa. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B.3. Punarnav¡sava. 0. K¤miroga. Ka¸¶hya. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C.Atis¡ra.L. Appendix T. 2.Glucosides viz.4. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2-3 g.73 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent.C.2.65 and 0.Seed . Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu.93 (brown). 0. 0. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Candraprabh¡ va¶i. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. 0.C. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. oval to polygonal.2. T. Ka¸ha Roga.65.65. 2-4 layered.27. IDENTITY.L.93 (all yellow).93 (all blue) are visible. oval to polygonal. CONSTITUENTS . Three spots appear at Rf.65. 0.73 (both light brown) and 0.2. DOSE . Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen.20.6. THERAPEUTIC USES . oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. thick-walled.áiv¡gutik¡. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.V. Kaphahara. thin-walled. 43 .Shows a single layered. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Agnivardhaka. thick-walled. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 2. 0. V¡tahara.27. 0.

b) Microscopic Fruit . (Fam. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. K¡¿marya. surface smooth. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. 0. Seed .5-1 cm long.19. seed coat thin.Seed ovate. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. multilayered.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. sweetish sour.6 cm wide. Shivani. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. sometimes one seeded.4-0. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Verbenaceae). endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. parenchymatous cells. light yellow. taste. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . radially 44 . Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. oily. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. thin-walled. ovoid. fleshy mesocarp. P¢takarohi¸¢. cotyledons consisting of single layered. thin-walled cells. crinkled. papery.A drupe. black.) unarmed tree. tangentially elongated.5-2. 0. two seeded. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. Gambhari (Fr. taste. Seed . Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. 1.0 cm long. Hannu -Kumbil. parenchymatous cells. Sr¢par¸¢.

T¤À¸¡. Appendix 25 per cent. M£trak¤cchra.26. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. 0. 45 .elongated epidermal cells.6. Amla. T. 0.D¡ha. 0.7. 0.C. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.42. Appendix 8 per cent.08. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains.L. Ke¿ya. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Resin and Saccharine.4.2. 0. V¡tahara. of the drug in powder form. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Pittahara. H¤droga. KaÀ¡ya Guru.3. Powder . 2. 2. 0. 0. IDENTITY.Butyric acid.94 and 0.2.98 (orange). Under U. Tartaric acid.. 0.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Appendix 0.03. KÀata. 0. KÀaya.98 (yellow) in visible light. H¤dya.C.Arvind¡sava.98 (all blue). 0.2.1-3 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.52. Alkaloid.V. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows stone cells.98 (all yellow). Rakta Pitta DOSE . Appendix 6 per cent.Blackish-brown.12. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.18. oil globules and aleurone grains.22. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells. Ras¡yana.L. Sara.2.03. Appendix 2.93 and 0. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. CONSTITUENTS . 0.2.4 per cent. 0. Medhya.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. Syn.Bk. rectangular. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen.5-5 cm long. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. a shrub 0. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals. Grewia populifolia Vahl. blunt tips and moderately long in size. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. mucilaginous.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. fibrous. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. consisting of 12-20 layered. traversed by wide phloem rays. Gangeru (St. a few stone cells. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. light yellow. taste. fracture. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . channelled.0 m high.6-1. fibrous. elliptical.Shows a wide cork. 1..20. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. radially arranged cells. (Fam. oval. moderately large in size. external surface smooth.) Aschers & Schwf. 46 . found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. parenchymatous cells. thick-walled. arranged in radial groups. consisting of tangentially elongated. Tiliaceae). secondary cortex wide.

0.2.C.88 (all yellow). 2.68 & 0. DOSE . 0. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ka¶u. 0.4. of the drug in powder form. 0. Appendix 2. Pittavik¡ra.35 (dark blue). α-amyrin. Two spots are seen at Rf. 47 .48 (violet). Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.J¢rak¡di Modaka. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.2.L. 0.13 (blue). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Vra¸a.08 (blue) 0.6. 0. Appendix per cent.2.2.27 (light violet). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0.V.3.7. IDENTITY.2.Light yellow and fibrous.68 (light violet) & 0. 0.Sugar. 0. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.29 (blue). β-amyrin etc.17.48. Amla. Appendix per cent. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. Tikta.08 (violet).41.C. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. 0.17. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. 0. 0. Under U. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf.17 (light violet). 2.2-3 g.27. 0.35.64 (blue). T.55.35 (both light yellow) in visible light. 0.08.Powder . Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.). 0.61.55 (blue) & 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. 0.35 (violet).L.88 (light violet).

Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. fruits ripen during winter. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. soft. thinwalled. cork cambium. taste.21. smaller than stone cells. Gurivinda Ghongchi. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. light brown. flowering in August-September. pitted walls. Gunja (Rt. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . (Fam. present at short intervals. slightly corky. Chonotee Ratti. exfoliating in small flakes. when distinct. b) Microscopic Root . Kundumani Guriginga. simple or branched. becoming mildly bitter. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. Fabaceae). tangentially elongated cells. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. spreading throughout the plains. feebly sweetish. Kakananti Rati Kunch. odourless. a climber. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. Chanothee. most often irregularly curved.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. cylindrical. gulagunja -Kunni. some with brownish content. composed of 1-2 cells wide. Ghungchi Guluganji. bark thin.

RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. 2.Indralupta.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). vessels of varying sizes with thick. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. xylem vessels with pitted walls.diverging towards periphery.2.75 µ in diameter. Appendix 10 per cent. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. 2.Greyish-brown. Powder .2. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays.75 µ in diameter. shows fragments of cork. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5. small groups of sclerenchyma.2.5 per cent. Appendix 2. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.5-13. IDENTITY. Appendix 9 per cent. Tikta á¢ta. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. CONSTITUENTS . stone cells. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.2.1 . V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide. parenchyma thin-walled. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. pitted walls.4. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. áula.2. Mukha¿oÀa. numerous xylem fibres. Appendix 4 per cent. thin-walled and rectangular. 2. 2.5 -13.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. Appendix 2. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. THERAPEUTIC USES .7.3 g.6. of the drug in powder form. 49 .3. wood composed of narrow concentric. DOSE .

each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. smooth. solid. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. more numerous and closer towards periphery. Serdi Ikha. (Fam. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. conjoint. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. Ikshu (St. Poaceae). shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. distinct node and internode. b) Microscopic Stem . Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled.22. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. characteristic. 50 . juicy and sweet. with.) shrub. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. besides the xylem and phloem elements. taste. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. odour. closed type of vascular bundles. lignified. cylindrical. scattered throughout the ground tissue. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . vessels and sclerenchyma. 2.400 ml in the juice form. Kaphahara.2.Bal¡ Taila. DOSE . Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Balya.200 .2.2.Raktapitta.Powder . Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. ground tissue. Appendix Not more than 2. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent.5 per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. Sara. V¡tahara. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4.7.6.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Pittahara. shows pieces of epidermis. 2.Powder light brick red. M£tra KÀaya.2.2.3. V¤Àya. 51 . IDENTITY. 2. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.Sucrose.

longitudinal fissures present. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. parenchyma and medullary rays. 0. elongated with pointed ends. occurring throughout the country. composed of sieve elements. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. Varithummati. áatakratulat¡. parenchymatous cells.2-2. Gav¡kÀ¢. fracture. lying around vessels. parenchyma and medullary rays. fibres. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Paythumatti.5 cm thick. short. Valiya Pekkumatti. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana.) Cucurbitaceae). Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. consisting of vessels. Indravaruni. tangentially elongated cork cells. intensively bitter. pitted. (Fam. b) Microscopic Root . tangentially elongated.5-7. Indravaruni (Rt. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. xylem forms bulk of root. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. dull yellow.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. thick-walled. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. thick walled. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. slightly twisted. fibres aseptate. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. a few filled with dark brown contents. an annual or perennial.23.5 µ in dia. Indrayan. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. thin walled. cylindrical. Havumakke. mostly simple or rarely 52 . Tumbi Paikamatti. Tuntikai. Indravarana Gothakakucti. Bitter apple Indravaran. Indramanoa. Indrayanalata.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. cuminii Druce. oval or roundish. a large evergreen tree. thin-walled. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam.6 m with a bole up to 15 m.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. Myrtaceae). Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. Seed .. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis.Brown coloured. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. coriaceous covering. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. taste. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. (Fam. 1 cm wide. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. 57 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. rounded starch grains. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. brownish-black.800 m. smooth.) Skeels Syn.. astringent. Jambu (Sd.25. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. Eugenia jambolana Lam. b) Microscopic Powder . 1 cm long. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. oval. E.

Kaphahara.L.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.20. 2.7.Glycoside (Jamboline).2.L.2. ViÀ¶ambhi.C.2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. Amla. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 2. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. THERAPEUTIC USES .IDENTITY.30 (blue). KaÀ¡ya Guru. CONSTITUENTS . light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.4. 2. Appendix per cent.3.30 and 0. 0. DOSE . Appendix per cent. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. 0. 0.30 and 0.2. three spots appear at Rf. T.20.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. Pittahara.Madhumeha.95 (all violet). Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.95 and 0.3-6 g. Tannin. 0.C.6.2. 0.95 (all yellow). Udakameha. 58 . Ellagic acid and Gallic acid.12. Appendix 2.V. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of the drug in powder form.

b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones.Bk. and phloem rays. Neralamara -Njaval. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu.26. (Fam. rough. E. fibres aseptate.) Skeels Syn. elongated. short and splintery. cuminii Druce. upper few layers thick. Navval Sambu. a large evergreen tree.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. astringent. and reddish brown. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. Raja Jambu Merale.5-2. forming a rhytidoma.5 cm thick. internal surface fibrous. Eugenia jambolana Lam. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. lower cork thin and colourless. fracture. 0. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces.. stone cells.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Jambu. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. stratified and reddish-brown. taste. Myrtaceae).800 m. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. Jambu (St. younger bark mostly channelled. oval to angular. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. Jamu. cork cambium not distinct. light grey to ash coloured. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Jam Jammu Naaval. Jambuda Jomuna. Jamneralae. Mahamaram.

Stambhaka. Appendix per cent. DOSE . of the drug for decoction. oval to angular. single or in groups.3. 60 . aseptate fibres. 2.region.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Kaphahara.U¿¢r¡sava. elongated. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. reddish-brown content. round to oval starch grains. 2. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide.Light brown. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.10-20 g.Atis¡ra. Pittahara.2. V¡tala.2.2.6. round to oval starch grains. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.2. Appendix per cent.7. Raktapitta. THERAPEUTIC USES . measuring 5-11µ in diameter.4.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . 2. IDENTITY. stone cells.

found throughout tropical India. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. oblong. slightly bent at middle. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal.Shows a hard testa. consisting of an epidermal layer. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous.) small evergreen tree. dull cinnamon-brown. Japal beej. kernel yellowish and oily. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. Euphorbiaceae). raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. b) Microscopic Seed . Japala. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. consisting of a large endosperm. slightly quadrangular. thin-walled cells. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. 5-7 m high. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. Tinti·¢phala. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Jayapala (Sd. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. Neervalam. Nervala -Nervalam. Neervalam Jepal. ovate. (Fam. 61 . upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents.27. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. filled with brownish content. no marked odour.

C. 0.L. Appendix 0. Powder .54 (yellow).34. Vibandha DOSE . 0.White with black particles of testa.2. 0. Udararoga.84 (brown).3. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.63 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.4.84 (all violet). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.7.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. 2. Pittahara.29. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Resins & Phorbol esters. 2. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY. 0. Appendix 2.49.V. CONSTITUENTS .39. 0. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. 2.Fixed oil. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.54 and 0. 0.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.6.L. 0.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. 0.10. 62 . Appendix 7 per cent.5 per cent. 0.2.2. Appendix 3 per cent.90 (all yellow). 2.2.Jvara. of the drug in powder form.C. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.34 (grey). Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Appendix 15 per cent.6-12 mg. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.

shows single layered epidermis. 1. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. 63 . oblong.5-15. stomata anisocytic. Jay¡. opposite. á£kÀma patra. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. mucronate to acuminate. 0. 1. aegyptiaca Pers. Jayanti (Lf. Jalugu. S. 7. consisting of thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢.) Merr.0-3.7 layered round. present on both surfaces. palisade single layered. glabrous.28.3 cm long.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. Jayanti Jaita.Syn. jayata Arinintajinamgi. polygonal. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. Karijimangai. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . Fabaceae). pith small. short lived shrub.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. having secretory cavities in phloem. parenchymatous cells. Arishimajingai.3-0. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. -Semp. paripinnate. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath.5 cm long. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. linear. Lamina . very shortly stalked. (Fam. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Atti. a quick growing.8-6 m high. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. entire. leaflets 6-16 pairs. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta.8 cm wide..

