THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

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CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

2.2.) Desv 177 1.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.1.1.1.2.2.2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2.Types of Stomata 2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.5.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.2.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.2-Thermometers 1.1.2-Sieves 1.2.1 Testing Drugs 2.2.1.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.1.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.2.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.1.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.1.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.1.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.1.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.3.4.2. 1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.1.2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .2.2.

3.Weights and Measures 5.2-Refractive Index 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.1-Powder Fineness 2.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.1.3.3.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .3.3.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.3 Limit Tests 2.2.1.5-Limit Test for lead 2.2.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.3.

II would be official. Part-I. II. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted.). Vol.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. II. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Part-I. Vol. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982).I. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. the Dangerous Drugs Act. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. would be deemed to have been amended vii . In general.P. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. Part-I. Vol. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. accordingly. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. 1930 and the Poisons Act.

Ayurvedic Formulary of India. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. viii . distribution and method of collection. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. If the odour persists to be discernible. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. Mesh Number . This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts.GENERAL NOTICES Title . Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). Hindi. substances or processes described in Appendix. Odour and Taste . Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. indicated in monograph. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. Italics . scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. it is described as having odour. Introductory Para .The metric system of weights and measures is employed. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. Synonyms . When the term “drop” is used.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. if any. Purity and Strength .Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs .Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. English. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Identity. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. Weights and Measures .Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC.

However.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1. Standards . the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. water-soluble ash. Percentage of Solutions . under Description. if of equivalent accuracy. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. pesticides. even by applying known reference standards. according to circumstances.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. mould or other evidence of deterioration. Purity and Strength.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. with one of the four meanings given below. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. water. total ash. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. The quantitative tests e. ix . in 100 grammes of product. ether-soluble extractive. those of definition of the part and source plants.In defining standards. Part-I. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. Vol.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. Constant Weight .soluble extractive. fungi. wherever given. Constituents . the expression per cent (%).Under this head.C. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. and show no abnormal odour. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. V. shall constitute standards. is used. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. and other animal matter including animal excreta. arsenic and heavy metals. colour.L. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug.) . which he uses. moisture content. sliminess. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method.g. and Identity. alcohol-soluble extractive. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . However. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. micro-organisms. pests. statements appearing in the API. acid-insoluble ash.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents.For statutory purpose. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative.

000 parts More than 10. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. such as fragment of filter papers. Temperature . The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10.56 oC. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. are intended to apply at that temperature. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. at a stated temperature. Solubility .000 parts x .When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes. Reagents and Solutions . Statements of solubilities. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Percentage of alcohol .Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. Solutions . all solutions are prepared with purified water.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. and dust particles. fibres.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. thermometric scale.

µ. Fam. 1M. 0. Kg. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. g. mm.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. ml.P. unless otherwise stated. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. TS. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m.1 N. PS. IN. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. l. mg.5 N.I. 0.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. Part –I and Part-II. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. cm. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights.

Lf. Wd. Kash. Bk. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Beng. St. Bk. Rz. Mar. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. Fr. Ht. Rt. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Rt. Tel.Sansk. xii . Tam. Guj. Wd. Assam. Ori. Sd. Punj. Mal. Wh. Kan. Eng. Pl. Tub. St.

bark upto 3 mm thick. 7-15 cm in length.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro.37-28. Akarakarabha (Rt.231 µ in 1 . cylindrical. Asteraceae). brown. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. 1. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. characteristically astringent and pungent. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. 53. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. not easily separable. parenchymatous cells. slightly aromatic. (Fam. thin-walled. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. external surface rough. shrivelled. xylem fibres thick-walled. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka. tapering slightly at both ends. Akarakara Akkaraka. vessels pitted. elongated. Akravu Akkalakara. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. taste. Akalakarabha. b) Microscopic Root . Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. an annual. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems.8 µ in width. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. cambium 2-5 layered. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva.1. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. Akallakara.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells.2 . odour.

7. running straight. medullary rays numerous. 2. IDENTITY. Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. uniseriate rays very rare. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. of the drug in powder form. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. bi to tri and multiseriate. also gives positive tests for inulin.Prati¿y¡ya. Appendix 10 percent. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. á£laroga. Aj¢rna. secondary phloem and medullary rays. 2 . starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex. Grdhras¢. Appendix 22 percent. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. 2. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 8 percent. PakÀ¡gh¡ta.3. áotha. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . radially elongated.6.2. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells.2. CONSTITUENTS . áv¡sa. áukrala. 2. ray cells thick-walled. K¡sa.2.5 -1 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. Appendix 2 percent. Pittahara. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma.2.length having narrow lumen.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). Appendix 2. Powder . NaÀ¶¡rtava. D¢pana. Buddhivardhaka. 2. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex. secondary phloem and medullary rays. Danta¿£la DOSE .2. secondary phloem. Svedakara. Udararoga. V¡jikara.Kum¡ry¡sava.2.Ash coloured.4.0. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex.

shows groups of cells of cotyledon. Akshoda (Cotldn. odour. thin-walled. thin-walled.) large deciduous. endosperm mostly single layered.Cream coloured. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. oily sweet. Cotyledon . slightly curved. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. under this. taste. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. Sailabhava. irregularly corrugated. not distinct. Powder . (Fam.Shows 1-2 layered. collapsed. 3 . paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. creamish-brown. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. followed by more or less compressed.2. parenchymatous cells. Juglandaceae). broken pieces. coriaceous. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. parenchymatous cells. radially elongated.

10 .2. 4 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2. V¡taroga.0 percent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .0 percent. 2.2.KÀata.IDENTITY.Walnut oil and Tannin. Appendix Not less than 7. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.2. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. KÀaya. V¤Àya. áukral. ViÀ¶ambhi.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta.7.3.4.2. Appendix Not more than 0. Appendix 2. Sara. DOSE . 2. Appendix Not less than 10.2. Balya.2.6. B¤´ha¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS .5 percent. Kaphakara.25 g. 2.

a few outer cells exfoliated. curved.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. Amra.Bk. Jangali Ambo. Ranambo Ambada. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. Amvara -Mampusli. external surface smooth. deciduous tree. Ranamba. with reddish-brown contents. radially arranged. Anacardiaceae). S. Stem Bark. Mampuiti. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. Wild Mango Ambeda. Ambadam Amratakamu. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. grey having lenticels. Anbalamu. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Jangli Aam Ambate. consisting of tangentially elongated. laminated. fracture. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. acuminata Roxb. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. Amra Indian Hog Plum. a small aromatic. f. tangentially elongated. upto 27 m high and 2. Ambado.3.5 m in girth. thin-walled cells. and 5 . S. thin. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces.. Amrata (St.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. mangifera Willd. Ambazham. Ambalam. Kurz. non Gamble (Fam. internal surface reddish-yellow.

similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. Appendix Not more than 0. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.3. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width.2.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. Raktapitta.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. 6 . phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. 2. Ka¸¶hya..5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. 2. Rucik¤t. V¡tahara. 2.2. 0. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. containing rosette crystals and starch grains.96 (blue). KÀaya.5-10 g.L. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains.V.96.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. simple. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. 0.75-14 µ in dia. Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru. stone cells. thick-walled. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. 2. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. D¡ha DOSE . Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. T.33.33. 0. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf.87 (all greyish brown).4. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.(greyish brown). Appendix Not more than 13 per cent.Light brown.2.KÀata. of the drug in powder form for decoction. 0. Under U. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.6.2.L. Powder .2. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.40 and 0. shows cork cells.7.2. lignified. Pittakara. Not more than 1 per cent. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.C.87 (blue) and 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.C.

found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m. Leaf . áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn.free. stamens 5. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . slightly ribbed. numerous.0. anther. Apamarga (W.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. gradually tapering. rough due to presence of some root scars. Kharamaµjar. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure.0. contorted or quincuncial. secondary and tertiary roots present. greenish-white. one spine lipped. sessile. a stiff.1-1. two celled. hypogynous. 7 . solid. the perianth lobes. hairy. yellowish-brown. dorsifixed. 0. exstipulate.3 . filament short. erect.5 cm in cut pieces. not distinct. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. odour.9 m high herb. membranous. opposite. bisexual. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra.) Amaranthaceae). hollow when dry. wavy margin.Simple. opposite. bracteate with two bracteoles. erect.4. cylindrical. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. actinomorphic.P. decussate. yellowish-brown. May£raka.0 cm in thickness. Stem . obovate.Cylindrical tap root. branched. 0. perianth segments 5. (Fam. PratyakpuÀpa. subsessile. Flower .3-0.

ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. epidermis single layered. syncarpous.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. cortical and pith cells. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. perianth and bracteoles. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. lignified.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. single. round at the base. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. cortex 6-10 layered. rectangular. tangentially elongated. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. LeafPetiole . epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. unilocular with single ovule. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. demarcating the xylem rings. Seed . micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. fibres pitted.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. oval to rectangular. fibres being absent. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. elongated. thin-walled. scalariform and pitted. Midrib . stigma. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. 3-4 celled stalk. xylem composed of usual elements. endospermic. followed 8 . ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. brown. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. spiral. capitate. composed of parenchymatous cells.Shows a single layered epidermis. b) Microscopic Root . 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. on both surfaces. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide.gynoecium bicarpellary. style. truncate at the apex. Fruit . thin-walled cork cells. either separate throughout or found in some cases. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. Stem . 2-5 celled. thin layers of cambium. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. ovary superior. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements.Sub-cylindric. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. thin-walled cork cells. two medullary bundles. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Shows crescent-shaped outline. vessels simple pitted. parenchymatous cells. present in pith. vessels annular. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem.

2. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. V¡tahara.20-50 g. 2. spiral. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. V¡maka. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. stomatal index 4. Medoroga DOSE .2. aseptate fibres.0-20. scalariform and pitted thickening. 2. Abhay¡ Lava¸a.2.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. shows fragments of elongated. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. palisade ratio 7. Tikta Sara.Shows single layered. Powder . Apac¢. Lamina . Ar¿a. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues.á£la. Udara Roga. Chedana. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface.Light yellow. vessels with annular.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface.2.5-9. non-lignified cells. rectangular.7. Kaphahara.2. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Gu·apippali. 9. IDENTITY.0-11. mm.2. Medohara.0 on lower surface.4.3.6. of the drug for decoction. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. P¡cana. slightly elongated in upper.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. Appendix 2.0 on upper surface. Ka¸·u. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. 9 . thin-walled epidermal cells. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. 2.2.

bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. b) Microscopic Root . single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. fibrous. medullary 10 . a few solitary fibres also present. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. 1-5 mm in thickness. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. a few showing slit-like pits. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. bitter. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. cylindrical.5. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. Fabaceae). taste. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. thin walled cells filled with starch grains.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. Aparajita (Rt. lightbrown. (Fam.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. very long. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. colour. vessels pitted with oblong. fracture. polygonal. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. thin-walled.

M£traroga. ViÀahara.79 (both yellow). of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. Under U.. Appendix per cent.L. 0. Kaphahara.á£la. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. CONSTITUENTS .2.4. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. 2. found in secondary cortex. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. Appendix per cent..7.79 (blue). CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.3.Yellowish-brown. IDENTITY. 0. KuÀ¶ha. oblong and pitted. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. shows simple and compound starch grains. Appendix 2. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.2.2. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. 11 . 2.6.2. Starch. phloem and xylem parenchyma. Medhya. Buddhiprada. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. Taraxerol & Taraxerone. áotha.Tannin. Appendix per cent.C.2.Mi¿raka Sneha. 0.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. of the drug in powder form. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf.L. Vra¸a DOSE .rays 1-5 cells wide.79 (grey).54 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Powder .V. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. measuring 3-13 µ in dia.3 g. Pittahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. Tikta. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. V¡tahara.C.1 . Appendix per cent. T. 2. Resin.

short with projecting fibres. Ardraka (Rz. Adrak Injee.6. taste. gingery.Shows a few layered. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. oblique branches on upper side. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. (Fam. Ale -Adi. pieces 5-15 cm long. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla.) Zingiberaceae). fracture. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. Allam. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. odour. buds and roots are removed and washed well. isodiametric. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. 1. radially arranged cells of inner cork. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. colourless. thin-walled. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. Inji Allamu.5 cm thick. widely cultivated in India.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1.5-6. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic . lakottai. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. each having a depressed scar at its apex. reaching up to 90 cm in height. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. irregularly arranged. tangentially elongated. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. pungent Rhizome .

conjoint.16 (blue). elongated pits on their walls.08 (violet). idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. free from starch.92 (all yellow). 0. Appendix 2 per cent. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.63 (grey) & 0. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene.16.35 (light violet).2.2. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres.4. 0. Appendix 2. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.3.L.47. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.63 & 0.63. Appendix 8 per cent. 13 . Appendix 5 per cent. vessels showing reticulate. 0.2. 0.69. Powder -Light yellow. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. Appendix 90 per cent. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. 0. 2.13.9 T. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. numerous closed. oleo-resin cells abundent. IDENTITY.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. 0. Under U..dia.35. 2. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.l6 (brownish violet). On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf. 2. 0. collateral.C. 0.47 (light violet). of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. 0.7.69 (grey). On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. small cells of sieve tube. composed of xylem. reticulate and spiral vessels. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. 0. 0. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. endodermis single layered.6.2.C.69 (all light yellow). 0.35.2.69 (light violet). Appendix 1 per cent. 0.03.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.76. 0.5 per cent. phloem. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. vessels 2-5 in number. 0. filled with abundant starch grains. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. 0.08. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. 0. walls of oil cells suberised. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.76 (violet) & 0. 2.63 (light violet).7 vessels. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres.92 (violet). septate fibres with oblique. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T.V. fibrovascular bundles of two types. 0.2. 2. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. larger bundles consists of 2. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.83 & 0. 0.L.16.

14 .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. Kaphahara. áopha. DOSE .2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana.á£la. Ën¡ha. RukÀa. Rocana. H¤dya. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Svarya. Ka¸tharoga. Vibandha. Bhedana.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. V ¤Àaya. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam.Bk. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. not distinct. lignified. odour and taste. Sadabala -Haramibaval. with tapering 15 . secondary phloem wide. Arimeda (St. hard. Fabaceae). rough. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. internally light brown to reddish-brown. phloem fibres thin-walled. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. (Fam. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. characteristic of dry regions. stone cells and phloem cells. fracture. consisting of sieve elements. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thinwalled cortical cells. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. Velvelam. fibres and crystal fibres.5-1 cm thick. upto 3 m in height. square to rectangular cells. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. all traversed by medullary rays. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. parenchyma. incurved. fibrous. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous.7. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. exfoliating in irregular scales. Pilobaval.

composed of thin-walled. Mukharoga. 2. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf.LC. Udardapra áamana DOSE .4. Appendix 11 per cent. Appendix 13 per cent. Appendix 2. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.áopha. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Ka¸·u.39 and a spot at Rf. Visarpa. fibres. IDENTITY. 2. β-Sitosterol and Tannin.C.3-5 g in powder form. sclereid.2. β -Amyrin. 2.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.91 (yellow). ViÀajavra¸a.0.39 and a spot at Rf. 0.6. Dantaroga. 0.e.2. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Reddish-brown. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i.2. T.2.2. K¡sa. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 1 per cent. KuÀ¶ha. Atis¡ra. 2. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. 0 to 0.Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder . Appendix 14 per cent.3.69 (grey) is seen in visible light.91 (both blue).78 and 0. 16 . arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. radially elongated cells. shows groups of cork cells.0 to 0.ends. P¡¸·u. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka.7. K¤mi.L. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. crystal fibres elongated.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS . Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.40 g for decoction.n-Hexacosanol. Meda¿oÀaka.2. Meha.

a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. Torematti Arjuna. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. Kellemasuthu. traversed by phloem rays. a large deciduous tree. taste. Bilimatti. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. Mathichakke. Mattimora. consisting of sieve tubes. 0. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. Neermatti.5 cm thick. Vellamaruthi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. curved.8. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. channelled to half quilled. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. Arjuna (St. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. recurved. P¡rtha. short in inner and laminated in outer part.2-1. Arjuna. companion cells. fracture. in the middle and outer phloem region. (Fam. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width.Bk. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.& A. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. Sajada Arjuna Matti. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad. flat. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. bitter and astringent.) Combretaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces.

KÀatakÀaya. 18 .3. H¤dya. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. Vra¸an¡¿ana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Prameha... measuring 5-13 µ in dia. elliptic.7. 4-12 cells high. measuring 260-600 µ in dia.2. Appendix 2. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Vra¸a. 2. Kaphahara. µ Powder .2. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. T¤À¡.2. mostly simple. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. Appendix 25 per cent. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. round to oval. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.in dia.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. compound of 2-3 components.4.2. Appendix 1 per cent. H¤droga.2. Arjuna Gh¤ta.6. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. a few rhomboidal crystals. 2. starch grains. round to oval. alternating with fibres. sometimes upto 5 components. uniseriate phloem rays. IDENTITY..Medoroga. fibres. 2. starch grains simple and compound. elliptical. 2.Reddish-brown. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vya´ga. of the drug in powder form.3-6 g. Appendix 20 per cent. shows fragments of cork cells. Pittahara. alata). DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 20 per cent.

in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. Scramkotati Nallajidi.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. mesocarp and endocarp. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Bhallataka (Fr. Fruit . (Fam. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki.) Anacardiaceae). below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. 30-40 layers thick. some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. nut 2. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. smooth.5-3 cm long. dark brown. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells.9. mesocarp a very broad zone. Nallajidiginga Baladur. drupaceous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. obliquely ovoid. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. 19 . cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. shining with residual receptacle.

