THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.1.1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.2.2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.2.1.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.2-Thermometers 1. 1.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.1 Testing Drugs 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2.1.2.2.1.1.) Desv 177 1.2-Sieves 1.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.1.Types of Stomata 2.2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.2.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.1.2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.2.2.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.1.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.1.3.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.2.2.2.4.1.5.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.

3 Limit Tests 2.1-Powder Fineness 2.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.2.3.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.3.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.3.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.3.3.3.1.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.Weights and Measures 5.2.3.5-Limit Test for lead 2.1.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.2-Refractive Index 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3.3.

II.). would be deemed to have been amended vii . 1930 and the Poisons Act. II. Part-I. In general.I. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. Vol. the Dangerous Drugs Act. Vol. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. Part-I. Vol. Part-I. II would be official. is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. accordingly. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A.P. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act.

The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . the measurement is to be made by means of a tube. viii . English.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. Purity and Strength . Odour and Taste . If the odour persists to be discernible. When the term “drop” is used. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. Introductory Para . This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance. Synonyms . unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. substances or processes described in Appendix. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. Italics . indicated in monograph. distribution and method of collection. Ayurvedic Formulary of India. it is described as having odour. as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. Identity.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states.GENERAL NOTICES Title .Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts. These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml).The metric system of weights and measures is employed. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC. Mesh Number . if any.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . Hindi. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg). The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. Weights and Measures .

Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”. However. Purity and Strength. even by applying known reference standards. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. statements appearing in the API. mould or other evidence of deterioration. and show no abnormal odour. the expression per cent (%). wherever given. and Identity.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. is used. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. micro-organisms. However. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. water. those of definition of the part and source plants. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. ether-soluble extractive.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method.L. Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . pests. according to circumstances. moisture content.C.g. fungi. arsenic and heavy metals. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug. Constant Weight . if of equivalent accuracy.) . The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. Percentage of Solutions .Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. with one of the four meanings given below. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. alcohol-soluble extractive. shall constitute standards. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects.soluble extractive. under Description. The quantitative tests e. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. water-soluble ash. Part-I. and other animal matter including animal excreta. Standards . total ash. sliminess. Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. may be substituted for the tests and assays described. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. in 100 grammes of product. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. colour. pesticides.Under this head. V. acid-insoluble ash. Vol.For statutory purpose. which he uses. ix .In defining standards. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. Constituents . the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition.

at a stated temperature. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given.000 parts More than 10. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities. Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Reagents and Solutions .Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius).All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. are intended to apply at that temperature.Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. fibres. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. Solubility .000 parts x . are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. Statements of solubilities. Temperature . and dust particles.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices.56 oC. such as fragment of filter papers. all solutions are prepared with purified water. When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Solutions . a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. thermometric scale. Percentage of alcohol . unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs.

001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . Fam. 0. ml.5 N. mg.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. TS. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India.P. l. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Kg. unless otherwise stated. mm.I. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. 0. The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m. g. IN.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. PS. 1M. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. µ. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. cm.1 N. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence. Part –I and Part-II.

St. Ht. Pl. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Ori. Bk. Guj. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. xii . Assam. Wd. Punj. Tub.Sansk. Tam. Kash. Wh. Rt. Lf. St. Eng. Mal. Tel. Fr. Kan. Mar. Rt. Sd. Beng. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Rz. Wd. Bk.

a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Akravu Akkalakara. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. taste. brown. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva. Akarakara Akkaraka. thin-walled. Akallakara. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. 53. odour. Akalakarabha. Akarakarabha (Rt. cylindrical.231 µ in 1 . with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. 1. xylem fibres thick-walled.1. characteristically astringent and pungent. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka.8 µ in width. tracheids and xylem parenchyma.37-28. slightly aromatic. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. Asteraceae).2 .) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. 7-15 cm in length. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. parenchymatous cells. elongated. cambium 2-5 layered. b) Microscopic Root . bark upto 3 mm thick. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. vessels pitted. shrivelled. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. (Fam. external surface rough. tapering slightly at both ends. an annual. not easily separable.

2. áukrala.Ash coloured. Appendix 2 percent. D¢pana. uniseriate rays very rare.3. Danta¿£la DOSE . áv¡sa. bi to tri and multiseriate. secondary phloem and medullary rays. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. secondary phloem and medullary rays. of the drug in powder form. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.0. radially elongated.4. 2. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡. running straight. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. Appendix 8 percent. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Kum¡ry¡sava.5 -1 g.2. 2. secondary phloem. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . also gives positive tests for inulin.length having narrow lumen. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. Appendix 22 percent.Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). NaÀ¶¡rtava.6.2. Buddhivardhaka.2. Grdhras¢. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. Appendix 10 percent. á£laroga. ray cells thick-walled.Prati¿y¡ya.2.7. medullary rays numerous. K¡sa. Kaphahara. Powder . IDENTITY. áotha. Svedakara. secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. 2. V¡jikara. Udararoga. 2 . oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex.2.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Pittahara. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. Aj¢rna. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS .

indistinct tangentially elongated cells present. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles.) large deciduous. irregularly corrugated.Cream coloured. under this. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. odour. slightly curved. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. thin-walled. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m. not distinct. collapsed. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. Juglandaceae). taste. Akshoda (Cotldn. 3 . followed by more or less compressed. parenchymatous cells. creamish-brown. oily sweet. Powder . Sailabhava. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a.Shows 1-2 layered. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. coriaceous. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons.2. radially elongated. raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. endosperm mostly single layered. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. broken pieces. Cotyledon . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. (Fam.

áukral.KÀata. CONSTITUENTS . 2.2. 2. Kaphakara.25 g. Appendix 2. V¤Àya.7. Appendix Not less than 7. B¤´ha¸a.2.Walnut oil and Tannin. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. 2. ViÀ¶ambhi. 4 .4.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. Appendix Not more than 0.2.2.0 percent.5 percent.10 .IDENTITY.6.2.3. DOSE . KÀaya.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. V¡taroga. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Balya. Appendix Not less than 10. Sara.0 percent. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent.

a few outer cells exfoliated. deciduous tree. a small aromatic. Ambalam. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. Ranambo Ambada. Stem Bark. external surface smooth. curved.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. mangifera Willd.5 m in girth. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. laminated. fracture. thin. non Gamble (Fam. Anbalamu. Ranamba. Ambadam Amratakamu. with reddish-brown contents. thin-walled cells. f.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. grey having lenticels. Amrata (St. internal surface reddish-yellow. Marka¶¡mra -Amada. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated. S. parenchymatous cells. upto 27 m high and 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. and 5 . tangentially elongated. Amra Indian Hog Plum. Amra.. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. S. parenchymatous.3. acuminata Roxb. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Ambazham. Ambado. Wild Mango Ambeda. radially arranged. Mampuiti. consisting of tangentially elongated. Syn. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces.Bk. Jangli Aam Ambate. Jangali Ambo. Amvara -Mampusli. Anacardiaceae). Kurz.

lignified. THERAPEUTIC USES .75-14 µ in dia. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. Appendix Not more than 0.also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.V. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.33. Under U.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.2.6. KÀaya. Not more than 1 per cent. Rucik¤t. Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Light brown.L.96 (blue). ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. Raktapitta. shows cork cells.C.96. 0. T.2. simple. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs.40 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf. 2.33.5-10 g.2. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells. CONSTITUENTS . containing rosette crystals and starch grains. stone cells. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone. 0. 0. 0.3. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres. Powder .(greyish brown). 6 . Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara.87 (blue) and 0. of the drug in powder form for decoction.87 (all greyish brown). KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.C. 2. D¡ha DOSE .L.4. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. Pittakara. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf. 0. Ka¸¶hya. thick-walled.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.5 per cent. IDENTITY. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. 2. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent.2. V¡tahara.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width.2. Appendix 2.KÀata.

0 cm in thickness. slightly ribbed. stamens 5. rough due to presence of some root scars. greenish-white. yellowish-brown. dorsifixed. odour.3 . yellowish-brown. numerous. branched. actinomorphic.Cylindrical tap root. solid. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. Stem . connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. hollow when dry. May£raka. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m.Simple. perianth segments 5. (Fam. membranous.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. cylindrical.9 m high herb. decussate. one spine lipped. Flower . a stiff.1-1. Apamarga (W. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. not distinct. wavy margin. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. secondary and tertiary roots present. bisexual.3-0. bracteate with two bracteoles. anther. sessile. PratyakpuÀpa. subsessile. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra.free.4. the perianth lobes. Kharamaµjar. hairy. hypogynous. 7 . 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . exstipulate. erect. erect.5 cm in cut pieces. Leaf . contorted or quincuncial. opposite. opposite. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. filament short.P. obovate. 0.0. gradually tapering.0. two celled.) Amaranthaceae).

fibres being absent. syncarpous. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. endospermic. LeafPetiole . vessels annular. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers. b) Microscopic Root . spiral. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. single.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. 2-5 celled. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. style. elongated. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. thin-walled cork cells. either separate throughout or found in some cases. capitate. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. truncate at the apex. followed 8 . xylem composed of usual elements. vessels simple pitted. lignified. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. two medullary bundles. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. rectangular. Fruit . thin-walled cork cells. unilocular with single ovule.Shows crescent-shaped outline. ovary superior. Seed . parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. thin-walled. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. oval to rectangular. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. demarcating the xylem rings. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. stigma. Stem . micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. on both surfaces. 4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. Midrib . present in pith. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. cortex 6-10 layered. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. scalariform and pitted. composed of parenchymatous cells. epidermis single layered.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. brown.Shows a single layered epidermis.Mature root shows 3-8 layered. perianth and bracteoles. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.gynoecium bicarpellary.Sub-cylindric. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. round at the base. 3-4 celled stalk. fibres pitted. cortical and pith cells. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. thin layers of cambium.

2.0-11. Abhay¡ Lava¸a.5-9.2. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix Not less than 2 per cent.2. 2. stomatal index 4. spiral.0 on upper surface. Medoroga DOSE . Gu·apippali. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent.6. of the drug for decoction. rectangular. V¡tahara. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells. IDENTITY. non-lignified cells. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells. Appendix 2. shows fragments of elongated. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. Ka¸·u. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces.0 on lower surface. palisade ratio 7. scalariform and pitted thickening. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.2. Tikta Sara. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. Medohara. thin-walled epidermal cells. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. slightly elongated in upper. V¡maka. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent. 9.4.Light yellow.20-50 g. 2.2. Chedana. Udara Roga. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . aseptate fibres. Lamina . Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. 2.Shows single layered. P¡cana. Powder .á£la. mm.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled.0-20. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Apac¢.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra.2.7. vessels with annular.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.3. Ar¿a. Kaphahara. 9 . 2.

vessels pitted with oblong. colour. medullary 10 . fibrous.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. a few showing slit-like pits. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Fam. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. polygonal. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. a few solitary fibres also present. thin-walled. cylindrical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. b) Microscopic Root . thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. Aparajita (Rt. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. lightbrown.5. very long. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups. single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. bitter. Fabaceae). 1-5 mm in thickness. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. taste. fracture. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end.

V. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf.rays 1-5 cells wide. Pittahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Under U. Starch. V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Taraxerol & Taraxerone. Kaphahara. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia.C. Tikta. Appendix per cent. 0.7. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.6. ViÀahara.Mi¿raka Sneha. shows simple and compound starch grains. phloem and xylem parenchyma. KuÀ¶ha. áotha. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. Buddhiprada.3.79 (both yellow). Appendix per cent.Tannin. Appendix 2. 2.L. CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . CONSTITUENTS . 0.2.2. 11 . measuring 3-13 µ in dia.2.Yellowish-brown. of the drug in powder form.79 (grey).1 .79 (dull yellow) in visible light. Appendix per cent. Powder . 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf..2.2.79 (blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.. M£traroga. Vra¸a DOSE . Resin. IDENTITY.á£la. 2. T. Medhya. oblong and pitted. Appendix per cent. 2. 2.4. 0.2.3 g.L. V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. found in secondary cortex.C.54 and 0.

Shows a few layered. Adrak Injee.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. widely cultivated in India. Ale -Adi. colourless.5 cm thick. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. tangentially elongated. gingery. buds and roots are removed and washed well. Allam.6. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. oblique branches on upper side. odour. pungent Rhizome . rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells.5-6. radially arranged cells of inner cork. reaching up to 90 cm in height. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. irregularly arranged. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. Inji Allamu. each having a depressed scar at its apex. short with projecting fibres. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. pieces 5-15 cm long. Ardraka (Rz. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. taste.) Zingiberaceae). parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations. 1. isodiametric. lakottai. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. (Fam. fracture. thin-walled. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic .

0. 0. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. 0. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells.6. scalariforrn and spiral thickening.C.08 (violet). 0. 2.03. 0. Appendix 8 per cent. 0.. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0.16. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.L. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter. 0.7. filled with abundant starch grains. collateral.2. 0. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf.63 & 0. Powder -Light yellow.2. walls of oil cells suberised. gingerosol in the oleo-resin.35. larger bundles consists of 2. 2. elongated pits on their walls.l6 (brownish violet).V.13. 0. phloem.16. conjoint. free from starch. numerous closed.9 T.83 & 0. Appendix 1 per cent. small cells of sieve tube. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 0. Appendix 90 per cent. 0. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0. 0. vessels 2-5 in number.dia. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal.7 vessels. 0.69 (all light yellow). reticulate and spiral vessels. IDENTITY.16 (blue). 13 . Under U. 2. vessels showing reticulate.92 (all yellow).47. fibrovascular bundles of two types.63 (light violet).63 (grey) & 0. septate fibres with oblique. endodermis single layered.35 (light violet).69 (grey). 0. 0. oleo-resin cells abundent.35.69.47 (light violet). 0. 2.63.76 (violet) & 0. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. composed of xylem.2.5 per cent. 0. Appendix 5 per cent.2. Appendix 2 per cent.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. 0. Appendix 2. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone.C. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.4. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene.2. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.L.69 (light violet). 0. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.3. 2.08.2. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T.2.92 (violet). larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.76. CONSTITUENTS . 0.

DOSE . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ën¡ha.á£la. Kaphahara. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Rocana.Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey. Vibandha. Svarya. Ka¸tharoga. V ¤Àaya. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . RukÀa. H¤dya. 14 . áopha. Bhedana.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru.

Arimeda (St. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. fibres and crystal fibres. consisting of sieve elements. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. Pilobaval. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. hard. (Fam. Sadabala -Haramibaval. stone cells and phloem cells. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. exfoliating in irregular scales. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. odour and taste. square to rectangular cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. parenchyma. upto 3 m in height. not distinct. secondary phloem wide. with tapering 15 . Fabaceae). phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thinwalled cortical cells.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. all traversed by medullary rays. lignified. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. incurved.5-1 cm thick. internally light brown to reddish-brown. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. phloem fibres thin-walled. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma.Bk. rough. characteristic of dry regions. Velvelam.7. fracture. fibrous.

6. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES .0. Udardapra áamana DOSE .91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS .e. fibres. Ka¸·u.78 and 0.2.LC. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.n-Hexacosanol.ends. Appendix 2. Meha.7. 16 .Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. T. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. P¡¸·u.69 (grey) is seen in visible light. IDENTITY. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Mukharoga.áopha. 0. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. radially elongated cells. sclereid. 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .0 to 0.2. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. ViÀajavra¸a. Powder . thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.2.3-5 g in powder form. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.39 and a spot at Rf. 0 to 0. β -Amyrin.40 g for decoction.2. Atis¡ra. K¡sa.91 (yellow).39 and a spot at Rf.2. Appendix 11 per cent. Appendix 1 per cent. K¤mi. 2. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. 2. shows groups of cork cells. Meda¿oÀaka.C. crystal fibres elongated.Reddish-brown. Dantaroga. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. 0.4. Visarpa.3. Appendix 13 per cent. KuÀ¶ha. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. composed of thin-walled. Appendix 14 per cent.2. β-Sitosterol and Tannin.L.91 (both blue).On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.

Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W.Bk. Arjuna. taste. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. Arjuna (St. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. recurved. Torematti Arjuna. fracture.2-1. in the middle and outer phloem region. short in inner and laminated in outer part. Neermatti. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. Vellamaruthi. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. Kellemasuthu. (Fam. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. P¡rtha. companion cells. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha. Mathichakke. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen.& A. Bilimatti.5 cm thick. channelled to half quilled. Sajada Arjuna Matti. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. curved. consisting of sieve tubes.) Combretaceae). ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad.8. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. a large deciduous tree. traversed by phloem rays. bitter and astringent. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. Mattimora. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. flat.

