P. 1
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Vol 2

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Vol 2

|Views: 504|Likes:
Published by shilpa_deshpande_6

More info:

Published by: shilpa_deshpande_6 on May 26, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/05/2013

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • 1. Akarakarabha (Rt.)
  • 2. Akshoda (Cotldn.)
  • 3. Amrata (St.Bk.)
  • 4. Apamarga (W.P.)
  • 5. Aparajita (Rt.)
  • 6. Ardraka (Rz.)
  • 7. Arimeda (St.Bk.)
  • 9. Bhallataka (Fr.)
  • 10. Bhringaraja (W.P.)
  • 11. Brahmi (W.P.)
  • 12. Brihati (Rt.)
  • 13. Chavya (St.)
  • 14. Dadima (Sd.)
  • 15. Daruharidra (St.)
  • 16. Dronapushpi (W.P.)
  • 17. Ervaru (Sd.)
  • 18. Gajapippali (Fr.)
  • 19. Gambhari (Fr.)
  • 20. Gangeru (St.Bk.)
  • 21. Gunja (Rt.)
  • 22. Ikshu (St.)
  • 23. Indravaruni (Rt.)
  • 24. Indravaruni (Lf .)
  • 25. Jambu (Sd.)
  • 26. Jambu (St.Bk.)
  • 27. Jayapala (Sd.)
  • 28. Jayanti (Lf.)
  • 29. Jyotishmati (Sd.)
  • 30. Kadamba (St.Bk.)
  • 31. Kakamachi (W.P.)
  • 32. Kamala (Fl.)
  • 33. Kapittha (Fr. Pulp.)
  • 34. Karamarda (St.Bk.)
  • 35. Karanja (Rt. Bk.)
  • 36. Karanja (Rt.)
  • 37. Karanja (St.Bk.)
  • 38. Karanja (Lf.)
  • 39. Karavallaka (Fresh.Fr.)
  • 40. Katuka (Rz.)
  • 41. Kokilaksha (W.P.)
  • 42. Kokilaksha (Rt.)
  • 43. Kokilaksha (Sd.)
  • 44. Kuzuppa (W.P)
  • 45. Lajjalu (W.P)
  • 46. Madhuka (Fl.)
  • 47. Matshyakshi (W.P.)
  • 48. Methi (Sd.)
  • 49. Mulaka (W.P.)
  • 50. Mulaka (Rt.)
  • 51. Mura (Rt.)
  • 52. Murva (Rt.)
  • 53. Nagakesar (Stmn.)
  • 54. Nili (Lf.)
  • 55. Nili (Rt.)
  • 56. Nimba (Lf.)
  • 57. Nimba (St.Bk)
  • 58. Palasha (St.Bk)
  • 59. Paribhadra (St.Bk)
  • 60. Pippali mula (Stm.)
  • 61. Plaksha (St.Bk)
  • 62. Prasarini (W.P.)
  • 63. Priyala (Sd.)
  • 64. Priyangu (Infl.)
  • 65. Shali (Rt.)
  • 66. Sankha pushpin (W.P.)
  • 67. Saptala (W.P.)
  • 68. Satahva (Fr.)
  • 69. Shigru (Lf.)
  • 70. Sthulaela (Sd.)
  • 71. Tejovati (St.Bk.)
  • 72. Tulasi (W.P.)
  • 73. Tulasi (Lf.)
  • 74. Vacha (Rz.)
  • 75. Vatsanabha (Rt.)
  • 76. Vidari (Tub.Rt.)
  • 77. Yava (Fr.)
  • 78. Yavasaka (W.P.)

THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART- I VOLUME – II

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices

Legal Notices | General Notices
Note: This e-Book contains Computer Database generated Monographs which are reproduced from official publication. The order of contents under the sections of Synonyms, Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma, Formulations, Therapeutic uses may be shuffled, but the contents are same from the original source. However, in case of doubt, the user is advised to refer the official book.

i

CONTENTS
Legal Notices General Notices MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name Page No.
(as per book)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) APARËJITË (Root) ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) ARJUNA (Stem Bark) BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) 12. BÎHATÌ (Root) CAVYA (Stem) DËÚIMA (Seed) DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) ERVËRU (Seed)

18 GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) 19 GAMBHARI (Fruit) 20 GË×GERU (Stem bark) 21 GUØJË (Root) 22 IKâU (Stem)

Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Juglans regia Linn Spondias pinnata Linn.f.Kurz. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Clitoria ternatea Linn Zingiber officinale Rosc Acacia leucophloea Willd. Terminalia arjuna W& A. Semecarpus anacardium Linn Eclipta alba Hassk Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Solanum indicum Linn Piper retrofractum Vahl. Punica granatum Linn Berberis aristata DC Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Cucumis melo var utlissimus Duthie & Fuller Scindapsus officinalis Schooott Gmelina arborea Roxb Grewia tenax (Forsk.) Aschers & Schwf. Abrus precatorius Linn Saccharum officnarum Linn
ii

1 3 5 7 10 12 15 17 19 21 25 27 29 31 33 35 38 40 42 44 46 48

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) JAMBÍ (Seed) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) JAYAPËLA (Seed) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) KAMALA (Flower) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Root Bark) KARAØJA (Root) KARAØJA (Stem Bark) KARAØJA (Leaf) KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) KOKILËKâË (Root) KOKILËKâË (Seed) KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) MADHÍKA (Flower) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) METHÌ (Seed) MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) MÍLAKA (Root)

Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Citrullus colocynthus Schrad Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Syzygium cuminii (Linn) Skeels Croton tiglium Linn Sesbania sesban (Linn) Merr Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Anthocephalus cadamba Miz Solanum nugrum Linn Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Feronia linonia (Linn.) Swingle Carissa carandas Linn Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Pongamia pinnata (Linn) Merr. Momordica charantia Linn Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Asteracantha longifolia Nees Portulaca oleracea Linn. Mimosa pudica Linn Madhuca indical J.F.Gmel Alteranthera sessalis (Lilnn.) R.Br Trigonella foenum –graecum Linn Raphanus sativus Linn Raphanus sativus Linn
iii

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 91 93 95 98 102 104 107 109 113

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

MURË (Root) MURVË (Root) NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) NÌLÌ (Leaf) NÌLÌ (Root) NIMBA (Leaf) NIMBA (Stem Bark) PALËSA (Stem Bark) PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem) PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) PRIYËLA (Seed) PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) áËLÌ (Root) áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) SAPTALË (Whole Plant) áATËHVË (Root) áIGRU (Leaf) STHÍLAILË (Seed) TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) TULASÌ (Whole Plant) TULASÌ (Leaf) VACË (Rhizome) VATSANËBHA (Root)

76 VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) 77 YAVA (Fruit)

Selinum candollei DC Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & ARn Mesua ferrea Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Indigofera tinctoria Linn Azadirachta indica A. Juss Azaduracgta ubduca A.Juss Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze Erythrina indica Lam Piper longum Linn Ficus lacor Buch. Ham Paedaria foetida Linn Buchnania lanzan Spreng. Calicarpa macrophylla Vahl Oryza sativa Linn Convolvulvus pluricaulis Choisy Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam Anethum sowa Roxb.ex Flem . Moringa oleifera Lam Amomum subulatum Roxb Zanthoxylum armatum DC Ocimum sanctum Linn Ocimum sanctum Linn Acorus calamus Linn Aconitum chasmanthum Staph Ex Holmes Puraria tuberose DC Hordeum vulgare Linn
iv

114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 135 133 137 137 143 143 145 147 150 153 155 158 160 162 165 168 171 173 175

1 Testing Drugs 2.1.1.5-Determination of Palisade Ratio 2.8-Determination o of Ether Soluble Extractive (Fixed Oil Content) 2.2.2 Determination of Quantitative Data of Vegetable Drugs 2.12-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) v .5-Determination of Water Soluble Ash 2.7-Determination of Water Soluble Extractive 2.2.11-b-Tests for Complete Extraction of Alkaloids 2.2.Weights and Balances Appendix-2 2.4.78 YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Appendix-1 Alathi pseudalhagi (Bieb.11-Special Processes used in Alkaloidal Assays 2.9-Determination of Moisture Content (Loss on Drying) 2.1-Nessler Cylinder.1.3-Determination of Total Ash 2.4-Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash 2.2.2.1.2-Sieves 1.1.3.2.1-Sampling of drugs 2.1.1.1.6-Determination of Alcohol soluble Extractive 2.1.Microscopic methods of Examining Crude Vegetable Drugs 2.7-Determination of Stomatal Number 2.2.Systematic Study of Crude Drugs 2.5.1.11-a-Continuous Extraction of Drugs 2.2-Thermometers 1.) Desv 177 1. 1.2.1.2.Determination of Stomatal Index 2.2.2.1.10-Determination of Volatile Oil in Drugs 2.Foreign Matter and Determination of Foreign matter 2.2.1.6-Determination of Vein –Islet Number 2.2.2.4-Volumetric Glassware 1.Types of Stomata 2.2.2.1 Apparatus for Tests and Assays 1.

2.6 Classical Ayurvedic References Index English equivalents of Ayurvedic clinical conditions and diseases vi .5-Limit Test for lead 2.3.3-Limit Test for Heavy Metals 2.2.3.3.3-Weight per milliliter and Specific Gravity Appendix-4 4.Weights and Measures 5.3.2-Refractive Index 2.3 Limit Tests 2.2-Limit Test for Chlorides 2.3.3.1.7-Limit Test for Sulphates Appendix-3 3.1.Limit Test for Arsenic 2.3.3.4-Limit Test for Iron 2.3.1-Powder Fineness 2.approximate Equivalents of Doses in Indian System and Metric System Appendix.1 Physical Tests and determinations 2.1 Reagents and Solutions Appendix-5 5.6-Sulphated Ash 2.3.