2. Tikta. 2. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A..2. Kaphahara. Part-I 20 . Gulma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Snigdha. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands. ether. Appendix 11 per cent. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. KuÀ¶ha. V¡tahara.F. very much elongated radial walls. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.3. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.2.2. IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Krimi. 2. Appendix 2. Appendix 4 per cent. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder .I. Note .Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.4. Bhedi.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid.6.1. being highly thickened.. Graha¸¢.Ar¿a. Chedi.2. of the drug in Ksirapaka form. Appendix 5 per cent.2.Dark-brown.2. Ka¶u. 2.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. chloroform. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).7.2 g. Ën¡ha. CONSTITUENTS .5 per cent. Appendix 0. P¡cana. DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. innermost prismatic.

Asteraceae). often rooting at nodes. Keshavardhana. 1. cylindrical or flat. disc flowers 21 . a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. greenish. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. Bh¤´ga. spreading. Flower .2 . Leaf . Karisalai Guntakalagara. Tekar¡ja. Knnunni Bhangra.P. 2. branched.) herbaceous annual. (Fam. cylindrical. ovate.10. white. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. much branched. Bhangro Bhangara. Stem . occasionally rooting at nodes. Bhringaraja (W.Solitary or 2. 30 . strigose with oppressed hairs. erect or prostrate.2. Gurugada. not toothed. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . sub-acute or acute. Kesari -Bhangaro. ray flowers ligulate.Well developed.8.5 cm long.3 cm wide. ligule small. obtuse or acute. strigosely hirsute. lanceolate.. Karisalanganni. node distinct. upto about 7 mm in dia. greyish.50 cm high. usually oblong. M¡rkava.Herbaceous. sub-entire. occasionally brownish. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. sessile to subsessile. scarcely as long as bracts. together on unequal axillary peduncles. Bhringiraja. Soppu. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. rough due to oppressed white hairs. herbaceous. Kesuriya.Opposite.2 . involucral bracts about 8. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja.

free.Achenial cypsella. one seeded. fibre tracheids. hairy and non endospermic. filaments epipetalous. xylem composed of vessels. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. pitted. found scattered throughout wood. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. pistil bicarpellary.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. epidermis followed by wide cortex.0. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. covered with warty excrescences. warty. xylem ray distinct. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen.2 . uniseriate. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. fibres and xylem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. rarely slightly oblique. and with pointed apical cell. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. 1-5 celled. vessels numerous. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . epidermis followed by cortex. corolla often 4 toothed. Fruit . pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces.0. run straight in tangential section. in macerated preparation vessels small. stamen 5. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. trichomes of two types. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. ray cells pitted. consisting of rounded cells. unilocular with one basal ovule. Leaf- Petiole .cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis.tubular. b) Microscopic Root . with very pointed tips. phloem rays broader towards periphery. traversed by xylem rays. covered with striated cuticle.1 cm wide. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both.25 cm long. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. dark brown. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. Midrib . pappus absent. tangentially elongated cells. ovary inferior. cuneate. brown. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. fibre tracheids. drum-shaped. with a narrow wing. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. Seed . 0. non-glandular. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. externally covered with cuticle. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. simple.

middle cells longest. pericyclic fibres distinct.Dark green. epidermis single layered. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. while the section cut at apical region. collateral. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. trichomes entire or in pieces. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. peg-like outgrowth. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. normally biseriate and uniseriate. externally covered with cuticle. externally covered with cuticle. hairs stiff. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width.8 -4. xylem consists of large number of vessels. secondary cortex composed of large. more abundant on lower surfaces. pointed. vascular bundles in a ring. xylem fibres with wide lumen. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. endarch.0 on lower surface. Powder .5 -26. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. pointed tips and pitted walls. the cork where formed. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. uniseriate. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. septa thick-walled. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. Lamina . about 3 celled. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. arranged in tangential strands. palisade ratio 3. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents.collenehymatous cells on both sides.shows a dorsi ventral structure. wide at the base. Stem . anomocytic and anisocytic stomata.0-22. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. warty. some elongated with simple perforations.5 on upper and 23.5. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. pitted with spiral thickening. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. 23 . stomatal index 20.

6 ml of the drug in juice form. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. Appendix per cent. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila.áotha. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. V¡tahara. áirah á£la. Appendix per cent. 2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. Appendix per cent. Ëmahara. CakÀusya. Kaphahara. P¡¸·u.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6.2.IDENTITY. K¡sa. 2. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.3. Tekar¡ja marica. Yak¤droga. Tvacya. ViÀahara.2.2. K¤miroga. 24 . Dantya.2. Appendix 2. Ke¿ya. Ras¡yana.Alkaloids. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . H ¤droga. 12 . DOSE .7.2. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Tikta RukÀa. Appendix per cent.3 .36 g. Ecliptine and Nicotine.4. 2.2.

decussate.B. prostrate or creeping annual herb.11. small.. wiry. Syn. slightly bitter. branched creamish-yellow.& K.) H.Thin. sessile. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn. Fruit . a glabrous. Leaf .Capsules upto 5 mm long. slightly bitter. Ondelaga. glabrous. about 1-2 mm thick.Thin. Scrophulariaceae). small. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Stem . found throughout India in wet and damp places.Simple.P. Valabrahmi. ovoid and glabrous. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. Brahmi (W. taste. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. obovate-oblong. green. opposite. 25 . Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi. green or purplish green. 1-2 cm long. Flower . taste.) Wettst.Small. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. soft. nodes and internodes prominent. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. axillary and solitary. pedicels 6-30 mm long. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. (Fam. succulent. Brahmi. bracteoles shorter than pedicels.

IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. Stem .Yellowish-brown. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. 2. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. Appendix per cent. Praj¡sth¡pana.0 x 2. cortex having large air cavities. endodermis single layered. endodermis single layered. pericycle not distinct. Tikta.2. round to oval. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.7.5-9. respectively. Svarya.0 µ in dia. Medhya. measuring 4-14 µ in dia.. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. no distinct midrib present. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. V¡tahara. 2. glandular hairs sessile. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. Matiprada. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. Appendix per cent. b) Microscopic 26 . ViÀahara.0-14. Ras¡yana. Appendix per cent. and 8. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. 2. Powder .2.3. ËyuÀya. glandular hairs. simple. 2.2. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.2. starch grains simple. vascular ring continuous.Root . round and oval starch grains.4. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.2. Appendix 2.Shows a single layer of epidermis.6. Appendix per cent.2. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces.

1-3 g in powder form. P¡¸·u. áopha. Prameha. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. 27 . Ratnagiri Rasa.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara.KuÀ¶ha. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

a very prickly. tangentially elongated. no distinct odour and taste. Heggulla. phloem parenchyma much abundant. Solanaceae). Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. woody. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. short and splintery.15 layers of thin-walled. Brihati (Rt. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. much branched perennial under shrub. (Fam. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. Badikateri Kirugullia. Chichuriti. oval and tangentially elongated cells. secondary cortex composed of 5 . pale yellowish-brown. thin-walled. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. upto 1.Shows thin cork composed of 5 .8 m high. fracture. b) Microscopic Root . Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. Papparamulli. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. cork cambium single layered. traversed by phloem rays. varying greatly in shape and size. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. long. cylindrical.5 cm in dia.9 layers of thin-walled. parenchyma and stone cells. Ubhibharingani. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 .12. Putirichunda Dorli. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars.. 1-2. ribbed.

Appendix Not more than 6. of the drug for decoction. phloem and medullary rays. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2.5 -11. thick-walled. 2. Powder . measuring 5. Agnim¡dya.2.á£la.2. vessels with simple pits. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance. measuring 5. 2.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.11. all elements being lignified. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent.6 µ in diameter.6. traversed by xylem rays. IDENTITY. Kaphahara. H¤droga.2.2.3.7. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. H¤dya. DOSE . 2.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.5 per cent.4.6 µ in diameter. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .5 . simple and rounded to oval starch grains. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.10-20 g. Jvara.Cream coloured. cells radially elongated and pitted. P¡cana. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. aseptate fibres. rounded to oval starch grains. V¡tahara..Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. 29 . Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. xylem rays uni to biseriate. shows groups of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. tracheids. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. áv¡sa. oval to elongated stone cells and simple.2.

cultivated mainly in Southern India. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. P. odour. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. fibres and xylem parenchyma. consisting of round. (Fam.5-2.. endodermis single layered. a glabrous. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam.0 cm in width. cork cambium not distinct. greyish-brown. plenty of simple starch granules present. b) Microscopic Stem . cylindrical and somewhat twisted. secondary cortex a wide zone.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. thin-walled. oval to rectangular. Piperaceae).13. peppery. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. nodes and internodes distinct. short. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. acrid. fracture. Chavya -Kattumulaku. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. chaba Hunter non Blume. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. fleshy climber. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . Chavya (St. P. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. taste. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. Syn. brownish cells. officinarum DC. tracheid.

Candr¡m¤ta Rasa. cells thin walled. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. Appendix 1. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter. Glycosides and Steroids. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . IDENTITY. of the drug in powder form. 31 .pitted and reticulate thickenings.Ar¿a. Recana. P¡cana. 2. 2.3. starch grains. Powder . 2.7. medullary rays multi seriate. Appendix 6 per cent. Pl¢h¡ Roga.2. Udara Roga.2. filled with simple.1-2 g. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. RukÀa. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. round to oval starch grains.5 per cent.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. CONSTITUENTS . Ën¡ha. 2.2. Appendix 10 per cent.4. Appendix 2. shows fragments of vessels. fibres and simple.2.2. D¢pana.6. Krimi. Kaphahara.Alkaloids.2.Greyish-brown. Appendix 3 per cent. á£lal DOSE . round to oval. Gulma.

0. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree. LohitapuÀpa. Punicaceae). round. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. wedge-shaped. Madalam Danimma Anar.14.6 cm long. beneath this.1-0. Seed . measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. 32 . triangular and rectangular. angular. consisting of oval to polygonal. sweetish-sour. starch grains present in testa. shows stone cells. 0. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter.Reddish-brown. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. endosperm absent.5-0. oil globules. taste. Maadalai. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. found growing wild in the warm valley. outer hills of Himalayas between 900.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. Powder . oval. containing a few oil globules. parenchymatous cells.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. simple. Dadima (Sd. thin walled.2 cm wide. cotyledons coiled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. round to oval. (Fam.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

quadrangular with four prominent furrows.Yellowish-green. fibrous. characteristic.5 cm wide. 1.3-0. globose. crenate. pungent. 1. crowded in dense. Leaf . taste. corolla. fracture. Stem .P. ovate or ovate. stout herb. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. taste. slightly bitter.6-0.35 cm wide. hairy. subacute. zig-zag. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country.16. slightly curved. upto 4 mm thick. acute.25 cm long. an annual. more or less pubescent.lanceolate.9 m in high. Inflorescence . long with numerous wiry. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. 1-2. lanceolate. glabrous in lower part. fine rootlets. taste.5 cm long and 0.5 cm across. 10 dentate with a villous throat. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. size variable. 3-9 cm long.7-2 cm 37 . about 2-3. about 0. tubular. white. 1-2.Cylindrical. serrate. white. smooth. Dronapushpi (W. calyx. surface rough.2-1.Light greenish-yellow. thin.) Lamiaceae). scaberulous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . erect. hairy on upper part.Sessile. ciliate. nodes and internodes distinct. Gumma. (Fam.

shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. present in centre. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. tracheids. palisade single layered. nutlets 3 mm smooth. parenchymatous cells. endoderm is single layered. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. Leaf- Petiole . vessels and tracheids have simple pits.long. thin-walled cells.vascular bundle arc-shaped. vessels long with spurs. cortex consisting of single layered. bilipped. secondary xylem consists of vessels. Stem . Lamina . tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls. 4 . upper lip about 4 mm long.1 cm wide. tracheids. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. followed by round to oval parenchyma.tangentially elongated. Fruit . parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. tangentially elongated. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. thin-walled cells. round to angular collenchyma. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes.0. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. oblong. Seed . vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening.3 cm long and 0. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. parenchymatous cells. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. vascular bundles 4. upto 8 cells high. irregular. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. lateral lobes small. consisting of barrel shaped. xylem consists of vessels.Schizocarpic carcerule. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Midrib . brown. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. composed of oval to rectangular. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. some having simple pits. smooth.shows a single layered epidermis. thin-walled 38 . wooly.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes.7 layered. b) Microscopic Root . pith wide consisting of circular to oval. parenchymatous cells. dark brown. consists of a single layered epidermis. trigonous.

16. 2.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. 2.6-30. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tamaka áv¡sa.6. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.5 on lower surface. Glycoside. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. 39 .2. K¡mal¡. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. present on both surfaces. Powder .2. 2.2. CONSTITUENTS . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent.7 on upper surface. a few veins present in this region. V¡takara. stomata diacytic.Alkaloid. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡. Pittakara.2.6-40. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. RukÀa.cells.7.2. Lava¸a. palisade ratio 7-9. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.Dull yellow.áotha.4.3. ViÀamajvara DOSE . stomatal index 16. Ka¶u Guru. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. K¡sa. pitted and spiral vessels. Bhedani.2. IDENTITY. 2. Agnim¡ndya. aseptate fibres.

lignified with distinct lumen and striations.4 cm wide. an annual creeping herb. 0. glossy. shows stone cells. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. cotyledons two. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. surface smooth. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. straight.17. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. sweetish oily. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. mesophyll cells thinwalled. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. B¤hatphala. radially elongated to squarish. Hastipani. cultivated in many parts of the country. parenchymatous. Cucurbitaceae). more or less ellipsoid. Karka¶¢. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. thin-walled. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. creamish-yellow. C. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. 40 .) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. parenchymatous cells. Ervaru (Sd. taste. 0. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. (Fam.3-0. Hastipani. rounded and tangentially elongated. Vellarika Kakadi. utilissimus Roxb. -Kakur. covered with thick cuticle.7-10 cm long. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed.

2. Raktapitta. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.26. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. A¿mar¢.91 (blue) under U. T. 0.7.3.83.C. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .2.19.6. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.D¡ha.19.58.Oil & Sugars.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf.5 per cent. RaktadoÀakara. 0.0. Kaphakara.64.26. D¢pana. 2.97 (all yellow) .4. Appendix 5 per cent. 2. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.L. 0.97 (all grey).77. Appendix 0. Appendix 2. 2.51.91 and 0.3-6 g.V. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. 0. (366 mm). Gulma.35. 0. Rucya. 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. T¤À¸¡.35.C. 0. 0.0. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. 41 . 0.2.83. 0.64. Jvara.IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. V¡takara. 0. 0.58.91 and 0. CONSTITUENTS .51.2. Tikta Guru. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of seeds.77. 0.0. Appendix 10 per cent. 0.2. 0. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.L.

found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. thin-walled. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril.Shows more or less loosely arranged. 0. a large epiphytic climber.6 cm long. smooth. (Fam. cut surface has a central core. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. shiny.5 cm thick.4 cm wide.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. greyish-brown with a dent.4-0.18. brownish-grey.0-3. rough and scaly. b) Microscopic Fruit . odour and taste not disticnt. odour and taste not distinct. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. 42 . Seed . Orissa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. Araceae).0-3.0 cm in diameter and 2. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.Kidney-shaped. Gajapippali (Fr. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. 0.3-0.

Stanya.65 and 0.20. pitted and with concentric striations. Ka¸ha Roga. thick-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES . oval to polygonal. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana.2. DOSE . On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. 2. 2.65. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. 2-4 layered. V¡tahara.5 per cent. Three spots appear at Rf.73 and 0.4.L. 0.3. Kaphahara. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. in extract (Phant) form.73 (both light brown) and 0. T.6. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. Ka¸¶hya. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. 0.Dark brown. 2. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. Agnivardhaka. Punarnav¡sava. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent.65.V. Powder . of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.2.2. áv¡sa. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.Atis¡ra.áiv¡gutik¡.27. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.C. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. 0.L. 2. 0.Shows a single layered. K¤miroga. IDENTITY.2. CONSTITUENTS .7.C. Malavi¿oÀana. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf.65. non-lignified. shows lignified. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .93 (all blue) are visible.2. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. thin-walled. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. Sugars & Fixed Oil. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.2-3 g. 0.93 (brown).27. thick-walled. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.93 (all yellow). oval to polygonal.73 and 0. 0. 0.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. Appendix T. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.Seed . 0.Glucosides viz. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. 0.2. 43 . oval to polygonal.

endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . (Fam. surface smooth. thin-walled cells. P¢takarohi¸¢.6 cm wide. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. b) Microscopic Fruit . 0.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. radially 44 . Verbenaceae). Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. parenchymatous cells.) unarmed tree.5-2. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. black.0 cm long. two seeded.Seed ovate. Shivani. sometimes one seeded. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. sweetish sour. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. light yellow. Seed . Gambhari (Fr. 1. parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. Seed . hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha.19.A drupe.5-1 cm long. seed coat thin. Hannu -Kumbil. ovoid. taste. Sr¢par¸¢. fleshy mesocarp. tangentially elongated. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. crinkled.4-0. 0. K¡¿marya. taste. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. papery. oily. multilayered. cotyledons consisting of single layered. thin-walled.