3-6 g.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a.. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. Appendix 2. 18 . a few rhomboidal crystals. Arjuna Gh¤ta. DOSE .2. 2. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. H¤droga. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. alata). measuring 260-600 µ in dia. THERAPEUTIC USES . elliptical.Reddish-brown. 2. round to oval. Pittahara.Medoroga.2. sometimes upto 5 components. Prameha. Vya´ga. compound of 2-3 components. 2..4.2. of the drug in powder form. Vra¸an¡¿ana.7.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. round to oval. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma.2. IDENTITY.3. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. starch grains simple and compound. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. 4-12 cells high. fibres. µ Powder . Vra¸a.in dia. starch grains.2. uniseriate phloem rays.6. elliptic. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. Kaphahara. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. Appendix 20 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . KÀatakÀaya. H¤dya. Appendix 25 per cent. T¤À¡. mostly simple. Appendix 20 per cent. shows fragments of cork cells. alternating with fibres.2. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. Appendix 1 per cent..

some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. nut 2. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified. Fruit .Pericarp differentiated into epicarp.) Anacardiaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. drupaceous. some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands.9. Bhallataka (Fr. mesocarp and endocarp. smooth. dark brown. shining with residual receptacle. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. obliquely ovoid. Scramkotati Nallajidi. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. 30-40 layers thick. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. mesocarp a very broad zone. 19 .5-3 cm long. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. (Fam. Nallajidiginga Baladur.

innermost prismatic.F.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol. Ka¶u. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana..Dark-brown. IDENTITY. Ën¡ha. P¡cana. Appendix 2. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Appendix 0. Appendix 5 per cent. Kaphahara.2. 2. Chedi. Appendix 4 per cent.3. being highly thickened. Krimi. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.1. Appendix 11 per cent. Bhedi.I. Note . Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha. V¡tahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES . Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol).For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. ether. very much elongated radial walls. of the drug in Ksirapaka form.2.2. CONSTITUENTS . Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Snigdha.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. DOSE . 2.2.4. Part-I 20 . 2.Ar¿a.2 g. Powder . Gulma.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid. chloroform..6.2. Graha¸¢.7.2. Tikta. outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.

together on unequal axillary peduncles. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. 30 . cylindrical or flat. obtuse or acute. Asteraceae). scarcely as long as bracts. Leaf . spreading. disc flowers 21 . M¡rkava. Soppu. often rooting at nodes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja.. Karisalanganni.2. occasionally rooting at nodes. ovate. Kesuriya. cylindrical.8. occasionally brownish. ray flowers ligulate. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. Knnunni Bhangra. Bhangro Bhangara. erect or prostrate. rough due to oppressed white hairs. lanceolate.P.Herbaceous. branched.3 cm wide. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. node distinct.) herbaceous annual. Karisalai Guntakalagara. usually oblong.50 cm high. 1. Bhringaraja (W. Flower . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . herbaceous.Well developed. upto about 7 mm in dia. sub-acute or acute. greenish. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. not toothed. sub-entire.5 cm long. (Fam.Solitary or 2. sessile to subsessile. Kesari -Bhangaro. 2. Stem . Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja. Tekar¡ja. white. ligule small. Bhringiraja. much branched. strigose with oppressed hairs. strigosely hirsute. involucral bracts about 8.10.2 . Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. Bh¤´ga. Keshavardhana.Opposite. greyish.2 . Gurugada.

trichomes of two types. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric. with a narrow wing. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. covered with warty excrescences. xylem ray distinct. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. externally covered with cuticle.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. Seed . a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. unilocular with one basal ovule.0.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. run straight in tangential section. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities.2 . fibres and xylem parenchyma. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . vessels numerous. corolla often 4 toothed. uniseriate. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. ovary inferior. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. drum-shaped. 0. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork.tubular. non-glandular. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. cuneate. warty.Achenial cypsella. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. consisting of rounded cells. hairy and non endospermic. pappus absent. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. one seeded. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled. epidermis followed by cortex. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. with very pointed tips. covered with striated cuticle. tangentially elongated cells.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. found scattered throughout wood. filaments epipetalous.0. phloem rays broader towards periphery. xylem composed of vessels. brown. rarely slightly oblique. upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. epidermis followed by wide cortex.1 cm wide. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. 1-5 celled. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. ray cells pitted. pitted. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. simple. fibre tracheids. and with pointed apical cell. Leaf- Petiole . free. traversed by xylem rays. stamen 5. pistil bicarpellary.25 cm long. fibre tracheids. b) Microscopic Root . xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. Midrib . Fruit . secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. dark brown. in macerated preparation vessels small.

shows a dorsi ventral structure. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. warty.Dark green.0-22. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem.collenehymatous cells on both sides. 23 . in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. more abundant on lower surfaces. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. Stem . the cork where formed. some elongated with simple perforations. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. uniseriate. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma.8 -4. externally covered with cuticle.0 on lower surface. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate. vascular bundles in a ring. pericyclic fibres distinct.5 -26. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. middle cells longest. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. about 3 celled. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. arranged in tangential strands. palisade ratio 3. collateral. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. hairs stiff. pointed tips and pitted walls. shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening. peg-like outgrowth. pointed. externally covered with cuticle. Powder . secondary cortex composed of large.5 on upper and 23. endarch.5. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. Lamina . a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. normally biseriate and uniseriate. septa thick-walled. wide at the base.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. pitted with spiral thickening. xylem fibres with wide lumen. while the section cut at apical region. epidermis single layered. xylem consists of large number of vessels. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. trichomes entire or in pieces. stomatal index 20.

12 .2. Tekar¡ja marica. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. 2.Alkaloids. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. K¡sa. Appendix per cent.2.6.7. Ke¿ya. H ¤droga.IDENTITY. of the drug in powder form for decoction.4. Kaphahara.áotha. K¤miroga.6 ml of the drug in juice form. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent. 2. 2. Dantya. Ecliptine and Nicotine. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2. áirah á£la. 24 . Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila.2. Yak¤droga. ViÀahara.3 . Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava.36 g.2. DOSE .Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. Tikta RukÀa.3. áv¡sa. P¡¸·u. 2. Ras¡yana. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. Ëmahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya. Tvacya. CakÀusya. Appendix 2.

Brahmi (W. small. pedicels 6-30 mm long. Valabrahmi. bracteoles shorter than pedicels.Simple. Scrophulariaceae).Capsules upto 5 mm long. 1-2 cm long. wiry. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. Ondelaga. a glabrous. ovoid and glabrous. nodes and internodes prominent. taste. Flower . opposite.Thin. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢. slightly bitter.. Stem . Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . decussate.) Wettst. Leaf .11.B. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. taste. Fruit . succulent. soft. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi.& K. green or purplish green. sessile. found throughout India in wet and damp places. Herpestis monnieria (LiM.P. small.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) H. Brahmi.Thin. green. glabrous. obovate-oblong. 25 . about 1-2 mm thick. Syn. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. prostrate or creeping annual herb.Small. slightly bitter. branched creamish-yellow. axillary and solitary.

4.Yellowish-brown. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Appendix per cent.2.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. and 8. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings.0 x 2. cortex having large air cavities. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre.Root .Shows a single layer of epidermis. round to oval. Stem . measuring 4-14 µ in diameter. vascular ring continuous.5-9. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. round and oval starch grains.2. ËyuÀya. endodermis single layered. simple. Appendix per cent. Matiprada.6. 2.2. starch grains simple. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath.0-14. respectively. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. 2. ViÀahara. endodermis single layered.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces.2.0 µ in dia.2. present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. Appendix per cent. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. Appendix per cent.3. glandular hairs. Ras¡yana.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . glandular hairs sessile. IDENTITY. Praj¡sth¡pana. V¡tahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Powder . Appendix 2. no distinct midrib present. Medhya.. b) Microscopic 26 . Tikta. Svarya. pericycle not distinct.2. 2. 2. subsidiary cells present on both surfaces.

Jvara. 27 . Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢.KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . P¡¸·u.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. Prameha.1-3 g in powder form. áopha. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ratnagiri Rasa. S¡rasvata C£r¸a.

Badikateri Kirugullia. phloem parenchyma much abundant. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. long.. cylindrical. parenchyma and stone cells. ribbed. secondary cortex composed of 5 . much branched perennial under shrub. rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content.12. fracture. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. 1-2. Papparamulli. (Fam. Putirichunda Dorli. pale yellowish-brown. no distinct odour and taste. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. short and splintery. Heggulla. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. a number of secondary roots and their branches present.15 layers of thin-walled. tangentially elongated. Solanaceae). cork cambium single layered. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. woody. upto 1. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 .5 cm in dia.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. a very prickly. Brihati (Rt. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. Chichuriti. Ubhibharingani. oval and tangentially elongated cells.8 m high.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn. b) Microscopic Root . Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. thin-walled.9 layers of thin-walled. traversed by phloem rays. varying greatly in shape and size.

microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex. fibres and xylem parenchyma. Agnim¡dya. shows groups of thin-walled. measuring 5.. phloem and medullary rays. thick-walled. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .4.2. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region. Jvara. rounded to oval starch grains. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Powder .5 per cent. tracheids. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening.11. P¡cana. IDENTITY.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. áv¡sa. vessels with simple pits. DOSE . H¤dya. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. cells radially elongated and pitted.2. H¤droga. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. all elements being lignified. traversed by xylem rays. of the drug for decoction.5 -11.6 µ in diameter.7. aseptate fibres. Appendix Not more than 6. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2. parenchymatous cells. Kaphahara. 29 . 2.6 µ in diameter. simple and rounded to oval starch grains. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.2. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.2. 2. measuring 5. xylem rays uni to biseriate.10-20 g.Cream coloured.3. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. 2.á£la. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent.6. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays. V¡tahara. 2.5 .

plenty of simple starch granules present. peppery. b) Microscopic Stem . cylindrical and somewhat twisted. thin-walled. consisting of round. a glabrous. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. fleshy climber. Piperaceae). Chavya (St. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. endodermis single layered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. P. Syn. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. chaba Hunter non Blume. fibres and xylem parenchyma. short. oval to rectangular. acrid. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. brownish cells. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. taste. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups. odour. fracture.13. P.. greyish-brown.0 cm in width. (Fam. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 . cultivated mainly in Southern India. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. cork cambium not distinct. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. secondary cortex a wide zone. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. Chavya -Kattumulaku.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. tracheid. nodes and internodes distinct. officinarum DC.5-2.

filled with simple. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter.7. Appendix 2. Krimi. Recana. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.6. Kaphahara.Ar¿a. 2.2. 2. Appendix 1.1-2 g. Gulma. round to oval.5 per cent. 2.2. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. THERAPEUTIC USES . starch grains. Appendix 6 per cent.4. Udara Roga. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡. medullary rays multi seriate. Powder . Appendix 3 per cent. RukÀa. fibres and simple. Ën¡ha. á£lal DOSE . P¡cana. shows fragments of vessels. 31 . Candr¡m¤ta Rasa.2.3. D¢pana.pitted and reticulate thickenings.2. of the drug in powder form. Pl¢h¡ Roga. IDENTITY.Alkaloids. cells thin walled.Greyish-brown. fibres needle and spindle-shaped. Appendix 10 per cent. round to oval starch grains.2. CONSTITUENTS . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. Glycosides and Steroids. 2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .

oval. thin walled. LohitapuÀpa. thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. triangular and rectangular. found growing wild in the warm valley. sweetish-sour. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. taste.6 cm long.5-0.2 cm wide. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. round. consisting of oval to polygonal. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown.Reddish-brown. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. starch grains present in testa. Maadalai. endosperm absent. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. parenchymatous cells. (Fam. Punicaceae). Madalam Danimma Anar. beneath this. Seed .) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn. 32 .14. wedge-shaped. Dadima (Sd.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. shows stone cells. Powder . simple. 0. angular. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. containing a few oil globules. round to oval. cotyledons coiled. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. oil globules. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree.1-0.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. 0.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

smooth. about 0. stout herb. fracture. serrate. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. erect.2-1. surface rough. crowded in dense. size variable. Gumma. surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. calyx. Leaf .Yellowish-green. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country.5 cm across.P. globose. taste. hairy. long with numerous wiry.7-2 cm 37 . Inflorescence . zig-zag. 1. an annual.Sessile.16. thin.lanceolate. glabrous in lower part. scaberulous. pungent. crenate. (Fam. hairy on upper part. tubular.5 cm long and 0. about 2-3. slightly bitter. taste.25 cm long. fibrous. acute.Cylindrical. 1. 1-2. 1-2. white. lanceolate. fine rootlets. more or less pubescent. characteristic. Stem . ciliate. slightly curved.Light greenish-yellow. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .35 cm wide. upto 4 mm thick. taste. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. subacute. Dronapushpi (W.5 cm wide. corolla. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati. 3-9 cm long.) Lamiaceae).6-0. 10 dentate with a villous throat. white.9 m in high. ovate or ovate.3-0. nodes and internodes distinct.

dark brown. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. secondary cortex 5-9 layered. present in centre. thin-walled cells. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. Fruit . Midrib .vascular bundle arc-shaped. oblong. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. Leaf- Petiole . secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. composed of oval to rectangular.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. b) Microscopic Root . thin-walled. thin-walled cells. secondary xylem consists of vessels. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. endoderm is single layered. 4 . lateral lobes small. irregular. smooth. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis. followed by round to oval parenchyma. upper lip about 4 mm long.shows a single layered epidermis. Lamina . cortex consisting of single layered. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. fibres and xylem parenchyma. nutlets 3 mm smooth. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre.3 cm long and 0. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. upto 8 cells high.0. parenchymatous cells. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. xylem consists of vessels. tracheids.long. consists of a single layered epidermis.7 layered. vascular bundles 4. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.tangentially elongated. Stem . bilipped. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. tangentially elongated. thin-walled 38 . followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. consisting of barrel shaped. palisade single layered. parenchymatous cells. vessels long with spurs. trigonous. Seed . lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes.1 cm wide. tracheids. some having simple pits.Schizocarpic carcerule.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. brown. round to angular collenchyma. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. wooly.

stomatal index 16. Ka¶u Guru. Pittakara. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.7 on upper surface. 2. present on both surfaces.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form. stomata diacytic.5 on lower surface. Tamaka áv¡sa.7. Glycoside.6-40. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent.1-3 g of the drug in powder form.2.Dull yellow. 16.2.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. V¡takara.2.áotha. a few veins present in this region. THERAPEUTIC USES . shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells. K¡mal¡. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.3. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. 2. Powder . aseptate fibres.Alkaloid. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. 39 . pitted and spiral vessels. Appendix 2. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid.2. 2. K¡sa. IDENTITY. RukÀa. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2. palisade ratio 7-9. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.4. Agnim¡ndya. Lava¸a. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent.6. ViÀamajvara DOSE .6-30. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.cells. Bhedani.

17. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains. cotyledons two. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. radially elongated to squarish. Ervaru (Sd. rounded and tangentially elongated. thin-walled. utilissimus Roxb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. B¤hatphala. 0. taste. (Fam. Karka¶¢. sweetish oily. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains.3-0. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. Cucurbitaceae).7-10 cm long. 0. parenchymatous.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. glossy. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. an annual creeping herb. shows stone cells. C. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. -Kakur. covered with thick cuticle.4 cm wide. straight. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. surface smooth. Vellarika Kakadi. more or less ellipsoid. mesophyll cells thinwalled. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. parenchymatous cells. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. Hastipani. creamish-yellow. 40 . Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. Hastipani. cultivated in many parts of the country.

2. Appendix 5 per cent. 2.35.91 and 0.51.IDENTITY. 0.97 (all yellow) . Rucya. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi.2. Jvara.58.Oil & Sugars.2.D¡ha.64.51.83.2. 41 .0.3-6 g. Gulma.35.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf. Appendix 0.26. 0.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. 2.97 (all grey). of seeds. T. CONSTITUENTS . 0.C. 0. 0.19.91 and 0.4. Appendix 2.19. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. (366 mm).5 per cent.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .0. Kaphakara. 0.26. Tikta Guru.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. D¢pana. Raktapitta. 0.C. 0. RaktadoÀakara. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2.3. 0.L.77. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0.77.V.64. 0.L.58. 0. Pittahara.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.0.6. V¡takara. 0. A¿mar¢. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. T¤À¸¡.83. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.7. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .91 (blue) under U.

(Fam.18.4-0.0 cm in diameter and 2. Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a.0-3. Seed . shiny.3-0. greyish-brown with a dent. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. cut surface has a central core.4 cm wide. thin-walled.6 cm long. a large epiphytic climber. Orissa.Kidney-shaped. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. Araceae). 0.Shows more or less loosely arranged.5 cm thick. brownish-grey. b) Microscopic Fruit . transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott. smooth. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit .Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2. odour and taste not distinct. rough and scaly. parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. 42 . 0. Gajapippali (Fr. odour and taste not disticnt.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried.0-3.

On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. oval to polygonal. 0.7. 2. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1. Malavi¿oÀana. 2. 0. thick-walled. thin-walled. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Seed . K¤miroga.93 (all yellow). shows lignified. DOSE . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.20. Powder . 0.65. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf.Glucosides viz. pitted and with concentric striations. oval to polygonal.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. Punarnav¡sava. 43 .65.65. 0.2.5 per cent. Agnivardhaka.3. IDENTITY. Ka¸ha Roga.65 and 0.L.C.93 (brown).73 (both light brown) and 0. 2. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations. thick-walled. 0. oval to polygonal.73 and 0.27. T. 0.2-3 g.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.93 (all blue) are visible.áiv¡gutik¡. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Ka¸¶hya. CONSTITUENTS . Candraprabh¡ va¶i. 0.Dark brown. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent.L.4. V¡tahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. 2-4 layered. 2. áv¡sa.6. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. 2.Atis¡ra. Pras¡ri¸i Taila.27. Sugars & Fixed Oil. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0. Three spots appear at Rf.2. non-lignified. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations.2. Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B.Shows a single layered.73 and 0. 0. Kaphahara. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules.C.2. Appendix T. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent.V. Stanya.2. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered. in extract (Phant) form.

sometimes one seeded. Sr¢par¸¢. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. surface smooth.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. sweetish sour. Gambhari (Fr. Seed . parenchymatous cells. 1.19. ovoid.5-1 cm long.Seed ovate.4-0.0 cm long. endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells. papery. taste. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered.Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. (Fam. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. 0. P¢takarohi¸¢. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh.6 cm wide.) unarmed tree. parenchymatous cells. two seeded. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. oily. 0. radially 44 . thin-walled. cotyledons consisting of single layered. thin-walled cells. b) Microscopic Fruit . taste. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. Seed . an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . black. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. multilayered.5-2. crinkled. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb.A drupe. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel. Hannu -Kumbil. K¡¿marya. Shivani. light yellow. mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. seed coat thin. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. fleshy mesocarp. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled. tangentially elongated. Verbenaceae).