II would be official. Part-I. 1919 and the rules framed thereunder should be consulted. II.).I. 1940 (subsequently amended in 1964 and 1982). would be deemed to have been amended vii . is the book of standards for single drugs included therein and the standards prescribed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Whenever such amendments are issued the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. 1930 and the Poisons Act. Part-I. Part-I. Vol.P. Vol. In general. the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. Vol. These monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed by these laws wherever they are applicable. the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. II.LEGAL NOTICES In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs which follow. It is expedient that enquiry be made in each case in order to ensure that the provisions of the law are being complied with. Under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. the Dangerous Drugs Act. If considered necessary these standards can be amended and the Chairman of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such amendments. accordingly.

Weights and Measures . it is described as having odour.Wherever the powdering of the drug has been required the sieve “Mesh Number 85” has been used. The “odour” is examined by directly smelling 25 g of the powdered drug contained in a package or freshly powdered. scientific name of the drug in Latin with short description about its habit. indicated in monograph. substances or processes described in Appendix. the measurement is to be made by means of a tube.Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents. The official name will be the main title of the drug and its scientific name will also be considered as legal name. scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states. English. Fluid measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre (ml). When the term “drop” is used. if any.The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India . viii . If the odour persists to be discernible. Urdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the classical texts.The title of the book is “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Name of the Drugs . The Latin name (taxonomical nomenclature) of each drug as found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the introductory paragraph. Italics . These names have been arranged in English alphabetical order.Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit.Wherever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned but the description as ‘odourless’ or ‘no odour’ has in many cases been avoided in the description. Purity and Strength . The “Taste” of a drug is examined by taking a small quantity of 85 mesh powder by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed with water. Part-I and Part-II will be considered official. Weights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme (g) or of a milligram (mg).GENERAL NOTICES Title . as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour. Synonyms .The metric system of weights and measures is employed.Under the heading “Identification” tests are provided as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs. Odour and Taste . If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open container and re-examined after 15 minutes. This may not be done in case if poisonous drugs. Metric measures are required by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at 20oC and all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are intended. Part-I and Part-II as procured from the experts. Hindi. distribution and method of collection. Identity. Mesh Number . Introductory Para . Ayurvedic Formulary of India. which delivers in 20 drops 1 gram of distilled water at 15oC.Each monograph begins with an introductory paragraph indicating the part. unless otherwise stated to be made at that temperature. This will not apply for drugs containing much oily substance.

and show no abnormal odour. the analyst may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied that the method which he uses. methods are not repeated in the text of monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendix is given. Percentage of Solutions . Quantities to be weighed for Assays and Tests . Per cent w/w (percentage weight in weight) expresses the number of grammes of active substance. pests.0 mg per g of the substance taken for the determination. and Identity. The methods for assays are described in their respective monographs and for other quantitative tests. according to circumstances. Limits for Heavy Metals – All Ayurvedic Drugs (Single/Compound formulation) must comply with the limits for Heavy Metals prescribed in individual Monograph and wherever limit is not given then they must comply with the limits given in WHO publication “Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants and Material”.Under this head.C. in the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone authoritative. Thin Layer Chromatography (T. be within the permitted and specified limits for lead. acid-insoluble ash. shall constitute standards. ether-soluble extractive. statements appearing in the API. The quantitative tests e. even by applying known reference standards. fungi. alcohol-soluble extractive. which he uses.In defining standards. is used.g. Purity and Strength.The term “Foreign Matter” is used to designate any matter. will give the same result as the Pharmacopoeial Method. the number of spots and Rf values of the spots with their colour have been mentioned as a guide for identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial requirement. The amount stated is approximate but the quantity actually used must be accurately weighed and must not deviate by more than 10 per cent from the one stated.For statutory purpose.In all description quantity of the substance to be taken for testing is indicated. volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon which the standards of Pharmacopoeia depend. However. Constant Weight . However. the second weighing following an additional hour of drying on further ignition. water.) . under Description. arsenic and heavy metals. V. in 100 grammes of product.the term “Constant Weight” when it refers to drying or ignition means that two consecutive weighings do not differ by more than 1.soluble extractive. sliminess. pesticides. water-soluble ash. with one of the four meanings given below. mould or other evidence of deterioration. Vegetable drugs used as such or in formulations. wherever given. Standards . colour.Under this head only the names of important chemical constituents. total ash. Constituents . moisture content. will give better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to be present in the drug.L. The analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is satisfied that the method. groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide and not as pharmacopoeial requirement. should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects. which does not form part of the drug as defined in the monograph. In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis. and other animal matter including animal excreta. micro-organisms. the expression per cent (%). ix . Part-I. those of definition of the part and source plants. Vol. if of equivalent accuracy. may be substituted for the tests and assays described.

Per cent v/v (percentage volume in volume) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. Statements of approximate solubilities for which no figures are given. Per cent v/w (percentage volume in weight) expresses the number of millilitres of active substance in 100 grammes of product. Pharmacopoeial chemicals when dissolved may show slight physical impurities.Unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph. Solubility .Per cent w/v (Percentage weight in volume) expresses the number of grammes of active substance in 100 millilitres of product. it is to be understood to mean that 1 gramme of a solid or 1 millilitre of a liquid is soluble in that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts. Percentage of alcohol . Reagents and Solutions . When the expression “parts” is used in defining the solubility of a substance. are intended to apply at that temperature.The chemicals and reagents required for the test in Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices. thermometric scale.000 parts More than 10.56 oC. Statements of solubilities. Temperature . unless excluded by definite tests in the individual monographs.000 parts x . Solutions . and dust particles. a descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility.Unless otherwise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade (celsius). such as fragment of filter papers. The following table indicates the meaning of such terms :Descriptive terms Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble Relative quantities of solvent Less than 1 part From 1 to 10 parts From 10 to 30 parts From 30 to 100 parts From 100 to 1000 parts From 1000 to 10. at a stated temperature. which are expressed as a precise relation of weights of dissolved substance of volume of solvent. When the exact solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not known. all solutions are prepared with purified water. are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature.When stating the solubilities of Chemical substances the term “Soluble” is necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical changes.All statements of percentage of alcohol (C2H5OH) refer to percentage by volume at 15. fibres.

The abbreviations commonly employed are as follows: m.) are intended merely for general guidance and represent. A conversion table is appended giving classical weights of Ayurvedic System of Medicine with their metric equivalents. Kg. g. Doses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (A. PS.1 N. It is to be noted that the relation between doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set forth in the text is of approximate equivalence.Therapeutic uses and important formulations –Therapeutic uses and important formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are.P.I. unless otherwise stated.001 mm) Kilogram Gramme Milligram Millilitre Normal solution Half-normal solution Decinormal solution Molar solution Family Primary Standards Transverse Section xi . mm. Abbreviations of technical terms Metre Litre Millimetre Centimetre Micron (0. IN. ml. 0. These quantities are for convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes. TS. 0. as provided in the recognised Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India. cm. µ. which are the approximate conversions from classical weights mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Fam. Doses – The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of weights. l. mg. the average range of quantities per dose which is generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only when administered orally. 1M.5 N. Part –I and Part-II.

Sansk. Ori. Eng. Ht. Punj. xii . Lf. Guj. Fr. Kan. Beng. Tel. Mal. Wh. Kash. Pseudo-bulb Rt. Wd. Pl. Flower Fruit Heart Wood Leaf Pseudo-bulb Root Bark Root Rhizome Seed Stem Bark Stem Tuberous Root Wood Whole Plant Fl. Abbreviations used for Languages Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu ABBREVIATIONS FOR PARTS OF PLANTS Cotyledon Cotldn. St. Rt. Bk. Assam. Wd. Bk. Tub. St. Tam. Rz. Rt. Mar. Sd.

231 µ in 1 . secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. more or less in groups distributed throughout xylem. (Fam. odour.) ËKËRAKARABHA (Root) Ëk¡rakarabha consists of dried roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. secondary xylem very wide consisting of xylem vessels. b) Microscopic Root . bark upto 3 mm thick.Mature root shows cork consisting of tabular cells. a few sclerenchymatous cells also found scattered in secondary cortex. not easily separable. external surface rough.8 µ in width. hairy herb with numerous spreading prostrate or ascending branched stems. Akarakarabha (Rt. Akkarakaram Akkalakarra Aqaraqarha DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots tough. more and wider vessels found towards peripery. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëkallaka -Akarakara Pellitory Akkalkaro. Akkalakada Akarakara Akarakarabh. with a few hairy rootlets and occasionally topped by bristly remains of leaves. cylindrical. cambium 2-5 layered. characteristically astringent and pungent. 1. taste. many of which developed as sclerenchyma. Asteraceae). Akallakara. Akalakarabha. shrivelled. secondary cortex consisting of isodiametric or tangentially. parenchymatous cells. Akkallaka Hommugulu -Akikaruka.37-28. a few innercork cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. brown.1. an annual. Akravu Akkalakara. vessels pitted. tracheids and xylem parenchyma. on chewing gives tingling sensation to tongue and lips and causes excessive flow of saliva.2 . thin-walled. tapering slightly at both ends. 53. slightly aromatic. Akkalgaro Akalkara Akkallakara. xylem fibres thick-walled. elongated. Akarakara Akkaraka. 7-15 cm in length.