0.4. of the drug in powder form. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Amla. oil globules and aleurone grains.42. 0.V. KÀata.C. IDENTITY. 2. Appendix 6 per cent. 2.2. T.98 (all blue).3.. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna.94 and 0.03.Arvind¡sava. V¡tahara.12.2. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.03.C. Rakta Pitta DOSE . M£trak¤cchra. Appendix 2.98 (orange). Alkaloid.1-3 g.L. Tartaric acid. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.6. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Appendix 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.52. 0. 2. Under U. Powder .2. 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Resin and Saccharine. 0.22.93 and 0. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 8 per cent. 0. KÀaya.7.Blackish-brown. Sara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 25 per cent.08. 0.4 per cent.98 (yellow) in visible light.2.elongated epidermal cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Pittahara. Ke¿ya. T¤À¸¡. H¤dya. Ras¡yana.Butyric acid. shows stone cells.18.D¡ha.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. H¤droga. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.26.98 (all yellow). 2. 0. 0.2.2. 45 . Medhya. 0. KaÀ¡ya Guru.

fibrous. radially arranged cells. fracture. taste. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region.Shows a wide cork.6-1. 46 . mucilaginous. external surface smooth. rectangular. a few stone cells. elliptical. a shrub 0. Gangeru (St. consisting of 12-20 layered. blunt tips and moderately long in size. moderately large in size.. channelled.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. Tiliaceae). traversed by wide phloem rays. consisting of tangentially elongated. Grewia populifolia Vahl. thick-walled. oval. secondary cortex wide. arranged in radial groups. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate.) Aschers & Schwf. thin-walled. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.5-5 cm long.0 m high. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . 1.Bk. Syn. parenchymatous cells. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. fibrous. (Fam. light yellow. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals.20.

Vra¸a.4.2.). DOSE . On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittavik¡ra. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2-3 g. 0.08.3. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0. 47 . Under U. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. α-amyrin.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). 0. 0.C.61.V. 0.35. 0. Appendix per cent.27. 2. 0.55 (blue) & 0. β-amyrin etc.7. 2. 0. 0. IDENTITY.6. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. 0.35 (violet).2.17.L. 0. Appendix 2.35 (dark blue).68 & 0. Appendix per cent.88 (all yellow). Appendix per cent. 2. Tikta.17 (light violet).48 (violet). 0.55. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.41. Ka¶u. of the drug in powder form.L.2.J¢rak¡di Modaka. Two spots are seen at Rf.2. 2. Amla.88 (light violet). KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. Appendix per cent. 0.13 (blue).08 (violet).29 (blue).68 (light violet) & 0. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent.27 (light violet).17.2.64 (blue). 0.48. CONSTITUENTS . 0.08 (blue) 0.Powder .35 (both light yellow) in visible light. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.C.Sugar. 0. 0.Light yellow and fibrous. T. 0.

thinwalled. composed of 1-2 cells wide. light brown. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. gulagunja -Kunni. odourless. cork cambium. feebly sweetish. fruits ripen during winter. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. simple or branched. becoming mildly bitter. pitted walls. tangentially elongated cells. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture.21. Ghungchi Guluganji. most often irregularly curved. taste. b) Microscopic Root .) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. (Fam. flowering in August-September. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. Chanothee. Chonotee Ratti. when distinct. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. present at short intervals. Fabaceae). slightly corky. smaller than stone cells. cylindrical. soft. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. exfoliating in small flakes. spreading throughout the plains. bark thin. some with brownish content.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . a climber. Gunja (Rt. Gurivinda Ghongchi. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. Kundumani Guriginga. Kakananti Rati Kunch.

1 .Indralupta. Powder . small groups of sclerenchyma.2. Tikta á¢ta. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. groups of sclerenchymatous cells. áula. of the drug in powder form. 2.4. 49 . Appendix 2. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. vessels of varying sizes with thick. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . shows fragments of cork. parenchyma thin-walled. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.3 g.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. stone cells. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin).7. xylem vessels with pitted walls. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches.75 µ in diameter. pitted walls.3.5 per cent. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.2. DOSE . 2. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. numerous xylem fibres. CONSTITUENTS .diverging towards periphery.2. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. Pittahara. thin-walled and rectangular. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. IDENTITY.2.75 µ in diameter. Mukha¿oÀa.2.Greyish-brown.5 -13. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. wood composed of narrow concentric. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. Appendix 10 per cent.2.5-13. Appendix 2. Appendix 9 per cent.6. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Ikshu (St. solid. Serdi Ikha. more numerous and closer towards periphery. 50 . Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. besides the xylem and phloem elements.22.) shrub. b) Microscopic Stem . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. conjoint. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. characteristic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. with. juicy and sweet. closed type of vascular bundles. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. smooth. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. taste. (Fam. scattered throughout the ground tissue. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. distinct node and internode. Poaceae). thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. cylindrical. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. odour. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. lignified.

V¤Àya.2.2. IDENTITY.4.6. Kaphahara.3. Pittahara.200 .5 per cent.Bal¡ Taila.Sucrose.Powder light brick red. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.Powder . 2. M£tra KÀaya.7. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. 51 . 2. Appendix 2. Appendix Not more than 2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. vessels and sclerenchyma. 2. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . ground tissue. shows pieces of epidermis. V¡tahara.400 ml in the juice form.2. Sara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.Raktapitta.2. Balya. DOSE . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not less than 17 per cent.2.

medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. Havumakke.2-2. tangentially elongated. thick-walled. fibres aseptate.5 µ in dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. dull yellow. cylindrical. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. Indramanoa. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. (Fam. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. taste. Tuntikai. composed of sieve elements.23.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. mostly simple or rarely 52 . Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. Gav¡kÀ¢. b) Microscopic Root . tangentially elongated cork cells. parenchyma and medullary rays.) Cucurbitaceae). thick walled. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. Indrayanalata. slightly twisted. Indravarana Gothakakucti. áatakratulat¡. parenchymatous cells. an annual or perennial. elongated with pointed ends. 0.5 cm thick. Tumbi Paikamatti. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. intensively bitter. short. Indrayan. longitudinal fissures present. parenchyma and medullary rays. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell.5-7. consisting of vessels. Varithummati. occurring throughout the country. lying around vessels. xylem forms bulk of root. fibres. Indravaruni (Rt. Bitter apple Indravaran. fracture. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. thin walled. Paythumatti. pitted. Valiya Pekkumatti. Indravaruni. a few filled with dark brown contents. starch grains oval to round in shape 2.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. Seed . Eugenia jambolana Lam. 1 cm long. oval.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. cuminii Druce.. E. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. Jambu (Sd. a large evergreen tree. taste. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. brownish-black.800 m. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. b) Microscopic Powder . mesophyll composed of isodiametric. Myrtaceae).) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. smooth. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu.25. astringent. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. (Fam. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. 1 cm wide.. oval or roundish. rounded starch grains. 57 . compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter.Brown coloured. thin-walled.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis.) Skeels Syn. coriaceous covering. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja.

58 .30 and 0.7. Appendix per cent.3-6 g. 0. Appendix per cent.C.12. KaÀ¡ya Guru.C. 2. 2. Kaphahara. Appendix 2.V. Pittahara.20. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.20.2. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. three spots appear at Rf. 0. T.Glycoside (Jamboline). DOSE .2.30 (blue).95 (all violet).Madhumeha. 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .95 and 0. 0. Amla. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. Udakameha. THERAPEUTIC USES . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. 0.6. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form. 2.2.3. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.4.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. Tannin. Appendix per cent.IDENTITY.L. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.95 (all yellow).30 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.2.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. 2.L. ViÀ¶ambhi.2. CONSTITUENTS .

secondary phloem composed of sieve elements.5 cm thick.) Skeels Syn. (Fam. internal surface fibrous. short and splintery. astringent. Jambuda Jomuna. cuminii Druce. upper few layers thick. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. forming a rhytidoma. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. E.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. Myrtaceae)..26. light grey to ash coloured. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. Navval Sambu. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem.800 m. fracture. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. taste. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. younger bark mostly channelled.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3.Bk. 0. and phloem rays. Neralamara -Njaval. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . and reddish brown. rough. elongated. Jamu. Raja Jambu Merale.5-2. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. Mahamaram. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Jam Jammu Naaval. Jamneralae. a large evergreen tree. oval to angular. Jambu (St. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. stone cells. Jambu. lower cork thin and colourless. fibres aseptate. cork cambium not distinct. stratified and reddish-brown.

Light brown. of the drug for decoction.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .Atis¡ra.U¿¢r¡sava. 2. 2. measuring 5-11µ in diameter.2.region. round to oval starch grains.2. round to oval starch grains. single or in groups. Pittahara. Stambhaka. Appendix per cent.6. Raktapitta.10-20 g. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. IDENTITY. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. V¡tala. elongated. Appendix per cent. 2. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. Appendix per cent. reddish-brown content.3. oval to angular. Appendix per cent. stone cells.2. aseptate fibres. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.7.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. DOSE . 60 . 2.4. Kaphahara. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . THERAPEUTIC USES .2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple.2. Appendix 2.

inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. dull cinnamon-brown. Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. Nervala -Nervalam. slightly quadrangular. filled with brownish content. oblong. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. Tinti·¢phala. b) Microscopic Seed . hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. consisting of an epidermal layer. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. 5-7 m high. no marked odour. Jayapala (Sd. Japal beej.Shows a hard testa. (Fam. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. ovate. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent.) small evergreen tree. Euphorbiaceae). Japala. found throughout tropical India. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity.27. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. 61 . kernel yellowish and oily. Neervalam. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. slightly bent at middle. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. Neervalam Jepal. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. thin-walled cells. consisting of a large endosperm.

(366 nm) three spots at Rf. 0.V.White with black particles of testa.10.2.4.Fixed oil.54 and 0. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.7. 2. 0. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.54 (yellow). of the drug in powder form.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.C.6-12 mg.63 and 0. Udararoga.2. 0.84 (brown). Appendix 3 per cent. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. Powder .L. Appendix 2. 2. Appendix 7 per cent. 0. 0. 2. 0.2.34.3. 2.49. 0.Jvara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. IDENTITY.L. Pittahara. Resins & Phorbol esters. 0. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. T. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa.6. Appendix 15 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 0.C.84 (all violet). THERAPEUTIC USES .34 (grey). central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Vibandha DOSE . 62 .29.5 per cent. 0. 0.90 (all yellow).39.

. polygonal. pith small. 0. á£kÀma patra. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. very shortly stalked. S. Lamina . mucronate to acuminate. Jayanti Jaita.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound. paripinnate. 1. glabrous. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Fabaceae).) Merr.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. 63 . Jayanti (Lf. Atti. Jay¡. Jalugu.0-3. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. consisting of thin-walled. Arishimajingai. opposite.Syn. palisade single layered.3 cm long.28. parenchymatous cells. 1. short lived shrub. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4.shows single layered epidermis. Karijimangai. a quick growing.5-15. entire. aegyptiaca Pers.7 layered round. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. jayata Arinintajinamgi. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. leaflets 6-16 pairs.8-6 m high. linear. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings.5 cm long.3-0. 7. present on both surfaces. -Semp.8 cm wide. oblong. having secretory cavities in phloem. -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. (Fam. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. stomata anisocytic.

shows spongy parenchyma. Pittahara. DOSE . T. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. ViÀaroga.3-6 g. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.97 (all yellow).M£trak¤cchra.2.4. 0. Powder . Appendix per cent.11. 0. 2.3.7. 0.56. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.56 (all pink) and 0. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.19. Galaga¸·a.C.05.91 and 0.19. 0.05. CONSTITUENTS .97 (yellow).25-4. V¡tahara. Appendix 2. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa.2.97 (all grey).29. 0. 0.37.05.56.19. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. 0.L. 0.29. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.V.11. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. 0.Dull green. 2.48. 0. Calcium and Phosphorus. IDENTITY. in powder form.Protein. 0.Ratnagiri Rasa. palisade ratio 3. 64 .37.2. 0.6.69. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. 2. palisade cells.2.11. THERAPEUTIC USES .91 and 0. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. 0.C.29.2. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.48. Ras¡yana.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm. 2.L.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.

Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. unpleasant. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. Gangunge beeja. light to dark brown. Jyotishmati (Sd. a large climbing shrub.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. seed without aril also prescent. bitter. Gangunge humpu. brownish-orange. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin.hard. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. surface generally smooth and.5-3.29.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. odour.35 mm in breadth. (Fam. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. Seed . Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. taste. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. colour. ripe seeds. Celastraceae). collapsed. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.

parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. (all blue) & 0.2. 2. stone cells. Tikta Sara. 0.composed of polygonal.82.20. dark brown. Oil and Tannins. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Appendix 20 per cent. 0. UÀ¸a. D¢pana.54.2.63.82 & 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH T. Under U.2.Alkaloids.2.V.94 (yellow).V.04. V¡tahara.15. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0.L. thin-walled. 0. 2. 2.54 (both blue). 0. Appendix 2. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains.4. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.2. 0.2.8 IDENTITY. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.82. Powder . Kaphahara.Oily. Meddhya 66 . V¡maka. 0.2. Appendix 6 per cent.89 (both greenish blue). Appendix 1.C. 0.L. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. Virecaka. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0. áirovirecanopaga.89. 2. Appendix 9 per cent. 2. 0. CONSTITUENTS .94 (yellow) in visible light. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.7. Appendix 45 per cent.82 (pink) & 0.54. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. 0.35. 0.5 per cent.35.C.6.89 (all yellow). 0. 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).3.

ávitra. Sm¤tidaurbalya.Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.V¡tavy¡dh¢.Seed: 1-2 g. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Oil : 5-15 drops. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. 67 .

Indulam. Kadamba Kadamba. (Fam. a few cells with brown contents. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. indicus A. Kadamba Nipo. Kadam Kadam. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. Priyka Roghu. some cells contain chlorophyll. A. Vellaikhadambu. Kadambu Needam. 68 b) Microscopic . rectangular cells. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. composed of thin-walled. Kadamba mara. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Kadappai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Rich. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips.30. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. traversed by uni to triseriate. Syn. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. bitter. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Kadavala. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide.. Kadamba (St. Vellai Kadambam. Rubiaceae). elongated cells of phloem rays. large tree. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. a deciduous. taste. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m.Bk. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb.

some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.79.6. Appendix 2.13. Appendix 9 per cent.2.3.L. fibres. L C. Steroids.Brown. and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.64. Vra¸aropa¸a. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.57.63 (yellowish grey). YonidoÀa.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Vra¸a.phloem fibres. 2. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. Appendix 5 per cent. 0. 2.21.79 (grey) and 0. T. 0.Alkaloids.5 . phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends. phloem cells.0. DOSE . cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13.2.70 (orange yellow). 0.03. 0.7. 0. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.90 (grey).C.2. Powder . companion cells and phloem parenchyma. THERAPEUTIC USES .5:10) shows under U.2.2.1. 0. of the drug in powder form.83 and 0.4.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.D¡ha. 2.2. CONSTITUENTS . 69 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.31. 2. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). Raktapitta. Appendix 3 per cent. 0. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. 0. V¡tahara. 0. Lava¸a.5 g. Appendix 1.5 per cent. 0. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . cells distinct and slightly elongated. shows fragments of cork cells.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.

2-2. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida. hairy at base.5-8.Simple. Ganikesopu. style cylindric. hairy in lower part. slender.) Solanaceae). filaments short. obtuse.5 mm long. Ganikegida. externally smooth. pedicels 6-10 mm long. quite common in cultivated lands. ovate or oblong. sinuate. petiolate. ganike. Pikachia. corolla 4-8 mm long. 1. Manatakkali. peduncles 6-20 mm long.Small. toothed or lobed. slightly woody and branched. 3-8 flowered cymes. glabrous or pubescent. glabrous. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. oblong. bark thin. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. yellowish. calyx 2-3 mm long. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. found throughout the country in dry parts.31. glabrous. Manitakkali. thin. white or pale violet. road sides and gardens.5 cm wide. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. narrowed at both ends. five lobed. green.Erect. 30-45 cm high. anther 1. Flower . a herbaceous annual weed. flattened. sub-umbellate. oblong. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Manaththakkali. pale brown. 70 .P. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. obtuse notched at apex. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes.5 cm long and 2. very slender. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia.25 mm long. (Fam. extra-axillary. Kakamachi (W. ovary globose.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. Leaf . Stem .

most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. Stem .. slightly elongated. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces.Shows single layered. phloem consists of thin-walled. composed of thin-walled. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. endoderrnis single layered. smooth. obtuse.Discoid.. yellow. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. but 4. measuring 2. 1. 6mm in dia. arc71 . internal phloem. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. Midrib . in small or large patches.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. central vascular bundle shallow.Fruit .5-11 µ in dia. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. measuring 2. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. covered with striated cuticle. LeafPetiole . b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls.5 mm in dia. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows.10 layered in angular parts. cambium 2-4 layered. phloem rays uniseriate. smooth shining Seed . embedded in perimedullary zones. slightly striated cuticle. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.' oval parenchymatous cells. rays composed of thin-walled. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. tangentially elongated. uniseriate. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. oval to round starch grains. covering trichomes.25 µ in dia. trichomes multicellular. parenchyma 4-6 layered. polygonal cells.A berry. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. covered with thick. starch grains.. yellow or black. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. single or with two or rarely 3 components. minutely pitted. epidermis single layered. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. uniseriate. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces.. radially elongated cells. uniseriate. cortex of large. compactly arranged. bicollateral. usually accompanied by fibres. arcshaped. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. pith large. xylem rays homogenous. vascular bundles-collateral. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered.5-8. conjoint and open. covered with striated cuticle. filled with starch grains. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4.

2. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. vein islet number 7-10.34 (both brown) in visible light. Appendix per cent. 2.4.2. Lamina . both upper and lower epidermis single layered.Creamish-green.Shows thin.2. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY.34 (both pink). single.C. papery epicarp. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. Powder . light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.06.06 & 0. a few broken pieces of pointed. 2. 0.2. Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.06 & 0.L. 2. epidermis with irregular outline. Fruit .11 µ in diameter. 0. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. Under U. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis.Alkaloids and Saponins. present beneath palisade parenchyma.L.6. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.V. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular.dorsiventral. stomata anisocytic. measuring 2.3. 0. palisade single layered. palisade ratio 2-4.2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. 72 . Appendix 2. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface.2.7.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. T. 034 and 0. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle.97 (all yellow). a few vessels with spiral thickenings. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces.5 . shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.C. unicellular hairs.

Kaphahara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.áotha.5 -10 ml. DOSE . Sara. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta Laghu. Hikk¡. Prameha. H¤dya. THERAPEUTIC USES . Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Svarya. of the drug in juice form. Ar¿a. Chardi. Netraroga. Ka¸·u. H¤droga. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. V¡tahara.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Ras¡yana. 73 . KuÀ¶ha. Pittahara. Jvara.

Kamal. carpels many. Tavaregedd -Tamara.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. Kamala (Fl. 74 . gynoecium and thalamus. 2-4 cm long. Nymphaeaceae). Aravinda. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. starchy and large. gynoceium apocarpous. seed hard.3-2 cm wide. 1. a large. broken pieces also occur. crimpled. crimp led. corolla. obtuse. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. 3-5 cm long. Pamposh Tamarai. Venthamara. Padma.5-3 cm wide. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Aravindan. Naidile. Chenthamara. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. Kamalam. Sarojam Kaluva. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Kalh¡ra. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. extended into clavate appendages. free. Sitopala. Thamaraipoo. membranous. embedded in a creamy. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja.32.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Tavare.. 1. dark brown. linear 1. Paduman. anther. elliptic. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. androecium. yellowish-brown. erect. petals numerous. sepals leaf-like.4-2 cm long. Syn. comprising of calyx. finely veined. black. (Fam. Kanwal Kamal.

T¤Àn¡ D¡ha.Dusty brown. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled.4. .Raktapitta. Powder .7. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. parenchymatous cells. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. Tikta.2. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. angular. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. ViÀavik¡ra. rectangular. parenchymatous cell. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. M£tra Virajan¢ya. two on either sides. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs. 2. Anther .Alkaloid (Nelumbine). DOSE .2. spherical. Visarpa.2. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle.shows four chambered anther. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta.2. followed by ground tissue of oval.6. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . measuring 50-61 µ in dia. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. spore sac contains yellow. Stamen Filament .shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. composed of thin-walled. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. vascular bundle single. Appendix per cent.3. of the drug for decoction. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.filament appears circular in outline. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.12 -24 g.Aravind¡sava. having smooth exine and intine. 2. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. Pittahara. Appendix 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. IDENTITY.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. 2. Sant¡pahara. columnar.2. 2.2. yellow pollen grains.

shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. Balada. glabrous tree with strong. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. sharp.) Swingle. Belada hannu. thin-walled.shows irregular. F. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. slightly triangular and oval. sour. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. taste. axillary thorns.33. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. semicircular. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . hard. often cultivated in many parts of India. Pulp. Haminamara -Vilar maram. Kavataleal. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. found throughout the plains of India. Rutaceae). a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. Syn. a deciduous. Siwalik range and forests. reddish brown. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. elephantum Correa (Faro. Kapittha (Fr. stone cells. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried.Reddish-brown. straight. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. 76 . with concentric striations and narrow lumen. Bilvara.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. Belalu. Powder . aromatic. parenchymatous cells. odour. rough. stone cells. found in groups.

95 (blue). 0. Agnim¡ndya. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.91 and 0. V¡mi.37. of the drug in powder form.2. CONSTITUENTS .2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a.3.50 (violet). Pittav¡tahara. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. KaÀ¡ya. 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .V.14 (sky blue).áv¡sa. 0. DOSE . Sangr¡h¢. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. Under U. Ripe-T¤À¡.6. 77 .91 (blue) and 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.IDENTITY.12.L. Appendix 2.2. Unripe Pulp: Amla.50.2. 2.37 (brown). Hikk¡.C. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. Vra¸an¡¿aka. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.Citric acid and Mucilage. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf.12 (brown). 2. Gr¡h¢.95 (all yellow).2. 0.L. 6.91 (violet) and 0. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.1-3 g. Lekhana. Appendix per cent. Amla.2.95 (violet) .06.91 (grey) in visible light.7. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 0.C. 0. 0. T. Appendix per cent. 0. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. Appendix per cent.

flat or slightly curved pieces. simple and compound starch grains. 78 . cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. and compound having 2-3 components. starch grains simple.34. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. tubular.Bk. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree.) Apocynaceae). DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. (Fam . met throughout India in wild state. Karamarda (St. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. rough due to longitudinal striations. sometimes cultivated. short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. fracture. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. internal surface grey and smooth. shows single and groups of stone cells. b) Microscopic Powder . measuring 3-7 µ in dia. external surface brownish-grey. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. light in weight. measuring 3-7 µ in dia.Greyish-brown. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells.

52 (light sky blue). 2.3.V. Appendix per cent.35. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.IDENTITY.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.C.Marma Gu¶¢k¡.2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 2.2.L.6.KuÀthahara.4. T.97 (violet). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf. 2.2. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2.L. CONSTITUENTS . 0. of the drug for decoction. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf. 79 .7. 0.58 (both light grey). Pittakara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.48 g. Appendix per cent. DOSE .2. Appendix per cent.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .90 (pink) and 0. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.C. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. 0.

Syn. traversed by phloem rays. (Fam. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. single cells of varying shape and size. internally.) glabra Vent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka. Bk.. Fabaceae). found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. cells. very bitter. due to peeling off. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal.35. tangentially elongated cells.) Merr. Karanja (Rt. fibrous. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. P. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. external surface rough. fracture. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. tangentially elongated. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. thin-walled. Naktam¡la. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. most of phloem 80 . Nakt¡hv¡. taste. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. secondary phloem very wide. a glabrous tree. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. 3-11 µ in dia..

cork cells. Tikta. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter.L. 0.47.C. Appendix 2 per cent. Appendix 2.31.04 (blue).7. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0. 0. 2.08 (greenish blue).parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. DOSE .C.2.51. phloem rays many.2.18 (blue) 0. Ëntravidradhi.47 (greenish yellow).42 (sky blue).25 (sky blue). IDENTITY. of the drug for decoction. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder -Creamish-yellow. 2. 0. shows thin-walled. 0.2. 0. 0.80 (light blue). consisting of thin-walled. 0.80 and 0. 81 . 0. 0. most of ray cells contain starch grain.37 (greenish yellow).4. CONSTITUENTS . 0.V.13 (Sky blue). parenchymatous cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery.18. DuÀ¶avra¸a. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U. 1-2 seriate. 2. Ka¸·£ghna. V¡tahara.1-3 g. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex.2. Pittahara. Prameha.2.98 (all yellow).37. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 17 per cent. phloem fibres. Ka¸·u. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. 0.2.31 (sky blue).47.L. 0.3. mostly straight. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0. (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.09.6. 0.51 (light blue). KuÀtha.K¤miroga. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Yoniroga. 0. T.Flavones Kanugin. Appendix 11 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . ViÀaghma.5 per cent. 2. Appendix 3.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.

Nakt¡hv¡. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. fracture. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. 3-11 µ in dia. reddish-brown or dull brown. thin-walled. Karaµjaka. cells. Fabaceae). tangentially elongated cells. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. a glabrous tree. bark. internally light yellow. (Fam. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. rough due to the presence of numerous.) Vent. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga...36. rounded to oval in shape. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Karanja (Rt. bitter. P. consisting of 82 . secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. taste. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. 1-2 seriate. Syn. secondary phloem a very wide zone. light in weight.) Merr. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. irregularly distributed. bark does not easily separate from xylem. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. tangentially elongated.

K¤miroga. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. 2.4. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Pittahara. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. 83 . CONSTITUENTS .Methylfisetin. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Ka¸·£. 2. more. Appendix per cent.Karanjin. 2.1-2 g. Kanugin. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. Appendix per cent. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. Vra¸a¿odhana. 2. Appendix 2. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.6.2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. starch grains. KuÀ¶ha. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. DOSE . vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. Tikta..2. tracheids.7. Ëntravidradh¢. Powder -Light yellow. thin-waned cells towards inner region. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. Kaphahara. fibres and parenchyma. tangentially elongated towards outer region. consisting of 2-3 components.radially elongated. Yoniroga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. ViÀaghna. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. Demethoxy-kanugin. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled.3. shows fibres in singles or groups. Prameha.2. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound.DuÀ¶avra¸a.2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. V¡tahara. Vidradh¢. rounded to oval in shape.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays.

) glabra Vent. unpleasant. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal.2-1 cm thick. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. short and fibrous. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. odour. taste. Syn. traversed by medullary rays. Karanja (St. P. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. fibre small. Fabaceae).Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. parenchymatous cells.. fracture. more or less smooth. Nakt¡hv¡. alternating with stone cells. (Fam. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. b) Microscopic Bark . recurved. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. thick-walled cells. tangentially elongated. lenticellate pieces. usually 0. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells.) Merr. a glabrous tree. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. phloem parenchyma. Karaµjaka.37. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. bitter. arranged in a tangential manner. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. filled with reddish-brown content. Karanja. phloem fibre and stone cells. 84 . thin-walled. at some places lenticels also appear. composed of rectangular. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height.Bk. slightly quilled.

6. Pinnatin.1-2 g. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Kanugin. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II.2. medullary rays wavy. present in secondary cortex. usually 2-4 cells wide. of the drug in powder form. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. aseptate fibre and stone cells. and rarely. Ëntravidradh¢.. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.2.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. CONSTITUENTS . oil globules. IDENTITY. Tikta. 3" 7 : 8). Yoniroga DOSE . Ka¸·u.DuÀ¶avra¸a.3. 5Methoxyfurano (2". THERAPEUTIC USES . radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex.polygonal. Demethoxy- kanugin. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. 3". K¤miroga. 2. thin-walled and aseptate. Pongapin. Appendix 18 per cent. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. Gamatin. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. Ka¶u. Pittahara.2. 2. 2. Appendix 3 per cent. ViÀaghma. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. Appendix 2. Vidradh¢. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Kaphahara. Prameha. Appendix 13 per cent. Appendix 1. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.5 per cent.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. 2. simple and compound starch grains. elongated.4. Powder -Yellowish-cream. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. KuÀ¶ha. rounded to oval.2.7. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. starch grains simple. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.2. 85 .

a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. epidermis single layered. 86 . consistig of tabular cells. 6. cortex consisting of angular. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Hulagilu -Pungu. a glabrous tree.) Vent. Nakt¡hv¡.) Merr. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. Kanajo Karuaini. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Dithouri Honge. Fabaceae). Karanja (Lf. Karaµjaka. arcshaped. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.3 cm wide. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Unu. leaflets 2-3 pairs. vascular bundle single. Syn. petiolule short.8 cm. (Fam. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. xylem vessels arranged radially.5-0.38.5 cm long and 3. dark green. isodiametric.circular in outline.11. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins. consisting of xylem and phloem. 0. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Pongana Ganuga. Karanja. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji.9-8. covered with cuticle. P..2 . Ungu. traversed by xylem rays.

Kaphahara. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. 2.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. covered with thick cuticle. 2. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . Appendix 11 per cent.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.5) . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.2. CONSTITUENTS . phloem and pith.6.Mid rib . Ka¶u. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered.2.4.A new Furanoflavone -3' .6. 2.(4". consisting of tabular cells. Ka¸·ughna. Pittavardhaka. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Tikta.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.2.5-50.2.2. stomatal index 12. Powder -Green. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. 7) -flavone. shows spiral xylem vessels.3. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano.6. Appendix 16 per cent. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.5-20. palisade two layered. mesophyll cells. 5" . vascular bundle. collateral. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4". vein islet number 18-25 per mm square.2. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. 5".7. stomata anisocytic.shows single layered epidermis. cortex consists of round to oval.6. Appendix 3.5". KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. palisade ratio 3. V¡tahara. present in lower surface. . K¤imihara. Appendix 2.

KuÀ¶ha. Ka¸·au.J¡ty¡di Taila.For external use only.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Vra¸a. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .K¤miroga. 88 .

usually pointed or beaked. Kakiral. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. 2.3. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. fusiform. oblong. 3 valved at the apex when mature. pendulous.6 per cent. Kathilla. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. Appendix 0. Appendix 28 per cent. Varivall¢. upto an altitude of 1500 m. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.2.39.6. Karavallaka (Fresh.2. Appendix 2.) Cucurbitaceae). Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. 2.2. IDENTITY.25 cm long.5 . K¡ravall¢. Appendix 6 per cent.2.7.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 . extremely bitter. taste.2.Fr. 2. 2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. surface rough.2.4. Nil Appendix 8.

H¤dya.C.43.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 0.03. Aruci. K¡mal¡. 0. 0. juice of fresh drug. 0.V.60.15 ml. Jvara. K¡sa.L. Prameha. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 0.T.46. 0. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. 0. KuÀ¶ha. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.96 (sky blue). 90 .98 (red & sky blue).Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. Raktavik¡ra. 0. 0.67 and 0.61 (light sky blue).C.17. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. D¢pana.áv¡sa.81 and 0. DOSE .34.23 (red). (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.10 .75.16. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. P¡¸·u.L. Kaphahara.98 (all yellow). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. K¤miroga. CONSTITUENTS . T.98 (all blue).50. 0.

Kaurohi¸¢. a perennial. Katuku rohini. Katuka rohini Kutki. mostly attached with rhizomes. primary cortex persists 91 . taste. Kav¢. Rohi¸¢. inner surface black with whitish xylem. bitter. kaur Katuka rohini. short.2. . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. externally greyish-brown.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. taste. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. subcylindrical. Sutiktaka. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim.Thin. odour. bitter. Rhizome is cut into small pieces. cylindrical.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick.05-0. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. suberised cells.40.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. fracture. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Kauka. fracture. short. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. straight or slightly curved. 0. pleasant. dusty grey. (Fam. Scrophulariaceae). Katki. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Root . odour. cork cambium 1-2 layered. b) Microscopic Rhizome . Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome .1 cm in diameter. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. Katuka (Rz. 5-10 cm long. cortex single layered or absent. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Tiktarohi¸¢. pleasant.

primary stele tetrach to heptarch. Appendix per cent.10. cortex 8-14 layered. 0. simple round to oval.6. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.C. tapering ends.17. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. parenchyma and fibres.in some cases. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. abundantly found in all cells. Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U.L.Dusty grey.35 (green). measuring 25-104 µ in dia. measuring 25 . 0. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. Appendix per cent. 0. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. consisting of oval to polygonal. 92 . thick-walled.17.62. tracheids. parenchyma. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. Appendix per cent.05 (blue). 0.2. 2. 0. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. 0. thick-walled. Powder . IDENTITY. 0. Appendix per cent.30. simple round to oval. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. fibres aseptate. 1-2 layers of cork cambium.21. 2.L. 0.21. vessels have varying shape and size. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. tracheids. cambium 2-4 layered. secondary phloem poorly developed. 2.84 (all brownish grey).30. secondary xylem consists of vessels. starch grains.30 (blue) and 0.72 and 0. starch grains. 0. some cylindrical with taillike.2. T. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls.104 µ in diameter. 2.C.2. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.41 and 0.2.84 (all yellow). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.10.37. thick-walled cells of endodermis. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered.4. Appendix 2. 0.7. 0.05.V. lignified.3.. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. parenchymatous cells. 0. 0. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. thick-walled.2. hypodermis single layered. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres.2. tracheids long. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. 0. thick-walled.41.