Rakta Pitta DOSE . IDENTITY. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. shows stone cells.7.2. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. 0.2.42. Sara. Appendix 6 per cent. Resin and Saccharine.12.4.C. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf.22.Blackish-brown. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.26. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Ke¿ya.2.D¡ha. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.18.Arvind¡sava.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf. Appendix 25 per cent. 45 . T¤À¸¡.L.98 (all blue).C.L. Under U.03. KÀata.elongated epidermal cells. Powder .03. Tartaric acid. Medhya. T.. Appendix 8 per cent. 2. 0. 0. KÀaya. of the drug in powder form.Butyric acid. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. M£trak¤cchra. 0. Alkaloid. CONSTITUENTS . H¤dya.52. 0.3. 0.98 (all yellow). Appendix 0. Amla.2. Ras¡yana.94 and 0. 2.93 and 0. Pittahara. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 0.1-3 g. V¡tahara.98 (yellow) in visible light.4 per cent. H¤droga.2.2. THERAPEUTIC USES .V. 0. oil globules and aleurone grains.08. 0. 0.98 (orange). 2.

a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary cortex wide. consisting of tangentially elongated.) Aschers & Schwf. rectangular.Shows a wide cork. light yellow. channelled. fracture.. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. 1. moderately large in size. b) Microscopic Stem Bark .6-1. thin-walled. consisting of 12-20 layered. a shrub 0. fibrous. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen.Bk. 46 . a few stone cells. external surface smooth.5-5 cm long. Gangeru (St. blunt tips and moderately long in size. mucilaginous. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. fibrous. oval.0 m high. radially arranged cells. arranged in radial groups. elliptical. Syn.20. parenchymatous cells. lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. thick-walled. Tiliaceae). found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. traversed by wide phloem rays. (Fam. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Grewia populifolia Vahl.

under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles. Ka¶u.41. 0.Vra¸a.2. 0.C. 2.Light yellow and fibrous. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 2. 0.08 (blue) 0.27 (light violet). Amla. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10).35 (violet). Under U. 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. 0. T. IDENTITY.88 (light violet).48.2. Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. 0. 0.68 (light violet) & 0.2.).17 (light violet). Tikta. 0.3. Appendix per cent. 2.L.27. Appendix 2. 0.L. 0.2-3 g. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf. DOSE . Appendix per cent. 0.2. Appendix per cent.08 (violet). β-amyrin etc. 0.2.35.2.13 (blue). Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .48 (violet). 0.35 (both light yellow) in visible light.88 (all yellow). IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .08.Powder . 0.55.35 (dark blue).6.Sugar. 0. Pittavik¡ra. Appendix per cent.17.61.64 (blue).55 (blue) & 0.17.7.V. stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. of the drug in powder form.4. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara.68 & 0. α-amyrin. 47 . 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS .29 (blue). 0. Two spots are seen at Rf. 0.J¢rak¡di Modaka.

(Fam. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. Chonotee Ratti. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . exfoliating in small flakes. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. Kakananti Rati Kunch. Fabaceae). followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. cylindrical. smaller than stone cells. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. taste.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. a climber. when distinct. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. thinwalled. flowering in August-September. cork cambium. soft. gulagunja -Kunni. tangentially elongated cells. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. simple or branched. Ghungchi Guluganji. b) Microscopic Root . comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. fruits ripen during winter. Chanothee. odourless.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. slightly corky. Gurivinda Ghongchi. becoming mildly bitter. bark thin. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. composed of 1-2 cells wide. spreading throughout the plains. light brown.21. some with brownish content. most often irregularly curved. pitted walls. Gunja (Rt. feebly sweetish. Kundumani Guriginga. present at short intervals. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡.

mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. Appendix 2. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.4. 2. Appendix 10 per cent. 2. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral.5 per cent.Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). small groups of sclerenchyma. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. of the drug in powder form. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.2.6. numerous xylem fibres.5 -13. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. stone cells. áula.75 µ in diameter. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches. parenchyma thin-walled.2.2.5-13.3. shows fragments of cork. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. thin-walled and rectangular. vessels of varying sizes with thick.Greyish-brown. Tikta á¢ta.diverging towards periphery. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 9 per cent. 49 .1 . pitted walls. Powder .7. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present.75 µ in diameter.Indralupta. wood composed of narrow concentric. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. 2. xylem vessels with pitted walls. DOSE .3 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region. CONSTITUENTS . IDENTITY. Appendix 4 per cent. Pittahara.2. Mukha¿oÀa. groups of sclerenchymatous cells.2. similar to those occurring in cortex are also present. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form.2. Appendix 2.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma.

3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia.22. taste. conjoint. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. solid.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. (Fam. juicy and sweet. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. with. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. scattered throughout the ground tissue. more numerous and closer towards periphery. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity. odour. distinct node and internode. Serdi Ikha. besides the xylem and phloem elements. smooth. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. Ikshu (St.) shrub. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. lignified. each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. 50 . closed type of vascular bundles. characteristic. Poaceae). rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. b) Microscopic Stem . cylindrical.

4.Bal¡ Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.200 . Appendix Not more than 2. 2.Raktapitta.2.Powder light brick red.2.Sucrose. DOSE . 2. Sara.5 per cent. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa.2. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. shows pieces of epidermis. M£trala Not more than 2 per cent.2. IDENTITY. M£tra KÀaya. ground tissue.2. 51 . V¤Àya.Powder . vessels and sclerenchyma. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . V¡tahara. Balya. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.3. Kaphahara.6. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a.7.400 ml in the juice form.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. Appendix 2. Pittahara.

consisting of vessels. mostly simple or rarely 52 . tangentially elongated. taste. an annual or perennial. Tumbi Paikamatti. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. tangentially elongated cork cells.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. longitudinal fissures present. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings.5-7.5 µ in dia. composed of sieve elements. (Fam.) Cucurbitaceae). Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. fracture. Bitter apple Indravaran. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. parenchymatous cells. thin walled. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate.2-2. thick-walled. parenchyma and medullary rays. thick walled. a few filled with dark brown contents.23. pitted. b) Microscopic Root . parenchyma and medullary rays. occurring throughout the country. elongated with pointed ends. Valiya Pekkumatti. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. intensively bitter. Tuntikai.5 cm thick. slightly twisted. fibres aseptate. lying around vessels. Indravarana Gothakakucti. Indrayanalata. secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. Indrayan. Paythumatti. Gav¡kÀ¢. fibres. starch grains oval to round in shape 2. Indravaruni (Rt. Varithummati. 0. cylindrical. Havumakke. Indramanoa. áatakratulat¡. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. xylem forms bulk of root. dull yellow. short. Indravaruni.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. (Fam. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. mesophyll composed of isodiametric. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. brownish-black. 57 . Seed . measuring 7-28 µ in diameter.25. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia.. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. coriaceous covering. rounded starch grains. b) Microscopic Powder . 1 cm long. cuminii Druce.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. E. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds.800 m. oval or roundish. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. a large evergreen tree. Myrtaceae). Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. Eugenia jambolana Lam.6 m with a bole up to 15 m.Brown coloured. taste. Jambu (Sd. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed.. astringent. oval. 1 cm wide. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja. thin-walled. smooth.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn.) Skeels Syn.

PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Madhumeha.C.Glycoside (Jamboline). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U.2.95 and 0. 2. ViÀ¶ambhi.4.L.95 (all yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. Udakameha.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent.V.2.2. CONSTITUENTS .30 (blue).12. Amla. 2. 2. Pittahara.IDENTITY. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 58 . 0.2. of the drug in powder form.20. three spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent. 0. T. Kaphahara. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.6.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.95 (all violet).30 and 0.3-6 g. Appendix 2.2. 2.2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.L. 0.20.30 and 0.7.C. KaÀ¡ya Guru. Appendix per cent. Tannin.

Mahamaram. stratified and reddish-brown. rough. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. light grey to ash coloured. 0. Jam Jammu Naaval. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. Raja Jambu Merale. and phloem rays. stone cells.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. Myrtaceae). E. oval to angular.) Skeels Syn. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . forming a rhytidoma.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. and reddish brown. Jambu (St. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. younger bark mostly channelled. Navval Sambu. upper few layers thick. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. fracture. Jambuda Jomuna. Neralamara -Njaval.800 m. taste. Jambu. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones.5-2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. astringent.26. internal surface fibrous.5 cm thick.. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. (Fam. Jamu.Bk. elongated. Jamneralae. a large evergreen tree. short and splintery. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. cork cambium not distinct. fibres aseptate. lower cork thin and colourless. cuminii Druce.

round to oval starch grains.3.10-20 g. Kaphahara. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent.2. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder .6. Pittahara.2. of the drug for decoction. Stambhaka. aseptate fibres.Light brown.4.2. oval to angular. single or in groups. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.U¿¢r¡sava. 2. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells.Atis¡ra. V¡tala. Appendix per cent.2. elongated. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent. 2. DOSE . Raktapitta. 2.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .7.2. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Appendix 2.region. IDENTITY. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. 60 . reddish-brown content. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. stone cells. round to oval starch grains.

Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. consisting of a large endosperm. thin-walled cells. Neervalam Jepal. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. Japal beej. b) Microscopic Seed . Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. consisting of an epidermal layer. (Fam. no marked odour. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. Jayapala (Sd. dull cinnamon-brown. oblong. filled with brownish content. 61 . Euphorbiaceae). Japala. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells.27. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells.) small evergreen tree. Tinti·¢phala. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula. ovate. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. slightly bent at middle. Nervala -Nervalam. Neervalam. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. 5-7 m high. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. kernel yellowish and oily. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo.Shows a hard testa. found throughout tropical India. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. slightly quadrangular.

A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. T.10.2.2.34 (grey). IDENTITY.2.C. 0. Powder . THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 2. 2. 0.Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa. CONSTITUENTS . 0.C. 2.6. 2. Udararoga. Appendix 7 per cent.2. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.34.L. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate.49. 0. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.Fixed oil. of the drug in powder form.5 per cent.V.84 (brown).2.6-12 mg.29. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf. Vibandha DOSE . Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. 0. 0. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents.4.90 (all yellow). On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. 2. 62 .L. Appendix 0. Appendix 15 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. (366 nm) three spots at Rf. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.54 (yellow). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.White with black particles of testa.39.Jvara. 0.63 and 0.84 (all violet).54 and 0. Appendix 3 per cent. Resins & Phorbol esters. Pittahara.7.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.

3 cm long. Atti.) Merr. -Semp. Jalugu. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound.5 cm long. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings. Jayanti (Lf.shows single layered epidermis. 1. glabrous. pith small. Lamina . entire.) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. parenchymatous cells. oblong. (Fam. á£kÀma patra. mucronate to acuminate. Jayanti Jaita. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. Karijimangai.Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢. consisting of thin-walled. polygonal. palisade single layered. paripinnate. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Arishimajingai. 0. 63 .8 cm wide. opposite. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . -Jayanti -Rajashinganee. 7. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.3-0. leaflets 6-16 pairs.5-15.8-6 m high. S. 1. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. Jay¡.28. present on both surfaces. jayata Arinintajinamgi.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. Fabaceae).0-3. linear. short lived shrub. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells.. aegyptiaca Pers. vascular bundles arranged in a ring.7 layered round. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. having secretory cavities in phloem. very shortly stalked. a quick growing. stomata anisocytic.

0. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.2. 0.69. 0. 0.M£trak¤cchra. 0. ViÀaroga.48. Galaga¸·a.19.29.05. THERAPEUTIC USES .48.19.Protein. 2.29. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.05. 0.3-6 g.7. DOSE . V¡tahara. 0. 64 .2. CONSTITUENTS . 0. Pittahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf.V. Appendix per cent.97 (all grey).56 (all pink) and 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.2.11. shows spongy parenchyma.2. 0. 0.37.56. 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.56. 2. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.L. palisade ratio 3.37. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix per cent. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25. Ras¡yana.19. Powder . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U. 0.Dull green.2.97 (yellow). Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa.Ratnagiri Rasa. IDENTITY. 2.05.91 and 0.97 (all yellow). Calcium and Phosphorus.6. 0.L. T.25-4. 0. Appendix per cent.91 and 0.4. in powder form. 0. 0. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.11.11. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata. palisade cells.C. 0. 0.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.C.3. 0. 0.2.29.

Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. surface generally smooth and. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. ripe seeds. Celastraceae). seed without aril also prescent. Seed . lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. Gangunge beeja. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . collapsed. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. bitter. light to dark brown. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal.29. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. taste. brownish-orange. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. odour. devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd.35 mm in breadth.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. Jyotishmati (Sd.5-3. unpleasant. Gangunge humpu. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. colour. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled.hard. (Fam. a large climbing shrub.

oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U. dark brown.54.2. Appendix 9 per cent. Virecaka. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. CONSTITUENTS . 2. áirovirecanopaga. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.89.2.35.3. 0.94 (yellow). under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.2.2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.54 (both blue). (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.V.2. D¢pana.L. 0.4.89 (all yellow).35.C. thin-walled. V¡tahara. Meddhya 66 . 2.82. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. Appendix 2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.7. Appendix 1. 0. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. 0.82 & 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. (all blue) & 0.94 (yellow) in visible light.Oily. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya). 0. Tikta Sara. 0. 0.5 per cent.63.04. 2.82 (pink) & 0.15. 2.2. 0. Oil and Tannins. 0. 0.89 (both greenish blue). Appendix 20 per cent.8 IDENTITY. Appendix 45 per cent.composed of polygonal.Alkaloids.20.C. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 2. stone cells.82. Powder .6.V. UÀ¸a.L. Under U. 0. V¡maka.2. Kaphahara.54.

Oil : 5-15 drops.Seed: 1-2 g. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡tavy¡dh¢. ávitra.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. 67 . Sm¤tidaurbalya.

Kadappai. elongated cells of phloem rays. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. 68 b) Microscopic . taste. Vellai Kadambam. indicus A. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. rectangular cells. some cells contain chlorophyll.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. Indulam. composed of thin-walled. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Rich. internally light reddish to reddish-brown. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Kadam Kadam. bitter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. A.Bk. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. (Fam. Vellaikhadambu. Rubiaceae). Kadamba mara. large tree.. Syn. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Priyka Roghu. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. Kadamba Kadamba.30. a deciduous. Kadamba (St. traversed by uni to triseriate. phloem composed of sieve tubes. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. Kadambu Needam. Kadavala. a few cells with brown contents. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces. Kadamba Nipo.

2. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed. Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.5:10) shows under U. shows fragments of cork cells. 2. Appendix 9 per cent.83 and 0.03.2. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another. 0.2.6. CONSTITUENTS .0. 0.phloem fibres.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf.64. 0. 0.2. 2. fibres. cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal.4.70 (orange yellow).L. 0.7. Appendix 5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. 2. cells distinct and slightly elongated. Steroids.1. Lava¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.79. of the drug in powder form. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. 2. 0.63 (yellowish grey). 69 .31. Powder . DOSE .2. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). phloem cells. Vra¸a.5 per cent. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.57. Appendix 3 per cent.5 g.Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.2. 0.13. L C.D¡ha.Brown. V¡tahara. Raktapitta. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T. Appendix 2. Vra¸aropa¸a.Alkaloids. 0.21. Graha¸¢mihira Taila. 0.5 . companion cells and phloem parenchyma. YonidoÀa.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. Appendix 1.79 (grey) and 0.3.90 (grey). and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.

green. ovate or oblong. five lobed. slender. Manitakkali. 1. Kakamachi (W. Manaththakkali. thin. peduncles 6-20 mm long.) Solanaceae). Ganikesopu. oblong. slightly woody and branched. Manatakkali. Leaf . sub-umbellate. yellowish.Simple. filaments short.Small. 2.25 mm long. 30-45 cm high. narrowed at both ends. glabrous.Erect. Ganikegida.5 mm long. toothed or lobed.5 cm wide. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali.31. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. ganike. corolla 4-8 mm long. Stem . Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. oblong. white or pale violet. Pikachia. quite common in cultivated lands. 70 . found throughout the country in dry parts. petiolate. 3-8 flowered cymes. hairy in lower part. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5-8. pale brown. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. extra-axillary. very slender. ovary globose. road sides and gardens. bark thin.5 cm long and 2. anther 1. pedicels 6-10 mm long. flattened. glabrous or pubescent. hairy at base. a herbaceous annual weed. obtuse notched at apex. sinuate. (Fam. glabrous. calyx 2-3 mm long. style cylindric.2-2. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. externally smooth.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. Flower . rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region. obtuse.P. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida.

phloem rays uniseriate. uniseriate.5-11 µ in dia.Discoid. Midrib . epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. internal phloem. thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. but 4.. pith large. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. trichomes multicellular. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. uniseriate.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.Fruit . cambium 2-4 layered. usually accompanied by fibres. vascular bundles-collateral. endoderrnis single layered.5-8. measuring 2.Shows single layered. slightly elongated.. parenchyma 4-6 layered. smooth.25 µ in dia. starch grains. uniseriate.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. yellow or black. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. arc71 . filled with starch grains. minutely pitted. in small or large patches. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls.10 layered in angular parts. covering trichomes. oval to round starch grains. slightly striated cuticle. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. arcshaped. bicollateral. conjoint and open. covered with thick. radially elongated cells. obtuse. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces.' oval parenchymatous cells. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations. Stem . measuring 2. covered with striated cuticle. 1. cortex of large. usually purplish-black but sometimes red. tangentially elongated. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. xylem rays homogenous. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces.. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. rays composed of thin-walled. central vascular bundle shallow. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. LeafPetiole . a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. epidermis single layered. smooth shining Seed . yellow. single or with two or rarely 3 components.. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. covered with striated cuticle. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. composed of thin-walled. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.5 mm in dia. 6mm in dia. compactly arranged. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls.A berry. polygonal cells. phloem consists of thin-walled. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. embedded in perimedullary zones.