4. 0.2.2.05. 0.Dull green. shows spongy parenchyma.37. 0.56.C. 0. 0.05.48.3. 0.2.L. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa.11.37. 64 .Ratnagiri Rasa.2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. 0.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.6. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. palisade ratio 3.29.Protein.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. T.97 (all grey).11. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.11.3-6 g. 0.05. palisade cells. Appendix per cent. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2.19. in powder form. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. 0.91 and 0. Ras¡yana.29. 2. 0.97 (all yellow). ViÀaroga. 2.7. IDENTITY. 0. 0. 0.L. 0. 0.56. 2.2.69. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pittahara. V¡tahara.M£trak¤cchra.91 and 0.29.V.56 (all pink) and 0.19. 0.19. 0. 0. Powder . Galaga¸·a. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.25-4.48. DOSE .C. Calcium and Phosphorus.97 (yellow). 2.

) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. Gangunge beeja. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. unpleasant. bitter. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. Jyotishmati (Sd. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. seed without aril also prescent. a large climbing shrub. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni.29. Seed .35 mm in breadth. surface generally smooth and. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. colour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Gangunge humpu. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. collapsed. Celastraceae). a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. brownish-orange.5-3. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. taste.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. ripe seeds. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . (Fam. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. odour. light to dark brown.hard.

82. 0. Tikta Sara.15.89 (all yellow).2.C. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. áirovirecanopaga. (all blue) & 0.3. Appendix 45 per cent.89. Under U.Alkaloids.V.2.04.composed of polygonal. 0. 0.2. 0.89 (both greenish blue).L. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. Powder .35. Appendix 6 per cent. Oil and Tannins. 0. 0.4. Appendix 9 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. thin-walled. UÀ¸a.5 per cent. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. Meddhya 66 . V¡maka. Virecaka.L. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.7. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. 0.2. 2. 2.82 & 0. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.54. 2. Appendix 1. 2. 0.54 (both blue). V¡tahara. stone cells.8 IDENTITY. 2. 0.63.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). dark brown.C.Oily. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.94 (yellow) in visible light. Appendix 20 per cent.82 (pink) & 0. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.2. D¢pana. Appendix 2.82.20.6.V.54. Kaphahara. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 0.35. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. 0.94 (yellow).

V¡tavy¡dh¢. ávitra. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . 67 .Seed: 1-2 g. Sm¤tidaurbalya. Oil : 5-15 drops.

Kadamba (St. Rubiaceae). phloem composed of sieve tubes. Vellai Kadambam. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Indulam.Bk. Kadambu Needam. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. taste. a few cells with brown contents. composed of thin-walled. rectangular cells. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. Kadappai. Kadamba Kadamba. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Kadamba Nipo.. bitter. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Syn. some cells contain chlorophyll. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. Priyka Roghu. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. elongated cells of phloem rays. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. Kadavala. 68 b) Microscopic . phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Kadamba mara. large tree. traversed by uni to triseriate. (Fam. a deciduous. internally light reddish to reddish-brown.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka.30. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. A. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Rich. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. Vellaikhadambu. indicus A. Kadam Kadam.

0.2. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. of the drug in powder form.5 g.64.90 (grey). 0.6.1.31. 2. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.2.4. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. T.5 . comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. 2.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Steroids.2. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). 0. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 1. 0.2. phloem cells. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Appendix 5 per cent. 0.7. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.79 (grey) and 0. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .79.phloem fibres. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. shows fragments of cork cells.03. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13.83 and 0. Vra¸a.57.C. cells distinct and slightly elongated.70 (orange yellow). L C.3.2.D¡ha.63 (yellowish grey). Appendix 2. 0. Appendix 9 per cent. V¡tahara. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.13.5 per cent. 69 .Brown. 0. Vra¸aropa¸a. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Raktapitta. THERAPEUTIC USES .5:10) shows under U. 2.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. YonidoÀa. Lava¸a. 0. 2. 0.L. fibres. Powder .Alkaloids. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. 0. DOSE .21.

31. Pikachia. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn.) Solanaceae). 30-45 cm high. quite common in cultivated lands. Ganikesopu. white or pale violet. glabrous or pubescent. glabrous. sub-umbellate. filaments short. hairy in lower part. yellowish. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. slightly woody and branched. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. flattened.Erect. thin. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Ganikegida. oblong.Small. (Fam. pedicels 6-10 mm long. ovate or oblong. petiolate. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . extra-axillary.5 cm long and 2.2-2. Manatakkali. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. very slender. calyx 2-3 mm long. anther 1. sinuate. Stem . 3-8 flowered cymes. Flower . bark thin. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. ovary globose. five lobed. oblong. Manaththakkali. Manitakkali. ganike. green. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes.Simple. toothed or lobed.5-8. a herbaceous annual weed.5 mm long. externally smooth. road sides and gardens. corolla 4-8 mm long.P. found throughout the country in dry parts. Kakamachi (W. obtuse notched at apex. peduncles 6-20 mm long. style cylindric. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. 2. 70 . 1. obtuse.25 mm long. glabrous. slender. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. hairy at base.5 cm wide. narrowed at both ends. pale brown. Leaf .

polygonal cells.' oval parenchymatous cells. internal phloem.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. 1.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells.Fruit . measuring 2. phloem rays uniseriate. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. covered with striated cuticle. embedded in perimedullary zones. measuring 2. yellow or black. xylem rays homogenous. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. single or with two or rarely 3 components. smooth shining Seed . parenchyma 4-6 layered. covered with thick.5-8. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces. Midrib . smooth. vascular bundles-collateral.10 layered in angular parts. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. 6mm in dia. tangentially elongated. radially elongated cells. arcshaped. cambium 2-4 layered. obtuse. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round.Shows single layered.25 µ in dia. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round.. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.Discoid. central vascular bundle shallow. slightly striated cuticle. conjoint and open. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. usually accompanied by fibres. bicollateral. uniseriate.5 mm in dia. trichomes multicellular. minutely pitted. phloem consists of thin-walled. epidermis single layered. covering trichomes.. oval to round starch grains. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head.A berry. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells.. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. rays composed of thin-walled. yellow. covered with striated cuticle. but 4.. uniseriate. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. cortex of large. in small or large patches. arc71 . starch grains. slightly elongated. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. composed of thin-walled. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. compactly arranged. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. uniseriate. pith large. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. endoderrnis single layered. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows.5-11 µ in dia. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. LeafPetiole . filled with starch grains. Stem .

34 (both brown) in visible light. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. palisade single layered. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. Under U. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.Alkaloids and Saponins.06 & 0.6. CONSTITUENTS . stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis.3. 2.2. IDENTITY. 0. 2. 0.Shows thin. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces.4. Appendix per cent. 034 and 0. a few broken pieces of pointed. stomata anisocytic.Creamish-green.34 (both pink).2.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. vein islet number 7-10.C. Appendix per cent. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. epidermis with irregular outline.L. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. measuring 2.06 & 0. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.2. palisade ratio 2-4. 72 .L. papery epicarp. T. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.2. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Powder . Appendix 2. 2. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. Appendix per cent.7.V. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. Appendix per cent. Lamina . present beneath palisade parenchyma.11 µ in diameter.97 (all yellow). single. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.dorsiventral. 0. unicellular hairs. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. Fruit .2.2.5 .06. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.C. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.

Sara. Svarya. of the drug in juice form. Kaphahara. DOSE . Pittahara. H¤dya. Ar¿a. Jvara. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Prameha. 73 . V¡tahara. KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·u. Netraroga. H¤droga. Hikk¡. Tikta Laghu.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.áotha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. Ras¡yana. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa.5 -10 ml. Chardi.

membranous. 2-4 cm long. comprising of calyx. extended into clavate appendages. fruit an etaerio of achenes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Thamaraipoo. Kamala (Fl. Salaphool Lotus Kamal.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. a large. sepals leaf-like. Sarojam Kaluva. Naidile. Venthamara. Kanwal Kamal. Padma. erect. 3-5 cm long. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. crimpled. petals numerous. 1. Tavare. finely veined. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Kalh¡ra. Kamal. crimp led. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. anther. (Fam. Paduman. broken pieces also occur. corolla. Tavaregedd -Tamara. yellowish-brown.3-2 cm wide. Kamalam. obtuse. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Aravinda. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Syn.5-3 cm wide. Chenthamara. gynoceium apocarpous. dark brown. 1. free. Sitopala.. embedded in a creamy. gynoecium and thalamus.4-2 cm long. starchy and large.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. seed hard. Pamposh Tamarai. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. elliptic. androecium. linear 1. Aravindan.32. black. Nymphaeaceae). carpels many. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. 74 .

spherical. columnar. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. Visarpa. Appendix per cent. Anther .2.2. ViÀavik¡ra.Aravind¡sava. Appendix per cent. Powder . having smooth exine and intine.12 -24 g. 2. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. . ground tissue consisting of polygonal. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta.3. spore sac contains yellow.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. yellow pollen grains.Raktapitta.Dusty brown. of the drug for decoction. 2. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. 2. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. composed of thin-walled.7. Stamen Filament .2. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .filament appears circular in outline.shows four chambered anther. parenchymatous cell.2. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Tikta. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. followed by ground tissue of oval. parenchymatous cells. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha.2. vascular bundle single. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. angular. rectangular. Appendix per cent.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. Appendix per cent.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. two on either sides. Pittahara. IDENTITY. Sant¡pahara. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. M£tra Virajan¢ya.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. 2.4.

found throughout the plains of India.shows irregular. reddish brown. odour. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp .33.Reddish-brown. found in groups. parenchymatous cells. glabrous tree with strong. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Bilvara. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. Siwalik range and forests. stone cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. Powder . a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. sharp.) Swingle. a deciduous.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. F. hard. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. Haminamara -Vilar maram. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. Kavataleal. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. semicircular. elephantum Correa (Faro. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Pulp. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. taste. Balada. Belalu. Belada hannu. 76 . stone cells. straight. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. thin-walled. aromatic. often cultivated in many parts of India. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. Rutaceae). Syn. axillary thorns. rough. slightly triangular and oval. sour. Kapittha (Fr.

37.2. KaÀ¡ya.C. 0.2. Lekhana.4. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta.95 (violet) .3.50 (violet). On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.6.IDENTITY.37 (brown). Appendix per cent. 6. Appendix per cent.12 (brown). 0. Unripe Pulp: Amla.06. Appendix per cent. V¡mi.1-3 g.2. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. 0. Sangr¡h¢. THERAPEUTIC USES .50. Pittav¡tahara.91 (grey) in visible light. 2. 0. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. Gr¡h¢. 0. Appendix per cent. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Hikk¡. Agnim¡ndya.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. DOSE .2. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.2.14 (sky blue). T.C. Ripe-T¤À¡. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.Citric acid and Mucilage.áv¡sa.91 (violet) and 0. Amla. 0.L. of the drug in powder form. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. Vra¸an¡¿aka.12. 2.V. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0.95 (all yellow).Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.91 and 0. CONSTITUENTS .L. 0.7. 77 . 2.91 (blue) and 0.95 (blue). Under U.

short. sometimes cultivated. rough due to longitudinal striations.Bk. met throughout India in wild state. and compound having 2-3 components. flat or slightly curved pieces. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. external surface brownish-grey. (Fam . measuring 3-7 µ in dia. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. light in weight. starch grains simple.) Apocynaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn.Greyish-brown. simple and compound starch grains. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. 78 . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.34. shows single and groups of stone cells. tubular. Karamarda (St. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. internal surface grey and smooth. b) Microscopic Powder . fracture. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells.

of the drug for decoction. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene. Appendix per cent.48 g.2.C.2. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.58 (both light grey).L.4. 0. Appendix per cent. DOSE .7. T. Pittakara. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. Appendix 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.L.IDENTITY. 2.V. 2. 2.35.3. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.KuÀthahara.52 (light sky blue).2.6. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. 79 .Glycosides and â-Sitosterol.97 (violet). 0. Appendix per cent. 2.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.90 (pink) and 0.2.2.C. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

tangentially elongated cells. Nakt¡hv¡. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. Karanja (Rt. cells. external surface rough. Syn. Fabaceae). stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. fracture. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. thin-walled. most of phloem 80 . 3-11 µ in dia. single cells of varying shape and size. Naktam¡la. taste. secondary phloem very wide. (Fam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. fibrous. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a glabrous tree..35. P. Bk. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. internally. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal.) glabra Vent. due to peeling off. very bitter.) Merr. tangentially elongated. traversed by phloem rays.

0.K¤miroga. consisting of thin-walled. Prameha. parenchymatous cells.31 (sky blue). 0. 0.1-3 g. DuÀ¶avra¸a.2.31.L. phloem rays many.C.2. 0. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. mostly straight. Appendix 17 per cent. 81 .42 (sky blue). stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter.18 (blue) 0. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. T.80 and 0. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. phloem fibres. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. 0. 2. Appendix 2 per cent.08 (greenish blue). similar to those present in secondary cortex. Appendix 2. 0.98 (all yellow). 2. Ëntravidradhi.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. Appendix 3. 0. 0.09. Yoniroga.04 (blue). 0. 0. Pittahara. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery.47.3. CONSTITUENTS . Ka¸·£ghna.37. 1-2 seriate. DOSE . Powder -Creamish-yellow.5 per cent. Tikta.7.13 (Sky blue). THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 0. KuÀtha. Appendix 11 per cent.25 (sky blue).L. of the drug for decoction.2. ViÀaghma.6. 0.2. most of ray cells contain starch grain.47. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf.51 (light blue).37 (greenish yellow).Flavones Kanugin. V¡tahara.18. cork cells.2.V.47 (greenish yellow). Ka¸·u.C. shows thin-walled.4. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.51. 2. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.80 (light blue). 0.2. 2.

most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. 3-11 µ in dia. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. tangentially elongated cells. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. cells. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. irregularly distributed. Syn. P. (Fam. Fabaceae). a glabrous tree. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. taste. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of 82 . Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Karanja (Rt. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. secondary phloem a very wide zone. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.) Vent. Nakt¡hv¡. rounded to oval in shape. fracture. bitter. reddish-brown or dull brown. light in weight. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. internally light yellow.36. bark does not easily separate from xylem. Karaµjaka. rough due to the presence of numerous. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal.. bark.) Merr.. 1-2 seriate. tangentially elongated. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres.