Ash coloured. á£laroga. 2. Appendix 2 percent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. of the drug in powder form.2.2. Appendix 2. ray cells thick-walled. Balak¡rka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not More than 2 percent. radially elongated.5 -1 g. Appendix 8 percent. V¡jikara. 2. Appendix 10 percent. 2. Appendix 22 percent. secondary phloem and medullary rays. Kaphahara.4. Kast£ry¡di (V¡yu) Gu¶ik¡.Kum¡ry¡sava. oleo-resinous schizogenous glands found scattered in secondary cortex.6. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara.2. starting from primary xylem and reaching upto secondary cortex.Prati¿y¡ya. N¡gavallabha Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . bi to tri and multiseriate. 2 . D¢pana. áotha. áukrala.length having narrow lumen. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of sclerenchyma. K¡sa. Udararoga. PakÀ¡gh¡ta. NaÀ¶¡rtava. Svedakara. 2. Buddhivardhaka. áv¡sa. shows vessels having scalariform thickening. inulin present in cells of secondary cortex. IDENTITY. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette form present in secondary cortex. Grdhras¢. uniseriate rays very rare. medullary rays numerous. also gives positive tests for inulin.2. Pittahara. Aj¢rna. CONSTITUENTS . Danta¿£la DOSE . Powder .Volatile oil and Alkaloid (Pyrethrin). secondary xylem and medullary ray cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u RukÀa. running straight.3. secondary phloem.2.2.0. secondary phloem and medullary rays.

under this. thin-walled. followed by more or less compressed. small aleurone grains and fat present in endosperm and cotyledons. shows groups of cells of cotyledon. monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. coriaceous. parenchymatous cells. Karparala Akalbasing Aakharotu Walnut Akharoda Akharot Akrod pappu -Akrottu Akrod Akhrot Akharota Akrotu Akrotu Akhrot AKâOÚA (Cotyledon) AkÀo·a consists of dried cotyledons of Juglans regia Linn. paranchymatous cells having vascular bundles.Shows 1-2 layered. endosperm mostly single layered. Akshoda (Cotldn. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Cotyledons available in 2-3 cm long. radially elongated. thin-walled. cotyledons consisting of a wide zone of oval to polygonal. parenchymatous cells.) large deciduous. collapsed. Juglandaceae). raised stomata with more or less curved guard cells. Powder . taste. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AkÀo¶a. not distinct. irregularly corrugated. creamish-brown. (Fam. odour. 3 . broken pieces. abundance of round oil globules and rarely vessels. Sailabhava.2. Cotyledon . oily sweet. found throughout the Himalayas upto an altitude of 900-3300 m.Cream coloured. slightly curved. indistinct tangentially elongated cells present.

2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. V¤Àya.7. Appendix Not less than 7.6. Appendix Not more than 0. Sara.2. Snigdha UÀ¸a Madhura V¡tahara. Kaphakara. 2.2.0 percent. áukral. ViÀ¶ambhi. 4 . KÀaya.2. Appendix Not more than 2 percent. THERAPEUTIC USES . DOSE .5 percent.10 . 2. B¤´ha¸a.Am¥tapr¡¿a Gh¤ta. 2. H ¤dya Not more than 5 percent. Balya.0 percent.Walnut oil and Tannin.KÀata.2. Appendix Not less than 10. V¡taroga.25 g. CONSTITUENTS .IDENTITY.4.3.2.

S.Bk. Amrata (St. Anbalamu. Ranambo Ambada. Ambado -Amada Mambulichi Amputtai. consisting of tangentially elongated. with reddish-brown contents. Amra. Syn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ëmr¡taka. Stem Bark. Ambazham. Amra Indian Hog Plum.Mature bark shows cork as a wide zone of 15-25 rows. which are thick-walled towards periphery. Anacardiaceae). Marka¶¡mra -Amada. external surface smooth. secondary cortex consisting of tangentially elongated.5 m in girth..3. and 5 . a small aromatic. acuminata Roxb. deciduous tree. Ambado. internal surface reddish-yellow. first followed by a zone of compactly arranged cells filled with rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and next by another wider zone of compactly arranged stone cells. thin. grey having lenticels. laminated. rest of the cells following the stone cell zone are thin-walled. fracture. non Gamble (Fam. tangentially elongated. Kurz. Ambalam. found wild or cultivated almost throughout the country and in the Andamans ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Mampuiti. upto 27 m high and 2. Jangli Aam Ambate. f. parenchymatous cells. Amvara -Mampusli.) ËMRËTA (Stem Bark) Ëmr¡ta consists of dried stem bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. Jangali Ambo. mangifera Willd. radially arranged. Ranamba. thin-walled cells. Ampozham Njettikuzhiyan mavu. S. Ambadam Amratakamu. Wild Mango Ambeda. curved. parenchymatous. Adavimamidi Jangli Aam DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Drug occurs in the form of 2-7 cm long cut pieces. a few outer cells exfoliated.

2. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands. simple.40 and 0. IDENTITY. phloem fibres measuring 800-1000 µ in length and 14-28 µ in width.L. THERAPEUTIC USES . KÀaya. similar to those found scattered in secondary cortex. 0.C. ËmadoÀahara H ¤dya. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone is visible at Rf.96. KaÀ¡ya Guna : Guru.(greyish brown).also rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.96 (blue). Vahnikara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. prominent lysogenous cavities are present. phloem parenchyma consisting of thin walled cells.6. Appendix 2. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements.Tannin and Starch PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Amla.. 0.87 (all greyish brown). CONSTITUENTS . of the drug in powder form for decoction. Appendix Not less than 7 per cent. V¡tahara. Raktapitta. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 6 . Powder . 0. Pittakara. Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : -Karma : Kaphakara. lignified.33. Appendix Not more than 0.C.5-10 g. Ka¸¶hya.Light brown. 2. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent. Rucik¤t. containing rosette crystals and starch grains. 2. shows cork cells.2.7. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C three spots appear at Rf.V. 2. thick-walled. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4:1 :5) shows three spots at Rf.5 per cent.75-14 µ in dia. round to oval starch grains measuring 2.33.KÀata. Under U.3.87 (blue) and 0. T. 0. alternating with the patches of phloem fibres.4. 2. stone cells. Not more than 1 per cent. surrounded by a number of tannin sacs. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous rounded to oval starch grains. 0. Appendix Not more than 13 per cent. D¡ha DOSE .2.2.L.2.2. a few prismatic crystals present in this zone.

free. numerous. filament short. bisexual. anther. membranous. (Fam. bracteate with two bracteoles. cylindrical. hypogynous.Simple.P. Leaf . contorted or quincuncial. Latjira Uttarani -Katalati Aghada -Puthakanda Nayuruvi Uttarenu Chirchita APËMËRGA (Whole Plant) Ap¡m¡rga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. yellowish-brown. Kharamaµjar.0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . exstipulate. erect. odour.0 cm in thickness. obovate.Cylindrical tap root. Stem . subsessile. branched. a stiff. perianth segments 5. rough due to presence of some root scars. dorsifixed. slightly acuminate and pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. found commonly as a weed throughout India up to 900 m.0. greenish-white. the perianth lobes.9 m high herb. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : May£ra.1-1. PratyakpuÀpa. secondary and tertiary roots present. yellowish-brown.3-0.) Amaranthaceae). wavy margin.4.5 cm in cut pieces. May£raka. slightly ribbed. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. áikhari -Apamg Prickly Chaff Flower Aghedo Chirchita. 7 .3 . Apamarga (W. actinomorphic. 0. solid. erect. opposite. 0. decussate. Flower . two celled. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure. hairy. not distinct. sessile. gradually tapering. stamens 5. opposite. one spine lipped. hollow when dry.

4-5 vascular bundle situated in mid region. syncarpous. secondary cortex consisting of 6-9 layers.Shows crescent-shaped outline.Shows a single layered epidermis. Fruit . secondary phloem consisting of usual elements form incomplete rings. thin-walled cork cells. Stem . style. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 2-5 celled. micro-sphenoidal silica crystals present in some epidermal. either separate throughout or found in some cases. capitate. present in pith. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma. Midrib . parenchymatous cells. Seed .Mature root shows 3-8 layered. truncate at the apex. thin-walled.Sub-cylindric. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. xylem composed of usual elements. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. endospermic. demarcating the xylem rings. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. single. cortex 6-10 layered. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. spiral. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4-6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. oval to rectangular. vessels annular. vessels simple pitted. b) Microscopic Root . lignified. epidermis single layered. ovary superior. 3-4 celled stalk. cortical and pith cells.gynoecium bicarpellary. followed by 4-6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues.Young stem shows 6-10 prominent ridges. rectangular.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. composed of parenchymatous cells. stigma. brown. parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. epidermis followed by 4-5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2-3 layered on lower side. LeafPetiole . having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. on both surfaces. ground tissues consisting of thin-walled. secondary xylem consisting of usual elements. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. perianth and bracteoles. fibres being absent. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head. followed 8 . fibres pitted. unilocular with single ovule. elongated. which diminish downwards upto the base where it becomes almost cylindrical. round at the base. two medullary bundles. scalariform and pitted. tangentially elongated. thin-walled cork cells. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. thin layers of cambium.

scalariform and pitted thickening.20-50 g. P¡cana. Ka¸·u. mm. palisade ratio 7.2.2.0-11. slightly elongated in upper. Powder .Shows single layered. 2. more or less isodiametic parenchymatous cells.2.0 on lower surface. Appendix Not more than 5 per cent. of the drug for decoction.6. spiral. stomata anisocytic and anomoacytic in both surface. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2-3 layers of thick-walled. Apac¢.2. 2. Appendix Not less than 2 per cent. idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.7. JyotiÀmati Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 2. Appendix Not less than 12 per cent.Light yellow. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces.2. V¡maka. Medoroga DOSE . Abhay¡ Lava¸a. áirovirecana Not more than 2 per cent. vein islet number 7-13 per sq. 2. Udara Roga. Medohara. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 9 .0-20. shows fragments of elongated.Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra. rectangular.0 on upper surface.á£la. Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. Ar¿a.3. Tikta Sara. vessels with annular. IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. stomatal index 4. palisade 2-4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . spongy parenchyma 3-5 layers thick. 9. aseptate fibres. Appendix 2. Gu·apippali. Ap¡m¡rgakÀ¡ra Taila. V¡tahara.Saponins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.4.5-9. non-lignified cells. Lamina . Kaphahara. thin-walled epidermal cells.2. Chedana. while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. uniseriate hair with bulbous base.

single or groups of 2-10 lignified cortical fibres. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Kakkanam Dintena -- APARËJITË (Root) Apar¡jit¡ consists of dried root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. ViÀ¸ukr¡nt¡ Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. (Fam. found throughout the tropical regions of the country being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. Aparajita (Rt. mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. polygonal. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. Fabaceae). lightbrown. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. bitter. a few showing slit-like pits. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips.Shows 10-20 or more layers of rectangular. 1-5 mm in thickness. secondary cortex consists of 10-12 rows of large. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. thin-walled. very long. medullary 10 . a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches.5. vessels pitted with oblong. fibrous. b) Microscopic Root . taste. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. colour. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Girikar¸ik¡. bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end.) perennial climber with slender downy stem. a few solitary fibres also present. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres. fracture. Girikarnika -Shankhapushapam Gokarna. thin walled cells filled with starch grains. cylindrical. phloem fibres 2-8 in groups.