2.5 .L. stomata anisocytic. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. measuring 2. 72 . 0. unicellular hairs.6. palisade ratio 2-4.2.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Appendix per cent. 2.Shows thin. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle.06 & 0. 034 and 0. 2. palisade single layered. CONSTITUENTS .Alkaloids and Saponins.L. a few broken pieces of pointed.06 & 0. oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains.V. Appendix per cent.2.Creamish-green.34 (both pink). both upper and lower epidermis single layered. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent. Lamina . a few vessels with spiral thickenings. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present.4.34 (both brown) in visible light. Powder .06.2.97 (all yellow).C.11 µ in diameter.dorsiventral.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally. vein islet number 7-10. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. T. single. present beneath palisade parenchyma. Appendix 2. papery epicarp.2. 0. epidermis with irregular outline. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.C. Under U.2. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. 0. Fruit .7. 2. spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.3. Appendix per cent. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.

Hikk¡. Rasar¡ja Rasa. Prameha.5 -10 ml. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. 73 . Netraroga. Jvara.áotha. Svarya. Ras¡yana. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE . Ar¿a. H¤dya. of the drug in juice form. V¡tahara. Sara. Ka¸·u.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta Laghu. KuÀ¶ha. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. H¤droga. Pittahara. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Chardi. Kaphahara.

Kalh¡ra. Venthamara. Tavare. petals numerous. gynoecium and thalamus. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Padma. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Thamaraipoo. 2-4 cm long.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. erect. corolla. Naidile. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia. membranous. Kamala (Fl. androecium. crimpled. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. a large. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. obtuse. linear 1. Sarojam Kaluva. Aravindan. 74 . black. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. crimp led.5-3 cm wide. Pamposh Tamarai. dark brown. free. (Fam. elliptic. seed hard.4-2 cm long.32. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. embedded in a creamy. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. 3-5 cm long. comprising of calyx. Kamalam. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal. Kamal.. yellowish-brown. aquatic herb with creeping stem. 1. anther. fruit an etaerio of achenes. 1. Chenthamara. sepals leaf-like. carpels many. extended into clavate appendages. Aravinda.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. Syn. starchy and large. Sitopala. Nymphaeaceae). gynoceium apocarpous. Kanwal Kamal. finely veined.3-2 cm wide. Paduman. broken pieces also occur.

Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . composed of thin-walled. vascular bundle single. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . rectangular. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. columnar. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. ViÀavik¡ra. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. spherical. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. Stamen Filament .2.3. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues.2. 2. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.2.2. two on either sides. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. IDENTITY. Powder . . Appendix 2. 2.6. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. ground tissue consisting of polygonal.12 -24 g. 2. parenchymatous cell.Raktapitta. angular. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura. Appendix per cent.Aravind¡sava. spore sac contains yellow. DOSE .Dusty brown.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara.shows four chambered anther.b) Microscopic Flower Petal . T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . anther consists of a single layer of epidermis. Visarpa. of the drug for decoction. M£tra Virajan¢ya. Anther . consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. having smooth exine and intine. Pittahara. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle. 2. yellow pollen grains. Tikta.filament appears circular in outline.2. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. followed by ground tissue of oval. Sant¡pahara.7.2.

at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. parenchymatous cells. found throughout the plains of India. elephantum Correa (Faro. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram.33.shows irregular.) Swingle. hard. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. Belalu. Kapittha (Fr. F. often cultivated in many parts of India. Syn. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia. thin-walled. found in groups. Siwalik range and forests. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. Haminamara -Vilar maram. straight.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. glabrous tree with strong. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. Pulp. Bilvara. semicircular. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . Rutaceae). Kavataleal. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. odour. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. taste.Reddish-brown. stone cells. Balada. sour. reddish brown. Belada hannu. axillary thorns. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. Powder . Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. sharp. a deciduous. stone cells. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. slightly triangular and oval. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content. 76 . rough. aromatic.

0. 0. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya. 0.12 (brown).1-3 g. Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga. Vra¸an¡¿aka. Amla. T.V. 2. Lekhana. CONSTITUENTS .3. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna.50.C.91 and 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf. of the drug in powder form. Under U.12.áv¡sa. Sangr¡h¢. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. Appendix per cent.91 (violet) and 0. 2. DOSE .L. 77 . Gr¡h¢.95 (blue). KaÀ¡ya Laghu.2.37 (brown). 6. Unripe Pulp: Amla. Appendix 2. KaÀ¡ya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Ripe-T¤À¡.7.6. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.50 (violet). Pittav¡tahara. 2.91 (blue) and 0. Appendix per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.L. THERAPEUTIC USES .37. V¡mi.2. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. Agnim¡ndya. 0.IDENTITY. 0. Hikk¡.2. 0.2.C. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.Citric acid and Mucilage. 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf.2.95 (violet) .Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. 0. 2.91 (grey) in visible light.4.14 (sky blue).06.95 (all yellow). Appendix per cent.

parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. rough due to longitudinal striations. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma.) Apocynaceae). cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3. fracture. met throughout India in wild state. tubular. 78 . shows single and groups of stone cells. light in weight. Karamarda (St. b) Microscopic Powder . external surface brownish-grey.Greyish-brown. short. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. and compound having 2-3 components.Bk.34. starch grains simple. simple and compound starch grains. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. sometimes cultivated. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. internal surface grey and smooth. (Fam . measuring 3-7 µ in dia. flat or slightly curved pieces. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree.

Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.35.C. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent. DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.2.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.97 (violet). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.V.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 79 .IDENTITY.90 (pink) and 0.7. 2. of the drug for decoction. Appendix 2. T. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. 2.3. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.6.2.L.KuÀthahara. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.2.4. 2. Appendix per cent.48 g.58 (both light grey). 2. Pittakara.C. 0. Appendix per cent.2.52 (light sky blue). 0. CONSTITUENTS .

Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. traversed by phloem rays. taste. Bk. fibrous. P. Karanja (Rt. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. Naktam¡la.) glabra Vent. Fabaceae). found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. external surface rough. secondary phloem very wide. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. Syn. cells. fracture. (Fam. thin-walled. Nakt¡hv¡. very bitter.. 3-11 µ in dia. due to peeling off.) Merr. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. single cells of varying shape and size. a glabrous tree. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite. tangentially elongated cells. tangentially elongated. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. most of phloem 80 .35. internally. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka.

(366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. Powder -Creamish-yellow. 0. 2.1-3 g.C. 0. V¡tahara. Appendix 3.2. consisting of thin-walled.Flavones Kanugin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.2. Pittahara. of the drug for decoction. shows thin-walled.5 per cent.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila.09. 0.L. Ëntravidradhi. 1-2 seriate.25 (sky blue).3. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.08 (greenish blue). cork cells. 2. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. KuÀtha. 0. Appendix 17 per cent.47.31.47.80 and 0. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf.37 (greenish yellow). 0. Yoniroga. 0.V. mostly straight.7. 0. phloem rays many. 0. ViÀaghma. parenchymatous cells.18 (blue) 0. 2.31 (sky blue).51.2. DuÀ¶avra¸a. 0.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. Prameha.42 (sky blue). most of ray cells contain starch grain.80 (light blue).L. Ka¸·£ghna. 0.K¤miroga. CONSTITUENTS .13 (Sky blue). 0. 0. phloem fibres. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. Appendix 2 per cent.51 (light blue).C.2. similar to those present in secondary cortex. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. T. Appendix 11 per cent. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 81 .37. similar to those present in secondary cortex.04 (blue). IDENTITY. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0.98 (all yellow).47 (greenish yellow). DOSE . 0. Appendix 2. Tikta. Ka¸·u.6.2.18.2.4.

cells. secondary phloem a very wide zone. tangentially elongated cells. fracture. bark does not easily separate from xylem. Nakt¡hv¡.) Vent. P.. Karaµjaka. tangentially elongated. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. 3-11 µ in dia. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. consisting of 82 .. 1-2 seriate. a glabrous tree. light in weight. internally light yellow. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja.) Merr. rounded to oval in shape. bitter. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. rough due to the presence of numerous. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. Karanja (Rt. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. thin-walled. (Fam.36. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. Syn. irregularly distributed. taste. Fabaceae). stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size. bark. reddish-brown or dull brown.

4. tracheids. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Pittahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent. Kaphahara. Ka¸·£. DOSE .. thin-waned cells towards inner region. starch grains in abundance both simple and compound.2. Appendix per cent.3. starch grains. Pongachromene & Tetra-O. Yoniroga. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. more. 2.7. of the drug in powder form. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.1-2 g. 2. Powder -Light yellow. Appendix per cent. 2. 2. Kanugin.radially elongated.2.2. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. ViÀaghna. Tikta. also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. consisting of 2-3 components.DuÀ¶avra¸a. 83 . Demethoxy-kanugin. tangentially elongated towards outer region. Vidradh¢. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. Prameha.2. Appendix per cent.Methylfisetin. KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix per cent. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. fibres and parenchyma. Appendix 2. IDENTITY.6.Karanjin. K¤miroga.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. V¡tahara. Vra¸a¿odhana.2. Ëntravidradh¢. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. shows fibres in singles or groups. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. rounded to oval in shape. CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays.2.

Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. more or less smooth. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. short and fibrous. alternating with stone cells. slightly quilled. Syn.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. Nakt¡hv¡.) glabra Vent. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. traversed by medullary rays. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. a glabrous tree. odour. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. 84 .2-1 cm thick. lenticellate pieces. at some places lenticels also appear. Karanja (St. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. Fabaceae). Karanja. unpleasant.37. fracture. b) Microscopic Bark . (Fam. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. filled with reddish-brown content. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. taste. Karaµjaka.) Merr. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. P. arranged in a tangential manner. thin-walled. usually 0. phloem parenchyma. thick-walled cells. phloem fibre and stone cells. composed of rectangular. recurved. fibre small.Bk.. tangentially elongated. bitter.

rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.2.2. usually 2-4 cells wide. THERAPEUTIC USES . flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". measuring 3-14 µ in dia.5 per cent. Appendix 3 per cent.. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. KuÀ¶ha. Gamatin. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components. Prameha. Yoniroga DOSE . K¤miroga. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form.7.B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Demethoxy- kanugin. 2.6. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. Appendix 18 per cent. Kaphahara. medullary rays wavy. phloem parenchyma and rays cells. starch grains simple. elongated. Appendix 13 per cent. Pittahara. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex. thin-walled and aseptate. V¡tahara. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. Ëntravidradh¢.3. IDENTITY. Vidradh¢.DuÀ¶avra¸a. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.polygonal.4. 3" 7 : 8). 3". Ka¶u. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. 5Methoxyfurano (2". and rarely. simple and compound starch grains.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. Appendix 1. Tikta. ViÀaghma. oil globules. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. present in secondary cortex. Pongapin. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially. Kanugin.2. 2. 2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna. aseptate fibre and stone cells.1-2 g. Pinnatin. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape. 85 . CONSTITUENTS . Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. Powder -Yellowish-cream.2.2. Ka¸·u. rounded to oval.2.

(Fam.38. epidermis single layered.. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. a glabrous tree. Dithouri Honge. isodiametric. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.9-8. consisting of xylem and phloem. Hulagilu -Pungu. dark green. leaflets 2-3 pairs. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Ungu. Fabaceae). 0.circular in outline. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. Syn. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins.11. vascular bundle single. xylem vessels arranged radially. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Karanja.5-0. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. cortex consisting of angular. consistig of tabular cells. Nakt¡hv¡.) Vent.5 cm long and 3. arcshaped. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. P. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. Unu. parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. 86 . Karaµjaka. 6. petiolule short.3 cm wide. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. Pongana Ganuga.8 cm. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Kanajo Karuaini.) Merr. Karanja (Lf.2 . traversed by xylem rays. covered with cuticle.

Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin. V¡tahara. Ka¶u.2. palisade ratio 3.5) . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Powder -Green. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. Appendix 16 per cent.3. 2. phloem and pith.(4".2. stomata anisocytic. vascular bundle. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.A new Furanoflavone -3' . followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. 2. . present in lower surface. consisting of tabular cells. Pittavardhaka. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. cortex consists of round to oval. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle.6.4. Appendix 2. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells. Appendix 10 per cent.shows single layered epidermis. covered with thick cuticle. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. collateral.2.2. shows spiral xylem vessels. 7) -flavone. K¤imihara. 2. Kaphahara. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. 5" .6. Appendix 3. Tikta.6.7.5-20. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. stomatal index 12.5 per cent. palisade two layered.6.5-50. Ka¸·ughna. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. 5".flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4".2. Appendix 11 per cent. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 . 2.2.5". thin-walled parenchymatous cells. mesophyll cells. CONSTITUENTS .Mid rib .

For external use only.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 88 . Vra¸a. THERAPEUTIC USES .J¡ty¡di Taila. KuÀ¶ha.K¤miroga. DOSE . Ka¸·au.

Nil Appendix 8. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.7. fusiform. Appendix 0.2. pendulous. Karavallaka (Fresh. Appendix 6 per cent. 3 valved at the apex when mature.2. (Fam. IDENTITY.) Cucurbitaceae). Appendix 2. 2. 2.3. 2. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles.2. surface rough.2. taste.5 per cent. oblong. upto an altitude of 1500 m. usually pointed or beaked.Fr.4. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa. 2.2. light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. Appendix 28 per cent. extremely bitter.2. Kathilla. Kakiral.25 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella.6. Varivall¢.6 per cent.5 . K¡ravall¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 .39.

THERAPEUTIC USES .16. 90 . juice of fresh drug. Jvara.60. DOSE . K¡mal¡. 0.L. 0. Raktavik¡ra.98 (all yellow). 0.96 (sky blue).46. T. 0. 0. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .23 (red).75. D¢pana. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. 0. KuÀ¶ha.áv¡sa. CONSTITUENTS . K¡sa.67 and 0. 0.34.Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila.61 (light sky blue). (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. Aruci.03. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.T. Prameha. 0.10 . 0.15 ml. 0.V. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U.C.98 (all blue). 0.98 (red & sky blue).17. 0.L.C. K¤miroga. P¡¸·u. Kaphahara.81 and 0.43. V¡tahara. 0. H¤dya.50. 0. 0. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi.

subcylindrical. 5-10 cm long. taste. a perennial. bitter. primary cortex persists 91 . Katki. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. bitter. Katuka (Rz. Sutiktaka. pleasant. cork cambium 1-2 layered. Rohi¸¢. dusty grey. Kauka. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. cortex single layered or absent. Kav¢. cylindrical.Thin. short. mostly attached with rhizomes. odour. Kaurohi¸¢.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. Tiktarohi¸¢.Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini.2. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. short. b) Microscopic Rhizome . Katuka rohini Kutki.05-0.40. kaur Katuka rohini. odour. pleasant.1 cm in diameter. Root . (Fam. fracture.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. inner surface black with whitish xylem. fracture. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. 0. taste. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. . externally greyish-brown. Scrophulariaceae). Rhizome is cut into small pieces. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. straight or slightly curved. Katuku rohini. suberised cells. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim.

05. cambium 2-4 layered. simple round to oval. 0.62. 0. T. 0. 0. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. 0.21. starch grains. 0. 0. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. thick-walled. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.84 (all yellow). tracheids. cortex 8-14 layered. Appendix 2. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.2. 0. 0. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. thick-walled. secondary phloem poorly developed.41. 2. consisting of oval to polygonal. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. Powder .2. thick-walled cells of endodermis. starch grains. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends.Dusty grey.35 (green). 1-2 layers of cork cambium. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. tracheids. parenchyma.2.30. 2.4. parenchyma and fibres. vessels have varying shape and size.6. 0.37.41 and 0.2. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.30 (blue) and 0. tapering ends.05 (blue). vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. 0. 0. Appendix per cent.V. lignified. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. 0. 2.30. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. IDENTITY. some cylindrical with taillike. simple round to oval. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends.21. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. Appendix per cent. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. 0. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. 92 . Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis.17. tracheids long.17.84 (all brownish grey). xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape.. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork.7.10.104 µ in diameter.72 and 0.L.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem consists of vessels.3. thick-walled.2. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. 0.10. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. hypodermis single layered.L.in some cases. thick-walled.2. abundantly found in all cells. fibres aseptate.C. 2. measuring 25 .

Pittahara. KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . D¢pan¢.3 g. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.CONSTITUENTS . Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya.Glucoside (Picrorhizin).Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. Bhedin¢.1 . Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. D¡ha. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tiktaka Gh¤ta. 93 . Arocaka. K¡mal¡. DOSE .áv¡sa. Sarvajvarahara Lauha. Jvara. of the drug in powder form. ViÀamajvara.