ViÀamajvara. KuÀ¶ha. Jvara.CONSTITUENTS . Sarvajvarahara Lauha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. D¡ha. of the drug in powder form. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta.1 . Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Arocaka.áv¡sa. K¡mal¡. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Bhedin¢. Pittahara.3 g. Tiktaka Gh¤ta. 93 .Glucoside (Picrorhizin). D¢pan¢. DOSE .Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡.

creamishbrown in cut surfaces. upper sepal 1. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. fasciculate.Greenish-brown. 1-7 cm long.Anders (Fam. annual herb. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . subsessile.3 cm long. widely 2 lipped. a spiny.Mostly adventitious. IkÀuraka. Kolavankal ---. acute.2 cm long. Leaf . Kolarind. Hygrophila spinosa T.6-2 cm long. Stem . Kettu. calyx 4-partite. Nirguvireru. second pair 94 . Flower . with long white hairs.5 cm long.Usually unbranched. all linear-lanceolate. tube 1. no characteristic odour and taste. common in water logged places throughout the country.Yellowish-brown. Syn. which are 1. 0. whitish to brown.Acanthaceae). Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. stout. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. swollen at nodes.6 cm long. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. externally greyish-brown. Vayalculli Talikhana. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. sub-quadrangular. Kokilaksha (W. Nirchulli.5-1 cm wide. entire and hairy. Culli. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. didynamous. corolla 3. stamens 4.P. Kalsunda --Golmidi. broader than the other three. abruptly swollen at top. lanceolate. bracts about 2.41.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. no characteristic odour and taste.

a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. pubescent. thin-walled cells. 4seeded. filament quite glabrous. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. composed of transversely elongate. radially elongated in secondary xylem. phloem fibres thick-walled. fibre walls uniformly thickened. arranged in radial rows. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. phloem narrow. round. single or in groups of 2-3. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. capsule about 0. peripheral ones larger. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. pointed. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 0. radially arranged. consisting of round to polygonal cells.1 . brownish cells. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root .Ovate. linear-oblong. polygonal cells. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. light brown. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. having small intercellular spaces. vessels angular. endodermis single layered. variable in size. a few thick-walled. moderately thick-walled. arranged radially. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.larger. subequal. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. compressed.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. hairy but appearing smooth. composed of polygonal. broader towards centre. inner cells smaller. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. involute with a fissure on upper side.25 cm long and 0. xylem present in a ring.8 cm long. rectangular to cubical. cortical cells thin-walled. scattered throughout the phloem region. Seed . anthers two celled. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. with a number of large air cavities. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. oblong. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. ray cells thin walled.Two celled. flat or compressed. ray cells thin-walled. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. radially elongated in xylem region. Stem .2-0. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. fibres thick-walled. stigma simple. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. vessels with spiral thickenings. style filiform. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. 95 . glabrous. Fruit . truncate at the base. pith large.0.15 cm wide.

a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate . Appendix 2. lignified. Appendix per cent.2. palisade 1-2 layered. shows aseptate. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. V¤Àya. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. stomatal index 17. palisade. Tikta Picchila. V¡jikara. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. elongated fibres. parenchymatous.6. Rucya.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. Fruit . 2. Lamina . 2. composed of thin-walled.4. Powder .3. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins.78.2.2. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. . M£trala. oval to hexagonal.Light brown. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.75. thick-walled.24-30. stomata diacytic. parenchymatous cells. 2. Seed . collenchyma 2-5 layered. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. vein islet number 17-42. Amla.2. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells.25-15. thin-walled.Shows concavo-convex outline. unicellular hairs and globules. palisade ratio 6.LeafMidrib .7. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. 2. tangentially elongated cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. sclerenchymatous cells. covered with thick cuticle. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent.2.

T¤À¸¡. DOSE .3 -6 g. V¡tarakta. of the drug in powder form.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . THERAPEUTIC USES . Ëmav¡ta áotha.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). 97 .

slightly transversely elongated. annual herb. common in water logged places throughout the country. polygonal cells. IkÀuraka. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. whitish to brownish. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Kokilaksha (Rt. Nerugobbi. thinwalled cells. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. Syn. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. secondary phloem narrow.42. no characteristic odour and taste. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. a spiny. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Hygrophila spinosa T. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. 98 . secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. Kokil¡kÀ¢. Culli --. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli.Acanthaceae). Kolavulike. consisting of small. Root-Appears circular in outline. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Anders (Fam. stout. the size of these cells. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. branches on nodes.

THERAPEUTIC USES . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.3. broader towards centre. M£trala. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. Powder . xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. Appendix per cent. 2. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. V¡tarakta. of the drug for decoction. shows fragments of pitted. Appendix per cent. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. each group composed of 2-6 cells. fibre walls uniformly thickened. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells.Ëmav¡ta áotha.2. lignified fibres. A¿ma¤¢. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 2.Light brown to ash coloured. 2. having spiral thickening. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.6.7.3 -6 g.2. V¡tahara. 99 . scattered throughout the phloem region.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.2. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. 2. angular. vessels with spiral thickening. radially elongated in the xylem region. Amla.2. Tikta Picchila. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. Pittatis¡ra DOSE . Appendix per cent.4. ray cells thin-walled. 2.

Hygrophila spinosa T. truncate at the base. b) Microscopic Seed . parenchymatous cells. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. Maradarishana. flat or compressed.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. common in water logged places throughout the country. (Fam. Powder . Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. Swelling Index . IkÀuraka. Daruhuladur Darhald. white. a spiny. Acanthaceae). Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Anders. hairy but appearing smooth.43. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. Syn. Kokilaksha (Sd.Greyish-brown. shows hairs and oil globules. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. taste.8 -10. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. light yellowish-brown. the 100 . annual herb. Maradarishina -Maramannal. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. thinwalled. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. oil globules present in this region.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. stout.

24 (red). Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. 0.38.72 (all yellow). Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.03. V¤Àya.10 (light brown).38 (light brown).Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.31. 0.2. 0. 0.24.52 (dark brown) and 0. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. 0.An yellow semi-drying oil. 2. 0. Protease and an Alkaloid. 0. V¡tarakta. 0. 0. Lipase.áotha.52 and 0.2.C. enzymes like Diastase. Add 25 ml of water.17.2. related to 1 g of seeds.03 (light brown). Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. 2. 0. 2. 0. Kaphahara.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.2.4. 0. 0.V.72 (dark brown). 101 . 0.17 (light brown).31 (dark brown).L. Appendix per cent..C.55 (light blue).93 (sky blue). PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. Santarpa¸a. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. T. including any sticky mucilage.3 -6 g. Appendix per cent.76 (sky blue) and 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds.6. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. DOSE . Pitt¡¿mar¢. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form.41 (light blue). 0. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.24 (dark brown).L.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . less in number. root hairs abundant in upper region. smooth and greenish-brown. stamens 8-12.An ovoid capsule. Leaf . Kozhuppa.4 cm long. ribbed. Kulfa. Fruit . Kozuppa. fracture. Flower . oblique. Moti Luni Khursa. (Fam. 0.5 cm long. short. 3-4 leaves. spathulate. bright yellow. Lonika.Almost cylindrical. Gho¶ik¡. at terminal heads.P) Portulacaceae). Loni. sub-sessile. 50 cm long. Kozhuppu Pappukura. Badanuni.1 to 0. 0. Ghola -Lonak. swollen at the nodes. found throughout the country. Chhotalunia. Khurfa. branched.6 cm wide. Peddapavila Kura. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. cuneiform. Common Indian Purslane Luni.1 to 0.4 cm long. Paruppukkeerai. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. 0. Kuzuppa (W. Kwfa Pasalai. Payilikura. secondary roots. petals obovate. surface smooth. Doddagoni Soppu. oblong. 0.Cylindrical. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Baranunia Garden Purslane. Loni -Koricchira. Pulikkirai. sepal 0. Badi Lona Dudagorai.2 cm in diameter. -Baraloniya.A few. Kozuppaccira Kurfah.3 cm long. odour. brownish-grey. style 5-6 fid. subtended by an involucre. fracture. 0.Simple.5 cm long and 0. 102 . Loni. Stem .25-0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. prostrate herb.35-0. characteristic.44. rounded and truncate at the apex.3 to 2. dehiscing above the base. an annual succulent. small. very delicate and soon falling off. short.

black. oval cells. oval. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. stomata paracytic type. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. 2.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. pitted and spiral vessels. 2. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. Appendix per cent. present in mesophyll cells. b) Microscopic Root . Appendix per cent.Greyish-brown. LeafMidrib . minute. phloem.4. parenchyma abundant.Seed -Numerous.2. Appendix per cent.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. shows groups of oval to polygonal. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. palisade single layered. 2. having intercellular spaces.2.2. parenchymatous cells. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. phloem and xylem parenchyma. secondary xylem consists of vessels.07 cm across.7. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. having simple pits and spiral thickening. 2. fragments of cork cells. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent.6. Appendix 2.2. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem composed of vessels. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. arranged in radial rows. simple as well as compound. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. thin-walled.Wavy in outline. ray cells and pith. IDENTITY. having 2-3 components. parenchymatous cells. vessels. covered externally with a thick cuticle. Appendix per cent. . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. as well as compound. thick-walled with wide lumen. 0. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.Shows 5-15 layers of cork.2. measuring 6-14 µ .. pericycle fibre present in patches. reniform. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. Stem . xylem parenchyma and ray cells. dark brown.3. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. tracheids and parenchyma.06-0. tracheids. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. Lamina . solitary or in groups of 2-5. with reddish-brown content in a few cells.2. tracheids and parenchyma.

. 0.10. 0. Ar¿a. áotha.76 (green) in visible light. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . (both green). Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 0. 0.08.Protein.Marma Gu¶ik¡.L. 0.52.41. Prameha. 104 .3 .10. 0. RukÀa. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES . Carbohydrates.68 (yellow) and 0.76 (all pinkish red). Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. V¡tahara. 0. T. Under U.50. 0.C.52 (both faint green). Gulma.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. 0.C.T. 0.V. 0. 0.68 and 0. Vra¸a DOSE . 0.08.Agnim¡ndya. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.41. CakÀuÀya.L.6 g.10.61. 0. Pittakara.68. of the drug in powder form. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.76 and 0.

sessile. internal cut surface grey.P) diffused undershrub.Cylindrical. odour. varying in length. upto 2 cm thick. taste.45. Lajamani Chhuimui. 25-50 cm high. nearly glabrous. greyish brown to brown. Var¡kr¡nt¡. stipulate. 0. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. 105 . alternate. upto 2. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. (Fam. linear lanceolate. Adamalati Lajaka. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . rependant . Lajauni Muttidasenui. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. Lajavanti. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. distinct. sparsely prickly. easily separable from wood.4 cm broad. Stem . covered with long. petiolate. fracture hard. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. acute. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. leaflets 10-20 pairs. slightly astringent. woody. bark fibrous. external surface light brown.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country.6-1.week bristles longitudinally grooved. 0.Cylindrical.2 cm long.5 cm in dia. tapering. Machikegida. Fabaceae). with secondary and tertiary branches. hairy pinnae. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. bark fibrous. Leaf .3-0. Lajjalu (W. obliquely rounded at base. yellowish-green. sensitive to touch.

phloem fibres single or in groups. in globose head. ovary sessile. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. ovate oblong. rarely multiseriate. 106 . secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. dry.6 cm long. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. crystal fibres thick-walled. Seed . moderately thick-walled. 0. spreading bristle at sutures. lobes 4. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. secondary cortex wide. scattered throughout secondary xylem. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. 3-25 chambered. fibres single or in groups. peduncles prickly. tracheids pitted with pointed ends. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. a number of lignified. tangentially elongated cells. brown to grey. starch grains. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. radially elongated. consisting of large. 0. Fruit . 1-1. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. stamens 4.3 cm long. phloem rays thick-walled. calyx very small. pith consisting of polygonal. xylem rays radially elongated. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. 2-3 seriate more common. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.Pink. respectively. 2.Lomentum. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. arranged in tangential bands. straw coloured. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thick-walled. fibres. 0. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. parenchyma. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. b) Microscopic Root . tangentially elongated to oval. fibres of two types. simple. ovules numerous.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. filled with reddish-brown contents. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. oval-elliptic. thick-walled.Compressed. parenchymatous cells. scattered throughout. corolla pink. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. much exserted. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. Stem .Flower . crystal fibres elongated. thick-walled.3 long. glabrous.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered.4-0.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings.

shaggy hairs.62.3.2. pericycle arranged in a ring. parenchymatous cells. pitted vessels. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled.4. lignified cells followed by single layered. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.2. palisade single layered. Appendix per cent. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. single and compound starch grains. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. branched. fibres. palisade cells non glandular. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. 0.C.7. with 2 . crystal fibres. 2.69 (all blue) and 0. T. Powder .Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents.2. 0. one in each wing. reticulate.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. shaggy hairs.2.35. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. 2. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 2. shows. spongy parenchyma.81 (bluish-pink).Leaf- Petiole . Fruit .L. parenchymatous cells Seed .shows epidermis on both surfaces. pericycle same as in petiole.3 components IDENTITY. vascular bundle single. Lamina .shows single layered epidermis. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. Midrib . covered with thin-cuticle. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. parenchymatous cells. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .2. Appendix per cent.Reddish-brown.C. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent.V. branched.6. Appendix per cent. endocarp of thick-walled. Appendix per cent.L. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. spongy parenchyma single layered. Appendix 2.

0. Yoniroga. D¡ha.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . CONSTITUENTS .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. 108 . Atis¡ra.35 and 0.áopha. KuÀ¶ha.10-20 g of the drug for decoction. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 0. Ku¶aj¡valeha.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapita DOSE .35 (orange).spots appear at Rf. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Vra¸a. áv¡sa. Kaphahara.

epipetalous. latifolia (Roxb. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. Kattu Iluppai.) Macbride. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida.46. (Fam. Hippe. Madhuka.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. short. sweet. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. Sapotaceae) . Mahawash tree Mahudo. basifixed. Androecium . Ilippa. Madhuka (Fl. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. taste. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. anther sub-sessile.5-2 cm long.Gmel. followed by thin-walled. erect 0. a few 109 . Mahua Katiluppai. M. Ippa. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9).F. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. b) Microscopic Corolla . Halippe. Syn. lanceolate. Bassia latifolia Roxb. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. Iluppa. Eppimara -Irippa. epipetalous and arranged in two series.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. tabular. ovate lanceolate. Hippenara.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. corolla fleshy. reddish-brown. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). and also cultivated.

tapetum not distinct. unicellular hairs. KÀaya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . pollen grains single or in groups.5 per cent. Pittakara.15 g. 2. áramahara. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. El¡di Modaka.unicellular hairs present on one side.2. Appendix 0.2.2. round. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac.Madh£k¡sava. 2. 2. spherical. Appendix 2.10 . lignified cells. IDENTITY. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.2. 110 .7. T¤À¸¡.4. oval shaped.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. 2.2.2.3. árama DOSE . Powder . shows fragments of epidermal cells. Appendix 10 per cent. KÀata. Balya. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . endothecium composed of radially elongated. of the drug. Appendix 5 per cent.6. 2. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 70 per cent.áv¡sa.2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. D¡ha.Dark brown. Appendix 25 per cent. Ah¤dya.

numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. 0.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.3-2 cm wide. Leaf . nodes and internodes distinct. A. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡. Flower . sessile. no characteristic odour and taste.P. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. yellowish-brown to light-brown. 2. short. Br. 0. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak.5-5 cm long. Amaranthaceae).5 cm wide.1. Bahli.. linear-oblong. no characteristic odour and taste. Syn.Cylindrical. Br.Herbaceous. or elliptic.6 cm diameter. Stem . A. obtuse or subacute.. A. Gandal¢. bracteoles 111 . denticulata R.47. white often tinged with pink. A. cream to grey. non Link. short.) R. triandra Lam. weak.1-0. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. Matshyakshi (W. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region..Flower in small axillary sessile heads. repens Gmel. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .. Matsy¡duni. fracture.5 cm long. (Fam.. no characteristic odour and taste. with spreading branches from the base. internodes 0. often rooting at lower nodes. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. Br. nodiflora R. fracture.3-7.

5-3 mm long. round to oval. scarious. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. composed of thin-walled. acute. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. Stem . 112 .2 cm long.5 mm long. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. collenchymatous cells. with anomalous secondary growth.dorsiventral. no characteristic odour and taste. parenchymatous cells. compressed with thickened margins. pith distinct. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. isodiametric. parenchymatous cells. isodiametic cells. consisting of thin-walled cells. palisade ratio 3-5. palisade 2-3 layers. parenchymatous cells.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. xylem tissues lignified. style very short. with are conjoint. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. round or oval. stomata paracytic. pith consisting of thin-walled. each consisting of xylem and phloem. present in the centre. covered wtith striated cuticle. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. open and exarch. compressed. ovate. orbicular. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. radially arranged cork cells. consistig of thin-walled. 1. parenchymatous cells. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. numerous. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. bicollateral. ovary obcordate.1. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. irregular. thin-walled. capitellate. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. thin. perianth 2. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. Lamina . open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring.Utricle. secondary cortex narrow. b) Microscopic Root . single layered. sepals ovate. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. Leaf- Midrib . vascualr bundles radially arranged. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. shows wavy or undulate. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. Fruit . thin-walled round or oval. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vascular bundles three. no characteristic odour and taste.

Powder . 113 . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. 0. IDENTITY. T.2. 0.3.KuÀ¶ha.5 per cent.16.68 (all red).4. Appendix 10 per cent.7. 2.Sugar.96 (all yellow). Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta. 2. of the drug in powder form. 0. V¡tahara.44 (all green).2 -3 g.54 and 0.44.44. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.33 and 0. Appendix 2. 2.2.C. CONSTITUENTS . 0.18. 0.25. Under U. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Tikta. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf.35.16. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.2. Appendix 19 per cent. Appendix 4. paracytic stomata.L. 0.59. THERAPEUTIC USES .33. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.L.Olive green. 0.81.V. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.94 and 0. Pittavik¡ra. Kaphahara. 0. 0.. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. Appendix 3 per cent.6.2.2. 2. 0.2. 0. 0.C. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.