V¡tarakt¡ntaka Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . CakÀuÀya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. T. Buddhiprada. Pittahara. Tikta. Medhya.1 . 0. 0. Appendix per cent.. phloem and xylem parenchyma.4. M£traroga.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 5 2 5 8 per cent. 0. 0.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. KuÀ¶ha. 11 .2. 2..C.C.6. Powder .3. Appendix 2. of the drug in powder form.3 g. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf.79 (grey). shows simple and compound starch grains. Resin. Vra¸a DOSE .V. single grains measuring 3-13 µ in dia. found in secondary cortex. KaÀ¡ya -á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸¶hya. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2-6 components.á£la. On exposure to Iodine vapour two spots appear at Rf. Kaphahara. ViÀahara.79 (blue).Mi¿raka Sneha. (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf.2. áotha. IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS .2. measuring 3-13 µ in dia. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent.rays 1-5 cells wide. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Taraxerol & Taraxerone.79 (dull yellow) in visible light.7.2.79 (both yellow). Appendix per cent. oblong and pitted.Yellowish-brown.L. V¡tahara. Under U. On spraying with 10% aqueous solution of Ferric Chloride and heating the plate at 105° C for about fifteen minutes one spots appears at Rf.Tannin.2. vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.54 and 0. Starch. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.

taste. Hasishunti -Inchi Ardrak. Ale -Adi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka¶ubhadra. radially arranged cells of inner cork. Rhizomes are dug in January-February. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. short with projecting fibres. gingery. ᤴgavera -Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. Adrak Injee.5-6. fracture. lakottai.5 cm wide (usually 3-4 cm) and 1-1. brown cells of outer cork and 6-12 rows of thin-walled. Allam Adrak ËRDRAKA (Rhizome) Ërdraka consists of fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with striations and hilum at one end with clear concentric striations.) Zingiberaceae). reaching up to 90 cm in height. widely cultivated in India. Inji Allamu.5 cm thick. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. odour. isodiametric. 1. (Fam. measuring 5-25µ in 12 b) Microscopic .6. pungent Rhizome . Allam. tangentially elongated. thin-walled. irregularly arranged. oblique branches on upper side. pieces 5-15 cm long. Ardraka (Rz.Shows a few layered. buds and roots are removed and washed well. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. colourless. each having a depressed scar at its apex.

Powder -Light yellow. filled with abundant starch grains. 2.2. vessels showing reticulate.l6 (brownish violet).47 (light violet).47.4. and sesquiterpene like zingiberene. 2.35 (light violet). conjoint. Appendix 1 per cent. 0.16 (blue). 0. numerous closed.63 (grey) & 0. Appendix 8 per cent.08 (violet). parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma.13.69. Appendix 2.16. 2. free from starch. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. endodermis single layered. 0. measuring 5-25 µ in diameter.69 (grey). 0. reticulate and spiral vessels.9 T. vessels 2-5 in number. gingerosol in the oleo-resin. 0.76.2. larger bundles consists of 2.63. 0. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf.69 (all light yellow).35.L.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content T. 0. composed of xylem. 13 .69 (light violet). small cells of sieve tube. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9: 1) in visible light four spots are seen at Rf 0.2. 0. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. Appendix 90 per cent. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. 2. elongated pits on their walls.08. 0.7. CONSTITUENTS . oleo-resin cells abundent.92 (violet). 0. IDENTITY. 0.63 & 0.V. collateral.2.7 vessels.92 (all yellow). Appendix 2 per cent. 0.2. On spraying with Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate for ten minutes at 110°C eight spots appear at Rf.76 (violet) & 0.35.3.dia. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele.Volatile Oil containing Cineole zingiberol. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. 0.2.6. bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene. 0. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum.C. 0. Under U. walls of oil cells suberised. Appendix 5 per cent. cortical fibro-vascular bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. scalariforrn and spiral thickening. 0.03.16.63 (light violet).L. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex.5 per cent. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 0. 2. 0. 0. fibrovascular bundles of two types. isodiametric cells of parenchyma.C. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. 0.83 & 0.. shows thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 0. phloem. septate fibres with oblique.

V ¤Àaya. H¤dya. RukÀa. Vibandha. 14 . DOSE . Ka¸tharoga.á£la. áopha. Kaphahara. Ën¡ha. Svarya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. Bhedana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Ërdraka Kha¸·¡valeha. V¡tahara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Guru. THERAPEUTIC USES . Rocana. S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a.2-3 ml of the drug in juice form with honey.

Bk. Fabaceae). Arimeda (St. found in the plains of Punjab and in the dry forest tracts throughout the country. incurved. Haribaval Arimeda --Karivelam. traversed by multiseriate medullary rays. characteristic of dry regions. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature bark 0. thinwalled cortical cells. Velvelam. externally yellowish-grey or almost black and longitudinally fissured. Pilobaval. stone cells and phloem cells. odour and taste. Vi·khadir -Guyababla. cork consisting of 4-8 layers of thin-walled. fibres and crystal fibres.) a moderate-sized deciduous tree. (Fam. phloem parenchyma thin-walled some cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of sieve elements. internal surface longitudinally striated and fibrous. upto 3 m in height. Sadabala -Haramibaval. rough. internally light brown to reddish-brown. Velvelakam Pandal Babal Arimeda -Velvelam -Guar babool ARIMEDA (Stem Bark) Arimeda consists of dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea Willd. sieve elements get collapsed in outer and middle region forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma. fracture. exfoliating in irregular scales. hard. followed by numerous groups of sclereids of various shapes and sizes. lignified. not distinct. square to rectangular cells.5-1 cm thick. fibrous. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Irimeda. parenchyma. all traversed by medullary rays.7. with tapering 15 . b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows dead tissues of rhytidoma consisting of cork cells. secondary phloem wide. phloem fibres thin-walled.

Appendix 1 per cent. Under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf.7.áopha.91 (bluish grey) CONSTITUENTS .39 and a spot at Rf. crystal fibres elongated. ViÀajavra¸a. K¤mi.6. Appendix 2. T.0. P¡¸·u. ViÀan¡¿ana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.LC. KaÀ¡ya UÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kapha¿osaka. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethylacetate : Formic Acid (54: 1) only one spot at Rf 0. thick-walled having numerous chambers containing a prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber.Reddish-brown. 0. fibres. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.C. Visarpa.0 to 0.78 and 0. arranged in more or less concentric bands forming tangential strips alternating with-thinwalled phloem elements. 16 . 0 to 0.ends. Appendix 14 per cent.e. IDENTITY.On exposure to Iodine vapour a yellow coloured tailing appears from Rf.L.2. Powder . radially elongated cells. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. KuÀ¶ha. Appendix 11 per cent. Kavalagraha and Nasya) THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 13 per cent. On spraying with 10% aqueous Ferric Chloride solution a bluish grey coloured tailing appears from Rf. composed of thin-walled. Arimed¡di Taila (For external use i. shows groups of cork cells.3-5 g in powder form.2.2. crystal fibres and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 2.91 (both blue). β-Sitosterol and Tannin. 2.39 and a spot at Rf.4.2. Meha.40 g for decoction.91 (yellow).Khadir¡di Gu¶ika (Mukharoga). Udardapra áamana DOSE . Ka¸·u.2. sclereid.2.n-Hexacosanol. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Atis¡ra. Meda¿oÀaka. 2. Dantaroga. medullary rays multiseriate dilating towards outer side. Mukharoga. β -Amyrin. K¡sa. 2.3. 0.69 (grey) is seen in visible light.

sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma. Mattimora.8. Kellemasuthu. Sajada Arjuna Matti. flat. consisting of sieve tubes. ávetav¡ha Arjun Arjuna -Sadad.) Combretaceae). Vellamaruthi. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. (Fam. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Arjuna.5 cm thick.2-1. bitter and astringent. market samples upto 10 cm in length and upto 7 cm in width. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter. Arjuna (St. in the middle and outer phloem region. commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country. Torematti Arjuna.Bk. traversed by phloem rays. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. short in inner and laminated in outer part. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2-10. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. recurved. fracture. channelled to half quilled. Neermatti. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 80-180 17 . 0. a large deciduous tree. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9-10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. P¡rtha. companion cells. curved. Kudare Kivimase -Nirmasuthu. taste. Bilimatti. Mathichakke. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. Sadada Arjuna Arjon Marudam Maddi Arjun ARJUNA (Stem Bark) Arjuna consists of the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kakubha.& A.