6 cm long. second pair 94 . acute. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. Hygrophila spinosa T. didynamous. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins.3 cm long. Flower . all linear-lanceolate. annual herb. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .2 cm long. which are 1. Kolavankal ---. subsessile. Nirguvireru. sub-quadrangular.5-1 cm wide. fasciculate.Acanthaceae). tube 1. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes. creamishbrown in cut surfaces. Vayalculli Talikhana. lanceolate. whitish to brown. Syn. stout. externally greyish-brown.Usually unbranched. a spiny. no characteristic odour and taste. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. Leaf . usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. no characteristic odour and taste. with long white hairs. Culli.Greenish-brown.Mostly adventitious.P.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. calyx 4-partite. bracts about 2. Stem .Anders (Fam.Yellowish-brown. Kalsunda --Golmidi. swollen at nodes. IkÀuraka. widely 2 lipped. stamens 4. common in water logged places throughout the country. 0. entire and hairy. Nirchulli. upper sepal 1. abruptly swollen at top. Kettu. Kokilaksha (W. 1-7 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. corolla 3.6-2 cm long.41. Kolarind.5 cm long. broader than the other three.

round. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. thin-walled. with a number of large air cavities. cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. 95 . vessels angular. pubescent. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. style filiform. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres. polygonal cells. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small.8 cm long. broader towards centre. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. endodermis single layered.larger.25 cm long and 0. arranged radially. Stem .2-0. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. radially elongated in xylem region. scattered throughout the phloem region. radially elongated in secondary xylem. stigma simple. b) Microscopic Root . variable in size. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. capsule about 0. filament quite glabrous. thin-walled cells. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. arranged in radial rows. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region. glabrous. composed of polygonal. inner cells smaller.0. fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. isolated cells found scattered in this zone. single or in groups of 2-3. radially arranged. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. a few thick-walled. phloem fibres thick-walled. ray cells thin walled. linear-oblong. pith large. ray cells thin-walled. subequal. oblong. brownish cells. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. phloem narrow. peripheral ones larger. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. light brown. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. compressed. rectangular to cubical. involute with a fissure on upper side. fibre walls uniformly thickened. Fruit . anthers two celled. flat or compressed. 4seeded.Ovate. cortical cells thin-walled. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. truncate at the base.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. having small intercellular spaces. moderately thick-walled. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. vessels with spiral thickenings. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell.1 . Seed .15 cm wide.Two celled. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. pointed. hairy but appearing smooth. composed of transversely elongate. fibres thick-walled. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. xylem present in a ring. consisting of round to polygonal cells. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. 0. where these cells are mostly radially elongated. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex.

embryo composed of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. Lamina . composed of thin-walled. Appendix per cent. Seed . oval to hexagonal. IDENTITY. vein islet number 17-42. thick-walled. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. M£trala.Shows concavo-convex outline.4. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. stomatal index 17.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. shows aseptate. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. lignified.2. palisade ratio 6.24-30. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. Appendix per cent. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder . covered with thick cuticle. unicellular hairs and globules. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. sclerenchymatous cells.2.2. thin-walled. tangentially elongated cells.3. palisade.75. V¤Àya. parenchymatous. palisade 1-2 layered.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.6.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. 2. V¡jikara.25-15. Tikta Picchila. epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. 2.78. Fruit . 2.7. stomata diacytic. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. 2.2. Rucya.2.Light brown. Appendix per cent. .Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. elongated fibres. a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate .2. Amla.LeafMidrib . stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. collenchyma 2-5 layered. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. Appendix 2. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. parenchymatous cells.

of the drug in powder form.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). Ëmav¡ta áotha. THERAPEUTIC USES . 97 .T¤À¸¡. V¡tarakta.3 -6 g.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE .

common in water logged places throughout the country. Hygrophila spinosa T. a spiny. the size of these cells. stout. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. Root-Appears circular in outline. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. Culli --. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. annual herb. IkÀuraka. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. slightly transversely elongated. Nerugobbi. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. Kokilaksha (Rt. thinwalled cells. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. whitish to brownish. Anders (Fam. Kokil¡kÀ¢. polygonal cells. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex.Acanthaceae). Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. Syn. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. secondary phloem narrow. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. 98 . Kolavulike. branches on nodes. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. no characteristic odour and taste.42. consisting of small. thin-walled.

2.2. Tikta Picchila. V¡tarakta. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. Appendix 2. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows.7. vessels with spiral thickening.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. Appendix per cent. scattered throughout the phloem region. 2.6. angular. Appendix per cent. Pittatis¡ra DOSE .R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Light brown to ash coloured. Appendix per cent. M£trala. lignified fibres.4. IDENTITY. Powder . 2. 2. A¿ma¤¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. shows fragments of pitted. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. having spiral thickening.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . secondary xylem forms continuous ring. each group composed of 2-6 cells.2. 2. of the drug for decoction.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. 99 . ray cells thin-walled. V¡tahara.2. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.3 -6 g. surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. fibre walls uniformly thickened.Ëmav¡ta áotha. Amla.2. broader towards centre. radially elongated in the xylem region.

Powder . taste. Hygrophila spinosa T.8 -10. shows hairs and oil globules. (Fam. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. the 100 . Daruhaldi Daruhaladi.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. b) Microscopic Seed . parenchymatous cells. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. Daruhuladur Darhald. Maradarishina -Maramannal. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. Swelling Index . stout. common in water logged places throughout the country. a spiny. Maradarishana. hairy but appearing smooth. white. IkÀuraka. Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder.Greyish-brown.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Anders.43. Acanthaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. flat or compressed. annual herb. light yellowish-brown. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. truncate at the base. Syn. thinwalled. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi. oil globules present in this region. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. Kokilaksha (Sd.

2. 0. including any sticky mucilage. Protease and an Alkaloid. 0.24. 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila.31. Pitt¡¿mar¢. 0. 0. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations.C. 0.41 (light blue). Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.24 (dark brown). 0. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. related to 1 g of seeds. V¡tarakta.93 (sky blue). 0. Appendix per cent. 0.72 (all yellow). Kaphahara. 0.31 (dark brown).72 (dark brown).03 (light brown).55 (light blue).76 (sky blue) and 0. Lipase.C. IDENTITY. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature.24 (red). On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U. 0. 0.2.L.17 (light brown).An yellow semi-drying oil. Appendix per cent. enzymes like Diastase. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent.L.V. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T.áotha. Add 25 ml of water.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. Santarpa¸a.38 (light brown). of the drug in powder form.17.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.3 -6 g. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. T.6. 2.3. 101 . 2. 0.4. DOSE .2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.38.52 (dark brown) and 0. V¤Àya.2.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0.52 and 0. Appendix 2.03..2. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.2. 0.10 (light brown). and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour.

Doddagoni Soppu. Kuzuppa (W. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. Kozhuppa. Peddapavila Kura.3 to 2. subtended by an involucre. found throughout the country. 0. Moti Luni Khursa. characteristic. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. bright yellow. Chhotalunia. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Kulfa. rounded and truncate at the apex. Kwfa Pasalai. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .5 cm long and 0.Simple. -Baraloniya. smooth and greenish-brown.5 cm long. fracture.6 cm wide. surface smooth.1 to 0. very delicate and soon falling off. Loni -Koricchira.4 cm long.4 cm long. sepal 0. less in number.P) Portulacaceae).35-0. Gho¶ik¡. secondary roots. Kozhuppu Pappukura. spathulate. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. short. odour. sub-sessile. swollen at the nodes. brownish-grey.A few. Kozuppa. oblong.25-0. Badi Lona Dudagorai. 0. small. Ghola -Lonak.Cylindrical. fracture. stamens 8-12. Lonika. Pulikkirai.44. 3-4 leaves.1 to 0. Flower .Almost cylindrical. Baranunia Garden Purslane. Payilikura. dehiscing above the base. 102 . ribbed. prostrate herb. 50 cm long. style 5-6 fid. Fruit . Loni. petals obovate. Stem .An ovoid capsule. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Leaf . ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. short. Badanuni. Paruppukkeerai. (Fam. Loni. 0. branched. Khurfa. oblique. root hairs abundant in upper region. an annual succulent. 0.2 cm in diameter. at terminal heads. cuneiform.3 cm long.

b) Microscopic Root . measuring 6-14 µ in dia. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. . Stem . having simple pits and spiral thickening.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. parenchymatous cells. tracheids. Appendix per cent. black.2. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.Seed -Numerous.07 cm across. phloem. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. Appendix per cent. thin-walled. phloem and xylem parenchyma. pitted and spiral vessels. tracheids and parenchyma. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. fragments of cork cells. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. pericycle fibre present in patches. palisade single layered. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. parenchyma abundant.6. 0.. shows groups of oval to polygonal. minute.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple.4. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells.2.3. as well as compound. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. reniform. secondary xylem consists of vessels. 2.2. having intercellular spaces. vessels.06-0. tracheids and parenchyma.2. having 2-3 components. secondary xylem composed of vessels. Lamina .Shows 5-15 layers of cork. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged.7.Wavy in outline. oval. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. LeafMidrib . covered externally with a thick cuticle.2. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. thick-walled with wide lumen.Greyish-brown. Appendix 2. simple as well as compound. 2.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells. present in mesophyll cells. 2. 2. measuring 6-14 µ . Powder . ray cells and pith. arranged in radial rows. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. Appendix per cent. dark brown. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. stomata paracytic type. parenchymatous cells. oval cells. solitary or in groups of 2-5.

Under U.10.10. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. RukÀa.L. Prameha.3 . Gulma..Protein. 0.6 g. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. 0. 0.61. 0.68 and 0. 0. 0. Ar¿a. 0. áotha.68. Vra¸a DOSE . 0.76 (all pinkish red).T. T.68 (yellow) and 0.50. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara.41. 104 .98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . Carbohydrates.76 (green) in visible light.76 and 0. Pittakara. 0.V. 0. CakÀuÀya.Agnim¡ndya.10. of the drug in powder form. (both green).41. 0. 0. V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.08.Marma Gu¶ik¡.C. V¡tahara. 0.L.C. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.08.52 (both faint green).52. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. 0.

Cylindrical. alternate. 25-50 cm high. tapering. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. sparsely prickly.week bristles longitudinally grooved. with secondary and tertiary branches.4 cm broad. nearly glabrous. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Leaf . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. upto 2. hairy pinnae. bark fibrous. petiolate. Lajauni Muttidasenui. taste. Fabaceae). 105 . varying in length. 0.5 cm in dia. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. covered with long. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani. leaflets 10-20 pairs. sensitive to touch. sessile. odour.45.P) diffused undershrub. rependant . (Fam. upto 2 cm thick. Lajjalu (W. easily separable from wood. woody. internal cut surface grey. obliquely rounded at base. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. bark fibrous. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi. Adamalati Lajaka.6-1. acute.2 cm long. Machikegida. Stem . fracture hard. 0. slightly astringent. greyish brown to brown.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile. linear lanceolate.3-0. distinct. Var¡kr¡nt¡. yellowish-green. stipulate.Cylindrical. Lajamani Chhuimui. external surface light brown. Lajavanti.

tracheids pitted with pointed ends. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. lobes 4. consisting of large. spreading bristle at sutures. simple. scattered throughout secondary xylem. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. calyx very small.3 long. phloem rays thick-walled. parenchyma. thick-walled. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. ovate oblong. secondary cortex wide. ovary sessile. filled with reddish-brown contents. Seed . fibres of two types.3 cm long. brown to grey. respectively. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. thick-walled. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered. b) Microscopic Root . each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 106 . vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. rarely multiseriate. parenchymatous cells. in globose head. peduncles prickly. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. 0. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. fibres. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. fibres single or in groups. 2.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. Stem . exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. 0. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.4-0. glabrous. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. Fruit . moderately thick-walled. 3-25 chambered. straw coloured. dry. vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. much exserted. 1-1. tangentially elongated to oval. radially elongated. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. oval-elliptic. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. crystal fibres thick-walled. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. arranged in tangential bands. scattered throughout. a number of lignified. stamens 4. crystal fibres elongated.Compressed. thick-walled.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish.6 cm long. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays.Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Lomentum.Pink. xylem rays radially elongated. 0. pith consisting of polygonal. starch grains. corolla pink. 2-3 seriate more common. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. ovules numerous. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia.Flower . phloem fibres single or in groups. tangentially elongated cells.

pericycle arranged in a ring. shaggy hairs.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. spongy parenchyma single layered. 2. Appendix per cent. 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. 0. Appendix per cent. palisade cells non glandular.Reddish-brown. vascular bundle single. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. parenchymatous cells Seed . covered with thin-cuticle. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. parenchymatous cells. Appendix per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent. pitted vessels. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells. T. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. branched.L. thin-walled.2. with 2 .Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular.35. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .2.7. single and compound starch grains. Appendix 2.6.Shows single layered radially elongated cells.3.2. pericycle same as in petiole.shows epidermis on both surfaces.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U.62. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.C.2. Appendix per cent. 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. shaggy hairs.Leaf- Petiole . cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L. Fruit . 0.C. reticulate. crystal fibres.2.V. fibres. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf. shows. Lamina . lignified cells followed by single layered. 2. Powder . rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma. embryo straight with short and thick radicle. palisade single layered.3 components IDENTITY. branched.69 (all blue) and 0. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region. endocarp of thick-walled. spongy parenchyma.shows single layered epidermis. parenchymatous cells.81 (bluish-pink). Midrib . one in each wing. 2.2. 0.

0. Yoniroga. KuÀ¶ha. 108 . CONSTITUENTS . D¡ha. 0. Ku¶aj¡valeha.35 and 0. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.áopha. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.10-20 g of the drug for decoction.Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. Atis¡ra. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .spots appear at Rf. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Raktapita DOSE . áv¡sa. Vra¸a.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. THERAPEUTIC USES . Kaphahara.35 (orange).

46. basifixed. Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Hippenara.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. ovate lanceolate. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). sweet. reddish-brown. anther sub-sessile.Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers. Syn. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. followed by thin-walled.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. tabular. taste. a few 109 . Ippa. Madhuka (Fl.) Macbride. erect 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. epipetalous. Madhuka. epipetalous and arranged in two series. and also cultivated. Androecium . irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells. Kattu Iluppai. Bassia latifolia Roxb. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. lanceolate.F. Hippe. latifolia (Roxb. Mahua Katiluppai.5-2 cm long.Gmel. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. short. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. Sapotaceae) . (Fam. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Halippe. Mahawash tree Mahudo. Ilippa. b) Microscopic Corolla . M. stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). Eppimara -Irippa. corolla fleshy. Iluppa.

2.3. T¤À¸¡.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent. D¡ha. KÀaya.10 . Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2. spherical. Appendix 2. round.unicellular hairs present on one side. 2.4. Appendix 0.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. pollen grains single or in groups. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues.2.Madh£k¡sava.áv¡sa. 2. shows fragments of epidermal cells. Pittakara. Appendix 25 per cent. of the drug.15 g. Appendix 10 per cent.7. oval shaped.2. Ah¤dya. 2.6. lignified cells.2.5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS . tapetum not distinct. THERAPEUTIC USES .Dark brown. áramahara.2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. Appendix 70 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent.2. IDENTITY. El¡di Modaka. endothecium composed of radially elongated. 2. unicellular hairs. Powder . with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. V¡tahara. 110 . árama DOSE . KÀata. Balya.2.

6 cm diameter.P. A. Br.. Stem . white often tinged with pink.Cylindrical. Amaranthaceae). Br. (Fam. A. often rooting at lower nodes. nodes and internodes distinct.. nodiflora R. Gandal¢. Br.1-0. short. no characteristic odour and taste. Matshyakshi (W. cream to grey. obtuse or subacute. A. Syn. yellowish-brown to light-brown..) R. no characteristic odour and taste. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. 0. linear-oblong.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. short. sometimes reaching 10 cm long.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. or elliptic.. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Bahli. fracture.5 cm wide.. internodes 0. non Link. triandra Lam.47.5-5 cm long. with spreading branches from the base. repens Gmel. bracteoles 111 . weak. Leaf . Flower . 0. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa.Herbaceous. no characteristic odour and taste. denticulata R. Matsy¡duni. sessile. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡.5 cm long.3-7. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region.3-2 cm wide. A.1. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. fracture. 2.

tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10. stomata paracytic. secondary cortex narrow. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. 1. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. parenchymatous cells. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. sepals ovate. with anomalous secondary growth. parenchymatous cells. vascualr bundles radially arranged. parenchymatous cells.dorsiventral. isodiametric. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. consistig of thin-walled. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. Lamina .2 cm long. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. bicollateral. Leaf- Midrib .5 mm long. round to oval. thin-walled.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. thin-walled round or oval. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. present in the centre. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem.1. ovary obcordate. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.5-3 mm long. with are conjoint. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. orbicular. numerous. single layered. compressed. Fruit . consisting of thin-walled cells. no characteristic odour and taste. radially arranged cork cells. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. b) Microscopic Root . palisade 2-3 layers. palisade ratio 3-5. each consisting of xylem and phloem. perianth 2. no characteristic odour and taste. pith consisting of thin-walled. ovate. round or oval. there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. irregular. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. composed of thin-walled. scarious. covered wtith striated cuticle. xylem tissues lignified. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. collenchymatous cells. 112 .Utricle. shows wavy or undulate. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. style very short. 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. Stem . open and exarch. thin. compressed with thickened margins. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. isodiametic cells. acute. capitellate. vascular bundles three. pith distinct.

paracytic stomata. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view.Olive green.KuÀ¶ha. Raktavik¡ra DOSE .5 per cent.2. palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.35. CONSTITUENTS . Under U. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura..33.L. 0.2.18. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.44. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.2 -3 g.2.44. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent.94 and 0. 113 . 0.2. Appendix 3 per cent.44 (all green).4. Tikta. 0.59. 2. 0. of the drug in powder form. Appendix 19 per cent. Kaphahara.81.16. Appendix 2. 0.2.L.96 (all yellow). 0.16. 0.2.6. 2.7. IDENTITY. 0.C. 0.68 (all red).Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .54 and 0. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.C.3. 2. 2.33 and 0.Sugar. Appendix 4.25. Pittavik¡ra. 0.V. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. V¡tahara. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. T.

very hard. odour.Seed shows a layer of thick. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. thin-walled. 0. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. pleasant. b) Microscopic Seed .15-0. dull yellow. cells flat at base.5 cm long. varying in size. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains.) aromatic. Methi (Sd. 30-60 cm tall. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong. smooth. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. mucilaginous cells. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium. parenchymatous cells.walled. 114 . several layers of thin walled.2-0. taste. 0. covered externally with thick cuticle. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. bitter. cultivated throughout the country. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated.48. annual herb. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. columnar palisade. Fabaceae). dividing seed into a larger and smaller part.35 cm broad. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. (Fam.