0.35 cm broad. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. several layers of thin walled.Seed shows a layer of thick. annual herb. Methi (Sd. 0. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. taste. 114 . Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. cells flat at base. thin-walled. cultivated throughout the country.2-0. odour.48. b) Microscopic Seed . very hard. smooth. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue.15-0. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. mucilaginous cells. bitter. parenchymatous cells. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. 30-60 cm tall. varying in size. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. columnar palisade. (Fam. covered externally with thick cuticle.walled. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. Fabaceae). dividing seed into a larger and smaller part.5 cm long. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.) aromatic. pleasant. dull yellow.

Appendix 2. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. Rucya. 2. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.4. Prameha.3-6 g.2. Sapogenins and Mucilage.3. Kaphahara.2.Alkaloid.2.2. Appendix 5 per cent. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. oil globules.5 per cent.2. 2. Appendix 0. aleurone grains. 2. Appendix 4 per cent.rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll.6.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. Jvara. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent.Graha¸¢. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Aruci DOSE . IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. CONSTITUENTS . 115 . Powder .Yellow. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form.

complete 1-2 cm long. Flower . Rakhyasmula Mulaka. Stem . (Fam. oblong. hollow. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn.P. Muli. variable size and thickness.Flower in long terminal raceme. regular. upper most leaves simple. blade obovate.) Brassicaceae).0 cm in dia.2 cm long. bisexual. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. bright green. an annual or biennial bristly herb. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. sometimes brown red.Root cylindrical. petals 1.49. 0.7-2. lyrate. sub-marginate at the apex. compressed. taste.Slender. yellowish-green. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Leaf . seplas 6. Mulaka (W. pedicel with scattered hairs.. coarsely toothed.Lower leaves hairy. having a few longitudinal striations. petiole 5-5.5-10 cm long.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. cylindrical. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. not distinct. slightly pungent.1-1. odour.3 cm long. white or lilac with yellow or 116 .

epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. Stem . 117 . two outer smaller and four inner longer. phloem. ovary superior. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. 2 mm wide. Leaf- Petiole . covered with thick cuticle. longitudinally sulcatus. hairs unicellular. thin-walled. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. starch grains simple.Siliqua. taste. cylindrical. present in cortex. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. traversed by xylem rays. parenchymatous cells. erect. oily.appears biconvex in outline. epidermis followed by 6.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. green or brown-purple. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. medullary rays four to many cells wide. pith a wide zone of polygonal. 10-12 ovuled. Fruit .12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. greenish-yellow. endodermis at some places. style about 4 mm long. one central and two lateral. occasionally pale purple.dorsiventral. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. 3-9 cm long and 0. continuous or more or less constricted. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. Midrib .1. palisade 2-3 layers. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. traversed by phloem rays. round to oval.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. solitary or ingroups. irregularly globose. Seed . present only on upper side. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. 1-2 chambered. stamen 6 in two whorls. parenchymatous cells. single layered. epidermis single layered. vascular bundle three in number. elliptical. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. Lamina .8.purple vein.4 cm thick. radially arranged. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. sometimes flattened. cork cells.Reddish-brown. round to oval. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. 2-4 mm long. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. b) Microscopic Root . present in cortex and phloem.

Seed . Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells.40 ml. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. shows aseptate fibres.Agnim¡ndya.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. Appendix 2. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal.Shows a single layered epidermis. H¤dya. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed.20 . covered with thin.M£lakakÀ¡ra. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. of the drug in juice form. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Svarya. oil globules and round to oval starch grains.2.4.Glucoside. straight cuticle. thin-walled. 118 .Yellowish-green.Fruit . epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. Ud¡varta. Pittahara. P¢nasa. covered with a thin-cuticle. 2. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells present. Rucya. P¡cana. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES .6. thinwalled. Appendix per cent.2. parenchymatous cells. Gulma. 2. CONSTITUENTS . of columnar cells.2. spiral vessels.7. Ar¿a.3. DOSE .2. tangentially elongated. 2. Gandhaka Va¶¢. Tikta Laghu. Kaphahara. Powder . IDENTITY. reddish-brown. 2.2.

000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Appendix per cent. 2. 2.2. taste. usually 25-40 cm in length. Appendix 2. Mullangi. Mulaka.50. IDENTITY. having a few lateral fibrous roots.2. Appendix per cent. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. rarely sweet. Brassicaceae). an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. Appendix per cent. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. slightly or strongly pungent. Appendix per cent. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo.) annual or biennial bristly herb. 2. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula.3. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.2.2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. variable in size. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent.2. Saleya. white in colour. Visra. 119 .6.4.2. (Fam. fusiform. 2. Rakhyasmula Mula.7. Mulaka (Rt. Moclangi gadde. Mula Muli Moolangi. cylindrical.

Dadru. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.15-30 ml.LC. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.C.Agnim¡ndya.49 & 0. Rucya. Vrana.09. Ud¡varta DOSE .09 & 0. 0.04.34.T. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES . T. Tikta Laghu. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Ar¿a. Netraroga. 0. áv¡sa. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.V.04 & 0. 0. P¢nasa. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. Pittahara.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . Galaroga. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .69 (all yellow). Jvara. 0. K¡sa. P¡cana.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.Glucoside. 0.L. of the drug in the juice form 120 . H¤dya. Gulma. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. Svarya. Kaphahara.04. 0.09 (both blue).

Gandhakuti. thin-walled cells. slightly bitter. a perennial herb. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. traversed by phloem rays. odour. Daitya. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents.) DC.2. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. rectangular cells. tangentially elongated.42000 m.6 . found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . traversed by xylem rays. secondary phloem shows wide zone.4 m tall. inner cells thin-walled. Syn.Shows 10 . ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. S. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. taste. Root . (Fam. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. tenuifolium Wall. Apiaceae ). aromatic.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. fibres and parenchyma.51.3 . 0. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . dull brown. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. Mura (Rt. secondary cortex composed of rounded. consisting of tangentially elongated. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. 6-12 cm long and 0. thin-walled cells.1. cambium 2-4 layered. colour.

1-3 g. 122 .áv¡sa. Appendix 2. xylem and phloem rays. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter.6. M£rchha.Arvind¡sava. secondary phloem.2. D¡ha. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. secondary xylem and medullary rays. 2. short with blunt ends. 2.3.Brown. shows groups of cork cells.5 per cent. starch grains simple.2.2. Jvara. Powder .7. Sucrose and Mannitol.4. composed of radially arranged. 2. somewhat oval cells. Appendix 9 per cent.. Appendix 3. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. 2.2.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). fibres aseptate. oil globules and simple starch grains. secretory canals numerous. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 17 per cent.2. present in secondary cortex. secretory canals.2. T¤Àn¡ DOSE .having spiral thickenings. secondary phloem. Bhrama. round to oval. Tikta. distributed throughout secondary cortex. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Appendix 9 per cent. of the drug in powder form. parenchymatous cells. CONSTITUENTS . xylem parenchyma. Ka¶u.

& Am. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. some filled with reddish-brown contents. taste. twining shrub. (Fam. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. Halukaratige. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva.) Asclepiadaceae). available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. resin cells present irregularly in this region. indistinct.52. odour. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. fracture.Shows a cork. phloem rays 1 123 . Koratige. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. Kallu Shambu. slightly bitter. Jartor Koratige Hambu. tangentially elongated. rectangular cells. phloem fibres absent. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. a large stout. similar to those present in secondary cortex. Madhusrava. b) Microscopic Root . Murva (Rt. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. bark easily separable from wood.5-3 cm thick.

rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains.2.4. fibres.2. shows a number of stone cells. IDENTITY. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. simple and compound starch grains. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. K¤miroga. Appendix 14 per cent.5 .3.. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 7 per cent. consisting of small tangential. 2.5-22 µ dia. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. Tikta Guru.Light brown. Raktapitta. Prameha Mihira Taila. composed of vessels. THERAPEUTIC USES . T¤Àn¡. DOSE .2. 10-20 g. Ka¸·£. H¤droga.2-6 g. Mukha áosa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . fragments of cork. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. measuring 5. fibres.2. V¡tahara.3 cells wide. fibretracheids. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. tracheids.22 µ in diameter. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. Appendix 5 per cent. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. present in parenchymatous tissues. 2.7. Medoroga. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2.. starch grains simple.Ar¿a. Powder . concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue.2. 2.6. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 124 . Pittahara. 2. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. of the drug for decoction. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations.tracheids. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. 5.5 per cent. vessels with pitted walls. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. Appendix 0.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Meha. Jvara. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.

soft to touch. taste. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. connective not visible with naked eye. coppery or golden brown. astringent. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. slender. an Ke¿ara.53. thick-walled. Nagchampa. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh.Anther shows golden-brown. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu.9 cm long. basifixed. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Nagppu. Veluthapala. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. yellowish and thin-walled. Hem¡.5 cm long.0 cm long.) evergreen tree. anther about 0. N¡gapuÀpa. Nagachampakam. parenchymatous cells. Pilunagkesar. (Fam. Bengal. fragrant.8 . odour. 125 . Powder . Naugaliral. quite brittle. Sachunagkeshara. connective and filament.1. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. b) Microscopic Androecium . many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. distinct protuberances on walls. containing pollen grains. Nagakesar (Stmn. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar.9-1. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. linear. Nauga. shows elongated cells of filament. Peri. Konkan. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. each stamen 0.Brown. Nagakesari -Nangaa. filiform. exine and intine distinct. Nahar Nageshvara. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. Guttiferae). filament 0. Assam. often buttressed at the base. N¡ga. more or less twisted. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. consisting of thin-walled.

Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. CONSTITUENTS . V¡tarakta. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.2. Appendix per cent. of the drug in powder form. 126 .2. 2.Essential oil and Oleo-resin. Appendix 2.2. Tikta.7.1-3 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. áopharoga. Kum¡ry¡sava.2.2. Appendix per cent.3. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara.4. 2.6. Var¸ya. 2. Vastiroga DOSE .Raktapitta.2.IDENTITY. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.

a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡.1.) shrub. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.2 cm wide. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.54. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . pith composed of round to oval. vascular bundles collateral and three in number.5 cm long and 0. 1. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. Nili (Lf. 127 . pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring.2. Fabaceae). large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. (Fam. N¢l¢n¢. no characteristic odour and taste.3-1. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.8 m high.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. pale green to greenish-black. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. leaflet 1-2.

spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. Udararoga. Appendix 2. Appendix 7.2. cuticle and hair. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. cuticle and hair.Glycoside (Indican). similar as in petiole. Lamina . CONSTITUENTS .Greenish-grey. Appendix 2 per cent.2. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . collateral and crescent shaped.2.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. V¡tarakta. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.4..50-100 g.shows dorsiventral structure. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.shows epidermis. Ud¡varta.7. Appendix 10 per cent. vascular bundle single. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara..Ëmav¡ta. 2.3.Midrib .2. IDENTITY.2. K¤imiroga. shows groups of mesophyll cells. similar as in petiole and midrib. pitted vessels. V¡tahara. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder . Gulma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6.5 per cent. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE . epidermis. 2. palisade 2-3 layers. 128 . both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma.. aseptate fibres. Jvara. Pl¢haroga. K¡sa. of decoction. Ke¿ya. 2. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. 2. Appendix 25 per cent.

medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. 129 . 1. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. hard. odour not distinct.) shrub. woody. consisting of usual elements. Olleneeli -Amari. Neeli Nili.8 m high. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. thin-walled cells. (Fam. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. thin-walled cells. secondary cortex a narrow zone. Fabaceae). prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. 0.5 cm thick. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Nila -Neel Avuri. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. Neeligida.55. Nil. Indian Indigo Gali. Nili.2-1. Nila Nili. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays.1 -1. Rangapatr¢. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. slightly bitter. Nili (Rt. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma.. cylindrical. taste. Karunili. rectangular. with lenticels.10 layers of tangentially elongated. Nili Chettu. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. Gari Nili Kadunili. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. group of fibres.

81 (blue). Powder .2. 0.33. 0.06. 0.10.Gulma. and 0. 0. 2.80. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. 0. Pl¢h¡roga. 0. 0.4.. pitted vessels.L.2.47 (blue).14 (blue). Ud¡varta. 0. 2. round to oval. simple and compound starch grains. 2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.0. 0.21. K¤imiroga. present in cortex. 0. 0. Appendix 6 per cent.V.81. 0.10.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.2.91 (all grey).3. K¡sa.Arvind¡sava.27. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C. Recan¢. V¡tahara.48 g.. 0.7. 0. CONSTITUENTS . T.75. 0. 0.91 (all yellow). 0.27.7 per cent. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .75 (blue). of drug for decoction.C.14.50.40.0. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. 0. phloem. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 0. 0. 0.91 (blue). 0. 0.40 (blue). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf.75. 0. 0.63 (bluish green).40. starch grains simple. shows aseptate fibres. 0. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara.14. 0.86 (green) and 0.58 (blue).86.58. 0. ViÀavik¡ra. 0. Ke¿ya.58. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. Appendix 4 per cent.33.63. 130 .63. Udararoga.2. Ëmav¡ta. xylem parenchyma and rays.06.L. 0. V¡tarakta. 0. DOSE .6.86 and 0. 0.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.50.2.30 (bluish green).Creamish-brown. IDENTITY.2. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.

0.0-1.7 cm wide.1 cm thick.5 cm long and 1. Limbado. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. rachis 15-25 cm long. 7-8. Veppu.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. 131 . serrate. lanceolate. Bevu. Juss Syn. Nim Vemmu. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Kohumba Nim. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba.56. Aryaveppu. Bakan. Bevinama -Veppu. Meliaceae). Nimba (Lf. Veppa Balantanimba. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. odour. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. Bakayan. leaflets with oblique base. Nimba Nimba. (Fam. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Kahibevu. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nim. crystals also present in phloem region. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Compound. alternate. acute. indistinct. opposite. Veppan Vemu. taste. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Oilevevu. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. slightly yellowish-green. Arulundi. Nimbam. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. exstipulate. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. Limba. Limado.

5 on upper surface. V¡tal¡. Appendix per cent. epidermis on either surface. 2. K¤miroga. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells.0-11. Prameha. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. Netraroga.0-4. palisade single layered. thin-walled cells. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.2.2. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 2.Lamina .7.0-14.Green. Appendix per cent.3. KuÀ¶ha.2. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only.2. 132 .Jvara.4. CONSTITUENTS . traversed by a number of veins. 2. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma. stomatal index 13.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta.Triterpenoids and Sterols. 2.shows dorsiventral structure. covered externally with thick cuticle. 2. Ëma¿otha. Powder .2. fibres.1-3 g. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.5. tangentially elongated cells. Vrana. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. shows vessels. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. composed of thin walled. ViÀarogas DOSE .5 on lower surface and 8.2.6. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. palisade ratio 3.

57. Nimba. woody. evergreen tree.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Nimba. odour. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. a moderate sized to fairly large. Nimba (St. (Fam. Meliaceae). alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. characteristic. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Limba Nimba Nim. Vembu Vemu. extemal surface rough. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Nimb Bevu. considerably thick in older barks. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. Syn. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. taste. Kadunimb. Juss. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Oilevevu -Veppu. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. fibrous. Kahibevu. Bakam Veppai. Aruveppu Balantanimba. fracture. fissured and rusty-grey. Melia azadirachta Linn.

20. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. Powder .86 (blue). phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends.2.2.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 7 per cent.5 per cent. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu.7. and 0. ViÀaghna.L. Kaphahara. simple starch grains.90 (all blue). T. round with central hilum.measuring 2. 0.C. Appendix 6 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.72 (blue). cork cells.4.90 (green). phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. Appendix 2.63 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. 2. Appendix 5 per cent. stone cells mostly in groups. IDENTITY. simple.2. 0.outer surface.45. starch grains. 2. having wide lumen and distinct striations. 2. 0. 0.2. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .C. 0. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. secondary cortex absent in most cases. Appendix 1. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. lignified rectangular to polygonal.2.75-5 µ in diameter. measuring 2.V. Pittahara.3. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.L. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.Reddish-brown.6. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.

Ka¸·u. Pa´canimba C£r¸a.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.2-4 g. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Decoction should be used externally. Nimb¡di C £r¸a. 135 .. Vra¸a DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Rakta Pitta. K¤miroga. Jvara. KuÀ¶ha. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.D¡ha. of the drug in powder form. Prameha.

thin-walled. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. dark brown. Khakharo.58. having brown colour. rectangular. exposing light brown surface. Muttala -Plasu. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone.2 cm thick usually peels off. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. Camata. Khakhapado Dhak. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark.Bk) Fabaceae). Muttuga. rectangular 136 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. internal surface rough. dark-brown. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. tanniniferous cells.) Kuntze (Fam. Palasha (St. except in very arid parts. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. taste. rhytidoma 0. 0.1 cm thick. Plas. 12 . greyish to pale brown. Chettu Dhak. curved. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. Dhak. Tesu Purasu. Paras Moduga. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. often in groups. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. slightly astringent. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. cork cells. Modugu. Tesu Muttug. moderately thick-walled. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part.15 m high with irregular branches. Palash. pale brown.5 . 5-10 or more layered. fracture.