Vidradh¢. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. consisting of 2-3 components. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. shows fibres in singles or groups. Powder -Light yellow. tracheids. Demethoxy-kanugin. 2. 2. of the drug in powder form. Tikta.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta.6. Kanugin. Appendix 2. Pittahara.2. Prameha. thin-waned cells towards inner region.2. Ka¸·£. K¤miroga.DuÀ¶avra¸a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. IDENTITY. tangentially elongated towards outer region.radially elongated.3. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara. Yoniroga. DOSE . starch grains.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. rounded to oval in shape. 2. more.Karanjin. Vra¸a¿odhana.2. CONSTITUENTS . also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. 83 .4. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. Kaphahara. KuÀ¶ha.2. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. fibres and parenchyma. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely.. ViÀaghna.7. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.Methylfisetin. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .1-2 g. Ëntravidradh¢.

lenticellate pieces. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. unpleasant. usually 0. Karanja (St. fibre small. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. 84 . sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. thick-walled cells. filled with reddish-brown content. Karaµjaka. phloem fibre and stone cells. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. more or less smooth. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. composed of rectangular. recurved. a glabrous tree. phloem parenchyma. fracture. taste. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. arranged in a tangential manner.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. slightly quilled. tangentially elongated. Karanja.) glabra Vent. Syn. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja.37. at some places lenticels also appear.Bk. odour.2-1 cm thick. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. Nakt¡hv¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. alternating with stone cells. short and fibrous. (Fam. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. thin-walled.. P. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. b) Microscopic Bark . traversed by medullary rays. bitter. parenchymatous cells.) Merr. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.

radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. rounded to oval. V¡tahara. 2. elongated.2. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. and rarely.7.. Appendix 18 per cent. Kaphahara.polygonal. K¤miroga. CONSTITUENTS .3. Demethoxy- kanugin. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". simple and compound starch grains. oil globules.6. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 3" 7 : 8). IDENTITY. Vidradh¢. 3".DuÀ¶avra¸a. Appendix 13 per cent. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. Appendix 3 per cent. aseptate fibre and stone cells.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin.2. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. Pittahara. 2. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. present in secondary cortex. Ka¸·u.2. Appendix 2. Ka¶u. Tikta. Prameha. ViÀaghma. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. medullary rays wavy.2. usually 2-4 cells wide. Yoniroga DOSE . 85 . thin-walled and aseptate. 2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin.2. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form. 2. 5Methoxyfurano (2". Powder -Yellowish-cream. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem.2.1-2 g.4. Pinnatin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Appendix 1. Kanugin. Pongapin. Gamatin. Ëntravidradh¢. starch grains simple. KuÀ¶ha. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent.

consistig of tabular cells. a glabrous tree.. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. consisting of xylem and phloem. Nakt¡hv¡. (Fam.38. epidermis single layered. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . ovate or elliptic with smooth margins.) Merr. Kanajo Karuaini. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Hulagilu -Pungu. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. isodiametric. leaflets 2-3 pairs. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. petiolule short. Pongana Ganuga.5-0. Fabaceae).5 cm long and 3.) Vent.9-8. 0. 86 . Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Unu.8 cm.2 . Karanja (Lf. traversed by xylem rays.circular in outline. Syn. Karaµjaka. P.3 cm wide.11. vascular bundle single. Karanja. 6. covered with cuticle. xylem vessels arranged radially. dark green. Ungu. arcshaped. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. cortex consisting of angular. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. Dithouri Honge.

6.5-50. K¤imihara.6. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath.5 per cent. 5" . thin-walled parenchymatous cells.2. Ka¸·ughna. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. palisade ratio 3.5) .methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. Appendix 2. present in lower surface.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". Tikta.4. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 .7. palisade two layered. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.2. 2. 5". Appendix 11 per cent. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib.5". 2.6. 7) -flavone. Appendix 16 per cent. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. cortex consists of round to oval.6. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. Powder -Green.(4". 2. shows spiral xylem vessels.shows single layered epidermis. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Kaphahara. Ka¶u. phloem and pith.A new Furanoflavone -3' . collateral.2. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. . stomatal index 12. Appendix 10 per cent. vascular bundle. CONSTITUENTS . consisting of tabular cells. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". covered with thick cuticle. Appendix 3. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.Mid rib . V¡tahara. mesophyll cells.3.2. stomata anisocytic. Pittavardhaka.2.5-20. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.2.

For external use only. DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .K¤miroga. KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·au.J¡ty¡di Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a. 88 .

2. usually pointed or beaked. oblong.3.) Cucurbitaceae).39. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds.2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. 3 valved at the apex when mature.2. Appendix 2. Karavallaka (Fresh. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. taste. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . Kakiral. 2. (Fam. Appendix 6 per cent. Varivall¢. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. Nil Appendix 8.6. IDENTITY. extremely bitter.6 per cent.2. surface rough.7. Appendix 28 per cent. 2. Kathilla. 2.25 cm long. pendulous.2. K¡ravall¢. upto an altitude of 1500 m.5 per cent.2.Fr.5 . Appendix 0. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation.2.4. fusiform.

0. KuÀ¶ha. H¤dya. 0. 0. 0. K¡sa. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.75. T. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. D¢pana.50. 0.V.C.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U.43. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. K¤miroga.23 (red). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.T. 0. 0.15 ml. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .67 and 0. 0. P¡¸·u. Kaphahara. K¡mal¡. Raktavik¡ra.16. 0.61 (light sky blue). juice of fresh drug.60. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.96 (sky blue).10 .98 (all blue).áv¡sa. 90 . 0. Prameha.46. DOSE .17. 0. Jvara.98 (all yellow). 0.L.34.L.C.03.81 and 0. Aruci.98 (red & sky blue). CONSTITUENTS . 0.

straight or slightly curved. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. (Fam. inner surface black with whitish xylem. pleasant. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. short. odour. b) Microscopic Rhizome . at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Katuka rohini Kutki. Sutiktaka. subcylindrical. suberised cells.2. mostly attached with rhizomes. Rohi¸¢. Kaurohi¸¢. dusty grey. Tiktarohi¸¢. bitter. . short. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. pleasant. Scrophulariaceae).Thin. Katuku rohini. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Root . odour.1 cm in diameter. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. 5-10 cm long.40. Katki. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu.05-0. bitter. fracture. Kav¢. kaur Katuka rohini. Katuka (Rz. taste. a perennial. externally greyish-brown. primary cortex persists 91 . cortex single layered or absent. fracture. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. taste.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. 0. Kauka. cylindrical. cork cambium 1-2 layered. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . Katu Kutki Katuka rohini.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick.

0.84 (all brownish grey). 92 . On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0. Appendix 2.30.L.Dusty grey.2.C.2. tracheids long. 0. lignified. 0. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. consisting of oval to polygonal.6.in some cases. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. 0. Powder . xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.C. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. IDENTITY. parenchyma and fibres.62.30. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.2. 2. starch grains. simple round to oval.2. 0.21. starch grains. cortex 8-14 layered.84 (all yellow). 0.10. 0.3. secondary phloem poorly developed.37. measuring 25-104 µ in dia.72 and 0.L. parenchyma. 0. 0. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. simple round to oval. tracheids. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. cambium 2-4 layered. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres.17. thick-walled. 2.05 (blue).104 µ in diameter. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex.41. abundantly found in all cells. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.17. T. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. 0. thick-walled cells of endodermis. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. 0.35 (green). thick-walled.41 and 0. 2.10. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. 2.. parenchymatous cells. tapering ends.7.30 (blue) and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. fibres aseptate. measuring 25 . 0. thick-walled. thick-walled. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. 0. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.05.2. vessels have varying shape and size. some cylindrical with taillike. Appendix per cent.2. tracheids. hypodermis single layered.V. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. secondary xylem consists of vessels.21.4. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. 0. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U.

of the drug in powder form. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. DOSE . D¡ha.CONSTITUENTS .Glucoside (Picrorhizin).1 . ViÀamajvara. Jvara.áv¡sa. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. Arocaka. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. KuÀ¶ha. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. K¡mal¡. Bhedin¢. 93 .3 g.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. THERAPEUTIC USES . D¢pan¢.

all linear-lanceolate. with long white hairs. corolla 3. fasciculate. Nirchulli. widely 2 lipped. abruptly swollen at top. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes.5-1 cm wide. no characteristic odour and taste. Kolavankal ---.5 cm long. Flower . coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. common in water logged places throughout the country.2 cm long. didynamous. no characteristic odour and taste. Syn. Kettu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Hygrophila spinosa T. whitish to brown. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. stout. second pair 94 .P. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. bracts about 2. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. a spiny. upper sepal 1. tube 1.Acanthaceae). Kolarind.6-2 cm long. swollen at nodes.Yellowish-brown. broader than the other three. subsessile. Kokilaksha (W. annual herb.6 cm long.Usually unbranched. which are 1. calyx 4-partite.Greenish-brown. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .Mostly adventitious. externally greyish-brown.41.3 cm long. 1-7 cm long. 0. sub-quadrangular. Kalsunda --Golmidi. Culli. Vayalculli Talikhana. IkÀuraka. Nirguvireru. lanceolate. stamens 4. Stem . acute. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. Leaf .Anders (Fam. entire and hairy.

most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. a few thick-walled. oblong. 95 . having small intercellular spaces. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. brownish cells. style filiform. linear-oblong. ray cells thin-walled. with a number of large air cavities. phloem narrow. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. endodermis single layered. ray cells thin walled. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.15 cm wide. thin-walled.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. 0. scattered throughout the phloem region. peripheral ones larger. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. pubescent. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. compressed. inner cells smaller. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. cortical cells thin-walled. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. 4seeded.Two celled. fibres thick-walled. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. filament quite glabrous.Ovate. light brown. radially arranged. glabrous. radially elongated in secondary xylem. radially elongated in xylem region. fibre walls uniformly thickened. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. thin-walled cells.0. rectangular to cubical. flat or compressed. polygonal cells. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. vessels angular. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. subequal. anthers two celled. xylem present in a ring. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. vessels with spiral thickenings. composed of polygonal. stigma simple.larger. variable in size.8 cm long. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. arranged in radial rows. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. phloem fibres thick-walled. pith large. b) Microscopic Root . cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. consisting of round to polygonal cells.2-0. round. Stem . hairy but appearing smooth. capsule about 0. truncate at the base. single or in groups of 2-3. involute with a fissure on upper side. pointed. moderately thick-walled. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region.25 cm long and 0. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. Fruit . fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. broader towards centre.1 . arranged radially. composed of transversely elongate. Seed .

cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. Lamina .25-15. parenchymatous. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules.2. 2. Appendix 2. covered with thick cuticle. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.2.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. IDENTITY. lignified. 2. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . palisade ratio 6. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. thick-walled. parenchymatous cells. unicellular hairs and globules.Shows concavo-convex outline. stomata diacytic. palisade 1-2 layered.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. Appendix per cent.2. Seed . Appendix per cent. M£trala. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. 2.78. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. . palisade. vein islet number 17-42.4. sclerenchymatous cells.24-30. tangentially elongated cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle.Light brown. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle.LeafMidrib .Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. stomatal index 17. oval to hexagonal. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. Amla. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .75. Fruit . loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. V¡jikara.2. V¤Àya. Powder .6. collenchyma 2-5 layered. Rucya.7. elongated fibres. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Tikta Picchila. thin-walled. composed of thin-walled.2.3. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces.2. shows aseptate.

of the drug in powder form. DOSE . V¡tarakta. THERAPEUTIC USES .P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra).IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ëmav¡ta áotha.3 -6 g. 97 .T¤À¸¡.