Mustak¡riÀ¶a. Jvara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 per cent. Appendix 2.2.Alkaloid. Rucya. Appendix 5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form. Prameha.3. 2. 2.6.2. aleurone grains. Kaphahara.3-6 g. 115 . Sapogenins and Mucilage. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. Appendix 4 per cent. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡. Aruci DOSE . oil globules. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 0. 2. shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells.2. IDENTITY.Graha¸¢.2. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa.4.2. Powder .rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll.Yellow.

compressed. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . oblong. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. blade obovate. odour.. Stem . regular. bright green. sub-marginate at the apex. yellowish-green. not distinct.) Brassicaceae).0 cm in dia. pedicel with scattered hairs.7-2.Flower in long terminal raceme. complete 1-2 cm long. Rakhyasmula Mulaka. 0. variable size and thickness. an annual or biennial bristly herb.1-1. seplas 6.Slender.5-10 cm long. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . taste. Leaf . cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3.P. bisexual.Root cylindrical. petiole 5-5.3 cm long. petals 1. cylindrical. coarsely toothed. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. having a few longitudinal striations. sometimes brown red. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally. lyrate. sub-linear but narrowed at the base.2 cm long. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying.Lower leaves hairy. hollow. Mulaka (W. Muli. slightly pungent. upper most leaves simple.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. Flower .49.

oily. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. 2 mm wide. 2-4 mm long. parenchymatous cells. taste. continuous or more or less constricted. epidermis single layered. green or brown-purple.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.Reddish-brown. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal. b) Microscopic Root . cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. cylindrical. one central and two lateral. radially arranged. present in cortex. covered with thick cuticle.Siliqua. Lamina . elliptical. erect. endodermis at some places. parenchymatous cells. occasionally pale purple.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings.1. round to oval. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. palisade 2-3 layers. traversed by phloem rays. phloem. pith a wide zone of polygonal. Midrib . pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. hairs unicellular. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. starch grains simple. Stem . surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end. vascular bundle three in number.dorsiventral. sometimes flattened. Leaf- Petiole . measuring 3-6 µ in dia. thin-walled. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. longitudinally sulcatus. cork cells. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. thin-walled. greenish-yellow. parenchymatous cells. two outer smaller and four inner longer. stamen 6 in two whorls. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. 1-2 chambered.shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated. traversed by xylem rays. style about 4 mm long. single layered. tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. present in cortex and phloem. Fruit . epidermis followed by 6. irregularly globose.appears biconvex in outline. present only on upper side.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. solitary or ingroups. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. 117 .4 cm thick.8. 10-12 ovuled. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. 3-9 cm long and 0. Seed . medullary rays four to many cells wide.purple vein. round to oval. ovary superior.

Gulma. measuring 3-14 µ diameter.2.2. thin-walled. beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. Appendix per cent. Svarya. tangentially elongated. 2. of the drug in juice form. containing aleurone grains and oil globules.Fruit . oil globules and round to oval starch grains. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. covered with thin. 2. 2. of columnar cells. straight cuticle. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. shows aseptate fibres.Agnim¡ndya. P¢nasa. Rucya.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. Gandhaka Va¶¢.2. parenchymatous cells. covered with a thin-cuticle. 2. Appendix per cent. P¡cana.Glucoside. Powder . CONSTITUENTS . Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES .2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent.2. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells present.7. Pittahara. IDENTITY.Shows a single layered epidermis. H¤dya.40 ml. Tikta Laghu. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. 118 . Ud¡varta. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. spiral vessels. thinwalled.6.M£lakakÀ¡ra. Ar¿a.3. Appendix per cent. DOSE . Seed . reddish-brown.4.20 . Appendix 2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Yellowish-green.2.

rarely sweet. fusiform. taste. Rakhyasmula Mula. 119 . Appendix per cent.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.7.4.6. Mulaka (Rt.2.2. Visra. IDENTITY.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Appendix per cent.2. 2.2. Appendix per cent. Saleya. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy. cylindrical. 2. having a few lateral fibrous roots. white in colour. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. (Fam. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. slightly or strongly pungent. usually 25-40 cm in length. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. Moclangi gadde. Appendix 2. variable in size. 2. Mulaka.3.50. Appendix per cent. Mula Muli Moolangi. Mullangi. 2.2. Brassicaceae). sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth.

M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .Glucoside. Pittahara.T.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.L.34.04. 0.09. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.LC.04.04 & 0.V. Ar¿a. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.49 & 0. 0.15-30 ml.C. Gulma. Jvara. Galaroga. P¡cana. Vrana. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U. P¢nasa. 0. (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.09 (both blue).Agnim¡ndya.09 & 0. Rucya. of the drug in the juice form 120 .69 (all yellow). T. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil. Ud¡varta DOSE . 0. K¡sa. Tikta Laghu. Svarya. 0.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . Netraroga. H¤dya. 0. Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Dadru. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . áv¡sa. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0.

Gandhakuti.2. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . secondary cortex composed of rounded. Mura (Rt. odour. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. taste. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. inner cells thin-walled.42000 m. consisting of tangentially elongated. tangentially elongated. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige. consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. a perennial herb.) DC. slightly bitter. Syn.6 . Root . Daitya.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . 0. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents.1. rectangular cells.51. Apiaceae ). dull brown.Shows 10 . roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. 6-12 cm long and 0. thin-walled cells. traversed by phloem rays. thin-walled cells. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. colour. S. aromatic.4 m tall.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths. fibres and parenchyma. tenuifolium Wall. cambium 2-4 layered. (Fam. traversed by xylem rays. secondary phloem shows wide zone.3 .

7.3. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide.Arvind¡sava.2. xylem and phloem rays.Brown. 2. Powder . secondary phloem. secondary xylem and medullary rays. 2. secondary phloem. fibres aseptate.áv¡sa.2. present in secondary cortex.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . parenchymatous cells. composed of radially arranged. T¤Àn¡ DOSE . Bhrama.4. CONSTITUENTS . xylem parenchyma. round to oval. M£rchha. Jvara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 9 per cent. 2.1-3 g. Ka¶u.2. Appendix 9 per cent. 122 . short with blunt ends. secretory canals numerous.2. 2..6. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Sucrose and Mannitol. oil globules and simple starch grains. secretory canals. Appendix 2.2.having spiral thickenings. Appendix 3. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. somewhat oval cells. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. Appendix 17 per cent. distributed throughout secondary cortex. Tikta. IDENTITY. starch grains simple. of the drug in powder form.2. shows groups of cork cells. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. D¡ha.

Halukaratige. phloem fibres absent. twining shrub.Shows a cork. b) Microscopic Root . Murva (Rt. taste. odour. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. Jartor Koratige Hambu. tangentially elongated. bark easily separable from wood. phloem rays 1 123 . Kallu Shambu.) Asclepiadaceae). fracture.52. a large stout. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. some filled with reddish-brown contents. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells. (Fam. & Am. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. resin cells present irregularly in this region. rectangular cells. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. Madhusrava. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva.5-3 cm thick. Koratige. similar to those present in secondary cortex. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness. slightly bitter. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. indistinct.

Raktapitta. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . fibretracheids. Appendix 2. Tikta Guru. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¤miroga. T¤Àn¡. present in parenchymatous tissues. IDENTITY.tracheids. Medoroga. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. 2. shows a number of stone cells.Light brown. Appendix 7 per cent. of the drug for decoction. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations.2-6 g.2. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. Appendix 5 per cent. Ka¸·£. Powder . Prameha Mihira Taila. 2. Jvara. 10-20 g.4. concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. fibres. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. of the drug in powder form. Pittahara. V¡tahara. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. 5. Appendix 14 per cent. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.6. tracheids. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. DOSE .22 µ in diameter.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. starch grains simple. composed of vessels. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Mukha áosa.2. measuring 5. 2. Meha..7.. consisting of small tangential. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.2. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure.3. Appendix 0. vessels with pitted walls.5-22 µ dia. H¤droga. 2.5 . separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. simple and compound starch grains. fragments of cork.5 per cent.2. fibres. 124 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a.Ar¿a.3 cells wide.

parenchymatous cells. linear. basifixed. distinct protuberances on walls. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. connective and filament. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. odour. each stamen 0. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. Nagachampakam.Anther shows golden-brown. an Ke¿ara. Naugaliral. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara.0 cm long. coppery or golden brown. N¡ga. slender. Pilunagkesar. 125 . Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. consisting of thin-walled. shows elongated cells of filament. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu. Nagakesari -Nangaa.1. Peri. exine and intine distinct. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. connective not visible with naked eye. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. b) Microscopic Androecium . Guttiferae). containing pollen grains. taste. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. filiform. N¡gapuÀpa.9 cm long.Brown.9-1.8 . Nahar Nageshvara. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. Nagakesar (Stmn.53. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn. thick-walled. filament 0. Bengal. Nagchampa. anther about 0. Nagppu. (Fam. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. soft to touch. yellowish and thin-walled. Assam. quite brittle. Powder . Nauga. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk. Veluthapala. Sachunagkeshara. often buttressed at the base. Konkan. astringent.) evergreen tree. fragrant.5 cm long. Hem¡. more or less twisted.

of the drug in powder form. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. 126 .2.6.Essential oil and Oleo-resin.2. 2.2.2. Appendix per cent. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara. 2. Appendix per cent.2. Kaphahara.3.1-3 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Tikta. V¡tarakta.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. áopharoga.Raktapitta. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a.IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.4. Vastiroga DOSE . Var¸ya. Kum¡ry¡sava. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. 2.2.

5 cm long and 0. pith composed of round to oval. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole . no characteristic odour and taste. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring.1.54. large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings.3-1.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings.2 cm wide. Fabaceae).2. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. 1. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali. vascular bundles collateral and three in number. (Fam. 127 .8 m high. epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells.) shrub. N¢l¢n¢. pale green to greenish-black. leaflet 1-2. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu. Nili (Lf. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili.

7. K¤imiroga.2. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.2.2. 2.Greenish-grey.50-100 g. similar as in petiole and midrib. Appendix 2. 2. Ke¿ya.2. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. Ud¡varta.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. Appendix 2 per cent.Glycoside (Indican). 128 . Lamina . epidermis. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Ëmav¡ta. palisade 2-3 layers. similar as in petiole. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. IDENTITY. vascular bundle single. 2.5 per cent. Jvara. shows groups of mesophyll cells. collateral and crescent shaped. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .2. pitted vessels. K¡sa. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present.Midrib . V¡tahara.3. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . of decoction. Appendix 7. Udararoga..shows epidermis. CONSTITUENTS . cuticle and hair. Appendix 10 per cent. aseptate fibres...4. 2. Gulma. cuticle and hair.6. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE .2.shows dorsiventral structure. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tarakta. Appendix 25 per cent. Pl¢haroga.

Rangapatr¢. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. Karunili.) shrub. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. odour not distinct. (Fam. Indian Indigo Gali.1 -1. Nil. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. Olleneeli -Amari. hard. Neeli Nili. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.. Gari Nili Kadunili. with lenticels. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown.10 layers of tangentially elongated. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. Nila Nili. consisting of rectangular to polygonal.2-1. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. 129 . woody. 0. group of fibres. Nili (Rt. secondary cortex a narrow zone. Neeligida. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. 1.55. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels. rectangular. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. slightly bitter. taste. thin-walled cells. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma.8 m high. Nili Chettu.5 cm thick. Fabaceae). consisting of usual elements. Nila -Neel Avuri. Nili. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. cylindrical. thin-walled cells.

0. 0. round to oval.V. 0. 0. DOSE . 0. 0.75 (blue). 130 . and 0. Ke¿ya.3. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 2. 0.63 (bluish green). Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0. 0. K¤imiroga.. 0.91 (all yellow). 0.40 (blue). (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.21.81. present in cortex. simple and compound starch grains.L.58 (blue).75. 2.91 (all grey). 0.0.86 and 0.30 (bluish green). measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.48 g. pitted vessels. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.27. 0.7 per cent.2.47 (blue). Appendix 6 per cent.06. V¡tarakta.86 (green) and 0. shows aseptate fibres. Pl¢h¡roga. 0.06. T.63. Recan¢. K¡sa.40.C.33. 0.2.L.40. 0.14 (blue).2. Appendix 4 per cent. xylem parenchyma and rays. 0. Udararoga.Gulma.C. 0.Arvind¡sava.27.63.10.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. 0. V¡tahara. Ëmav¡ta. measuring 3-11 µ in dia.81 (blue). phloem. 0.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.50. 2. 2.91 (blue). 0. 0.33.58. 0.6. 0. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara..Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u. ViÀavik¡ra.14. 0.75. Appendix 3 per cent.86. 0.2.14.4.Creamish-brown. Powder . 0.50. IDENTITY. Appendix 0. 2. starch grains simple. 0. 0.0.80.10. of drug for decoction. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. Ud¡varta.58.

exstipulate. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Limba. Nim.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. Veppan Vemu. Bakayan. crystals also present in phloem region. lanceolate. Veppa Balantanimba. Limbado. alternate. a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. 131 .0-1. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba. Oilevevu. Arulundi. indistinct. rachis 15-25 cm long. taste.5 cm long and 1. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled. Bevinama -Veppu. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. (Fam.1 cm thick. Bevu. Nimba (Lf.7 cm wide. Kohumba Nim. opposite. Meliaceae). attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. 0. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. Nim Vemmu. Nimbam. Veppu. 7-8. odour. Kahibevu. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. leaflets with oblique base. Nimba Nimba. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. serrate. Melia azadirachta Linn. acute. Bakan. Limado. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. slightly yellowish-green.56.Compound. Juss Syn. Aryaveppu. Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface.

6. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered. fibres. V¡tal¡.2. KuÀ¶ha. of the drug in powder form. palisade ratio 3. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. stomatal index 13.5 on lower surface and 8.2. Prameha. tangentially elongated cells. Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. Appendix per cent. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .0-4. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Green. Vrana.Jvara.2. CONSTITUENTS . 2. covered externally with thick cuticle. thin-walled cells.5 on upper surface.1-3 g. 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction. palisade single layered. Appendix 2. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.3. Netraroga. IDENTITY.2. K¤miroga.Lamina . Appendix per cent.2. ViÀarogas DOSE .7.shows dorsiventral structure. 2.5. shows vessels.4. Ëma¿otha.0-14. Powder .0-11. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. composed of thin walled.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. 132 . epidermis on either surface. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.Triterpenoids and Sterols. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. traversed by a number of veins. 2. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent.

taste. Limba Nimba Nim. Meliaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches.57. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . Nimba. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. Kadunimb. woody. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Nimba (St. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. characteristic. Vembu Vemu. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Juss. considerably thick in older barks. Nimb Bevu. occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. (Fam. Kahibevu. odour. Nimba. a moderate sized to fairly large. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Syn. evergreen tree. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. fissured and rusty-grey. extemal surface rough. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. Oilevevu -Veppu. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. fracture. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Bakam Veppai. Melia azadirachta Linn. fibrous.

72 (blue). 0. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U.V.86 (blue).measuring 2.63 and 0.Reddish-brown. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 6 per cent.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. 2. Powder . Appendix 2.C. 0.2.2. IDENTITY. ViÀaghna. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. simple.20. 2. Appendix 5 per cent. and 0. Vra¸a¿odhanakara. cork cells.90 (green). simple starch grains.90 (all blue). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.3. round with central hilum. stone cells mostly in groups.45. having wide lumen and distinct striations. Kaphahara. 0. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.75-5 µ in diameter. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. secondary cortex absent in most cases. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 . a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. 0.L.4.L.outer surface. Pittahara.7.2. T.C. Appendix 7 per cent.2. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. Appendix 1.6. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends. measuring 2. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. lignified rectangular to polygonal. starch grains. 2.

Ka¸·u. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Rakta Pitta. of the drug in powder form.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a. Pa´canimba C£r¸a. 135 .. Vra¸a DOSE . Prameha.D¡ha.2-4 g.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. Decoction should be used externally. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. K¤miroga. Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Jvara. Nimb¡di C £r¸a.

internal surface rough. taste. 12 . rough due to presence of rhytidoma. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. greyish to pale brown. rhytidoma 0.1 cm thick. moderately thick-walled. except in very arid parts. Tesu Muttug. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. tanniniferous cells. curved. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. having brown colour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka.5 . Tesu Purasu. pale brown. Dhak.Bk) Fabaceae).2 cm thick usually peels off. dark brown. rectangular. Khakharo. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Muttuga. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. 5-10 or more layered. Chama Tha Palas -Palash. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark.58. rectangular 136 . exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. cork cells. Muttala -Plasu. Khakhapado Dhak. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. Camata. 0. slightly astringent. Plas. fracture. Paras Moduga. exposing light brown surface. Palasha (St. Modugu. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone.15 m high with irregular branches. Palash. Chettu Dhak. often in groups. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. dark-brown. thin-walled. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze (Fam.

found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays.2. phloem fibres. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.L.67 (all yellow). 0.2. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. 7 .3. 0.4 layers of sclereids.18.2. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 2. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. phloem parenchyma.5 per cent.Reddish-brown. 0.48. phloem rays multiseriate 4 . 0.10. traversed by phloem rays.7. starch grains simple and compound with 2 .4. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath.50 cells in height. companion cells. T. 0.. 2. straight. Appendix 14 per cent. 0.cells followed by a zone of 2 . starch grains simple or compound having 2 .65 (all blue).L.2.10.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia. 2.C. Appendix 12 per cent. Appendix 1. sclereids mostly in groups. thin-walled cork cells. Powder . (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf.48 and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2.12 cells wide. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate..48 and 0.V. measuring 2.3 components.75 µ in dia.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U. CONSTITUENTS . 0. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends.Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. crystal fibres. dark brown coloured cells.2.10.13.67 (all violet). 137 . crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. 2. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes. 2.75 . numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. 0.6.

Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. Tikta.Ar¿a. Agnid¢paka.5-10 g. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. DOSE . Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya. Graha¸¢. K¤miroga. S¡raka .PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 138 .Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Gulma. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . KaÀ¡ya Sara. of the drug in powder form for decoction. Vra¸a.

tangentially elongated to squarish. secondary cortex consists of large. quick growing tree. Pangara Hongar. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam.Bk) Fabaceae). distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India. yellowish to cream coloured. smooth. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Mulmurumgai Badisa. Paribhadra (St. medium sized. exfoliating in narrow strips.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface.0 cm thick. stone 139 . outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey.5-2.59. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. parenchymatous cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. radially arranged and thin-walled. whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. inner bark fibrous. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

V¤Àya.2-4 g. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .V¡tarakta... Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. 148 . Balak¤t.Alkaloids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru. V¡taroga DOSE .CONSTITUENTS . of drug in powder form. Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Volatile Oil.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a.

Shalichokha Piyal. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. collapsed cells of integument. odour. Syn. Piyar. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. linear. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. 0. large. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. Saraparuppu Sara. (Farn. pitted. b) Microscopic Seed . cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells.3-0. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. Chowl. which are of various size. Satdhan -Charal. sclerenchymatous cells. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. micropyle superior. 0. Priyala (Sd. B. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer.Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. taste. consisting of elongated or tubular cells.5 cm wide. creamish-brown. funicle stout. sweetish-oily. Priyalam. hilum present at the apex of round edge. followed by remnants of disorganised. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. thick-walled. pleasant.) Anacardiaceae). Korka. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. mottled with darker brown lines.63. Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng.4-0.6 cm long. latifolia Roxb. occurring mostly in groups. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 .

0.2.2.94 and 0. Priy¡la Taila.10 .L. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. Bhagnas¡dhaka.98 (all yellow).2.08. V¤Àya. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells.98 (all violet). H¤dya. 2.94 (blue). Appendix 10 per cent.3. Kaphakara.84. Raktapitta. 2. áukrakara. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. 0.7. 2.C. 0.5-5.L. 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2.72. Pittahara. of the drug in powder form. V¡tahara. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 4 per cent. Sara. 0. and sclerenchymatous cells. 0.5-5. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.91. Appendix 2.54. BrÆha¸a. 0. IDENTITY.0 µ in dia. shows numerous mesophyll cells.20 g. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.72.27. 0.2.2. 0. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .54. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf.94 and 0. Appendix 7 per cent.4. 0. DOSE .6.Albuminoids. 2.0 µ in dia. Balya.2.A creamish-brown paste.D¡ha. T. CONSTITUENTS . Powder .type. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0.5 per cent.27. Appendix 0. 0.C. 150 . Oil and Starch. KÀata. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. procambium bundles.P£gakha¸·a.72 and 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. 0.08.91. KÀaya.V. and oil globules.measuring 2.

cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical.Cymose. stamens 4. peduncle cylindrical. corolla. hairy.5 . ovary 2-4 celled. and abundant in Bengal plains. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence .Shows more or less wavy outline.64. equal in size.5-7. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs. brown. densely clothed with wooly hairs. filament very long. 1. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. thin-walled.0. Priyangu (Infl. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. bell-shaped.2. epipetalous. an erect. brown. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl.5 cm long. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. 4 lobbed spreading. long. style. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. calyx. parenchymatous cells. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. 2. basifixed.4 m high shrub.5 cm across.2. 1. stigma minutely capitate.3 mm in dia. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢. Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. tubular. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. anther ovate. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. (Fam. densely hairy. b) Microscopic Peduncle . phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 .) Verbenaceae). Flower .

Brown. THERAPEUTIC USES .Glycosides.2. Kanaka Taila. 2. 2.4. Sved¡dhikya. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡.D¡ha. Sandh¡n¢ya. CONSTITUENTS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent. 152 . Pakv¡tis¡ra. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Appendix per cent. xylem consists of usual elements. Terpenes. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour. Vra¸aropa¸a.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . DOSE . Appendix per cent. 2. spiral vessels. of the drug in powder form. fibres aseptate. Daurgandhyahara. 2.2. V¡tahara. Resin and Saponin. Appendix 2.3. Ku´kum¡di Taila. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs.2. Rakta-Pitta. Rakta. M£travirajan¢ya. Jvara.2. groups of thin-walled. IDENTITY. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. Appendix per cent.2. Phenolic compound. Pras¡dana. (Mukharoga). Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya.1-3 g. Powder . El¡di C£r¸a. Appendix per cent.6. aseptate fibres.fibres.7. elliptical. N¢lik¡dya Taila.

middle zone consisting of radially elongated. Akki -Ari. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Nellu.65. composed of thick-walled. Corava. Jhona Arishi. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. pitted vessels and 153 .Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. sclerenchymatous cells. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. b) Microscopic Root . Bhata Chamul -Dhan. both consisting of round to oval. Dhana Bhatto. Odalu. Vr¢hi. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. 5-15 cm in length and 0. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. Bhatta. exodermis 1-2 layered. Powder .05-0. Dhan Rice. smooth. cylindrical. Cala. Nelver Dhanyamu. thin. thick-walled. (Fam. creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Shali (Rt. Dh¡nya.1 cm thick with a few rootlets. Dhana. Paddy Shalichokha. Bhata.) cultivated throughout India. Nivara -Chaval. Dhanarmul. an annual herb. cortex differentiated into three zones. Chawl. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. sclerenchymatous cells. soft. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. Damgara. Sali. Nellu Tandulamul. Coke Chaval.Greyish-cream. Biyyamu Chaval. Poaceae).

KaÀ¡ya Guru. H¤dya. Kaphahara.2. Laghu. Rucya. Appendix per cent. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES .StanyakÀaya. Svarya. 2.3. BrÆha¸a. 154 . Balya.2.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. of the drug for decoction. M£trala.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . 2. Var¸ak¤t. 2.2.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.4.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara. CakÀuÀya.7. Appendix 2. Baddh¡lpavarcasa. Pittahara. M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Appendix per cent.50 g.

solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. hairy on both surfaces.66.4 cm thick. Shankhavela. corolla shortly discoid. 155 . perennial herb with a woody root stock. light green. sub-erect. a prostrate. Karakhuratt. linear-lanceolate. sparsely hairy. hairy. ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots. Sankha pushpin (W. spreading. yellowish-brown to light brown. alternate with the petals. about 0. ovary superior and bicarpellary. Leaf . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam.1-0. linear-lanceolate. 0. found throughout the country.Usually branched.5 cm broad. Sankhahuli Kakattam.Shortly petiolate.White or pinkish. 1-5 cm long. stamen 5. inserted deep in the corolla tube. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu.5-2 cm long and 0. Flower . Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. Shankhapushpi. Sankhapuspi.1-0. cylindrical. light green. sepals narrowly. epipetalous. free. 0. acute.Slender. cylindrical. Stem . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes.) Convolvulaceae). Shankhauli --Sankhahuli.P. Kakkanangudi.

walled cells. phloem. both having round to oval. elliptical. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits. Stem .. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. simple and compound starch grains. Powder . xylem consisting of usual elements. xylem rays and parenchyma. epidermis single layered.Brown. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. covered with thick cuticle. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. . palisade ratio 6-9. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma.Light yellowish-green. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. oblong globose with coriaceous. pale brown pericarp. at places unicellular hairs present. phloem composed of sieve elements. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length. b) Microscopic Root . tanniniferous. starch grains solitary or in groups. xylem consists of vessels. mm. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem. palisade two layered. 156 . stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface.Capsule. hairs unicellular.Appears nearly circular in outline. thick-walled cells. Lamina . vascular bundle bicollateral. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.8 µ in dia. elongated. present in cortex. secretory cells present in this region. mm. simple and composed of 2-3 components. Seed . and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. thin. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. cortex differentiated in two zones.0. 13. unicellular hairs.Shows single layered epidermis. round to oval in shape. covered with thick cuticle. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith.8-17.. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. endoderrnis single layered. pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. present on both surfaces. LeafMidrib . fibres and tracheids.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. phloem a narrow zone. fibres and parenchyma.Fruit . minutely puberulous. measuring 3 .

3. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn.2. Appendix per cent. 2.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ras¡yana. Kaphahara. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6.IDENTITY. Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES . 2.2. Pittahara.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.M¡nasaroga. 2. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.2. Agastyahar¢tak¢. ËyuÀya. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.2.4. Br¡hma. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent.7. Appendix per cent. Ras¡yana. Ras¡yana.2. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Clitoria ternatea Linn. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 . Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. Medhya. Apasm¡ra DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Tikta.2. Appendix per cent. 2.3-8 g. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .8 cm wide. 1 mm long. sessile. 3-4 mm in dia. Chagulputputi Satala. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate. 4-5 cm long. 20-40 cm high. linear. odour and taste indistinct. lanceolate or linear oblong. sub-sessile.Capsule. found throughout India in the plains and low hills.Small. Siju. lobes short. 3. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. Carmas¡hv¡. 2. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. trilocular.7-7 cm long. pale brown. free to the base.P.5 mm across at the mouth.2-0. Leaf . horned.Involucre broadly campanulate. having a few secondary roots. Flower . (Fam. 0. 158 .67. filament pubescent. annual herb. Fruit . Saptala (W.celled with or without attached pedicel. ciliolate. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali.) Euphorbiaceae). gland semilunate. solitary. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. gradually tapering. ovate. ribbed. a much branched. style. smooth. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. shortly 2-fid at the apex.5-2 mm thick. Bilikalli. odour and taste not distinct. greenish-yellow. Joyachi. fracture. short. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡.1. cylindrical. 0. subacute.

mature root shows thin walled cork. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline.5-19. vessels having simple pits. rounded at the base. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. epidermis single layered. centre occupied by a pith. traversed by numerous xylem rays. stone cells oval to elongated. 159 . epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle. all elements thick-walled and lignified. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma.Seed . grooved at one side. secondary cortex consists of 4. some rounded. b) Microscopic Root . thick-walled lignified. elliptical. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. flattended. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. parenchymatous cells.3 mm long. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. leprous tuberculate testa. simple. filled with yellowish-brown content. tangentially elongated elliptical.Young root shows exfoliated. rounded to oval. secondary xylem consists of vessels. tangentially elongated cells. composed of sieve elements. secondary phloem narrow. rounded to oval. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled.25 µ in diameter. fibres and vessels having simple pits. circular to oval. Stem .75 µ in dia. lignified cells with wide lumen. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres. fibres and tracheids. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. thickwalled and lignified. elliptical. rarely a few oil globules also present.6 layers of oval. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. consisting of thick-walled. starch grains simple. Leaf- Midrib . parenchymatous cells. striated cuticle. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. with wide lumen present in this region. solitary or in groups. measuring 5. covered externally with thick. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. 2. single layered epidermis. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. tracheids and medullary rays. fibres. all elements. endodermis not distinct.shows slightly convex outline. found scattered in phloem region. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. palisade single layered present on both sides. parenchymatous cells. secondary xylem composed of vessels. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. fibres elongated and aseptate. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. rectangular.

Pittahara. measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. CONSTITUENTS . Visarpa. V¡tal¡.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. 2. of the drug for decoction.4. Vibandha. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. stone cells thick-walled.Powder .67.2.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). and 0.50 g. 2.Light yellow.Ën¡ha.46. rounded to oval starch grains. Appendix per cent.2. elliptical. Ud¡vartta. 2. aseptate fibres. RaktadoÀahara. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. oval to elongated. 0. Mi¿raka Sneha. Appendix 2.04 and 0. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Gulma. shows vessels with simple pits. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.87 (violet). DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. IDENTITY. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara.6.L. T. RukÀa. lignified with wide lumen. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf.C.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. 160 . simple.57 (all yellow). N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a.0.V.2. Udararoga. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.46 (brown) and 0. 2. Appendix per cent. 0.L.7. Appendix per cent. 0.2.3.2. Appendix per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.04.

some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. Shepa. 4 mm long. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal. (Fam. dark brown. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. glabrous. akin to caraway. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. parenchymatous. often stalk attached. slightly sharp taste. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. Peucedanum sowa Roxb. sowa Roxb. P. a tall. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. A. yellowish membranous wings.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. and a warm.. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva.. dorsal 161 . mesocarp. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. graveolens DC. b) Microscopic Fruit . slightly raised. Sulpha. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. mericarps usually separate and free. Apiaceae). var. Shulupa. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls. Satahva (Fr. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. odour. graveolens Benth. filiform and incospicuous.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. glabrous. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated.68. ex Flem. brown. A. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. graveolens Linn. Syn. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. vittae..

Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent. 162 .59 and 0.59 (blue) and 0. 2. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Vra¸a. 0. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Powder .2. Appendix 14 per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.L.Brown. Appendix 4 per cent. Netra Roga DOSE . 2.2. Kaphahara.68 (all yellow).2. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.costae three.37 (pink) 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf.2. cellulosic. of the drug in powder form. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.3-6 g. 2.C. Appendix 3 per cent.Gorocan¡di Va¶¢.10 T. CONSTITUENTS .7. B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta.68 (violet). Appendix 2.2. Atis¡ra.5 per cent.L. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.C.2. each costae with vascular strands. V¡tahara. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . N¡r¡yana C£r¸a.2. 2. Jvara.4.3.6. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter. Appendix 15 per cent. carpophore split. shows spiral vessels. 0. Appendix 1.Essential Oil. 2. one larger and the two lateral broadly winged.á£la. passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels.

odour and taste not distinct. Bahala. parenchymatous cells. Mungna Neegge.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. ovate or obovate. Segata. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Syn. and articulated at the base. Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. entire. slender. Muringa Elai Sevaga. pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled. commonly cultivated throughout the country. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Muringa. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. vascular bundle collateral. Sajne Horse Radish Tree.) Gaertn. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. thickened. Shewgachi pane Sajana. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. parenchymatous cells. pith and phloem parenchyma. Mocaka -Sajina.5-1 cm wide. consisting of pericyclic fibres. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. palisade single layered. Leaflet . rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. Shigru (Lf. Munga. central region 163 b) Microscopic . spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. thin walled. Sajna.69.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. oval to elliptical. (Fam. Sekato. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. Segata pana. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green. elliptic. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. AkÀ¢va. Rachis . Tishnagandha. leaflet 1. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound. pericycle forming a broken ring. Moringaceae).2-2 cm long and 0. Nugge ele -Murinna. a small or medium sized tree.

0. 0.46 (green). Pittahara. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. stomata anornocytic.occupied by a crescent-shaped.V. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view.69 (yellow).6. 0. 0.26 (all green). On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. Medohara.30 (pink). 0.82 (yellow) and 0. 2. CONSTITUENTS . 0.05. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. RukÀa. 0. 0.4. Appendix 2. 0.2. palisade cells. 0. 0. 0. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.7.59 (blue).C. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru.87 (blue). vein islets number 50-65. unicellular hairs with blunt tip. Appendix per cent. 0. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya.46 (all red) & 0.53 (yellow).0.46 (dark green) & 0. K¤mihara. shows groups of spongy parenchyma. 0. (all green). B ¤Æhana. 2. áukra N¡¿aka.46 (both blue). collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells. Carotene and Ascorbic acid.69 (blue) and 0. Under U.36.94 (yellow) in visible light.18. palisade ratio 6-11.36 (green). 0.52 (green). 0. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. Appendix per cent. 0.Carbohydrate.26. present on both surface but more on lower sur face. spiral vessels. Sirovirecaka 164 .2.18. 0. 0.C. 0. T.05.26.2. Appendix per cent. 0. Powder -Greyish-green.20. Protein.3. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent.94 (blue).2. 2.94 (violet).36 (yellowish green).L.2. IDENTITY. 0.05.2. Appendix per cent. 2. V¡tahara.38.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf.

Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Medoroga.20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. Vidradhi. Pl¢haroga. ViÀatinduka Taila. K¤miroga.Ratnagiri Rasa. DOSE . Gulma. 165 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Galaga¸·a.10 .áopha.

thin walled. taste. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened. parenchymatous cells. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. thin-walled. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia. Beraelam.70. a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock. spicy pungent. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless..3 cm wide. aromatic. membraneous aril. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. perispenn encloses the 166 . radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. sclerenchymatous. Sthulaela (Sd. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. (Fam. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam.4 cm long. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. 0. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. brown to dark brown. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. perisperm consists of polygonal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. odour.) Zingiberaceae). and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.