H¤droga. elliptic. IDENTITY.2.. Appendix 2. a few rhomboidal crystals.7.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Bhagnasandh¡nakara. starch grains. in a tangential section the uniseriate phloem rays 2-10 cells high and biseriate. Appendix 25 per cent.Medoroga. 2. Appendix 20 per cent. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. 2. uniseriate phloem rays. starch grains simple and compound. measuring 260-600 µ in dia. Vra¸an¡¿ana. KÀatakÀaya. of the drug in powder form. 2.2.2. Arjuna Gh¤ta.. Vya´ga. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T. measuring 5-13 µ in diameter. round to oval.3. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3-6 g. shows fragments of cork cells. 18 . sometimes upto 5 components. T¤À¡. alata). Kaphahara. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone. 4-12 cells high. H¤dya. Appendix 1 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . round to oval.P¡rth¡dyariÀ¶a. measuring 5-13 µ in dia. N¡g¡rjun¡bhra Rasa. 2. having 2-3 components with concentric striations and small narrow hilum. THERAPEUTIC USES . Vra¸a. DOSE .2.6.Reddish-brown. Appendix 20 per cent. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma. fibres. alternating with fibres.4. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. compound of 2-3 components. µ Powder . elliptical.2.. Prameha.in dia. Vya ´ga Hara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Pittahara.2. mostly simple.

some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands.5-3 cm long. shining with residual receptacle. nut 2. below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. Bhilavan BHALLËTAKA (Fruit) Bhall¡taka consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : AruÀkara. (Fam. 19 . DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Fruit laterally flattened. Bholai Bhilawa Tatamkottai.Pericarp differentiated into epicarp. drupaceous. 30-40 layers thick.) Anacardiaceae). some cells get dissolved and form lysigenous cavities which increase in size with maturity of fruit. mesocarp and endocarp. obliquely ovoid. in longitudinal section pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells which are elongated radially and lignified.9. cavities do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. Bhallataka (Fr. dark brown. Fruit . Scramkotati Nallajidi. mesocarp a very broad zone. a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. smooth. characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp and due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp. composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities and fibro-vascular bundles. Bhall¡ta Bhelaguti Bhela Marking Nut Bhilam Bhilawa Bhallataka -Chera Bibba Bhollataki. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells. Nallajidiginga Baladur.

4.1.2.2. Powder . 2. insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.2. 2. Bhedi.2.endocarp consists of two distinct layers. Snigdha.3. shows rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules. Tikta. Chedi. Krimi. Part-I 20 . outer layer shorter and thinner than prismatic layer but cells similar to the former. Note . Appendix 0.. Medhya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura D¢pana. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Ar¿a. Bhall¡tak¡di Modaka THERAPEUTIC USES .2. P¡cana. Gulma. very much elongated radial walls.F. Appendix 5 per cent. number of mesocarp parenchyma contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil drops in oil glands.7. being highly thickened.For Bhall¡taka Àodhan see A. Kaphahara.Dark-brown. 2. Ka¶u. IDENTITY. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. KuÀ¶ha. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Saµj¢vani Va¶¢. Graha¸¢. Appendix 4 per cent. chloroform. Ën¡ha. Appendix 2. ether.Am¤ta Bhall¡taka Leha.. Appendix 11 per cent. V¡tahara. Bhall¡taka Ras¡yana.6.2 g.2. lysigenous cavities of mesocarp contain oily vesicating substance. innermost prismatic. Non-Volatile Alcohol (Cardol). CONSTITUENTS . DOSE .5 per cent.I. of the drug in Ksirapaka form.A Tarry Oil containing Anacardic Acid.

Maka -Bhangra Karisalankanni. Karisalai Guntakalagara. spreading. a common weed of moist places found throughout India ascending upto 1700 m. greyish. cylindrical or flat. Bhangro Bhangara. Tekar¡ja.P. disc flowers 21 . (Fam. strigosely hirsute. Bh¤´gaja Bhrngaraja Bheemraja.) herbaceous annual. 1.Solitary or 2. cylindrical. obtuse or acute. 30 . not toothed. branched. lanceolate.5 cm long. Gurugada. Bhringaraja (W. upto about 7 mm in dia. Leaf . Karisalanganni. sub-entire. often rooting at nodes.2 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ke¿ar¡ja. ligule small. Kesuriya. a number of secondary branches arise from main root. Bhringiraja. Kesari -Bhangaro. white.10. herbaceous. ovate. Kodigaraju -Kayyonni. node distinct. Keshavardhana. sessile to subsessile. Bhangaraiya Garujalu. greenish. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . strigose with oppressed hairs. Guntagalagara Bhangra BHÎ×GARËJA (Whole Plant) Bh¤´gar¡ja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. involucral bracts about 8.3 cm wide.2. rough due to oppressed white hairs. Bh¤´ga. occasionally brownish. Stem .8. ray flowers ligulate.Opposite. M¡rkava. occasionally rooting at nodes. Knnunni Bhangra.. Soppu. erect or prostrate. Asteraceae).Well developed.Herbaceous. 2. scarcely as long as bracts. usually oblong. strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. much branched. together on unequal axillary peduncles. Flower .50 cm high. sub-acute or acute.2 .

epidermis followed by cortex. rarely slightly oblique. fibre tracheids. pitted. with very pointed tips. consisting of 3-5 rows of thin-walled.0. ray cells pitted.Mature root shows poorly developed cork. found scattered throughout wood. anthers united into a tube with base obtuse. with a narrow wing. parenchymatous cells with conspicuous air cavities. generally 5-32 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width although very rarely uniseriate and biseriate rays also found. filaments epipetalous. epidermis followed by wide cortex. covered with warty excrescences. a few epidermal cells elongate outwards to form uniseriate hairs. simple. consists of xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. uniseriate. free. traversed by xylem rays.0.1 cm wide.shows single layered upper and lower epidermis consisting of tubular cells. and with pointed apical cell. one seeded. pappus absent. pericyclic fibres in tangentially arranged bands of many cells or in singles. xylem vessels arranged in radial rows traversed by xylem rays. fibres and xylem parenchyma. unilocular with one basal ovule. in macerated preparation vessels small.Achenial cypsella.25 cm long. brown. cylindrical elongated with pitted walls and perforations. phloem rays broader towards periphery. tangentially elongated cells. xylem fibres long with pointed tapering ends and short lumen. xylem ray distinct. in singles or in groups of various shape and size. externally covered with cuticle. stamen 5. b) Microscopic Root . secondary phloem consists of sieve elements including phloem fibres traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. covered with striated cuticle. except occasionally very minute teeth on the top of achene. warty. xylem parenchyma sparse usually squarish to rectangular having simple pits on their walls.cut at basal region shows both upper and lower single layered epidermis. 0. dark brown.tubular. Leaf- Petiole . pistil bicarpellary. secondary cortex consists of outer one or two rows of tangentially elongated or rounded cells with air cavities. consisting of rounded cells. ovary inferior. 1-5 celled. five vascular bundles central one largest while four others small flanking to either side of central bundle. consisting of 2-5 layered collenchyma on both. Midrib .2 . run straight in tangential section. hairy and non endospermic. trichomes of two types. non-glandular. a few fibres show peg-like outgrowths towards the tapering ends. xylem composed of vessels. consisting of 3-5 layered 22 . Fruit . upper arid lower side with distinct angular thickening. drum-shaped. cuneate. fibre tracheids. vessels numerous. thin-walled cells with intercellular spaces. Seed . corolla often 4 toothed. stone cells found scattered in secondary cortex and cork. inner secondary cortex of tangentially elongated to irregular shaped. parenchyma 4-6 layered on upper side and 5-8 layered on lower side consisting of isodiametric.

uniseriate.Mature stem shows single layered epidermis. the cork where formed. 8-15 cells in height and 3-5 cells in width. hairs stiff. centre occupied by a wide pith consisting of isodiametric cells of parenchyma. followed by single layered palisade parenchyma containing chlorophyll contents. anomocytic and anisocytic stomata. endarch. while the section cut at apical region.0-22. phloem a narrow strip composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma.Dark green. pitted with spiral thickening. Powder . shows 2 layered collenchymatous cells on both sides. about 3 celled. arranged in tangential strands.shows a dorsi ventral structure. shows vessels in large groups or single broken pieces with pitted walls. mesophyll traversed by number of veins. in macerated preparation vessels barrel-shaped. pointed tips and pitted walls. secondary cortex composed of large. 2-3 layered parenchymatous cells on both side in the apical region. pericyclic fibres distinct. in the basal region section shows vascular bundle similar to that of petiole while in the section cut at middle and apical region section shows 4 smaller bundles shifting towards lamina. normally biseriate and uniseriate. externally covered with cuticle. xylem rays triseriate to pentaseriate.collenehymatous cells on both sides.0 on lower surface. a few epidermal cells elongate to form characteristic non-glandular trichomes. spongy parenchyma irregularly arranged with distinct intercellular spaces and filled with chlorophyll contents. externally covered with cuticle. endodermis single layered consists of tangentially elongated cells. uppermost generally not exceeding the basal cell in length. Stem .8 -4. a few attached with epidermal and subsidiary cells. epidermis single layered. a few often bifurcate and a few other large. peg-like outgrowth. some elongated with simple perforations.5 on upper and 23. poorly developed consistsing of rectangular cells. middle cells longest. xylem fibres with wide lumen. 23 . in section cut at basal region 4-6 layered parenchyma on both the sides in the middle region with thin-walled cells and intercellular spaces. pointed. section cut at middle region shows 3-4 layered collenchymatous cells on dorsal and 1-3 layered on ventral side. collateral. more abundant on lower surfaces. similarly transverse section cut at a basal. of varying sizes traversed by medullary rays. stomatal index 20. xylem consists of large number of vessels. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma. septa thick-walled. middle and apical regions shows 4-6 layered parenchymatous cells on dorsal side and 6-9 layered parenchyma on ventral side. palisade ratio 3.5 -26. numerous fibres entire or in pieces. vascular bundles in a ring. rounded or irregular shaped parenchymatous cells having wide air spaces. anisocytic and anomocytic stomata present on both surface.5. warty. wide at the base. trichomes entire or in pieces. xylem vessels appear evenly distributed throughout the xylem. Lamina . xylem parenchyma rectangular with pitted thickening.