Hygrophila spinosa T. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. secondary phloem narrow. no characteristic odour and taste. Kokil¡kÀ¢. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. whitish to brownish. Anders (Fam.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. slightly transversely elongated. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. Kolavulike. a spiny. Syn. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. branches on nodes. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. Kokilaksha (Rt. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. polygonal cells. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces.42. IkÀuraka. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. the size of these cells. Culli --. stout. thinwalled cells. Root-Appears circular in outline. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. Nerugobbi. thin-walled. 98 . annual herb.Acanthaceae). a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. consisting of small. common in water logged places throughout the country.

multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. vessels with spiral thickening. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug for decoction.2. Appendix per cent. ray cells thin-walled. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . Appendix per cent.2.Light brown to ash coloured. 99 .4.2.3.3 -6 g. radially elongated in the xylem region. 2.2. each group composed of 2-6 cells. fibre walls uniformly thickened. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. scattered throughout the phloem region. broader towards centre.2. A¿ma¤¢. lignified fibres. Appendix per cent. V¡tahara. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. angular.6. Powder . Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .Ëmav¡ta áotha. 2.7. M£trala. 2. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. 2. Tikta Picchila.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. secondary xylem forms continuous ring.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. V¡tarakta. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. IDENTITY. having spiral thickening. Amla. shows fragments of pitted. Appendix per cent. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2.

Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. annual herb. thinwalled. hairy but appearing smooth. IkÀuraka.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. (Fam. light yellowish-brown. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. oil globules present in this region. the 100 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. Kokilaksha (Sd. Swelling Index . Daruhuladur Darhald. Hygrophila spinosa T. flat or compressed. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Acanthaceae). stout. Syn. Powder . taste. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. white.43. truncate at the base.8 -10. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. Anders. Maradarishana. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. Maradarishina -Maramannal. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. parenchymatous cells. shows hairs and oil globules. common in water logged places throughout the country. b) Microscopic Seed . a spiny.Greyish-brown.

Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 2. 0. IDENTITY. 0. 0. 0.72 (dark brown). V¤Àya. V¡tarakta.55 (light blue). Appendix per cent. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. 0. Appendix 2. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. 101 . Add 25 ml of water. including any sticky mucilage. Lipase.6.2. of the drug in powder form. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.L. 2.10 (light brown). Appendix per cent. Kaphahara. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf.3.2. 0.C.52 (dark brown) and 0. Pitt¡¿mar¢. 0. T.31 (dark brown). 0.2. 0.. Santarpa¸a. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.03 (light brown).93 (sky blue). 0.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.V.An yellow semi-drying oil.24 (red).C. 0.03. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.3 -6 g.4. CONSTITUENTS .38 (light brown). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.2. related to 1 g of seeds.31. 0. enzymes like Diastase.17 (light brown). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. 0. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.L. 0. Protease and an Alkaloid.24.24 (dark brown).41 (light blue).38. 0.áotha.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.72 (all yellow). Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. Appendix per cent.17.52 and 0. 2.2.76 (sky blue) and 0.

smooth and greenish-brown. short. 0. Common Indian Purslane Luni.A few. an annual succulent. Badanuni.An ovoid capsule. Kozuppa.Cylindrical. (Fam. Loni. 0. subtended by an involucre. Stem . ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas.44. Moti Luni Khursa. root hairs abundant in upper region. Leaf . 3-4 leaves.Almost cylindrical. Lonika. Peddapavila Kura. sub-sessile. Kozhuppa.1 to 0.1 to 0. short. style 5-6 fid. bright yellow. dehiscing above the base. rounded and truncate at the apex. Ghola -Lonak. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Fruit . less in number. small. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Doddagoni Soppu. odour. Baranunia Garden Purslane. at terminal heads. sepal 0.3 to 2.2 cm in diameter. stamens 8-12. petals obovate.25-0. brownish-grey. prostrate herb.5 cm long and 0. Pulikkirai.P) Portulacaceae). branched. fracture. characteristic. oblong. Flower . fracture. surface smooth. secondary roots. 0. Khurfa. Loni -Koricchira. Gho¶ik¡. -Baraloniya. Payilikura. cuneiform. 102 . Kulfa.6 cm wide.35-0. Badi Lona Dudagorai. found throughout the country. Kozhuppu Pappukura.4 cm long. ribbed. oblique. 0. swollen at the nodes. Paruppukkeerai. very delicate and soon falling off. 50 cm long. Chhotalunia.4 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡.5 cm long. Loni.Simple.3 cm long. Kuzuppa (W. spathulate. Kwfa Pasalai. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn.

2.06-0. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. tracheids and parenchyma.2. secondary xylem consists of vessels. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. pericycle fibre present in patches. present in mesophyll cells.Seed -Numerous. tracheids and parenchyma. measuring 6-14 µ .shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. vessels. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. 2. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. measuring 6-14 µ in dia.7. as well as compound.Greyish-brown. IDENTITY. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent.6. Appendix per cent. phloem and xylem parenchyma. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. minute. pitted and spiral vessels. Stem . tracheids. Lamina . thin-walled. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. . paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. Appendix 2. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells.3. reniform.. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. thick-walled with wide lumen. oval cells. phloem. black. Appendix per cent. parenchyma abundant. 2. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. ray cells and pith.07 cm across. LeafMidrib . 2. having 2-3 components. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. solitary or in groups of 2-5.4. having intercellular spaces.2.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis.Wavy in outline.Shows 5-15 layers of cork. stomata paracytic type. Appendix per cent. 0. arranged in radial rows. 2. Appendix per cent. fragments of cork cells. oval. covered externally with a thick cuticle. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. dark brown. parenchymatous cells.2. simple as well as compound.2. Powder . palisade single layered. secondary xylem composed of vessels. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. shows groups of oval to polygonal.2. having simple pits and spiral thickening.

(both green). Pittakara. 0. 0.08. 0. Ar¿a. T. 0.08.41.6 g.C. 0.Agnim¡ndya. CakÀuÀya. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.V.10.61.52 (both faint green).41.50. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. Prameha. 0. 0.C. Vra¸a DOSE . 0. Carbohydrates.3 . 0.L. 0. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 104 . Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form.76 (all pinkish red).76 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf.10. 0. V¡tahara. 0.68 (yellow) and 0. 0. RukÀa.52. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf..68. áotha.L. 0.Protein. Gulma.Marma Gu¶ik¡. Under U.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS .10.76 (green) in visible light. THERAPEUTIC USES .T.68 and 0.

4 cm broad.3-0. internal cut surface grey.2 cm long. 25-50 cm high. Adamalati Lajaka. tapering. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. slightly astringent. petiolate. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5 cm in dia. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. cut surface of pieces pale yellow.P) diffused undershrub. Machikegida. Lajjalu (W.week bristles longitudinally grooved. leaflets 10-20 pairs. Stem . bark fibrous. Lajavanti. (Fam.Cylindrical. Lajamani Chhuimui. with secondary and tertiary branches. obliquely narrow or linear oblong.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. easily separable from wood. Fabaceae). obliquely rounded at base. sensitive to touch. nearly glabrous. linear lanceolate. 105 . stipulate. woody. taste.Cylindrical. acute. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. upto 2 cm thick. bark fibrous. alternate.45. yellowish-green. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. odour. fracture hard. Var¡kr¡nt¡. greyish brown to brown. upto 2. hairy pinnae. distinct. sessile. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. 0. sparsely prickly. Lajauni Muttidasenui. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. external surface light brown. Leaf . covered with long.6-1. rependant . varying in length.

thick-walled. a number of lignified. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. phloem fibres single or in groups. 0. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. respectively.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. 2. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. 0. radially elongated. moderately thick-walled. Fruit . tracheids pitted with pointed ends. xylem rays radially elongated. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. spreading bristle at sutures. parenchyma. fibres of two types. lobes 4. ovules numerous. 3-25 chambered. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. tangentially elongated cells. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate.Compressed. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. consisting of large. 1-1.3 cm long. oval-elliptic. thick-walled. crystal fibres elongated. 0.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. scattered throughout secondary xylem. brown to grey. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. calyx very small. fibres. crystal fibres thick-walled. secondary cortex wide. 2-3 seriate more common. dry. tangentially elongated to oval. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. peduncles prickly. scattered throughout. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. ovate oblong. straw coloured. rarely multiseriate.4-0. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. 106 . corolla pink. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. b) Microscopic Root . simple. thick-walled. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.Lomentum.Pink.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered.3 long. starch grains. Seed . glabrous. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. phloem rays thick-walled. stamens 4. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. filled with reddish-brown contents. pith consisting of polygonal. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Stem . vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. fibres single or in groups. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. much exserted. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. ovary sessile. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. in globose head.Flower . arranged in tangential bands. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex.6 cm long.

shaggy hairs. parenchymatous cells Seed .2. parenchymatous cells. 0. single and compound starch grains. shows.L. shaggy hairs. spongy parenchyma. palisade single layered. Midrib . thin-walled. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. Powder . with 2 . On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .2. lignified cells followed by single layered.C. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally.62. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf.69 (all blue) and 0.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. 2.2. Lamina .Reddish-brown. crystal fibres. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. branched. 0. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. 2.4.2. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix per cent. pericycle same as in petiole. Fruit . rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma.C. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.L.shows epidermis on both surfaces. pericycle arranged in a ring. 0. 2.81 (bluish-pink). Appendix per cent.V. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells.7.shows single layered epidermis. spongy parenchyma single layered.6. endocarp of thick-walled.3. covered with thin-cuticle. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. fibres.Leaf- Petiole . reticulate. 2. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. branched. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. vascular bundle single. Appendix 2.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. pitted vessels. Appendix per cent. T.3 components IDENTITY.2. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.35. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. palisade cells non glandular. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. one in each wing. parenchymatous cells.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular.2.

35 (orange). áv¡sa. Raktapita DOSE .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. 0.35 and 0.spots appear at Rf. Vra¸a. 0. Ku¶aj¡valeha. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. KuÀ¶ha.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Kaphahara. Yoniroga.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. Atis¡ra. 108 . CONSTITUENTS . D¡ha. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES .áopha. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a.

anther sub-sessile. epipetalous. ovate lanceolate. basifixed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. (Fam.F.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. Ilippa.5-2 cm long. M. tabular. short. Sapotaceae) . Kattu Iluppai. Androecium . Eppimara -Irippa. Halippe.) Macbride. corolla fleshy. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. sweet. followed by thin-walled.46. epipetalous and arranged in two series.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. Madhuka (Fl. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. Mahua Katiluppai. Mahawash tree Mahudo. Syn. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. erect 0. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Iluppa. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. taste. Bassia latifolia Roxb. Madhuka.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Hippe. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. a few 109 . Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. b) Microscopic Corolla . Hippenara. latifolia (Roxb. reddish-brown. lanceolate.Gmel. and also cultivated. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. Ippa.

round.2. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. endothecium composed of radially elongated. árama DOSE .2.Madh£k¡sava. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . pollen grains single or in groups. shows fragments of epidermal cells.2. áramahara.áv¡sa.Dark brown. Appendix 2. of the drug. 110 . KÀaya. lignified cells.2. KÀata. 2. 2. Pittakara.4. unicellular hairs. D¡ha.3. 2.2. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.2. oval shaped. spherical. Ah¤dya. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. tapetum not distinct. Powder .2.15 g. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .unicellular hairs present on one side.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . El¡di Modaka. Appendix 70 per cent.10 . 2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls.7. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. Appendix 25 per cent. Appendix 0. T¤À¸¡. Balya. IDENTITY.5 per cent.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala.6. V¡tahara.

47. A. A.3-2 cm wide. 0. cream to grey. Amaranthaceae). short. 0. Flower .. short. Br.5 cm long. internodes 0. Gandal¢. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. with spreading branches from the base. Syn. 2. fracture.. (Fam. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. Br. triandra Lam. A. Matshyakshi (W.. fracture. obtuse or subacute. yellowish-brown to light-brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡.P. no characteristic odour and taste.. weak. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. Matsy¡duni. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .. Bahli.6 cm diameter.5 cm wide. nodiflora R. linear-oblong. non Link.3-7.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.1.Cylindrical. repens Gmel. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. A. white often tinged with pink. or elliptic. Leaf . nodes and internodes distinct. sessile. denticulata R.5-5 cm long. bracteoles 111 .) R. no characteristic odour and taste. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region.Herbaceous. often rooting at lower nodes. Br. Stem .1-0. no characteristic odour and taste. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets.

5-3 mm long. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. open and exarch. isodiametric. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. ovary obcordate. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. palisade ratio 3-5. bicollateral.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. collenchymatous cells. 1. shows wavy or undulate. Lamina .5 mm long. round to oval. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. perianth 2. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. parenchymatous cells. vascualr bundles radially arranged. thin-walled. covered wtith striated cuticle. irregular. no characteristic odour and taste. acute. each consisting of xylem and phloem. round or oval. pith consisting of thin-walled. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. pith distinct. stomata paracytic. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. thin-walled round or oval. numerous. style very short. vascular bundles three. 112 . compressed. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. consistig of thin-walled. sepals ovate. compressed with thickened margins. Stem . orbicular.dorsiventral.2 cm long. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous cells. palisade 2-3 layers. with are conjoint. b) Microscopic Root . scarious. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. with anomalous secondary growth.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. isodiametic cells. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith.1. radially arranged cork cells. xylem tissues lignified. composed of thin-walled. Leaf- Midrib . thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle.Utricle.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. parenchymatous cells. present in the centre. Fruit . single layered. consisting of thin-walled cells. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. no characteristic odour and taste. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. secondary cortex narrow. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. thin. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. capitellate. ovate.