Tikta Laghu.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole).endosperm and embryo. thin-walled. DOSE . Powder . IDENTITY.2. Chardi.2.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. 2.4. thin-walled.2. Appendix 1. 2.0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.(Seed). both composed of polygonal. Appendix 4 per cent. simple.3. polygonal. K¡sa. rich in protein. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. 167 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.2. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. rounded to oval. perisperm cells. starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. oil globules. V¡tahara. 2.10 CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 1 v/wper cent. shows fragments of testa. H¤ll¡sa.Light brown. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.2. parenchymatous cells. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .5 -1 g.5 per cent. Appendix 5 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Mukharoga. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. Ka¸·u. (Seed). Note .S¡rivady¡sava.6.7. Kaphahara. T¤À¸¡. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. Mukha¿odhaka. Rocaka. 2. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 14 per cent.2.áv¡sa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. RukÀa.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. aromatic. Jimmi. taste. stem and branches. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. aromatic pungent. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. Rutaceae). rather deeply furrowed. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. stone cells found in 168 .Bk. short. parenchymatous cells. odour. armed with long.0. thin-walled. Tejovati (St.2 cm thick. Z. phloem fibres thickwalled. external surface pale brown. (Fam.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. Tumburudra.) Roxb. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . lignified.1-0. Thumbooni. light yellow to pale brown. cork 15-20 layers of tabular. sharp prickles. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. Syn. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. Tejovanti -Thumboonal. fracture. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. internal surface smooth. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri.71. thick-walled cells. brownish. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Tumbura.

Medhya. Appendix 8.2. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.6. 2.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. a Volatile Oil and Resin. 2. Appendix 13 per cent.75 µ in diameter. Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Powder . 2. áv¡sa.3.2.75 . of the drug for decoction. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 1. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. Ëmav¡ta. 2.13. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances.2.Aruci.2.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Appendix 12 per cent. DOSE . aseptate fibres. Appendix 2.2. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .75 µ in diameter.2. P¡cana. a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. Mukharoga. measuring 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .75 . Kaphahara. oil globules and starch grains.tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.13.5 per cent.4. round and oval measuring 2.Yellowish-brown. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. starch grains round and oval. stone cells. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa).7. 169 . Hikk¡. CONSTITUENTS . Rucya. K¡sa. shows fragments of cork cells.5 per cent.10-20 g. IDENTITY.

characteristic. Leaf . internally cream. Tulasi (W. pubescent on both sides. externally purplish-brown to black. odour faintly aromatic.Erect. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .6 . entire or serrate. violet internally.) an erect. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡. pubescent. annual herb. Lamiaceae).2 cm wide. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi. obtuse or acute. pedicels longer than calyx. small in close whorls. much branched. about 1. Thulasi.Thin. herbaceous. Shree Tulasi. hairy.60 cm high. branched. soft. woody.Purplish or crimson coloured.2. Stem . found throughout the country.P. petiole thin. slender.3.5-5 cm long 1.5-3 cm long hairy. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi.72. blackish-brown externally and pale. (Fam. 30 . shortly apiculate. wiry. elliptic oblong. odour. coloured. sub quadrangular. lower lip 170 . hairy. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. fracture. aromatic. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. Flower . Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. branched. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular. taste. K¤À¸atulas¢. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi.

tracheids. Stem . slightly notched at the base.shows somewhat cordate outline. membranous. parenchymatous cells. vessels pitted. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. slightly mucilaginous. thin-walled.1 cm long. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex. measuring 22-27 in dia. pungent. long. middle one larger than other two. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. taste. Seed . lateral two short and central two largest. taste. fibre tracheides. mucilaginous when soaked in water. no odour. xylem consists of vessels. found scattered in phloem. filled with brown content. enclosed in an enlarged. slightly compressed. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. fibres and parenchyma. brown.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. b) Microscopic Root . parenchymatous cells. Leaf- Petiole . aromatic. pungent. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. odour. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres.epidermis. veined calyx. vessels pitted. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres. xylem surrounded by phloem. round to oval polygonal. pitted with pointed ends. nearly smooth. aromatic.longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. in groups and rarely in singles. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. rectangular. Midrib .Rounded to oval. thin-walled. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. odour. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. each with one seed. pungent. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. corolla about 4 mm long. 0. elongated. 171 . phloem consists of sieve elements. taste.A group of 4 nutlets. parenchymatous cells. three vascular bundles situated centrally. phloem consisting of sieve elements. thin-walled. thin-walled. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. pubescent. occasionally a few cells collapsed. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. glandular trichomes short. fibres with pointed ends. Fruit .

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 2.7.2. parenchymatous cells. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin.2. palisade ratio 3. Tikta. CONSTITUENTS .6. Record Rf. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 .minutes Under observation. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. IDENTITY.Lamina . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Durgandhihara 172 . Appendix 1. On cooling spray. H¤dya.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.15 .2. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.8.2.C. 2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.3. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. V¡tahara. Eugenol (orange brown) approx.35. 2. a few containing reddish brown contents.4. of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). value 0.2. T. Appendix 10 per cent.Greenish: shows thin-walled.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 . Pittavardhin¢.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. thin walled fibres. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.Essential Oil. Appendix 4 per cent.C. Kaphahara. in thoroughly vanillin . values of eugenol and caryophyllence.5 per cent. oil globules.2. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. Powder . 2.1.L. rounded to oval. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. Appendix 2. Rf. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. Rucya. Appendix 8 per cent. slightly raised above the level of epidermis. vein islet number 31 .16 on lower surface.7. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. xylem vessels with pitted thickenings. RukÀa. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.

M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES .A¿mar¢. KuÀ¶ha. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). K¤miroga. Hikk¡.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. 173 . P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . áv¡sa. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana. K¡sa.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Netraroga. Chardi.

three vascular bundles situated centrally. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. obtuse or acute. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. pubescent on both surfaces. and 2-8 celled.. glandular trichomes short. much branched annual herb. K¤À¸atulas¢.) 30-60 cm high. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. thin. aromatic. uniseriate 1-8 celled long.73. characteristic. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled.6-3. Holy Basil Tulasi. middle one larger than the other two. hairy. entire or serrate. Tulasi (Lf. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. measuring 22-27 µ dia. Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Lamiaceae).shows cordate outline.2 cm wide. petiole 1. 1. LeafPetiole .5-3 cm long. taste. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. found throughout the country. (Fam. covering trichomes multicellular. petiolate. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. an erect. odour. elliptic-oblong. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells. balloon-shaped head. consisting of xylem and phloem.5-5 cm long. 174 b) Microscopic . sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. upper epidermis.

Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.04.12 (light green).83.C.54.93 (pink) & 0. 0. 0.08. 0.21.2. 0. Appendix per cent.8. 0.6. shows fragments of polygonal.33. 0.2.V.33 (both green) 0.2.98 (blue).7.4. Appendix per cent. 0.3. 0.75 (violet).98 (blue).08 (both green). 0. Under U.45 (violet).L. Lamina .2.04.30. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. Appendix per cent. 0. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf. palisade and spongy parenchyma.12. 175 .45. vein islet number 31-33. palisade ratio 3.L. 0.epidermis.45. T.2.08 (violet).2. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.04. stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf. 0. Caryophyllene.21 (brown). 0. 2.85 & 0.. Nerol and Camphene etc. 0.93 (violet) and 0. anomocytic and diacytic stomata. IDENTITY.C.03 (dark green). 0.83 (all pink) 0.12 (light violet). 0. 0.33.21.). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf.93 (all0 yellow). Appendix 2.Midrib . 2. Appendix per cent.85 (blue). 0.33 (violet). 0. Powder . 0. 0.54 (blue). 0. 0.75.Light-green. 0. 0.83 (blue).93 (both light green). 0. 2. 2. 0.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf.45 (yellowish green). except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.88 and 0.

K¤miroga. H¤dya.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Pittahara. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Tikta. Prati¿y¡ya. Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. K¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES .M¡nasamitra Va¶aka.Aruci. V¡tahara. KuÀ¶ha. 176 . Hikk¡.2-3 g. Kaphahara. áv¡sa. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. of the drug in powder form. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. RukÀa.

lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars. buff coloured intemally. broadly. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. Rhizome . at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. cells towards periphery. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. smaller.74. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. enclosing large air spaces. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. taste. thin-walled cells of various sizes.Shows single layered epidermis. Ghodavaca Vasambu.5-1. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. (Fam. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. somewhat collenchymatous. aromatic. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally.) semiaquatic herb. Gora-bach Baje. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. large.5 cm thick. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . Araceae). odour. fracture. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. Ugr¡. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. Vekhandas -Varch. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. Vacha (Rz. pungent and bitter. Ghodvach Bach. short. and 0. upper side marked with alternately arranged. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. triangular.

L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. present in cortex and ground tissue. Methanol-Yellowish green iv.Buff coloured.Yellowish-cream b.7. shows fibres. Eugenol and Asarone).2. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter. Powder . Appendix per cent. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. Starch and Tannin.C. reticulate. 2.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside).2. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS .region. 0.2.2. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. Appendix per cent. 178 . parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis.C.14 (violet) and 0. 2. spherical. Petroleum ether-No change ii. Appendix per cent. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. stele composed of round.L. Powder as such: .. Chloroform-Light green iii. starch grains simple. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. endodermis distinct. Extracts in i.3.4.2. 2. 2.6.2.2.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.10 T. Appendix per cent. Benzene-No change IDENTITY.

PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. DOSE . Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Tikta Laghu. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kar¸a Sr¡va. Apasm¡ra. V¡tahara. Ka¸¶hya. Medhya. Sm¤ti daurbalya. K¡sa. Kaphahara. C£r¸a.Vac¡di Taila. Unm¡da. 179 . K¤mihara. áv¡sa.á£la. Ëdhm¡na.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢.2 g. Khadir¡di Va¶¢. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila. Vibandha. 1. S¡rasvata. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use.

odour indistinct. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. Teliya Bish Basanalli. Vatsanabhi. without or with a few intercellular spaces. conical. cartilaginous. rough due to root scars. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. occasionally separated due to breakage. Naabhi Bachnak. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. roots are generally collected late in September. small portions of stem sometimes attached.8 cm thick. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. Ranunculaceae). in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. 0. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . fracture. Beesh. rarely 5 cm long. Basanaag Bisa. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Vatsanabha (Rt. Nabhi. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. papillose on outside. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. thin-walled. 2-4. ovoid.75. Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone.4 .5 cm. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. perennial herb. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Meethabisha.) (Fam. poisonous. Vatsanabhi. Vatsanabha.1. plant is an erect. taste. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas. suberised. Mithalelia. tapering downwards to a point. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. parenchymatous cells. dark brown to blackish-brown. Sth¡varaviÀa. Mahura. Bachhnaag.

Appendix 2. cambium having 6 10 angles.10. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. some scattered. Appendix 2 per cent. 0. 0. S £tasekhara Rasa. 0.39. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia. RukÀa. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia.C.L. Viyav¡yi.6.C. xylem exarch. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre.2. Sv®dala. Appendix 5.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring. CONSTITUENTS . containing a few groups of phloem strands. often forming 'V' shaped ring.5 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. Powder . Trid°Àahara. UÀ¸a. T. metaxylem vessels met in centre. shows vessels. Laghu. occupying more than half the radius. Appendix 8 per cent.56.2. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana.L. 2. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex.3. Appendix 24 per cent. present in cortical cells. enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . a few aseptate fibres. inner bark parenchymatous. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf. consisting of round to oval cells. ÙikÀ¸a.4. 2.20.96 (both orange). 0.2.7. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. 2.2. Anandabhairava Rasa.Light grey. 0. 2.96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour.2.endodermis.74 and 0.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. IDENTITY. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 . 0.39 and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa.2.

30 mgs of the drug in powder form. DOSE .15 . V¡takaphajvara.V¡taroga. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose. 182 .THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvar¡tis¡ra. Kanharoga. Sannip¡ta.

(Fam. Bhumikusmanda. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. Vid¡rik¡.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. Bhoikolu. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. sweetish. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root .76. Nelagumbala. Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. usually does not break. Vidari (Tub. thinwalled. thin-walled cells. but pliable. Nelagumbula. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. Gumadi belli. taste. stone cells moderately thick-walled. Fabaceae). Bhuikumra Vidari. starchy and somewhat porous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢. smooth except for protuberances at some places. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 .) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. cut surface creamish-brown. outer surface reddish-brown. Eagio. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root.Rt. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. Bhonykoru. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda.

2. and also rarely in stone cells. Stanyada. lignified with narrow lumen. Balya.13.13.and pits. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells.2.75 µ in dia. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala.5 . CONSTITUENTS . sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands. somewhat round. 2.. J¢van¢ya. V¡tahara.3.6.7. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. áoÀa. Appendix 4 per cent. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah). angular to oval. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements. Daurbalya.4. Pittahara. Svarya. fragments of cork. present in all parenchymatous cells. Angmarda. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. Appendix 24 per cent.2. of the drug in powder form.Buff coloured. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. Raktapitta. measuring 5.2.3-6 g. Appendix 4. radially elongated cells. M£trala. highly thickened.2. a few latex duct also present.2. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Powder . 2. Var¸ya.5 per cent. Appendix 17 per cent. distributed throughout this region. 2. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled.D¡ha. IDENTITY. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. DOSE . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Marma Gu¶ik¡. 184 . vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. Manmath¡bhra Rasa. Appendix 2.5 . phloem fibres much elongated. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Ras¡yana.Gluconic and Malic acids. having central hilum and striations.75 µ in dia.

Jav Barley Cheno. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. Yava (Fr. polygortal inner epidermal cells. seed coat appears as a colourless line. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. sweetish-acrid. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. cultivated chiefly in North India. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . (Fam. sclerenchymatous fibres. an annual. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau.3 cm wide.) Poaceae). oblong. 50-100 cm high. sativum Pers. Syn. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. followed by 2-3 layers. elliptic. square or quadrilateral. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. round to oval wavy walled cells. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. smooth. spongy parenchymatous cells. thick-walled. erect herb. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. pale-greenish-yellow. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. about 1 cm long and 0. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular.77. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. taste. H. ovoid-and tapering at both ends.2-0. odour. followed by more or less. not distinct.

IDENTITY. Appendix 4 per cent. 0. starch grains simple. M£trahara. 0. Fats. Var¸ya 186 . Lekhana.2. Medahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0.36.5 per cent. 0.06.2. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz.2. 2. 0.68. 0. round to oval. 2. shows groups of fragments of polygonal.72 (all pink. Appendix 2.L. sclerenchymatous fibres.53. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.92 (yellow). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.22. 0.10.10.65 & 0.68. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf. Globulin. 0. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view.31. Orientin. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.83 (all violet) and 0. 0. 0. 0. Powder .44.45.22. Vitexin etc.7 T. Appendix 1.C. Kaphahara.31. 2.4. Orientoside. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.2. and the rest starch layers. Sugars.83 and 0. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.92 (all grey).Creamish-white. 0.V. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.2. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.L. endosperm divided into two zones. 0.5 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2. 0. Pur¢Àak ¤t. 0.narrow lumens.) CONSTITUENTS . 0. Svarya.24.2. Sthairyakara. 0. 0. 0.2. simple starch grains.16.Starch.5 2. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. 0. Appendix 5.56. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf.C.14. 0.5 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. Proteins (Albumin.31. V¤Àya. V¡tak¤t. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. Pittahara. Appendix 2.6.3.

Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Dh¡nvantara Taila. Kanharoga. THERAPEUTIC USES . B¤hatm¡Àa Taila.100 . T¤À¸¡. P¢nasa. K¡sa.D¡dhika Gh¤ta.áv¡sa.200 g.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana. Gandharvahasta Taila. Medoroga. El¡dya Modaka. Tvagroga DOSE . Prameha. K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. of the drug. Urustambha. 187 .

dark brown. Leaf . Desv. terete. glabrous.Well developed. extipulate. alternate.2-1 cm thick. Punjab.P. filled with reddish-brown contents. elliptical. secondary and tertiary root absent. Y¡sa. 0. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. hard. 0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root .Cylindrical. slightly rough at basal region with slender. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida.78. no taste and odour.) Fabaceae). Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. Neladangara.5-0.5-1 cm long. Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan.7 cm broad. (Fam. 20-30 cm long and 0. stipules green. Stem . Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb). opposite. striate. gradually tapering.8 cm long. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa.1-1 cm thick. nearly 0. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. mucronate obtuse. fracture. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. ballidurabi. secondary cortex almost 188 . Yavasaka (W. short. sharp axillary spines upto 3. glabrous. Javasa. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole. cork cambium single layered. oblong. a small thorny shrub. Duralabha -Venkatithura. drooping. branched. radially arranged cork cells.Simple.

phloem composed of sieve elements. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. tracheids. filled with tannin. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. starch grains simple. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. xylem consists of vessels.absent. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. thin-walled. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. tracheids and fibres.Greenish-brown. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval. xylem consists of vessels. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. tracheids. hypodermis 2-3 layered. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. parenchymatous cells. Lamina . parenchymatous cells. Powder . xylem fibres. thin-walled. Midrib . pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin. some cells filled with tannin. parenchyma and fibres.appears biconvex in outline. elongated.5. some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin.5-14. pitted vessels. round and oval starch grains measuring 5.75 µ in dia. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. 189 . hypodermis 1-2 layered. simple. xylem situated above phlome. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. tangentially elongated cells. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. Leaf- Petiole .14. parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. tanniniferous cells. filled with tannin. angular. a few with thick wall and simple pits. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. Stem . phloem composed of sieve elements. epidermis single layered. fibres. pericycle present in form of fibre groups.75 µ in diameter. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. 3-45 cells long. present throughout the region. pith composed of a few thin-walled. rounded to oval. covered externally with thick cuticle.appears circular in outline.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. vascular bundle collateral. 5. covered with cuticle. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.

2. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .20 . V¡tarakta.5 per cent. Appendix 2. Appendix 10 per cent. Jvara.Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. CONSTITUENTS .2. Raktapitta.Chardi. 2. Visarpa DOSE . D¢pana.2. Invert Sugars). Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.50 g.2. K¡sa.2.2. T¤À¸¡. Arimed¡di Taila. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. 190 . Appendix 13. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.Sugars (Melizitose. Appendix 2 per cent.4.6. Tikta.7. 2. Sucrose. Appendix 2.IDENTITY.3. of the drug in powder form for decoction. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Kaphahara. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.5 per cent.