(366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.18.48.75 µ in dia. 2. CONSTITUENTS . tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem.48 and 0.. 0.10.4. Appendix 1. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.2. Appendix 2. 0.67 (all yellow).2.2. traversed by phloem rays. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.12 cells wide. 2.L.. thin-walled cork cells.cells followed by a zone of 2 . phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.5 per cent. 0.Reddish-brown.2. dark brown coloured cells. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. straight. 0.2. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY.C. 2.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid.13.50 cells in height. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .10. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3 components. measuring 2. 0.65 (all blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 137 . most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath.10. companion cells.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.6. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.4 layers of sclereids.48 and 0. Appendix 14 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. Powder .L. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. Appendix 12 per cent. phloem fibres.V. phloem parenchyma.2. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. 7 . crystal fibres. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.75 .C. 0. starch grains simple and compound with 2 .7. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. T. sclereids mostly in groups. Appendix 10 per cent.3. 2.67 (all violet). phloem rays multiseriate 4 .

Gulma. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. Tikta. Vra¸a. 138 .Ar¿a. Graha¸¢. DOSE .5-10 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. S¡raka . Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. K¤miroga. Agnid¢paka. Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES .Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. KaÀ¡ya Sara.

quick growing tree. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. (Fam. yellowish to cream coloured. secondary cortex consists of large. smooth. tangentially elongated to squarish. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. radially arranged and thin-walled. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0.0 cm thick. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey. stone 139 . Paribhadra (St. Mulmurumgai Badisa. Pangara Hongar. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. inner bark fibrous. parenchymatous cells. medium sized.5-2. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka.Bk) Fabaceae).59.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. exfoliating in narrow strips. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

of drug in powder form. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. V¤Àya.2-4 g.Alkaloids.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.V¡tarakta. V¡taroga DOSE . Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Volatile Oil.. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Balak¤t.CONSTITUENTS . Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .. 148 .

Satdhan -Charal. (Farn. cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. odour. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. B. funicle stout. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high.) Anacardiaceae). hilum present at the apex of round edge. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. Shalichokha Piyal. 0.4-0. 0. linear. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . Chowl.63. which are of various size. b) Microscopic Seed . pitted. large. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. Piyar. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. sweetish-oily.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. mottled with darker brown lines. creamish-brown. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. latifolia Roxb.3-0. occurring mostly in groups. Priyalam. thick-walled.5 cm wide. taste. pleasant. Korka. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. collapsed cells of integument.6 cm long. sclerenchymatous cells. followed by remnants of disorganised. Priyala (Sd. Syn. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. Saraparuppu Sara. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer. micropyle superior. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons.

shows numerous mesophyll cells. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.98 (all yellow).72 and 0. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. BrÆha¸a. 0.94 and 0.0 µ in dia. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapitta.measuring 2.54. Appendix 2.V. 0.4. 0.5-5. KÀata.C.94 (blue). IDENTITY.91. 2. of the drug in powder form. 0. T. áukrakara.L.5 per cent. Powder . V¡tahara. and oil globules. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf.Albuminoids. 0.08.27.L. 0.91.7.54. 2.72. V¤Àya. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. Kaphakara. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2.D¡ha. H¤dya.84. DOSE .08. 0. Pittahara.type. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. 0. 0.2. 0.5-5. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 4 per cent. Balya. 2.P£gakha¸·a. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Bhagnas¡dhaka. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents.72. procambium bundles. KÀaya. 0.2.A creamish-brown paste.2.C.98 (all violet). 150 .10 .2. Priy¡la Taila. Sara. Appendix 0.0 µ in dia.6.3. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.2.27. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 10 per cent. Oil and Starch. 0.94 and 0. 0.20 g. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 7 per cent. 0. and sclerenchymatous cells.

stamens 4. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. ovary 2-4 celled. an erect. anther ovate. corolla.5 cm across.5 . equal in size. and abundant in Bengal plains. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. 1. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. brown. hairy. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 . basifixed.3 mm in dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . tubular.2.5 cm long. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. 2.) Verbenaceae).Shows more or less wavy outline.0. 1. brown. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. style.Cymose. parenchymatous cells. long. filament very long.5-7. densely hairy.2. b) Microscopic Peduncle . peduncle cylindrical. calyx. bell-shaped. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. 4 lobbed spreading. thin-walled. Flower .4 m high shrub. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. (Fam. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. densely clothed with wooly hairs. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal.64. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. Priyangu (Infl. stigma minutely capitate. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. epipetalous.

xylem consists of usual elements. Pras¡dana. THERAPEUTIC USES . Resin and Saponin. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. aseptate fibres. El¡di C£r¸a.2. 2. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour.Glycosides. 2.2.fibres. 2. Powder . N¢lik¡dya Taila. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. Sved¡dhikya. Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. Vra¸aropa¸a.3. V¡tahara.2. Kanaka Taila. fibres aseptate.4. Pakv¡tis¡ra. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. spiral vessels.D¡ha.2. Terpenes.7. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Daurgandhyahara.2. DOSE . groups of thin-walled. Rakta. Appendix per cent. Jvara. Ku´kum¡di Taila. Sandh¡n¢ya. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. Phenolic compound. M£travirajan¢ya.1-3 g.2. Appendix per cent.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡. Rakta-Pitta.Brown. IDENTITY. 152 . of the drug in powder form. elliptical. (Mukharoga).

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. Chawl. Dhana Bhatto. Bhatta. Bhata. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Biyyamu Chaval. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. cortex differentiated into three zones. (Fam. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Nelver Dhanyamu. Coke Chaval.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. sclerenchymatous cells. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Damgara. exodermis 1-2 layered. sclerenchymatous cells. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. both consisting of round to oval. soft. b) Microscopic Root . Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. Akki -Ari. thick-walled. an annual herb. Odalu. pitted vessels and 153 . parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Vr¢hi. Paddy Shalichokha. Nellu Tandulamul. Dh¡nya. composed of thick-walled. Sali.) cultivated throughout India. Corava. thin. Nivara -Chaval. Nellu. Poaceae). Jhona Arishi.65.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. Dhanarmul. Shali (Rt. Powder . 5-15 cm in length and 0. Dhana. Cala. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. smooth. cylindrical. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. Dhan Rice.Greyish-cream.05-0.

2. 2. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. 2. Balya. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. 154 .2. Appendix per cent. BrÆha¸a. Appendix per cent.StanyakÀaya.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.7.2. H¤dya. M£trala. Appendix per cent. CakÀuÀya. Rucya.4. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Appendix 2.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. Pittahara. of the drug for decoction.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .50 g. IDENTITY. Var¸ak¤t. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .2. Kaphahara. Laghu. Svarya.3. 2. Baddh¡lpavarcasa.

Sankhapuspi. Shankhavela.1-0. linear-lanceolate. linear-lanceolate. Karakhuratt.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes.66. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. sparsely hairy. corolla shortly discoid. sub-erect.5 cm broad. yellowish-brown to light brown. epipetalous. 0. Flower . Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam.Shortly petiolate. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . about 0. 155 . free.P.1-0. sepals narrowly. Leaf .White or pinkish. 0. light green. ovary superior and bicarpellary.Usually branched. hairy on both surfaces. spreading. light green. a prostrate. perennial herb with a woody root stock. hairy. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. cylindrical. Shankhapushpi. 1-5 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡. Stem . Kakkanangudi. Sankha pushpin (W. inserted deep in the corolla tube. found throughout the country.Slender. stamen 5.4 cm thick. alternate with the petals.) Convolvulaceae). acute.5-2 cm long and 0. cylindrical. Sankhahuli Kakattam.

measuring 3 . fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. xylem consisting of usual elements. mm. endoderrnis single layered. fibres and tracheids. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length.Brown. thin. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. simple and composed of 2-3 components. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. palisade ratio 6-9.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. phloem. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.Appears nearly circular in outline. palisade two layered. present in cortex. present on both surfaces. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. mm. round to oval in shape.Capsule. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown.walled cells. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. epidermis single layered. simple and compound starch grains. 156 . thick-walled cells. fibres and parenchyma. covered with thick cuticle. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. Powder . . elliptical. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin.. tanniniferous.8 µ in dia. covered with thick cuticle. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. Seed . cortex differentiated in two zones. starch grains solitary or in groups. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface.. elongated. Stem . xylem rays and parenchyma. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. pale brown pericarp. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. phloem a narrow zone.8-17. 13. both having round to oval. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. b) Microscopic Root .appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. minutely puberulous.Shows single layered epidermis. phloem composed of sieve elements. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. hairs unicellular. LeafMidrib . strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith.Fruit .0. Lamina .Light yellowish-green. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. xylem consists of vessels. unicellular hairs. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. vascular bundle bicollateral. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. oblong globose with coriaceous. secretory cells present in this region. at places unicellular hairs present. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated.

KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.2. Agastyahar¢tak¢. Tikta. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Pittahara. Appendix 2. 2. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.7.6. Ras¡yana.4. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES .3. Kaphahara. Clitoria ternatea Linn. Appendix per cent.2.3-8 g. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana. Br¡hma.IDENTITY. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Appendix per cent.2. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. 2.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Medhya. Ras¡yana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. Apasm¡ra DOSE .2. ËyuÀya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .M¡nasaroga.2.2. 2.

linear.67. gradually tapering. shortly 2-fid at the apex. Saptala (W. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. smooth. 158 . cylindrical. free to the base. 3.7-7 cm long.) Euphorbiaceae). Siju. sub-sessile. horned. gland semilunate.Involucre broadly campanulate. having a few secondary roots. trilocular.1.5 mm across at the mouth. short. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. sessile. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Carmas¡hv¡. lobes short.8 cm wide. filament pubescent. fracture. 1 mm long. lanceolate or linear oblong. odour and taste not distinct. 0. pale brown. odour and taste indistinct.5-2 mm thick. style. Leaf .celled with or without attached pedicel. a much branched. solitary. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. Chagulputputi Satala. Bilikalli. Fruit . 3-4 mm in dia. 4-5 cm long. Flower . ribbed. annual herb.2-0. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. ovate.Capsule. (Fam.P. 20-40 cm high. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. greenish-yellow. Joyachi. subacute. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. 0. 2.Small. ciliolate.

secondary xylem composed of vessels. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. with wide lumen present in this region. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. tangentially elongated elliptical. rarely a few oil globules also present. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. covered externally with thick. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. some rounded. 159 . striated cuticle. consisting of thick-walled. rounded to oval. starch grains simple. elliptical. fibres and vessels having simple pits. rectangular. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. traversed by numerous xylem rays. found scattered in phloem region.25 µ in diameter. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. mature root shows thin walled cork. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. simple. vessels having simple pits. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. parenchymatous cells. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. parenchymatous cells. rounded to oval.shows slightly convex outline. all elements thick-walled and lignified. secondary xylem consists of vessels. secondary cortex consists of 4. stone cells oval to elongated. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. grooved at one side. endodermis not distinct.75 µ in dia. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. thick-walled lignified. single layered epidermis.Young root shows exfoliated. fibres elongated and aseptate. lignified cells with wide lumen. filled with yellowish-brown content. parenchymatous cells. all elements. tracheids and medullary rays. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. leprous tuberculate testa. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular.6 layers of oval. centre occupied by a pith. tangentially elongated cells.Seed . measuring 5. epidermis single layered.3 mm long. flattended. fibres. circular to oval. rounded at the base. composed of sieve elements. 2. solitary or in groups. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. b) Microscopic Root . Leaf- Midrib . palisade single layered present on both sides. elliptical. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells.5-19. fibres and tracheids. secondary phloem narrow. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. Stem . thickwalled and lignified.

On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. 2. Ud¡vartta.6. V¡tal¡. T.4. Udararoga.2. 0.Light yellow. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U.50 g. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. Vibandha.57 (all yellow).2.V. and 0.L.C.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). Mi¿raka Sneha. oval to elongated. 2. simple. shows vessels with simple pits. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. elliptical. lignified with wide lumen. Appendix per cent.2. Appendix per cent. aseptate fibres. 0. 2.46. Appendix per cent.0. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. of the drug for decoction.04. 2.2.2.Powder .87 (violet). IDENTITY. Gulma. RaktadoÀahara.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.3.Ën¡ha. DOSE . 0. stone cells thick-walled. Pittahara. rounded to oval starch grains. CONSTITUENTS .Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.67. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara.04 and 0.46 (brown) and 0. Appendix per cent. RukÀa.L. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf.7. 160 . Visarpa.2. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2.

filiform and incospicuous. glabrous. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. slightly raised. Shepa. ex Flem.. and a warm. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. 4 mm long. Shulupa. dorsal 161 . Peucedanum sowa Roxb. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. glabrous.. brown.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. Sulpha. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. a tall. graveolens DC. A. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. graveolens Benth. dark brown. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. odour. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. vittae. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. sowa Roxb. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. Satahva (Fr. mericarps usually separate and free. often stalk attached. (Fam. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. Apiaceae). parenchymatous. A. yellowish membranous wings. akin to caraway.. slightly sharp taste. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. b) Microscopic Fruit . Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. graveolens Linn. var. P. mesocarp.68. Syn.

Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2.2.68 (violet). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.6. 162 . Appendix 2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. Jvara. 2.Essential Oil. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a.3. Netra Roga DOSE .á£la.C. 0. 2. Appendix 3 per cent. Appendix 14 per cent. 2. Vra¸a. of the drug in powder form.2.5 per cent. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.37 (pink) 0. V¡tahara. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. Appendix 15 per cent.2. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. shows spiral vessels. 0.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.4. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. cellulosic. Appendix 1.59 and 0. Appendix 4 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Atis¡ra.68 (all yellow). 2.Brown. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. IDENTITY. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled. each costae with vascular strands.L.L. Kaphahara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. carpophore split.59 (blue) and 0.3-6 g.2.10 T. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .7. Powder .costae three.C.

odour and taste not distinct.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. entire. Rachis . found wild in sub Himalayan tract. pith and phloem parenchyma. Sekato. Shewgachi pane Sajana. Shigru (Lf. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. ovate or obovate. Moringaceae). Nugge ele -Murinna. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Sajna. thickened. a small or medium sized tree. Muringa Elai Sevaga. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. palisade single layered. parenchymatous cells. oval to elliptical. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Bahala. and articulated at the base. Segata. central region 163 b) Microscopic . Leaflet . Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. Mungna Neegge. consisting of pericyclic fibres. Munga. Mocaka -Sajina.) Gaertn. thin walled. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo.2-2 cm long and 0.5-1 cm wide. leaflet 1. elliptic. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Segata pana. commonly cultivated throughout the country. Tishnagandha.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Muringa. pericycle forming a broken ring. Syn. AkÀ¢va. slender.69. rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. parenchymatous cells. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. vascular bundle collateral.

2. 0.82 (yellow) and 0.59 (blue).05.94 (yellow) in visible light. Sirovirecaka 164 . 0. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.87 (blue). 2.18.6. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. 2. CONSTITUENTS . (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Powder -Greyish-green. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square.05.C. Appendix per cent.2.Carbohydrate.V. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf.2. Under U.69 (blue) and 0. 0. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. 0.46 (all red) & 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0. RukÀa. spiral vessels. 0. Protein.26.2.53 (yellow). Appendix 2.94 (violet).05. 0.30 (pink). IDENTITY. 0. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. Pittahara. 0. T.38. B ¤Æhana.20.52 (green). 0. 0.0.7.2. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0. stomata anornocytic.L. Medohara.2. 0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. 0. palisade cells. 0.46 (green).3. 0.46 (both blue).2.18. K¤mihara. 0. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. 2.26 (all green). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.46 (dark green) & 0.36 (green). áukra N¡¿aka. 0.C. palisade ratio 6-11. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.occupied by a crescent-shaped. (all green). rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. 0.36 (yellowish green).26. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf.36. Appendix per cent. vein islets number 50-65.94 (blue).69 (yellow).4.L. V¡tahara. 0.

Ratnagiri Rasa. Pl¢haroga. ViÀatinduka Taila.10 . 165 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Gulma.áopha. DOSE . Galaga¸·a. Medoroga. Vidradhi. K¤miroga.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES .

cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3 cm wide. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. Sthulaela (Sd. (Fam. spicy pungent. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. odour. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. 0. aromatic.4 cm long. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless.. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. taste. membraneous aril. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. thin walled. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. thin-walled. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. brown to dark brown. perispenn encloses the 166 . Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. Beraelam. sclerenchymatous.) Zingiberaceae). beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock.70. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. perisperm consists of polygonal.

rounded to oval. Rocaka.6. 2. shows fragments of testa. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. 2. Mukharoga.4. Mukha¿odhaka. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.0. V¡tahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Appendix 14 per cent. of the drug in powder form.5 -1 g. Note . rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. DOSE .7. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Tikta Laghu.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. simple. H¤ll¡sa. Appendix 5 per cent.S¡rivady¡sava. Appendix 4 per cent. Appendix 2. both composed of polygonal. rich in protein.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). 2.3. Appendix 1.5 per cent. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. parenchymatous cells. IDENTITY. perisperm cells. THERAPEUTIC USES . Ka¸·u.áv¡sa. (Seed). Kaphahara.2. Chardi. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. thin-walled. thin-walled. RukÀa. polygonal.endosperm and embryo. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. K¡sa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. Karp£r¡dy¡rka.2.2. Powder .2. oil globules. T¤À¸¡.2.10 CONSTITUENTS .(Seed). 2.Light brown.2.2. 167 . Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.