Appendix 3 per cent.Sugar.L. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. CONSTITUENTS .33. of the drug in powder form. 0. 2.. Appendix 4.3. 0.44 (all green).68 (all red). 0.2. Under U.16.KuÀ¶ha. 2. 0.Powder .6.L. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. 0. 0.2 -3 g. Appendix 10 per cent.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. IDENTITY.81. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tahara. Kaphahara.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.2.2. Pittavik¡ra.96 (all yellow).35.2. Appendix 2. paracytic stomata.94 and 0. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.25.C.59. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .44.2. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.C. 113 .16.5 per cent. 0.33 and 0.7. Appendix 19 per cent. 0. 0.18. T. Tikta.44.V. 0.Olive green.54 and 0. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.4. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 0.

seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water.15-0. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. Fabaceae).48. bitter. thin-walled. covered externally with thick cuticle.) aromatic. odour. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. columnar palisade. 30-60 cm tall. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. Methi (Sd. taste.2-0. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. dull yellow. (Fam.walled. 0. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium.5 cm long. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. 114 . cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. pleasant. varying in size. cultivated throughout the country. very hard.35 cm broad. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Seed . mucilaginous cells. cells flat at base.Seed shows a layer of thick. smooth. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. parenchymatous cells. 0. several layers of thin walled. annual herb.

2. Jvara. THERAPEUTIC USES .Mustak¡riÀ¶a. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. Appendix 5 per cent.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. aleurone grains.2. Sapogenins and Mucilage.2. Aruci DOSE . 2. of the drug in powder form. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.2. Rucya. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. Appendix 0.Yellow. oil globules. IDENTITY.6. Appendix 4 per cent. Kaphahara.Alkaloid. 115 .4.Graha¸¢.3-6 g. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. 2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. Appendix 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent. Powder .3.2. Prameha.

0 cm in dia. petals 1. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. Leaf . (Fam.Slender. sub-marginate at the apex. variable size and thickness. bisexual. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. white or lilac with yellow or 116 .2 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. compressed.7-2. pedicel with scattered hairs. Mulaka (W. Muli.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.49.3 cm long.Root cylindrical. not distinct. slightly pungent.P.5-10 cm long. coarsely toothed. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. sometimes brown red. upper most leaves simple. taste. yellowish-green. odour. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. lyrate. hollow. regular. bright green.. oblong.Flower in long terminal raceme. complete 1-2 cm long. Stem .Lower leaves hairy. Flower . 0. seplas 6. blade obovate.1-1. an annual or biennial bristly herb. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. petiole 5-5.) Brassicaceae). having a few longitudinal striations. cylindrical.

endodermis at some places. occasionally pale purple.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring.Siliqua. 2 mm wide. Stem . 117 . thin-walled. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end.Reddish-brown. round to oval. 10-12 ovuled. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces.4 cm thick. medullary rays four to many cells wide. hairs unicellular. b) Microscopic Root . Lamina . elliptical. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. two outer smaller and four inner longer. covered with thick cuticle. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. Midrib . green or brown-purple. epidermis single layered. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma.appears biconvex in outline. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. vascular bundle three in number. parenchymatous cells. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. greenish-yellow. palisade 2-3 layers. phloem. epidermis followed by 6. sometimes flattened. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. 2-4 mm long. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. taste. present in cortex and phloem. irregularly globose. parenchymatous cells. present in cortex. traversed by phloem rays. cylindrical. oily. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. stamen 6 in two whorls. parenchymatous cells. measuring 3-6 µ in dia.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. ovary superior. Leaf- Petiole . round to oval. erect. 1-2 chambered. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group.1.8. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal.purple vein. 3-9 cm long and 0. traversed by xylem rays.dorsiventral. continuous or more or less constricted. solitary or ingroups. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. starch grains simple. cork cells. Fruit . radially arranged. Seed . starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. thin-walled. style about 4 mm long.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. pith a wide zone of polygonal. present only on upper side. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. one central and two lateral. longitudinally sulcatus. single layered. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres.

Yellowish-green. Rucya.7. straight cuticle. parenchymatous cells present.Glucoside. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. of columnar cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. reddish-brown. spiral vessels. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. Tikta Laghu. Appendix 2. Kaphahara.Fruit .2. measuring 3-14 µ diameter.3. Gandhaka Va¶¢. Appendix per cent. 2. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. of the drug in juice form. 2. tangentially elongated. P¡cana.2. Pittahara. Powder .20 . Ar¿a. thin-walled. Gulma. parenchymatous cells. 2. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Seed .2.2. Svarya. Appendix per cent.2. covered with a thin-cuticle. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. Appendix per cent.M£lakakÀ¡ra. Ud¡varta. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 118 . CONSTITUENTS .4.Agnim¡ndya. P¢nasa.Shows a single layered epidermis. shows aseptate fibres. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded.40 ml. oil globules and round to oval starch grains.2. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES .6.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. IDENTITY. thinwalled. 2. Appendix per cent. covered with thin. H¤dya. DOSE .

(Fam. fusiform. slightly or strongly pungent. Appendix per cent. Moclangi gadde. Saleya. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.50. Brassicaceae). variable in size. 119 .2. Mulaka. Appendix per cent. Mullangi.2.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. having a few lateral fibrous roots. 2. taste.2. Appendix per cent.2.2.2.3. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. white in colour. Mula Muli Moolangi. 2. 2. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. Appendix per cent. Visra. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. cylindrical. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy.) annual or biennial bristly herb. IDENTITY. 2. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. Mulaka (Rt.6. Appendix 2. Rakhyasmula Mula. usually 25-40 cm in length. rarely sweet.7.

09.04.04 & 0. Ar¿a. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Rucya. 0. Vrana. Galaroga. H¤dya. 0.69 (all yellow). of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. P¡cana.09 & 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. Dadru. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .C.15-30 ml.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. 0.Agnim¡ndya. 0. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . Gulma. Svarya. Pittahara. T. K¡sa.L. of the drug in the juice form 120 . áv¡sa. Ud¡varta DOSE . Tikta Laghu. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.T. Netraroga.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS .LC. Kaphahara. 0.Glucoside.34. P¢nasa.04. Jvara.49 & 0.09 (both blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.V. 0.

(Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. inner cells thin-walled. Gandhakuti.6 .4 m tall. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. aromatic. secondary cortex composed of rounded.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. taste. Daitya. traversed by xylem rays. Syn. Root . colour. rectangular cells.3 . 0.1. consisting of tangentially elongated. odour.51.2.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. slightly bitter.42000 m. a perennial herb. traversed by phloem rays. thin-walled cells. dull brown. cambium 2-4 layered. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . S.) DC. tangentially elongated. fibres and parenchyma. Apiaceae ). ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. thin-walled cells. 6-12 cm long and 0. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC.Shows 10 . cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. tenuifolium Wall. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. secondary phloem shows wide zone. Mura (Rt.

Bhrama. xylem and phloem rays. of the drug in powder form.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). starch grains simple.2. Ka¶u.2.6. somewhat oval cells. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. round to oval. D¡ha. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. 2. CONSTITUENTS . present in secondary cortex. short with blunt ends.Brown.2. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. parenchymatous cells.Arvind¡sava. fibres aseptate.3. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . oil globules and simple starch grains. composed of radially arranged. Appendix 2.4. secretory canals. IDENTITY. secondary phloem.2. Jvara.5 per cent. secondary xylem and medullary rays.7. Powder . KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. 122 .2. secondary phloem. Appendix 9 per cent. 2. Appendix 9 per cent. distributed throughout secondary cortex. 2. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .. M£rchha.1-3 g. shows groups of cork cells. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. xylem parenchyma. Tikta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. secretory canals numerous.having spiral thickenings. Appendix 3. Sucrose and Mannitol.áv¡sa. Appendix 17 per cent.

indistinct. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. phloem rays 1 123 .) Asclepiadaceae). Murva (Rt. fracture.52. odour. similar to those present in secondary cortex. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. rectangular cells. Koratige. Madhusrava. slightly bitter. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. b) Microscopic Root . a large stout. resin cells present irregularly in this region. phloem fibres absent. (Fam. Kallu Shambu.Shows a cork. bark easily separable from wood. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. twining shrub. & Am. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. Halukaratige. some filled with reddish-brown contents. tangentially elongated. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork.5-3 cm thick. Jartor Koratige Hambu. taste. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0.

Appendix 0. tracheids. Prameha Mihira Taila.6.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mukha áosa. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 5. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations.5 . concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. fragments of cork. fibretracheids. Appendix 5 per cent. Jvara. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains.4. Tikta Guru. Medoroga. Meha.2. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. fibres. THERAPEUTIC USES . consisting of small tangential. DOSE . Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.. of the drug for decoction. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7..22 µ in diameter. Pittahara. Appendix 14 per cent. present in parenchymatous tissues. 2. fibres. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. 10-20 g.Ar¿a.3 cells wide. V¡tahara. Raktapitta. Powder . fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Ka¸·£.5 per cent.2-6 g. measuring 5.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2. 124 . starch grains simple. K¤miroga.Light brown. Appendix 7 per cent. 2. 2.2. T¤Àn¡. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. H¤droga.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. shows a number of stone cells. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. IDENTITY. vary in shape and size with borderd pits.3.2.5-22 µ dia.2. Appendix 2. vessels with pitted walls.tracheids. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. composed of vessels. simple and compound starch grains. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening.

fragrant. (Fam. exine and intine distinct. Nagppu. each stamen 0. Peri. Nagchampa. consisting of thin-walled. N¡gapuÀpa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. parenchymatous cells. distinct protuberances on walls. Bengal. Konkan.Anther shows golden-brown. Powder .) evergreen tree. filament 0. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. anther about 0. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. thick-walled. connective and filament.5 cm long. Nagakesar (Stmn. Nagakesari -Nangaa.0 cm long. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. slender. taste. connective not visible with naked eye. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. odour. yellowish and thin-walled. Guttiferae). basifixed. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. Nauga. Nahar Nageshvara. astringent. 125 . Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Hem¡. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. soft to touch. shows elongated cells of filament. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. Naugaliral. Sachunagkeshara.9 cm long. b) Microscopic Androecium .53. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. Veluthapala. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. often buttressed at the base. Assam. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. N¡ga. coppery or golden brown. more or less twisted. filiform. quite brittle. Pilunagkesar. containing pollen grains. an Ke¿ara.1.8 . linear. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards.Brown.9-1. Nagachampakam.

Kaphahara.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3.7.6.2. 2. V¡tarakta.2.Raktapitta. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. Kum¡ry¡sava. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. Var¸ya. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.1-3 g. Vastiroga DOSE . 126 . of the drug in powder form.2.2. CONSTITUENTS .2.IDENTITY.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. Appendix per cent. Tikta.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. áopharoga. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.

vascular bundles collateral and three in number. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili.2 cm wide. no characteristic odour and taste. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. N¢l¢n¢. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings.8 m high. Fabaceae). 1. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip.5 cm long and 0.1.2. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. pith composed of round to oval. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. (Fam. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.) shrub. Nili (Lf. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.54.3-1. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . leaflet 1-2. 127 . Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. pale green to greenish-black.

2. 2. cuticle and hair.. palisade 2-3 layers.2. K¤imiroga.Midrib . Jvara. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tarakta.4. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. K¡sa. similar as in petiole.Greenish-grey. 2. aseptate fibres. Pl¢haroga. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . Appendix 25 per cent. collateral and crescent shaped. IDENTITY.Glycoside (Indican). Appendix 7. Appendix 2 per cent. V¡tahara.7. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . Ke¿ya. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. of decoction. shows groups of mesophyll cells.50-100 g. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.2.. Lamina . vascular bundle single.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila.2. epidermis. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.5 per cent. cuticle and hair. Ud¡varta.2. Udararoga.2. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. Gulma.shows epidermis. CONSTITUENTS .6. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u..shows dorsiventral structure. 2. pitted vessels.3.Ëmav¡ta. 128 . similar as in petiole and midrib.

with lenticels. Nili (Rt. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. Nil. Olleneeli -Amari.) shrub.5 cm thick. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Nili. consisting of usual elements. 1.55. Nila Nili. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. woody. hard. rectangular. 129 . Neeli Nili. secondary cortex a narrow zone. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. taste. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. Nila -Neel Avuri. Nili Chettu.2-1.. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. odour not distinct. thin-walled cells. slightly bitter. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits.1 -1. Rangapatr¢. group of fibres. (Fam. 0. Karunili. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. Fabaceae).8 m high. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. Neeligida. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. thin-walled cells. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Indian Indigo Gali.10 layers of tangentially elongated. cylindrical. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. Gari Nili Kadunili. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4.