2. Ecliptine and Nicotine. Yak¤droga.7. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.áotha. K¡sa. Kaphahara. P¡¸·u. Appendix per cent. 2. 2. Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila. V¡tahara.4.2. Bh¤´agar¡j¡sava. Ras¡yana. áv¡sa. Appendix per cent. K¤miroga. 24 .3. Tikta RukÀa. Tvacya. 2.36 g.Alkaloids. 12 . ViÀahara. Ke¿ya. DOSE .3 . Appendix 2. Appendix per cent. CakÀusya.IDENTITY. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Dantya. Appendix per cent.6 ml of the drug in juice form.2. H ¤droga. Not more than 2 Not more than 22 Not more than 11 Not less than 5 Not less than 15 per cent. of the drug in powder form for decoction.Bh¤´g¡malak¡di Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES . áirah á£la. Tekar¡ja marica.2.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Balya.2. 2. N¢l¢ Bh¤ ´g¡di Taila. Ëmahara.6. CONSTITUENTS .

glabrous. decussate. succulent. sessile.Thin.Capsules upto 5 mm long.Small.) Wettst. obovate-oblong. Kapotava´ka Brahmi -Thyme Leaved Gratiola Neerbrahmi. taste. Syn. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Nirabrahmi.& K. green. Herpestis monnieria (LiM. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Sarasvat¢.) BRËHMÌ (Whole Plant) Br¡hm¢ consists of dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (Linn.P. green or purplish green. opposite.Thin. Bamanevari Manduka Parni Nirubrahmi. Mandukaparni -Bhahmi Jalnam. Valabrahmi.11. Stem . wiry. Brahmi vazhukkai Sambarenu. small. slightly bitter. 1-2 cm long. Brahmi. Leaf . Brahmi (W. about 1-2 mm thick. nodes and internodes prominent. Flower . branched creamish-yellow. found throughout India in wet and damp places. small. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. soft. axillary and solitary. ovoid and glabrous..B. pedicels 6-30 mm long. prostrate or creeping annual herb. Sambrani Brahmi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . a glabrous. Scrophulariaceae). Ondelaga.) H.Simple. (Fam. slightly bitter. 25 . taste. Fruit .

Svarya. endodermis single layered. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. Stem . 2. round to oval. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre. simple. pericycle not distinct. measuring 4-14 µ in diameter.2. ViÀahara.Yellowish-brown.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2. glandular hairs. respectively.Root . subsidiary cells present on both surfaces.2.6. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Praj¡sth¡pana.2. Leaf -Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle. Matiprada. ËyuÀya.0 µ in dia. measuring 4-14 µ in dia. stele consists of a thin layer of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. glandular hairs sessile. IDENTITY. round and oval starch grains. Medhya.Shows a single layer of epidermis.0 x 2. cortex having large air cavities. Sara á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara.7.3. pericycle 3 consisting of 1-2 layers. Tikta. Appendix per cent. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. endodermis single layered. Powder . Ras¡yana. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening. and 8.4. V¡tahara. b) Microscopic 26 .0-14. no distinct midrib present. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . present in a few cells of cortex and endodermis.2. 2. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells. vascular ring continuous.2. Mohahara Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 6 Not less than 15 per cent. 2. 2..5-9. starch grains simple.

Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.S¡rasvat¡riÀ¶a. áopha.KuÀ¶ha.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 27 . Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa. THERAPEUTIC USES . Jvara. Prameha.1-3 g in powder form. Ratnagiri Rasa. S¡rasvata C£r¸a. Br¡hm¢ Va¶¢. M¡nasavik¡ra DOSE . P¡¸·u.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áanhika Tilabhakuri Byakud -Umimuyaringani. Mullamkatti Tella Mulaka Kateli DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root well developed. Ubhibhuyaringa Vanabharata. long. cylindrical. Dorale Dengabheji Kandiarivaddi Chiru vazhuthalai. woody.) BÎHATÌ (Root) B¤hat¢ consists of dried root of Solanum indicum Linn.8 m high. cork cambium single layered. Ubhibharingani. surface rough due to presence of longitudinal striations and root scars. a number of secondary roots and their branches present. pale yellowish-brown.9 layers of thin-walled. secondary cortex composed of 5 . secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. phloem rays 1-3 cells wide. much branched perennial under shrub. short and splintery. isodiametric to slightly radially elongated in inner phloem 28 . stone cells present in outer phloem region in singles or in groups of 2-5. upto 1. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2-5 or more in this region. phloem parenchyma much abundant.. a very prickly.5 cm in dia.12. Badikateri Kirugullia. Papparamulli. Heggulla. traversed by phloem rays. oval and tangentially elongated cells. (Fam. ribbed. Solanaceae).15 layers of thin-walled. Gulla -Cheru Vazhuthina. tangentially elongated. fracture. no distinct odour and taste.Shows thin cork composed of 5 . parenchyma and stone cells. 1-2. mostly found throughout warmer parts of the country upto an elevation of 1500 m. Brihati (Rt. thin-walled. Putirichunda Dorli. b) Microscopic Root . rectangular cells filled with yellowish-brown content. Chichuriti. varying greatly in shape and size.

all elements being lignified. IDENTITY.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. vessels occur singly or in groups of 2-5 with simple pits. fibres and xylem parenchyma. aseptate fibres. Jvara. DOSE . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. oval to elongated stone cells and simple. xylem fibres moderately thick-walled with simple pits and pointed ends found in adundance.á£la.2. Appendix Not more than 6. vessels with simple pits. 29 .4.11. Powder . measuring 5. Kaphahara.5 . rounded to oval starch grains.10-20 g.2. phloem and medullary rays. 2. Appendix 2. measuring 5. thick-walled. of the drug for decoction. V¡tahara. microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in some cells of secondary cortex.Steroidal Alkaloids and Steroids IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .6. 2.Cream coloured. xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening. 2. Appendix Not less than 4 per cent. simple and rounded to oval starch grains.3. H¤droga. CONSTITUENTS .7. H¤dya. Da¿am£la Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. parenchymatous cells. shows groups of thin-walled. Appendix Not less than 3 per cent.6 µ in diameter.6 µ in diameter. Appendix Not more than 1 per cent. Agnim¡dya. Gr¡h¢ Not more than 2 per cent. cells radially elongated and pitted. P¡cana.5 per cent. wood occupies bulk of root and composed of vessels.. occasionally stone cells also found in medullary rays.2. tracheids. áv¡sa. 2. xylem rays uni to biseriate. traversed by xylem rays.2.region and radially elongated in outer phloem region.2.5 -11.

Syn. endodermis single layered. Chavaka Chavya Kadumenasinaballi. peppery. secondary cortex a wide zone. short. tracheid. a glabrous.) CAVYA (Stem) Cavya consists of dried stem of Piper retrofractum Vahl. fleshy climber. officinarum DC. taste. greyish-brown. cylindrical and somewhat twisted. chaba Hunter non Blume. Kababah DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of dried cut pieces of stem of variable length and usually 0. thin-walled. Piperaceae).5-2. parenchyma and phloem fibres occurring singly or in groups.. xylem lies towards centre and composed of vessels. surface smooth with a few longitudinal wrinkles. P.13. (Fam. oval to rectangular.Shows a thin cork consisting of 3-4 layers of rectangular. brownish cells. Chevuyam Chevyamu Peepal Chab. b) Microscopic Stem . Chavya (St. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Cavika Chepaan Chei Cubeb Chavka. nodes and internodes distinct. fibres and xylem parenchyma. isolated vessels barrel-shaped with 30 .0 cm in width. Chavya -Kattumulaku. P. cultivated mainly in Southern India. consisting of round. acrid. fracture. phloem lies towards outer side and composed of sieve elements. cork cambium not distinct. odour. plenty of simple starch granules present. stelar region composed of five wedge-shaped vascular bundles alternating with wide medullary rays. Kattumulakunveru Chavaka Chainkath Chabak Chavyam. parenchymatous cells with prominent intercellular spaces.

starch grains. Appendix 1. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.7. Appendix 6 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . round to oval starch grains. 2.4.2. P¡cana. Recana. Gulma. Powder . cells thin walled. Appendix 10 per cent. round to oval. RukÀa.Alkaloids.2. Ën¡ha. 2. shows fragments of vessels. Udara Roga. Pl¢h¡ Roga. fibres and simple. Appendix 3 per cent.5 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2. 2.2.Greyish-brown.pitted and reticulate thickenings. 31 .1-2 g. 2. measuring 3 14 µ in diameter.Pr¡¸ad¡ Gu¶ik¡.6.Ar¿a. á£lal DOSE . D¢pana. Candr¡m¤ta Rasa.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu. medullary rays multi seriate. fibres needle and spindle-shaped.2. filled with simple. IDENTITY. measuring 3-14 µ in diameter. Glycosides and Steroids. Kaphahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. THERAPEUTIC USES .2.3. of the drug in powder form. Krimi.

6 cm long. thin walled. round to oval. triangular and rectangular. Madalam Danimma Anar. oval. Rumman DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seeds brown. LohitapuÀpa. starch grains present in testa. taste. beneath this.) DËÚIMA (Seed) D¡·ima consists of dried seed of Punica granatum Linn.2 cm wide. reddish-brown pigmented layer present. sweetish-sour.5-0.14. 0. Dantab¢ja -Ddima Pomegranate Dadama Anar Dalimba -Matalam Dadimba -Anar Madalai. parenchymatous cells. endosperm absent. found growing wild in the warm valley. containing a few oil globules.1-0. oil globules. cotyledons coiled. simple. Maadalai. round. and a few simple round to oval starch grains measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. a large deciduous shrub or a small tree.Reddish-brown. shows stone cells. angular.Shows testa consisting of thin-walled. wedge-shaped. 32 . consisting of oval to polygonal. Punicaceae). 0. (Fam.1800 m and cultivated in many parts of the country. outer hills of Himalayas between 900. Powder . thick-walled stone cells having narrow and wide lumen. parenchymatous cells followed by stony tegmen consisting of lignified. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : D¡·im¡cchada. Dadima (Sd. Seed .