Tejovanti -Thumboonal. brownish. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. Tejovati (St. lignified. stone cells found in 168 . light yellow to pale brown. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. aromatic pungent. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. short.0. sharp prickles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. Jimmi. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval.1-0. armed with long. taste. internal surface smooth. thin-walled. aromatic. Syn. rather deeply furrowed.Bk. Thumbooni. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. odour. Z.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. Rutaceae). fracture.) Roxb. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. parenchymatous cells. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . (Fam. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. Tumbura. phloem fibres thickwalled.71.2 cm thick. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. stem and branches. thick-walled cells. external surface pale brown. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. Tumburudra. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky.

2.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. measuring 2. 2. aseptate fibres. 2. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. 2.7. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex.5 per cent. Mukharoga. CONSTITUENTS .75 µ in diameter.75 . K¡sa. starch grains round and oval. THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder . Appendix 2. of the drug for decoction.Aruci. Appendix 1. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. Medhya. 169 . IDENTITY.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.Yellowish-brown.2. stone cells. P¡cana. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa).10-20 g. DOSE .75 µ in diameter. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Appendix 13 per cent. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. a Volatile Oil and Resin. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Kaphahara.2.13. Appendix 12 per cent. 2. áv¡sa. Rucya.4. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. round and oval measuring 2. Appendix 8.5 per cent.75 . Hikk¡.6.2. oil globules and starch grains. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .13.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine.2. shows fragments of cork cells. Ëmav¡ta.2.

Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. petiole thin. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. hairy. hairy. Tulasi (W. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. characteristic. odour faintly aromatic.5-3 cm long hairy. small in close whorls.Thin. wiry. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . found throughout the country. much branched. fracture. internally cream. coloured. pubescent on both sides.2 cm wide.P. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. aromatic. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped.Erect. (Fam. Leaf . lower lip 170 . odour.) an erect. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. violet internally. herbaceous. woody.6 . K¤À¸atulas¢. Lamiaceae). elliptic oblong.5-5 cm long 1. Flower . slender. entire or serrate.3. branched. pubescent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡.72. Stem . shortly apiculate. 30 . about 1. Shree Tulasi. branched. soft. externally purplish-brown to black. pedicels longer than calyx. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi.Purplish or crimson coloured. Thulasi. annual herb. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. taste. sub quadrangular. obtuse or acute. blackish-brown externally and pale.60 cm high.2.

parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. aromatic. fibre tracheides. b) Microscopic Root . Leaf- Petiole . rectangular. taste. xylem surrounded by phloem. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. 0. slightly mucilaginous.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. thin-walled. middle one larger than other two.shows somewhat cordate outline.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. long. mucilaginous when soaked in water.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. enclosed in an enlarged.1 cm long. fibres and parenchyma. pungent. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively.epidermis. vessels pitted. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres.A group of 4 nutlets. membranous. thin-walled. measuring 22-27 in dia. taste. nearly smooth. corolla about 4 mm long. veined calyx. fibres with pointed ends. slightly notched at the base. vessels pitted. Midrib . consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. Seed . sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. phloem consists of sieve elements. filled with brown content. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. brown. aromatic. 171 . occasionally a few cells collapsed. pubescent. glandular trichomes short.Rounded to oval. xylem consists of vessels. Stem . rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. no odour. thin-walled. pungent. parenchymatous cells. found scattered in phloem. in groups and rarely in singles. each with one seed. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. elongated. slightly compressed. odour. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. odour. three vascular bundles situated centrally. lateral two short and central two largest. pitted with pointed ends. Fruit . round to oval polygonal. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. taste. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. tracheids. parenchymatous cells. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. pungent. phloem consisting of sieve elements.

KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2. in thoroughly vanillin . Appendix 1. V¡tahara. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10).15 . palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.6.16 on lower surface. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 8 per cent. value 0.C.minutes Under observation.Essential Oil. a few containing reddish brown contents. palisade ratio 3. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. IDENTITY. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes.2. Powder .4. oil globules. Kaphahara. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C.35. H¤dya. Durgandhihara 172 .1. 2. CONSTITUENTS .2. On cooling spray.7. Record Rf.7. 2.Lamina . parenchymatous cells. 2. T. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. Tikta.2. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . thin walled fibres. rounded to oval. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.8. slightly raised above the level of epidermis.5 per cent. Rucya.2.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. RukÀa. Appendix 10 per cent. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. values of eugenol and caryophyllence. Appendix 2. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.2. Appendix 4 per cent.3. 2. vein islet number 31 . both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. Pittavardhin¢.Greenish: shows thin-walled.L.L. Rf.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 173 . Hikk¡. KuÀ¶ha. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . K¡sa.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Netraroga. áv¡sa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .A¿mar¢. Chardi. K¤miroga.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa.

taste. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. found throughout the country. 1. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells.5-5 cm long. thin. covering trichomes multicellular. balloon-shaped head. middle one larger than the other two. LeafPetiole . sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. characteristic. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. 174 b) Microscopic . an erect.73.. (Fam. hairy. uniseriate 1-8 celled long.6-3. Holy Basil Tulasi. elliptic-oblong. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. Lamiaceae).) 30-60 cm high. much branched annual herb.2 cm wide. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. upper epidermis. measuring 22-27 µ dia. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. petiole 1. entire or serrate. consisting of xylem and phloem. obtuse or acute. aromatic. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢.shows cordate outline. three vascular bundles situated centrally. Tulasi (Lf. and 2-8 celled. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. glandular trichomes short. K¤À¸atulas¢.5-3 cm long. odour. petiolate. pubescent on both surfaces. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells.

7.83. Nerol and Camphene etc. 0.21 (brown). 0.03 (dark green). stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0. Under U. palisade ratio 3. 0.2.08 (both green). (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.Essential Oil (Carvacrol.93 (both light green).L.6. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. 0. 0.V. 0.85 (blue). 0. Lamina . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.45 (violet). 0. 0.C.88 and 0. 0.2.21.2. shows fragments of polygonal.33 (both green) 0. 0.33 (violet).83 (all pink) 0.93 (all0 yellow).45. CONSTITUENTS .93 (pink) & 0. 0.L. Appendix per cent.33.2. 0. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole. Appendix per cent. 2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C.04. 2. 0. 0. T.98 (blue). stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. 0.04. 0. 0.83 (blue). vein islet number 31-33.75.Light-green. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.54.8.12 (light green).85 & 0.2. 175 .45. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.).33.4. 0. Caryophyllene. 0.75 (violet). 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. 2.08. Appendix per cent. 0.Midrib .. 0.30. 0. Powder .epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. anomocytic and diacytic stomata.12.04.45 (yellowish green).3. 0. 0. 0.2. 0.12 (light violet).epidermis.54 (blue).21. 0. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. IDENTITY.98 (blue). palisade and spongy parenchyma.08 (violet).93 (violet) and 0.

Tikta. K¡sa. Prati¿y¡ya. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. KuÀ¶ha. áv¡sa. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa.Aruci. Kaphahara. of the drug in powder form.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. H¤dya. 176 . V¡tahara.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.2-3 g. K¤miroga. Hikk¡. Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. RukÀa. THERAPEUTIC USES .

Ugr¡. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. and 0. aromatic. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. thin-walled cells of various sizes. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes.Shows single layered epidermis. pungent and bitter. lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. short.5-1. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . broadly. somewhat collenchymatous. odour. Ghodavaca Vasambu. Araceae). Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. upper side marked with alternately arranged. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. triangular. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. cells towards periphery. Gora-bach Baje.74. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. Vacha (Rz. Ghodvach Bach. Rhizome . large.5 cm thick. buff coloured intemally. taste. enclosing large air spaces.) semiaquatic herb. (Fam. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. smaller. fracture. Vekhandas -Varch. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj.

region. stele composed of round. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.2. CONSTITUENTS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. present in cortex and ground tissue. Petroleum ether-No change ii. Appendix per cent. 2.Buff coloured. starch grains simple.14 (violet) and 0.2. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. Eugenol and Asarone).2. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.L. Appendix per cent.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol.C. 178 . reticulate.2. Benzene-No change IDENTITY. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside). Methanol-Yellowish green iv. Appendix per cent. 2. Chloroform-Light green iii. Powder .2. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. 2.7. 0. Appendix 2.L. Starch and Tannin. spherical. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf.Yellowish-cream b. Appendix per cent.2. endodermis distinct.2. Appendix per cent.6..73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.3.10 T. shows fibres. Powder as such: .C. Extracts in i. 2.4. 2. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.

Apasm¡ra. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Tikta Laghu.2 g. Kar¸a Sr¡va. C£r¸a. K¤mihara. 1. Medhya. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. DOSE . Kaphahara. K¡sa. Ka¸¶hya. Vibandha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Sm¤ti daurbalya. Ëdhm¡na. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a.Vac¡di Taila. 179 . S¡rasvata.á£la. V¡tahara. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. áv¡sa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Unm¡da. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢.

fracture. Vatsanabha. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone. Ranunculaceae). Beesh. Vatsanabhi. occasionally separated due to breakage. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. plant is an erect. suberised. cartilaginous.8 cm thick. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. Naabhi Bachnak. odour indistinct. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Teliya Bish Basanalli. 0. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. conical.75. poisonous. tapering downwards to a point. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara.5 cm. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium.) (Fam. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Sth¡varaviÀa. taste.4 . Mahura. Nabhi.1. roots are generally collected late in September. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. perennial herb. dark brown to blackish-brown. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. without or with a few intercellular spaces. rough due to root scars. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. rarely 5 cm long. parenchymatous cells. Vatsanabhi. 2-4. papillose on outside. small portions of stem sometimes attached. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . ovoid. Meethabisha. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. thin-walled. Mithalelia. Vatsanabha (Rt. Bachhnaag. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Basanaag Bisa.

0. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. shows vessels. present in cortical cells.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. 2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. occupying more than half the radius. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions.2.56. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. Powder . 2. cambium having 6 10 angles.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. containing a few groups of phloem strands.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.2. Appendix 24 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. Sv®dala.C. often forming 'V' shaped ring.endodermis. Viyav¡yi. UÀ¸a. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. RukÀa. xylem exarch. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . 0.74 and 0. S £tasekhara Rasa. 0.39. Anandabhairava Rasa.39 and 0.L. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. 0. 0. T. inner bark parenchymatous. Appendix 8 per cent.10. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.20.2. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. Appendix 5. Trid°Àahara. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. Appendix 2. 0. consisting of round to oval cells. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma.4.2.3. IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS . Laghu.6. 2.5 per cent. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.96 (both orange).7.Light grey.L. ÙikÀ¸a.2. a few aseptate fibres. metaxylem vessels met in centre. some scattered. 2. Appendix 2 per cent.

15 . Kanharoga. Sannip¡ta.V¡taroga. 182 .30 mgs of the drug in powder form. DOSE .THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvar¡tis¡ra. V¡takaphajvara. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.

Vid¡rik¡. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. stone cells moderately thick-walled. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 .76. Vidari (Tub. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Bhonykoru. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. Nelagumbula. thin-walled cells. taste. usually does not break. Nelagumbala. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. smooth except for protuberances at some places. Bhuikumra Vidari. -Mudakku Bhuikohala.Rt. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. Gumadi belli. starchy and somewhat porous. Fabaceae). Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. cut surface creamish-brown. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root . distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. Bhoikolu. sweetish.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. but pliable. thinwalled. Eagio. Bhumikusmanda. outer surface reddish-brown.

Appendix 17 per cent. and also rarely in stone cells. Appendix 4.and pits. somewhat round. J¢van¢ya. Var¸ya. Pittahara.13.5 .Marma Gu¶ik¡. highly thickened. measuring 5. present in all parenchymatous cells. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. radially elongated cells. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. Angmarda. 2. Balya. Appendix 24 per cent. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone.3.D¡ha. 2. a few latex duct also present. IDENTITY. M£trala.2. lignified with narrow lumen. 184 .6.2.. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells.2. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. Daurbalya. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.13.75 µ in dia. of the drug in powder form. Ras¡yana.2. V¡tahara.2. áoÀa.Buff coloured. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. phloem fibres much elongated. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled.Gluconic and Malic acids. Powder . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Stanyada. Appendix 4 per cent.7. Svarya.5 . DOSE .5 per cent.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . having central hilum and striations. fragments of cork. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Appendix 2. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. Raktapitta. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. 2. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells.75 µ in dia. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). CONSTITUENTS . angular to oval. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. distributed throughout this region.4.3-6 g. plenty of starch grains mostly simple.

erect herb. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. about 1 cm long and 0. smooth. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava.3 cm wide. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. Jav Barley Cheno. (Fam. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. round to oval wavy walled cells. seed coat appears as a colourless line.) Poaceae). 50-100 cm high. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. elliptic. oblong. odour. spongy parenchymatous cells. followed by more or less. cultivated chiefly in North India. not distinct. pale-greenish-yellow. sweetish-acrid. square or quadrilateral. an annual. sativum Pers. Yava (Fr.77. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. thick-walled. taste. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. H. followed by 2-3 layers.2-0. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . sclerenchymatous fibres. polygortal inner epidermal cells. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis.

endosperm divided into two zones. 2.2.68. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval.2. Globulin.2. 0.24. Orientoside. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. 0. simple starch grains. Proteins (Albumin. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. Appendix 2. 0.56.10.31. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.3. Sthairyakara.5 per cent. IDENTITY. 0.2.5 per cent. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. and the rest starch layers.65 & 0.5 2.) CONSTITUENTS . 0. Pittahara.Creamish-white. round to oval. Medahara.83 (all violet) and 0. Sugars.22.53.2. 0. Svarya.45. sclerenchymatous fibres. Appendix 4 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. V¤Àya. 0. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.06. Fats. 0. 0. starch grains simple.L.14.2. M£trahara. 0.4. 0. Pur¢Àak ¤t.22. 2. 0. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz.C. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.36.6.68. V¡tak¤t.31. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. 0.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.92 (yellow). Kaphahara. Powder .92 (all grey). Lekhana.C.16. 2.10. 0. Appendix 5.narrow lumens. Var¸ya 186 .Starch.44.V. 0. 0. 0.72 (all pink. Appendix 1.L. Appendix 2. 0. Orientin. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.83 and 0. 2. 0. Vitexin etc.7 T. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.5 per cent. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.31. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.

Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Kanharoga. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Tvagroga DOSE . Sarsap¡di Pralepa. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. 187 . P¢nasa. K¡sa. T¤À¸¡.100 .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Prameha.200 g. Urustambha. El¡dya Modaka.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Dh¡nvantara Taila. of the drug. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . Medoroga.áv¡sa. Gandharvahasta Taila.

drooping. cork cambium single layered. 20-30 cm long and 0. Yavasaka (W. filled with reddish-brown contents. radially arranged cork cells.Simple. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole.P. gradually tapering. oblong. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root .8 cm long. stipules green. nearly 0. Stem .Cylindrical. secondary and tertiary root absent. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida.1-1 cm thick. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. (Fam. Duralabha -Venkatithura. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. dark brown. mucronate obtuse. hard. terete. Y¡sa. glabrous. glabrous.) Fabaceae).Well developed. branched.5-1 cm long. a small thorny shrub. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. Desv. short.2-1 cm thick. extipulate.7 cm broad. sharp axillary spines upto 3. secondary cortex almost 188 . alternate. striate.5-0. no taste and odour. Punjab.78. ballidurabi. opposite. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Javasa. Neladangara. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). Leaf . fracture. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. 0. elliptical. 0. slightly rough at basal region with slender.

mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. parenchymatous cells.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. tracheids. Midrib . vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. vascular bundle collateral. xylem consists of vessels. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. fibres. some cells filled with tannin. pitted vessels. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends.5. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. 3-45 cells long.appears circular in outline. covered externally with thick cuticle. elongated. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. hypodermis 1-2 layered. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata.14. rounded to oval. covered with cuticle. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval.appears biconvex in outline. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. phloem composed of sieve elements. 5. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. a few with thick wall and simple pits. simple. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. thin-walled.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. epidermis single layered. parenchyma and fibres. starch grains simple. angular. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled.75 µ in dia. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. tracheids and fibres. pith composed of a few thin-walled. filled with tannin. filled with tannin. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. xylem situated above phlome. Lamina . Leaf- Petiole . numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. tracheids. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. present throughout the region. thin-walled. xylem consists of vessels. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. tanniniferous cells. tangentially elongated cells. tracheids and fibres thick-walled.75 µ in diameter. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin.Greenish-brown. xylem fibres. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. Stem . phloem composed of sieve elements. 189 . Powder .absent. parenchymatous cells. hypodermis 2-3 layered.5-14.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . Invert Sugars). KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 2. Visarpa DOSE .20 . 2. Appendix 2. Appendix 13.5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tarakta.2. Raktapitta.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Chardi. of the drug in powder form for decoction. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. K¡sa. Appendix 10 per cent. D¢pana.2. 2.IDENTITY.50 g.Sugars (Melizitose. T¤À¸¡.2. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.5 per cent.2. Appendix 2 per cent. 2.7.3.2.2.6. Arimed¡di Taila. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t. Tikta. 190 . Sucrose.4. Jvara.

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