0. 0.75. 0. CONSTITUENTS .63.L.81.V. DOSE . V¡tahara.63 (bluish green). measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0. Pl¢h¡roga. ViÀavik¡ra.86. 0.2. Ud¡varta. 0.7.2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf.2. simple and compound starch grains. T.50. 2.40.06. K¡sa..4. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .48 g. 0. 0. 0.14 (blue). V¡tarakta. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. pitted vessels.27.2.50.2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.14. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. starch grains simple. Ëmav¡ta.10.75 (blue). Udararoga. 0.63. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.86 (green) and 0. present in cortex. 0.27. 0.06. 0.80.Gulma. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U.40. Powder .Creamish-brown.40 (blue). 2.14.7 per cent.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.86 and 0.58.47 (blue). and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. 0. 0. 0.0. phloem. 0.91 (all yellow).10. Appendix 2.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. 2. 0.2. 0.58 (blue).75. Ke¿ya. 0.91 (all grey). 130 . K¤imiroga. 2.0.33. 0. round to oval. IDENTITY.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. 0.91 (blue). 0. Appendix 3 per cent. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. Recan¢. 0. xylem parenchyma and rays.3. 0.21. 0. Appendix 0.. of drug for decoction.Arvind¡sava.33.30 (bluish green).81 (blue).C. 0.C. shows aseptate fibres.58.L. 0.

0-1.56. Limba. 0. Veppu. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Bevu. taste. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches.7 cm wide. Juss Syn. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. (Fam. lanceolate. Veppa Balantanimba. rachis 15-25 cm long. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. indistinct. Kohumba Nim. Bakan. Arulundi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Aryaveppu. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Nimba (Lf. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Bakayan. Nimbam. leaflets with oblique base.5 cm long and 1. exstipulate. 131 .Compound. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Bevinama -Veppu. Nim Vemmu. opposite. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. serrate. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . odour. acute. alternate. slightly yellowish-green. Meliaceae). Melia azadirachta Linn.1 cm thick. 7-8. Oilevevu. Kahibevu. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Veppan Vemu. Limado. Nim. crystals also present in phloem region. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. Limbado. Nimba Nimba. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present.

Jvara.3.0-11. palisade single layered. Appendix per cent. covered externally with thick cuticle. KuÀ¶ha.0-4.Lamina .2.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. shows vessels. Appendix per cent. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.2. Ëma¿otha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.5. Appendix 2.0-14.2.Green. 2. IDENTITY. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. fibres. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. ViÀarogas DOSE . spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. 2.shows dorsiventral structure. Vrana.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 on upper surface. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. 2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Netraroga. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. of the drug in powder form. V¡tal¡. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .1-3 g. tangentially elongated cells. epidermis on either surface.2. thin-walled cells. stomatal index 13.6. Appendix per cent.4. composed of thin walled. Appendix per cent. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. 2.Triterpenoids and Sterols.5 on lower surface and 8. CONSTITUENTS . K¤miroga. palisade ratio 3.7. traversed by a number of veins.2. 132 . Prameha. Powder . Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha.

Melia azadirachta Linn. (Fam. evergreen tree. fracture. Kahibevu. woody. Limba Nimba Nim. Nimb Bevu. Nimba. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. fissured and rusty-grey. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. fibrous.57. characteristic. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. a moderate sized to fairly large. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Bakam Veppai. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. taste. Meliaceae). occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. considerably thick in older barks.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. odour. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Kadunimb. Syn. Oilevevu -Veppu. Juss. extemal surface rough. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Vembu Vemu. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Nimba. Nimba (St.

0. 2.2. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. Appendix 5 per cent. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. Powder .63 and 0. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.V.outer surface.45. Appendix 2.C.90 (all blue). simple starch grains. 0. stone cells mostly in groups. 0. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. Kaphahara. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed.L.20.2. having wide lumen and distinct striations. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.measuring 2. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. 0.5 per cent. 2.6.86 (blue). cork cells. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.75-5 µ in diameter. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . 0. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. simple.3. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. and 0.2.7. secondary cortex absent in most cases. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.90 (green). 2. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 7 per cent. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. Appendix 6 per cent.2.C.Reddish-brown. round with central hilum. T.2. measuring 2. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. starch grains. Pittahara.4.2. ViÀaghna. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. lignified rectangular to polygonal. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. CONSTITUENTS .L. IDENTITY.72 (blue). Appendix 1.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands.

Prameha. Rakta Pitta. Vra¸a DOSE . Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Decoction should be used externally. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. Ka¸·u. K¤miroga. Jvara. 135 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pa´canimba C£r¸a..2-4 g. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.D¡ha. KuÀ¶ha.

Paras Moduga. Dhak. except in very arid parts. slightly astringent. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. thin-walled.58. taste.5 . moderately thick-walled. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. Muttuga. Palasha (St. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. cork cells.15 m high with irregular branches. Modugu.) Kuntze (Fam.Bk) Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. Palash. Plas. dark-brown. 0. exposing light brown surface. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. Tesu Purasu. rectangular 136 . 12 . and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. internal surface rough. Khakharo. Chettu Dhak. rhytidoma 0. Camata.1 cm thick. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. 5-10 or more layered.2 cm thick usually peels off. often in groups. Tesu Muttug. curved. Khakhapado Dhak. dark brown. pale brown. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. tanniniferous cells. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. rectangular. Muttala -Plasu. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. fracture. greyish to pale brown. having brown colour.

prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. dark brown coloured cells. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.48. 7 .2.7. 0. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. Powder . traversed by phloem rays. Appendix 12 per cent. straight. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem. Appendix 2. phloem parenchyma. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma.V.3.10.65 (all blue). phloem rays multiseriate 4 . crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.. companion cells.2.4 layers of sclereids.10. 0. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.L. CONSTITUENTS . T.75 . crystal fibres. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. 2. starch grains simple or compound having 2 . sclereids mostly in groups. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf.2.67 (all yellow).cells followed by a zone of 2 .18. 0. Appendix 1. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.67 (all violet). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.Reddish-brown. measuring 2. 0. 0.48 and 0. 2. 2.10.75 µ in dia.2.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent. 137 . most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath. 2.48 and 0. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. 0. Appendix 10 per cent..2.2. Appendix 14 per cent.12 cells wide.3 components. 0. 0.6. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.L. starch grains simple and compound with 2 .4.50 cells in height.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. thin-walled cork cells.13.C. phloem fibres.

Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. KaÀ¡ya Sara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. S¡raka . of the drug in powder form for decoction. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Vra¸a. DOSE .5-10 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES .Ar¿a. Graha¸¢.Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. 138 . Tikta. Agnid¢paka. Gulma. K¤miroga.

Paribhadra (St.Bk) Fabaceae). lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. smooth. Pangara Hongar. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. yellowish to cream coloured. tangentially elongated to squarish.0 cm thick. medium sized. stone 139 . outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. parenchymatous cells. inner bark fibrous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . secondary cortex consists of large. exfoliating in narrow strips. (Fam.5-2. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. radially arranged and thin-walled. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam.59. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. quick growing tree. Mulmurumgai Badisa. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

2-4 g.V¡tarakta.Alkaloids.CONSTITUENTS . Volatile Oil. of drug in powder form..Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.. Balak¤t. 148 . V¡taroga DOSE . V¤Àya. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.

linear. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. Syn. 0. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural.4-0. Korka. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. (Farn. Piyar.) Anacardiaceae). micropyle superior.6 cm long. sclerenchymatous cells. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. Shalichokha Piyal. Priyalam. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. hilum present at the apex of round edge. pitted.63. B. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . consisting of elongated or tubular cells. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. Priyala (Sd. mottled with darker brown lines. which are of various size. funicle stout. taste. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. Chowl. followed by remnants of disorganised. odour. latifolia Roxb. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells.5 cm wide. occurring mostly in groups. pleasant. 0. Satdhan -Charal.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. large. thick-walled. creamish-brown. sweetish-oily. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. Saraparuppu Sara. collapsed cells of integument. b) Microscopic Seed . thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng.3-0.

0.5 per cent. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape. 0. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells.72 and 0. 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. 2.08. DOSE .6. Appendix 2. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.98 (all yellow). 2.C.91. shows numerous mesophyll cells. 2. Kaphakara.A creamish-brown paste. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.P£gakha¸·a.84. 0. KÀata.91. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.98 (all violet). thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.2. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. Balya.08.V. of the drug in powder form.5-5.2.4.7. and oil globules. 2.C.0 µ in dia. 150 . Appendix 4 per cent. Pittahara.94 and 0.20 g.2. 0.54. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áukrakara.type. Raktapitta. 0. and sclerenchymatous cells.72.72.10 . T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. V¤Àya.2. 0. 0.27. V¡tahara. 0. H¤dya.54.2.3. Appendix 10 per cent. 0. Bhagnas¡dhaka.measuring 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .5-5.27. Sara. 0. IDENTITY. KÀaya. Appendix 0. BrÆha¸a. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U.94 (blue). filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2. 0. 0. procambium bundles. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. Priy¡la Taila.L. CONSTITUENTS .Albuminoids.L. Powder . Appendix 7 per cent.0 µ in dia.2.94 and 0.D¡ha. Oil and Starch.

5 . tubular. densely clothed with wooly hairs. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam.64. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . Priyangu (Infl.Cymose. (Fam. 1. 4 lobbed spreading. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. brown.4 m high shrub. epipetalous. 1. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam.3 mm in dia. stigma minutely capitate. brown.5 cm across.Shows more or less wavy outline. filament very long. Flower .5 cm long. calyx. ovary 2-4 celled. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. corolla. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu.) Verbenaceae). densely hairy. hairy. anther ovate. long. b) Microscopic Peduncle . an erect. thin-walled. equal in size. peduncle cylindrical.5-7. bell-shaped. parenchymatous cells. stamens 4. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢.0. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl.2. basifixed. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. and abundant in Bengal plains. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. 2.2. style.

2. Appendix 2. Jvara. (Mukharoga).7. of the drug in powder form. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. V¡tahara.2.fibres. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. M£travirajan¢ya. fibres aseptate. Ku´kum¡di Taila. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. spiral vessels. 2. N¢lik¡dya Taila. DOSE . Rakta. Appendix per cent. Kanaka Taila. Sved¡dhikya.3. Resin and Saponin. xylem consists of usual elements.2. Appendix per cent.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Daurgandhyahara.6. Vra¸aropa¸a. Appendix per cent.1-3 g.4. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. Rakta-Pitta. Terpenes. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sandh¡n¢ya. Pras¡dana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. elliptical.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 152 . Phenolic compound. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. groups of thin-walled. CONSTITUENTS .2. 2. Appendix per cent. Pakv¡tis¡ra. aseptate fibres.Brown.Glycosides. Powder .2. IDENTITY.2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. El¡di C£r¸a.D¡ha. 2.

shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. cortex differentiated into three zones. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Nellu. sclerenchymatous cells.65. Sali. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. an annual herb. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Poaceae). centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. pitted vessels and 153 . thin.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Shali (Rt. Cala. Corava. Dhana. Nivara -Chaval. (Fam. Bhatta. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. both consisting of round to oval. Chawl. cylindrical. Nelver Dhanyamu. Dhana Bhatto.05-0. thick-walled. 5-15 cm in length and 0. Biyyamu Chaval. Paddy Shalichokha. Odalu. Damgara. Nellu Tandulamul. sclerenchymatous cells. exodermis 1-2 layered. Powder . Dh¡nya. Jhona Arishi. Bhata.) cultivated throughout India. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. b) Microscopic Root . xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. smooth. Dhanarmul. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. Dhan Rice. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.Greyish-cream. Coke Chaval. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Vr¢hi. composed of thick-walled. Akki -Ari. soft.

2. BrÆha¸a.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. Svarya.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY. Laghu. H¤dya. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. 2.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 154 . Appendix per cent.4.50 g. Appendix per cent.2. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.2.StanyakÀaya. 2. M£trala. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.7. V¡tahara. Rucya. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . of the drug for decoction. Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. CakÀuÀya.2.3.2. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. 2. Var¸ak¤t. Balya. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .

perennial herb with a woody root stock. Karakhuratt. sub-erect. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. Sankhahuli Kakattam.Slender.) Convolvulaceae). epipetalous. acute. spreading.4 cm thick. Shankhapushpi.1-0. Sankha pushpin (W.Usually branched. 155 . 0. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes.P. linear-lanceolate. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . found throughout the country. free. Sankhapuspi. Kakkanangudi. light green. sepals narrowly.66. Leaf . about 0. hairy. linear-lanceolate.White or pinkish. alternate with the petals. a prostrate. stamen 5. Stem . 1-5 cm long. corolla shortly discoid. ovary superior and bicarpellary.1-0. yellowish-brown to light brown. cylindrical. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. hairy on both surfaces. light green.Shortly petiolate. 0. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi.5-2 cm long and 0. cylindrical. Shankhavela. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. inserted deep in the corolla tube.5 cm broad. sparsely hairy. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. Flower .

b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. hairs unicellular. 13. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. palisade ratio 6-9.. present on both surfaces. Stem . covered with thick cuticle. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. at places unicellular hairs present. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. mm.Fruit . mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. . simple and composed of 2-3 components. vascular bundle bicollateral. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. xylem consisting of usual elements. phloem composed of sieve elements. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. pale brown pericarp. elongated. 156 . measuring 3 . minutely puberulous. fibres and tracheids.Shows single layered epidermis.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen.8-17. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. covered with thick cuticle. Powder . stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. xylem consists of vessels. phloem a narrow zone. Seed . phloem.Capsule. elliptical. xylem rays and parenchyma.walled cells. fibres and parenchyma. mm. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. palisade two layered. Lamina .Brown. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. endoderrnis single layered.Appears nearly circular in outline. round to oval in shape. simple and compound starch grains.. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. secretory cells present in this region. tanniniferous. unicellular hairs. cortex differentiated in two zones. oblong globose with coriaceous. epidermis single layered. starch grains solitary or in groups. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle.0. thin. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers.8 µ in dia. LeafMidrib . thick-walled cells. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. both having round to oval. present in cortex.Light yellowish-green.