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 4 per cent, Appendix Not more than 0.5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 20 per cent, Appendix Not less than 35 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) v/v three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both grey) and 0.97 (pink) are seen in visible light. Under U.V. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.12 (sky blue), 0.45 (sky blue), 0.62 (blue) & 0.87 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 & 0.97 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110˚ C three spots appear at Rf. 0.62, 0.87 (both violet) & 0.97 (greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Sugars, Vitamin C, Sitosterol, Ursolic acid, Protein, Fat and Mineral matters, Nicotinic acid, Pectin, Riboflavin, Thiamine, Delphinidin diglycoside, Aspartic, Citric, Ellagic, Gallic and Malic acids, Glutamine, Isoquercetin, Estrone and Punicic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura, Madura Amla : Madhura, Amla Laghu, Snigdha, Madura Amla : Laghu UÀ¸a, Madura Amla : -Madhura, Madura Amla : -áukrala, Gr¡h¢, H¤dya, Ka¸¶hya, Medhya, Pittahara, V¡tahara, Kaphahar¡, Tarpa¸a, Mukhagandhahara, Balya.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - D¡·im¡À¶aka C£r¸a, D¡·ima Gh¤ta, D¡dhika Gh¤ta, Bh¡Àkara Lava¸a, áukra M¡trka Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES - D¡ha, T¤À¸¡, Jvara DOSE - 5 to 10 g. of the drug in powder form.

33

15. Daruharidra (St.)

an erect, spinous, deciduous shrub, usually 1.8-3.6 m in height found in the Himalayan ranges at an elevation of 1000-3000 m, and in the Nilgiri hills in South India.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katamkateri, D¡rvi -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra, Daruhuladur Daruhaldi, Darhald Maradarishana, Maradarishina, Daruhaladi -Maramannal, Maramanjal Daruhalad Daruharidra, Daruhalidi Sumalu Gangeti, Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald

DËRUHARIDRË (Stem) D¡ruharidr¡ consists of dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. (Fam. Berberidaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness, bark about 0.4 - 0.8 cm thick, pale yellowish-brown, soft, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough, brittle, xylem portion yellow, more or less hard, radiate with xylem rays, pith mostly absent, when present small, yellowish-brown when dried, fracture short in bark region, splintery in xylem; taste, bitter.
b) Microscopic

Stem -Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3-45 rectangular and squarish, yellow coloured, thin-walled cells, arranged radially; sieve elements irregular in shape, thin walled, a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents; phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows, consisting of 1-4 cells, each fibre short thick-walled, spindle-shaped, lignified having wide lumen; half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays; phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells, almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, a
34

few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups, rarely single, mostly elongated, a few rounded, arranged radially, some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals; secondary phloem, a broad zone, consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres, traversed by multi seriate phloem rays; sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres, phloem fibres short, lignified, thick-walled having pointed ends; secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels, tracheids, xylem fibres and traversed by multi seriate xylem rays; xylem vessels numerous, small to medium sized, distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles, groups of vessels usually arranged radially; isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening; xylem fibres numerous, lignified, large, thick-walled with wide lumen, and pointed tips; xylem rays quite distinct, straight, multiseriate, consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells, each ray 30-53 cells high, 8-12 cells wide, a few ray cells containing brown contents. Powder - Yellow; shows mostly fragments of cork cells, sieve elements, yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces, stone cells in singles or in groups, numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, xylem vessels having spiral thickening, thick-walled, lignified xylem fibres and ray cells.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a -Stanya áodhana, Stanya DoÀahara, DoÀa P¡cana Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix Not more than 14 per cent, Appendix Not more than 5 per cent, Appendix Not less than 6 per cent, Appendix Not less than 8 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

35

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Bh¤´gar¡ja Taila, A¿vagandh¡dyariÀ¶a, Khadir¡di Gu¶ika, Khadir¡riÀ¶a, J¡ty¡di Taila, Triphal¡ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES - Ka¸·u, Medoroga, Mukharoga, Vra¸a, Ëm¡tis¡ra, Urustambha, Kapharoga, Kar¸aroga, Netraroga, Meha. DOSE - 5-10 ml of the drug in Kvatha form.

36

ovate or ovate. 1-2. long with numerous wiry. slightly curved. subacute. Stem . surrounded by numerous foliaceous bracts. crowded in dense. characteristic.6-0. white. pungent.Yellowish-green. Dronapushpi (W. surface rough. corolla. erect.lanceolate. 1-2. Leaf . smooth.2-1. taste. zig-zag. scaberulous.3-0. thin.Cylindrical. lanceolate. slightly bitter.7-2 cm 37 .9 m in high. size variable. ciliate. (Fam. about 2-3. crenate. fracture. fine rootlets.25 cm long.Sessile.) Lamiaceae). 3-9 cm long. more or less pubescent. acute. glabrous in lower part. Gumma. an annual. Inflorescence . 1. white. found on the Himalayas at an altitude of 600-1800 m and on waste lands throughout the country.35 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Katumba Dronaphool Bholghasiya -Kubo Guma Tumbe -Tumba Tumba Gaisha Gomobati.P. stout herb. globose.5 cm across.Light greenish-yellow. hairy. fibrous. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . taste. Mal-bheda Tumbai Tummi -- DROÛAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) Dro¸apuÀp¢ consists of dried whole plant of Leucas cephalotes Spreng. quadrangular with four prominent furrows. hairy on upper part. 1.5 cm long and 0. calyx. about 0. nodes and internodes distinct. 10 dentate with a villous throat.5 cm wide. upto 4 mm thick. tubular. serrate. taste.16.

Stem . Lamina .7 layered. 2 smaller located towards each comer and 2 larger in centre. secondary cortex consists of thin-walled. palisade single layered.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes rarely on upper surface. present in centre.3 cm long and 0. pericycle single layered of thin-walled cells comparatively smaller than the cells of endodermis.Shows squarish outline with four ridges and furrows. phloem very narrow consisting of usual elements. endoderm is single layered.vascular bundle arc-shaped. thin-walled cells having a number of uni to tricellular trichomes. wooly. oblong.Schizocarpic carcerule. Leaf- Petiole . xylem consists of vessels. vessels mostly cylindrical with simple pits and spiral thickening. thin-walled cells. followed by round to oval parenchyma.shows a single layered epidermis. tracheids. dark brown. Seed . parenchymatous cells. tracheids. consists of a single layered epidermis. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma. brown. vessels long with spurs. 4 . lateral lobes small. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. vascular bundles 4. nutlets 3 mm smooth. a few pericyclic cells converted into pericyclic fibres. thin-walled. cortex consisting of single layered. upto 8 cells high.tangentially elongated. Fruit . parenchymatous cells. bilipped. tangentially elongated. consisting of 3-5 layers of circular. Midrib . consisting of barrel shaped. fibres and xylem parenchyma.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of rectangular. parenchyma consists of thin-walled cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. composed of oval to rectangular. lower lip nearly twice as long as upper one. followed by 1-2 layers collenchyma towards lower surface. b) Microscopic Root . secondary cortex 5-9 layered. round to angular collenchyma.shows epidermis on either side with uni to tricellular trichomes.1 cm wide. parenchymatous cells. irregular. uni to tricellular trichomes with pointed ends. secondary xylem consists of vessels. upper lip about 4 mm long. thin-walled cells.long. thin-walled 38 . smooth. medullary rays 1-2 seriate. xylem fibres much elongated with pointed ends and have moderately thick walls. vessels and tracheids have simple pits. tracheids and xylem parenchyma have simple pits on their walls.0. trigonous. fibres and large amount of xylem parenchyma. some having simple pits. pith wide consisting of circular to oval. 3-4 layers towards upper surface. oval or irregular collenchymatous cells at the ridge and 2-4 layers of thin-walled.

Bhedani.6-40.2. stomata diacytic.2. palisade ratio 7-9.7. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent.5 on lower surface.2. 39 . 2.cells. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara.7 on upper surface. present on both surfaces. β -Sitosterol and Flavonoid. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Glycoside. THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡mal¡. 2. K¡sa. stomatal index 16. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Rucya Not more than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix Not more than 17 per cent. V¡takara.2. RukÀa. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. uni to tricellular trichomes and diacytic stomata.3. Appendix Not less than 14 per cent.2.áotha. pitted and spiral vessels. 2.5-10 ml of the drug in juice form.Dull yellow.4. a few veins present in this region. Ka¶u Guru.6-30. Lava¸a. shows groups of round to polygonal parenchymatous cells.6. IDENTITY.Pl¢h¡ri Va¶ik¡.Alkaloid. Appendix Not less than 5 per cent. Agnim¡ndya. Pittakara. Powder . Tamaka áv¡sa.1-3 g of the drug in powder form. 2. aseptate fibres. ViÀamajvara DOSE .2. 16.

0. (Fam.4 cm wide. Karikuda Snake Cucumber Kakadi Karkri. 0. cultivated in many parts of the country. glossy. consisting of single layered epidermal cells. straight. utilissimus Roxb.17.) ERVËRU (Seed) Erv¡ru consists of seeds of Cucumis melo var.3-0. Vellarika Kakadi.7-10 cm long. containing numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. rounded and tangentially elongated. Karka¶¢. mesophyll cells thinwalled. covered with thick cuticle. cotyledons two. Kakadi Saute -Kamkadi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bahukanda. Vellarikkai Dosakaya Kakari DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed compressed. more or less ellipsoid. Ervaru (Sd. mesophyll cells and numerous oil globules and aleurone grains. C. Powder _ Creamish-yellow and oily. radially elongated to squarish. lignified with distinct lumen and striations. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller Syn. thin-walled. Valnka -Kakri Kakkarikkay. followed by a narrow zone of endosperm consisting of cellulosic. especially in upper India and particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Hastipani. parenchymatous. B¤hatphala. -Kakur. Seed -Shows seed coat consisting of a layer of round to oval stone cells. 40 . surface smooth. sweetish oily. Hastipani. parenchymatous cells. shows stone cells. taste. creamish-yellow. Cucurbitaceae). an annual creeping herb. containing a few oil globules and aleurone grains.