Agastyahar¢tak¢. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.2. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Pittahara.2. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Tikta. Appendix 2. Ras¡yana. 2.2.IDENTITY. Ras¡yana.M¡nasaroga.2. 2.3.3-8 g. 2. Apasm¡ra DOSE . Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana.7. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.2.6.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Br¡hma. ËyuÀya. Medhya. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 .

8 cm wide. Carmas¡hv¡. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. 1 mm long. Siju. Flower . shortly 2-fid at the apex. pale brown. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. solitary. fracture. horned. linear. subacute. gland semilunate. a much branched. Kalli -Chasma Lantha.5-2 mm thick. style. free to the base. Bilikalli. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 3-4 mm in dia. 2.7-7 cm long. 0. trilocular. short.5 mm across at the mouth. lanceolate or linear oblong. ribbed. lobes short. ovate. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. (Fam. Leaf .Small.) Euphorbiaceae). Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. annual herb. 3. Fruit .celled with or without attached pedicel.2-0. ciliolate.Capsule. gradually tapering. Joyachi. 4-5 cm long. odour and taste indistinct. 158 . glabrous outside and pubescent inside. sub-sessile. filament pubescent. smooth. cylindrical. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. Chagulputputi Satala. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. 0. having a few secondary roots.P. sessile.Involucre broadly campanulate.67.1. Saptala (W. 20-40 cm high. greenish-yellow. odour and taste not distinct.

25 µ in diameter. flattended. fibres and vessels having simple pits. measuring 5. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region.Seed . secondary xylem consists of vessels. traversed by numerous xylem rays. filled with yellowish-brown content. rounded at the base. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. tangentially elongated elliptical. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. circular to oval. rarely a few oil globules also present. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. composed of sieve elements. Stem . tangentially elongated cells. Leaf- Midrib . solitary or in groups. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular.3 mm long. fibres and tracheids. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. centre occupied by a pith. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells.Young root shows exfoliated.shows slightly convex outline. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. lignified cells with wide lumen. consisting of thick-walled. epidermis single layered. covered externally with thick. secondary cortex consists of 4. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. vessels having simple pits. grooved at one side. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. found scattered in phloem region. starch grains simple.75 µ in dia. thick-walled lignified. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. all elements thick-walled and lignified. with wide lumen present in this region.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. leprous tuberculate testa. mature root shows thin walled cork. rounded to oval. palisade single layered present on both sides. 2. some rounded. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. b) Microscopic Root .6 layers of oval.5-19. fibres. elliptical. striated cuticle. secondary phloem narrow. 159 . stone cells oval to elongated. simple. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. rectangular. parenchymatous cells. tracheids and medullary rays. all elements. fibres elongated and aseptate. rounded to oval. secondary xylem composed of vessels. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. elliptical. parenchymatous cells. single layered epidermis. endodermis not distinct. parenchymatous cells. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. thickwalled and lignified.

of the drug for decoction. Udararoga. lignified with wide lumen. elliptical. 160 . Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. simple. 0.0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara. 2. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter.6.87 (violet).L. RukÀa.7.C. Appendix 2. 0. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. shows vessels with simple pits. Mi¿raka Sneha. Visarpa. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.2. 2. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tal¡. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.2.Ën¡ha.67. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.2. Appendix per cent.L.46 (brown) and 0.04 and 0. aseptate fibres. Gulma.4. stone cells thick-walled. Pittahara. oval to elongated. IDENTITY.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine).V.Light yellow. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. 2. Appendix per cent.2.2.2. RaktadoÀahara. 0.Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. and 0.C. T. Vibandha.46.57 (all yellow).50 g. 2. Appendix per cent.04. Appendix per cent. rounded to oval starch grains.3. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ud¡vartta.

vittae. Syn. mesocarp.. graveolens Benth. A. 4 mm long. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. sowa Roxb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. b) Microscopic Fruit . var. a tall. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick.68. (Fam. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. Shepa. yellowish membranous wings. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. slightly sharp taste. dorsal 161 . aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated.. slightly raised. Shulupa. filiform and incospicuous. parenchymatous. ex Flem. graveolens DC. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. often stalk attached. A. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. odour. graveolens Linn. brown. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. glabrous. Apiaceae).. and a warm. Sulpha. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. mericarps usually separate and free. Satahva (Fr.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. P. glabrous. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. dark brown. akin to caraway.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle.

á£la. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels.L.59 and 0. Appendix 15 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . 2. V¡tahara.10 T.6. 162 .3-6 g. 0.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. each costae with vascular strands. Netra Roga DOSE . Powder . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 4 per cent.2. Appendix 2. 2. cellulosic. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.37 (pink) 0. Appendix 14 per cent. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.2.L.2.C. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.Brown. Vra¸a.2. Kaphahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. 2. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.3. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.C. 2. of the drug in powder form. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix 1.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.5 per cent. 2. carpophore split.68 (violet).2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. shows spiral vessels.4. IDENTITY. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. Appendix 3 per cent.68 (all yellow). Jvara.7.Essential Oil.59 (blue) and 0.costae three. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. Atis¡ra. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.

Shewgachi pane Sajana. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Tishnagandha. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. Mocaka -Sajina. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Syn. thin walled. leaflet 1. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. Segata. elliptic. Mungna Neegge. parenchymatous cells. Shigru (Lf. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Rachis . Moringaceae). smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. Muringa. Segata pana. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. (Fam. Leaflet . Bahala. commonly cultivated throughout the country. Sekato.2-2 cm long and 0. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. Nugge ele -Murinna. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. and articulated at the base. entire. slender. Munga. palisade single layered. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. thickened. Muringa Elai Sevaga. pith and phloem parenchyma.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. central region 163 b) Microscopic .) Gaertn. odour and taste not distinct.5-1 cm wide. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. pericycle forming a broken ring. vascular bundle collateral. ovate or obovate. a small or medium sized tree. parenchymatous cells. AkÀ¢va.69. oval to elliptical.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. Sajna. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.

0. Protein. Appendix per cent.2.0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya.20. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. 0. Appendix per cent.46 (green).L.2.05. 0. V¡tahara. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.2.94 (violet). Appendix 2. Medohara. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.C. 0. 0. 0. 2.2.7. 0. CONSTITUENTS .46 (dark green) & 0. 0. B ¤Æhana.46 (all red) & 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0.26.05. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. Appendix per cent.36.36 (yellowish green).69 (yellow). 2. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Sirovirecaka 164 .2.26. (all green).Carbohydrate.69 (blue) and 0. 0. 0.53 (yellow).6.occupied by a crescent-shaped. Powder -Greyish-green. 0. 0. 0. IDENTITY.38.3.87 (blue). 2.82 (yellow) and 0.L. Under U.59 (blue). Appendix per cent.36 (green).52 (green). rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. 0. áukra N¡¿aka.94 (yellow) in visible light.26 (all green). 0. palisade cells. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.46 (both blue). vein islets number 50-65. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf.V.30 (pink). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. T. 0.94 (blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. spiral vessels. 0. palisade ratio 6-11. 0.05. Pittahara. K¤mihara. 0. 2.18. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.4. 0. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.2.18. RukÀa. 0. stomata anornocytic.

Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Gulma.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 165 . K¤miroga. Galaga¸·a. Pl¢haroga.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form.áopha.Ratnagiri Rasa. Vidradhi. DOSE .10 . Medoroga. ViÀatinduka Taila.

thin-walled. brown to dark brown. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock.70. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. parenchymatous cells. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. membraneous aril. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. sclerenchymatous. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia.. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. 0.4 cm long. odour. (Fam. aromatic. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. thin walled.3 cm wide. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. Sthulaela (Sd. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. perispenn encloses the 166 . spicy pungent.) Zingiberaceae). perisperm consists of polygonal. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. Beraelam. taste.

Appendix 4 per cent. IDENTITY. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. Powder . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 1. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. simple.2. Mukha¿odhaka. 167 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. thin-walled. 2. Note . M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.10 CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 5 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.5 -1 g.2.3. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.S¡rivady¡sava.2.2.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole).áv¡sa. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. oil globules. Chardi. K¡sa. Ka¸·u. V¡tahara. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. Appendix 2. shows fragments of testa.0.6. perisperm cells. of the drug in powder form. both composed of polygonal.endosperm and embryo.Light brown. H¤ll¡sa. polygonal.2.5 per cent. Tikta Laghu.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. T¤À¸¡. rich in protein. parenchymatous cells. Kaphahara. (Seed). Rocaka. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. Mukharoga. 2. RukÀa.2. DOSE . 2. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. rounded to oval.7.4.(Seed).2. thin-walled. 2. Appendix 14 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 1 v/wper cent.

) Roxb. stone cells found in 168 . an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. Syn. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. parenchymatous cells. Tumburudra. internal surface smooth. Rutaceae). thick-walled cells. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. (Fam. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region.0. Jimmi. armed with long. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. stem and branches. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. Tumbura. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. brownish.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. lignified. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .Bk. fracture. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. aromatic pungent. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. Z.71.2 cm thick. phloem fibres thickwalled. short. aromatic. odour. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. taste. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. sharp prickles. light yellow to pale brown. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. Tejovati (St.1-0. Thumbooni. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. rather deeply furrowed. external surface pale brown. thin-walled. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC.

Powder .75 µ in diameter. 2. measuring 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.3. aseptate fibres. Appendix 12 per cent. oil globules and starch grains. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. 2. IDENTITY. 169 . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ëmav¡ta. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Mukharoga.6.Yellowish-brown.2.5 per cent. Rucya.7. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 8. a Volatile Oil and Resin.75 µ in diameter.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.2.Aruci.13. Appendix 1. Appendix 13 per cent. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. 2. round and oval measuring 2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. starch grains round and oval.5 per cent. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. K¡sa. Appendix 2. P¡cana. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). shows fragments of cork cells.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres. Medhya. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. stone cells. Kaphahara. áv¡sa.75 . Hikk¡. DOSE .2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.13. of the drug for decoction.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.4.10-20 g. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high.75 . 2.2.

6 . Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. aromatic. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. branched. slender. Thulasi.5-3 cm long hairy. fracture. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. hairy. obtuse or acute. (Fam. Lamiaceae).72. about 1. lower lip 170 . small in close whorls.Purplish or crimson coloured.60 cm high. blackish-brown externally and pale. wiry.P. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. odour faintly aromatic. hairy. taste. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. K¤À¸atulas¢.) an erect. externally purplish-brown to black.Thin. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn.2 cm wide. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. Leaf .Erect. woody. sub quadrangular. Flower . pubescent on both sides. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . entire or serrate.5-5 cm long 1. Shree Tulasi. shortly apiculate. characteristic. elliptic oblong. herbaceous. Stem . odour. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. found throughout the country. violet internally.2. internally cream. 30 . coloured. pedicels longer than calyx. annual herb. petiole thin. much branched.3. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. Tulasi (W. branched. soft. pubescent.

nearly smooth. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. glandular trichomes short. three vascular bundles situated centrally. parenchymatous cells. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells.epidermis. measuring 22-27 in dia. slightly notched at the base. fibre tracheides. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. each with one seed. odour. Leaf- Petiole . thin-walled. long. odour. fibres with pointed ends. 171 . lateral two short and central two largest. pungent. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. xylem surrounded by phloem. pungent. 0. Seed . pungent.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. taste. tracheids.1 cm long. pubescent. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. middle one larger than other two. thin-walled.shows somewhat cordate outline. aromatic. aromatic. Stem . slightly compressed. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. b) Microscopic Root .Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. Midrib . fibres and parenchyma. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. no odour.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. xylem consists of vessels. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. rectangular. membranous. filled with brown content. brown. corolla about 4 mm long. thin-walled. taste. pitted with pointed ends. occasionally a few cells collapsed. Fruit . elongated. phloem consisting of sieve elements.A group of 4 nutlets. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. round to oval polygonal. slightly mucilaginous. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. veined calyx. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. vessels pitted. phloem consists of sieve elements. found scattered in phloem. in groups and rarely in singles. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. taste. parenchymatous cells. enclosed in an enlarged. mucilaginous when soaked in water. vessels pitted. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. thin-walled. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. tracheids fibres and parenchyma.Rounded to oval.

T. Appendix 8 per cent. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. Kaphahara. V¡tahara. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. oil globules. 2. Rf. CONSTITUENTS . palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.2. Appendix 4 per cent. H¤dya. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.6.15 . Tikta. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.1.Lamina . fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.2. in thoroughly vanillin .2. Record Rf.2. RukÀa.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. Appendix 1. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. parenchymatous cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components.16 on lower surface. value 0.4.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. palisade ratio 3.35.L. 2.7.5 per cent. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. Pittavardhin¢.minutes Under observation. 2.2. Appendix 10 per cent. Durgandhihara 172 . IDENTITY. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. rounded to oval. Appendix 2. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10).2.C. 2.8. Powder . Rucya. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.3. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. a few containing reddish brown contents. thin walled fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On cooling spray.Greenish: shows thin-walled.L. vein islet number 31 .epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .7.Essential Oil.

1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). Netraroga. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .A¿mar¢. Chardi. áv¡sa. 173 . KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Hikk¡. K¤miroga. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. K¡sa.

pubescent on both surfaces. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. found throughout the country. taste. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. Lamiaceae).. Tulasi (Lf. hairy. aromatic.) 30-60 cm high. (Fam. petiole 1. covering trichomes multicellular. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. glandular trichomes short. petiolate. an erect. balloon-shaped head. 174 b) Microscopic . upper epidermis. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. consisting of xylem and phloem. LeafPetiole . Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. K¤À¸atulas¢. elliptic-oblong. 1. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk.5-3 cm long. middle one larger than the other two. obtuse or acute.73. characteristic. entire or serrate. measuring 22-27 µ dia. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. much branched annual herb. uniseriate 1-8 celled long. and 2-8 celled.6-3.2 cm wide.5-5 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢.shows cordate outline. Holy Basil Tulasi. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. odour. thin. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. three vascular bundles situated centrally.

vein islet number 31-33. 0.85 & 0.12 (light green).epidermis. 0. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.04.98 (blue). Powder .93 (both light green). 2.54 (blue). Under U. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. 0. 0. 2.33 (violet).04.83 (blue).08 (violet). 0.Midrib . stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis.45. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 175 .2. 2.C. 0.45 (yellowish green).3.12. shows fragments of polygonal. 0.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. 0. 0. 0.93 (violet) and 0.8.93 (pink) & 0. 0.2.21 (brown). Appendix per cent. 0.54. 0.08.03 (dark green). except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.45 (violet).L. 0.45.21.Light-green.2.2.83 (all pink) 0.75 (violet).6. anomocytic and diacytic stomata. IDENTITY. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.33 (both green) 0. 0. 0. 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.85 (blue). 0. Appendix 2. palisade and spongy parenchyma. 0. T. Nerol and Camphene etc.30.88 and 0.. palisade ratio 3. Lamina .2.2. Appendix per cent.4. 0. 0. 0.75.7. 0.L.V. Appendix per cent. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. Appendix per cent.98 (blue). Caryophyllene. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces.93 (all0 yellow).Essential Oil (Carvacrol. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin.33.12 (light violet).33.). stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. 0.83. 0.21. 0. 0. 0. 0.04. 0. 0. 0. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.08 (both green).

2-3 g. Pittahara. K¡sa. K¤miroga. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. Hikk¡. of the drug in powder form. Prati¿y¡ya. Kaphahara. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áv¡sa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.Aruci.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. KuÀ¶ha. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. V¡tahara. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. H¤dya. THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . 176 . RukÀa.

more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. odour. smaller. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars.Shows single layered epidermis. triangular. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn.74. aromatic. Araceae). somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened.5-1. cells towards periphery. short. thin-walled cells of various sizes. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. taste. pungent and bitter. (Fam. Ugr¡. Vekhandas -Varch. somewhat collenchymatous. broadly. Rhizome .) semiaquatic herb. Ghodavaca Vasambu. large. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. upper side marked with alternately arranged. Ghodvach Bach. and 0.5 cm thick. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. Gora-bach Baje. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. Vacha (Rz. buff coloured intemally. fracture. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. enclosing large air spaces.

starch grains simple. Appendix per cent. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. Petroleum ether-No change ii. 2. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. Chloroform-Light green iii. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.2. Eugenol and Asarone). 2.L.6. 2.4. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. present in cortex and ground tissue.C. endodermis distinct. CONSTITUENTS . Powder .2. 2. Powder as such: .7.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol.14 (violet) and 0. Starch and Tannin. shows fibres.2. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside).3.2. Extracts in i.2.L. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.2.C.Yellowish-cream b. 178 . stele composed of round. spherical. reticulate. Appendix per cent.. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. Methanol-Yellowish green iv.2. 0.Buff coloured.region.10 T.

á£la.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ëdhm¡na. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. Tikta Laghu. THERAPEUTIC USES . Medhya. K¡sa. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . K¤mihara. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting.2 g. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. V¡tahara. 179 . S¡rasvata. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Sm¤ti daurbalya. Unm¡da. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. Ka¸¶hya. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. 1.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Apasm¡ra. Vibandha. Kaphahara. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Kar¸a Sr¡va. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. áv¡sa. C£r¸a. DOSE . M¡nasmitra Va¶aka.Vac¡di Taila.

Bachhnaag. plant is an erect. conical. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. small portions of stem sometimes attached. Sth¡varaviÀa.4 . primary cortex separated by distinct 180 .) (Fam. fracture. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m.1. Meethabisha. occasionally separated due to breakage. 2-4. cartilaginous. Vatsanabha (Rt. Basanaag Bisa. ovoid. suberised. Teliya Bish Basanalli. rough due to root scars. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Nabhi. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Vatsanabhi. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. dark brown to blackish-brown. Vatsanabhi. Mithalelia.75. papillose on outside. rarely 5 cm long. Beesh. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. parenchymatous cells. ViÀa Vajran¡ga.8 cm thick. Naabhi Bachnak. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. taste. thin-walled. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. poisonous. without or with a few intercellular spaces. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. roots are generally collected late in September. Vatsanabha. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. tapering downwards to a point. perennial herb. Mahura. 0.5 cm. odour indistinct. Ranunculaceae).

3. Viyav¡yi. S £tasekhara Rasa. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf.10. occupying more than half the radius.Light grey. some scattered. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . RukÀa. cambium having 6 10 angles. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre.C. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.C. 0. Powder .56.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.5 per cent.7. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Appendix 5.39 and 0. often forming 'V' shaped ring. 2.2. CONSTITUENTS . T. Appendix 2.2. Sv®dala.2. 2. consisting of round to oval cells. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. ÙikÀ¸a.2. 0. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. Trid°Àahara. shows vessels.4. 2. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex.74 and 0.2. inner bark parenchymatous. 0. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. xylem exarch. a few aseptate fibres. 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. 0.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si.20. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . Anandabhairava Rasa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Appendix 2 per cent.6. 2.endodermis.96 (both orange). Laghu. Appendix 8 per cent.L. UÀ¸a. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. IDENTITY.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. containing a few groups of phloem strands. Appendix 24 per cent.2. present in cortical cells. metaxylem vessels met in centre.39. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre.

V¡takaphajvara. Sannip¡ta. Kanharoga. 182 . Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. Jvar¡tis¡ra.15 .THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE .V¡taroga.30 mgs of the drug in powder form.

Rt. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . Vidari (Tub. Bhumikusmanda. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. Nelagumbala. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. starchy and somewhat porous. Gumadi belli.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. stone cells moderately thick-walled. sweetish. outer surface reddish-brown. thinwalled. Fabaceae). usually does not break.76. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Eagio. Bhoikolu. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. (Fam. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. Bhuikumra Vidari. but pliable. cut surface creamish-brown. taste. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. Nelagumbula. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . Bhonykoru. thin-walled cells. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Vid¡rik¡. smooth except for protuberances at some places.

B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. Powder . Ras¡yana. 2.Buff coloured. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah).3.Marma Gu¶ik¡. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres.2.2.13. Appendix 4 per cent. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening.2. having central hilum and striations. and also rarely in stone cells.13. of the drug in powder form. lignified with narrow lumen.7. somewhat round. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. Appendix 2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. 2. IDENTITY. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. Raktapitta. 184 . Angmarda. Stanyada. V¡tahara. M£trala. measuring 5. Appendix 17 per cent. DOSE .75 µ in dia. J¢van¢ya. Var¸ya. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. Appendix 4. a few latex duct also present.5 . shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. phloem fibres much elongated. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.4. Pittahara. angular to oval. distributed throughout this region. present in all parenchymatous cells. 2.and pits. Appendix 24 per cent. 2. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. Balya. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta.75 µ in dia.2.5 . THERAPEUTIC USES .6. CONSTITUENTS . fragments of cork.D¡ha. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells.3-6 g. Svarya. highly thickened. radially elongated cells. áoÀa.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent..Gluconic and Malic acids. Daurbalya.

Syn. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. elliptic. 50-100 cm high. followed by 2-3 layers. Yava (Fr. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. smooth. sativum Pers. Jav Barley Cheno. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. polygortal inner epidermal cells. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. sweetish-acrid. pale-greenish-yellow. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. not distinct. odour. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped.77.) Poaceae). round to oval wavy walled cells. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. an annual. H. spongy parenchymatous cells. seed coat appears as a colourless line.2-0. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. sclerenchymatous fibres. cultivated chiefly in North India. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. taste.3 cm wide. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. (Fam. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. erect herb. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. about 1 cm long and 0. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. oblong. square or quadrilateral. thick-walled. followed by more or less.

22. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U. Medahara.2. 0. Svarya.16. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. 0.3. 0. Proteins (Albumin.83 and 0. 0. 0. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.narrow lumens. V¡tak¤t.65 & 0. 0. M£trahara. 0. 0.2.C. Appendix 5.C.2.Creamish-white. 0. 2.68. 0. Var¸ya 186 . 0. round to oval. Sugars.92 (all grey). Appendix 1.5 per cent.5 2.45.V.72 (all pink.68.31. 0.22.10. Pur¢Àak ¤t.6. Appendix 2.Starch.2. Orientoside. and the rest starch layers.5 per cent.31. 2. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.36.56.83 (all violet) and 0.14. Powder . sclerenchymatous fibres.2. V¤Àya. Vitexin etc.10. Appendix 4 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.92 (yellow). light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. Sthairyakara. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. 2. Lekhana. starch grains simple. Appendix 2. 0.5 per cent. 0. 0. IDENTITY. Orientin. 0. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. Globulin.06. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. simple starch grains. Fats. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.24. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. 0. 0. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. endosperm divided into two zones. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. Pittahara.44.31.7 T. Kaphahara.L. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz.4.) CONSTITUENTS .53.2.

Gandharvahasta Taila. Medoroga.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.áv¡sa. El¡dya Modaka. Prameha. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. T¤À¸¡.100 . Tvagroga DOSE . K¡sa. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug. P¢nasa. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. 187 .200 g. Dh¡nvantara Taila. Urustambha. Kanharoga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sarsap¡di Pralepa.

alternate. striate. secondary cortex almost 188 . no taste and odour. hard.5-1 cm long. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. dark brown. ballidurabi.1-1 cm thick. nearly 0. Y¡sa. Javasa. slightly rough at basal region with slender. a small thorny shrub. Stem . Desv.Cylindrical.Simple. 0.8 cm long. short. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. 20-30 cm long and 0. cork cambium single layered. stipules green. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . opposite. terete.Well developed. oblong. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri.78. branched. 0. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida. drooping. secondary and tertiary root absent. glabrous.5-0. extipulate. Yavasaka (W. Leaf . yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. Duralabha -Venkatithura. fracture. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. mucronate obtuse. glabrous. Punjab. Neladangara. radially arranged cork cells. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). sharp axillary spines upto 3.) Fabaceae). (Fam. elliptical.P.2-1 cm thick. gradually tapering.7 cm broad. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. filled with reddish-brown contents. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Powder . fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. covered with cuticle. Stem . tracheids. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. tracheids and fibres. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. elongated. present throughout the region. tanniniferous cells.appears biconvex in outline. 189 .75 µ in diameter.5-14. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. hypodermis 2-3 layered. pitted vessels. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. vascular bundle collateral. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. fibres. parenchymatous cells. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends.14. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. a few with thick wall and simple pits. thin-walled. xylem fibres. hypodermis 1-2 layered. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. rounded to oval. parenchyma and fibres. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. tracheids. epidermis single layered. filled with tannin. parenchymatous cells. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. phloem composed of sieve elements. thin-walled. starch grains simple.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. 3-45 cells long. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. filled with tannin. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. some cells filled with tannin.appears circular in outline. xylem consists of vessels.5. phloem composed of sieve elements. angular. Midrib . cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval.75 µ in dia. Lamina . xylem situated above phlome. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin.absent. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Leaf- Petiole . simple.epidermis consisting of single layered cells.Greenish-brown. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. pith composed of a few thin-walled. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. 5. covered externally with thick cuticle. tangentially elongated cells. xylem consists of vessels.

Tikta.Chardi. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form for decoction.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 13. Appendix 10 per cent. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2.5 per cent. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2.50 g. Appendix 2 per cent. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 190 . Sucrose. Visarpa DOSE . Jvara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.6. D¢pana.2.2. Kaphahara. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. V¡tarakta. 2. Appendix 2. K¡sa. T¤À¸¡.2. Invert Sugars).5 per cent.7.3. Appendix 2.Sugars (Melizitose. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Raktapitta.4.20 .IDENTITY.2. Arimed¡di Taila.

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