97 (all grey).2. Appendix 0. 0. Appendix 5 per cent. 41 .5 per cent. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Bhedi. G¤¡h¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.7. T.35. 0. A¿mar¢. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.Oil & Sugars. Appendix 10 per cent. T¤À¸¡.2.51. V¡takara. 0. 0.3-6 g. 0. Pittahara. (366 mm).91 and 0. Appendix 4 per cent.D¡dhika Gh¤ta. 0.2.19.91 (blue) under U.26. 2.83.51.0. 2.2.4.3. Kaphakara. of seeds. 0. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. THERAPEUTIC USES . Rucya. 2.64.V.C. 0. RaktadoÀakara. 0. Raktapitta.2. Gulma. Tikta Guru. M£trak¤cchra DOSE .6.64.97 (all yellow) .19.2.L.35.On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. Jvara.58.C. Appendix 2.IDENTITY. 0. D¢pana. CONSTITUENTS .77.91 and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf. 0.0.83. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90:10) shows one fluorescent zone at Rf.D¡ha.77.26. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.0.L. 0. 0.58. 0.

Occurs in transversely cut circular pieces of about 2.Shows more or less loosely arranged. (Fam.Kidney-shaped.5 cm thick. Seed . odour and taste not disticnt. shiny. transversely cut pieces of mature female spadix of Scindapsus officinalis Schoott.18.0 cm in diameter and 2. brownish-grey.0-3. found all along the sub-Himalayan tract between an altitude of 330-1000 m in West Bengal. smooth.0-3.) GAJAPIPPALÌ (Fruit) Gajapippal¢ consists of dried. greyish-brown with a dent. Araceae). b) Microscopic Fruit . Andhra Pradesh and the Andaman Islands.6 cm long.4 cm wide. Hastipipal¢ -Gajapeepal -Motopeepar Gajapeepal Adkebeeluvalli -Attipali Gajapipalee -Gajapeepal Anaitippalee Enugopippal -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . parenchymatous cells having more or less isodiametric cells filled with brown content and numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate. rough and scaly. Gajapippali (Fr. a large epiphytic climber. cut surface has a central core. Orissa. thin-walled. 42 . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gajak¤À¸a. surrounded by fruits enclosing the seed covered partly by aril. 0. odour and taste not distinct.3-0. 0.4-0.

Scindapsin A & Scindapsin B. pitted and with concentric striations.2. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. thick-walled. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. 0.2.C. 2. 0.27. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf.73 (both light yellow) in visible light Under U. lignified stone cells having very narrow lumen. thin-walled testa followed by 2-3 layered.65.Seed . K¤miroga. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u Guna : RukÀa Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : D¢pana. Stanya. Three spots appear at Rf. Mah¡yogar¡ja Guggulu. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. irregular parenchymatous cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains. thick-walled.L. 0. 2.2-3 g. áv¡sa. Powder . Appendix T. Pras¡ri¸i Taila. oval to polygonal.93 (brown). 0. sclereid-like cells having wide lumen and concentric striations. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.27. 0.65. oval to polygonal. CONSTITUENTS . 43 .Shows a single layered.20. T.L.C. Candraprabh¡ va¶i.73 and 0.2.2. Agnivardhaka. Ka¸ha Roga. measuring 120-130 µ in length and oil globules. Kaphahara. Sugars & Fixed Oil. Ka¸¶hya. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 1l0°C. 2. non-lignified.93 (all blue) are visible. 2. 0.65 and 0. Punarnav¡sava. Malavi¿oÀana. V¡tahara.73 (both light brown) and 0. 0. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf.5 per cent. oval to polygonal stone cells having lumen and striations.4. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (1:1) shows two spots at Rf. oval to polygonal. shows lignified. 2-4 layered. 0.93 (all yellow).73 and 0. DOSE . in extract (Phant) form.áiv¡gutik¡. thin-walled.Dark brown.3.Glucosides viz.6. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. 2.65. IDENTITY.7. Va¤¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.Atis¡ra.V. numerous needle-like acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.

Shows outer integument consisting of 3-5 rows of crushed. Shivani. taste. crinkled. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . endocarp consisting of multilayered sclerenchymatous cells.Shows pericarp differentiated into single layered epicarp. found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m. Seed .6 cm wide. taste. light yellow. black. radially 44 . parenchymatous cells. two seeded. Seed .A drupe. thin-walled cells.5-2. seed coat thin. hard and stony endocarp: epicarp consisting of single layered. Kumizhu Sivan Gambhari. P¢takarohi¸¢. thin-walled. cotyledons consisting of single layered. Bhodroparnni Khambhari Perunkurmizh. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡¿mar¢. papery.Seed ovate. 1. parenchymatous cells.4-0. Gambhari (Fr. sweetish sour. Komizhpazham Gumaditeku Gambhari GAMBHARI (Fruit) Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. tangentially elongated. Sr¢par¸¢. Bhadrapar¸¢ Gomari Gamargachha. multilayered. 0. ovoid. oily. Hannu -Kumbil. 0. K¡¿marya.0 cm long. b) Microscopic Fruit . sometimes one seeded. Verbenaceae). mesocarp a wide zone consisting of isodiametric. surface smooth.5-1 cm long. Gambar -Seevan Gambhari Seevani. parenchymatous cells followed by inner integument consisting of 2-3 rows of thin-walled.19. planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree. sometimes with portion of attached pedicel.) unarmed tree. fleshy mesocarp. (Fam.

0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.26.42. 0. B ¤Æha¸a IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Pittahara. Tartaric acid. H¤dya. Appendix 8 per cent.4 per cent.L. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Ethanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. oil globules and aleurone grains. Ras¡yana. KÀata.98 (orange).2.93 and 0. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains. H¤droga. 0.2.98 (all yellow).D¡ha.2. Under U.2.Blackish-brown. 0. 0. 0.2. T¤À¸¡. Amla.7. Appendix 2.52. mesophyll consisting of thin-walled cells.C.12. Appendix 0.03. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones appear at Rf. 0. V¡tahara.22.2. M£trak¤cchra.Butyric acid.3.18.08.elongated epidermal cells. IDENTITY. Dr¡kÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£rna. of the drug in powder form.6. T. Resin and Saccharine. 0.V.03. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. 2. 2.Arvind¡sava.98 (all blue). 2. KaÀ¡ya Guru.L. THERAPEUTIC USES . Appendix 25 per cent. Alkaloid.C. shows stone cells. KÀaya. CONSTITUENTS .1-3 g. Sara. Appendix 6 per cent. 2. 0. 0.98 (yellow) in visible light. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 45 .4. 0. Medhya. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (4 : 1) shows one spot at Rf.. Ke¿ya.94 and 0. Powder . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Rakta Pitta DOSE .

a few ray cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. (Fam. fibrous. 46 . lignified cells with wide lumen and clear pit canals.5-5 cm long. parenchymatous cells. rectangular. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. thick-walled. consisting of tangentially elongated.6-1. Syn. fracture.Shows a wide cork. consisting of 12-20 layered. found scattered in groups throughout secondary cortex and in a row towards inner cortical region. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : G¡´geruki -Garakshachakule -Gangeti Gangeran Turuve -Oorakam Gangeti Ghodaguli Ganger Achchu Gangeruki Gangeran DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces. blunt tips and moderately long in size. Grewia populifolia Vahl. cellulosic fibres with wide lumen. a few inner cells contain rectangular crystals of calcium oxalate.) Aschers & Schwf.. 1. occurring in North Western and central part of the country and in Deccan Peninsula. oval. light yellow.Bk. thin-walled. channelled. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . moderately large in size. Tiliaceae). elliptical. parenchyma and numerous thick-walled. radially arranged cells. Gangeru (St. fibrous.0 m high. a few cortical cells towards cork also contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. arranged in radial groups. a shrub 0. traversed by wide phloem rays. taste.) GË×GERU (Stem bark) G¡´geru consists of dried stem bark of Grewia tenax (Forsk. a few stone cells.20. mucilaginous. secondary cortex wide. external surface smooth.

2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Under U.08 (violet).).7. 2.55 (blue) & 0. 0.17 (light violet).08 (blue) 0.2-3 g. 0.68 & 0.35.C.2.L.08. of the drug in powder form. Tannin and Sterols (Triacontan-l-ol. 0. Amla.Light yellow and fibrous.55. IDENTITY. 0. 0.48.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Pittavik¡ra. 0. 0. Appendix 2. Two spots are seen at Rf.J¢rak¡di Modaka.V. KaÀ¡ya Guru UÀ¸a Ka¶u TridoÀahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.17.88 (all yellow).C.Vra¸a. β-amyrin etc. 0. 47 . Sa´gr¡haka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 9 1 6 8 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (90 :10). 2. Tikta. T. 0. CONSTITUENTS . 0.27 (light violet). stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 0.17.3. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones visible at Rf. DOSE . On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent seven spots appear at Rf.6. 0. under microscope shows phloem fibres in groups or singles.35 (violet).29 (blue).35 (both light yellow) in visible light. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. Appendix per cent. 0.88 (light violet).2. 0. 0.4.61. 0.2. Appendix per cent.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. 2.35 (dark blue). 0. Appendix per cent. 0. 0.41.27. α-amyrin.Sugar.Powder .64 (blue).68 (light violet) & 0.48 (violet). Ka¶u.2.13 (blue). 0.

taste. slightly corky. wood hard light-yellowish or cream coloured. cork cambium. some with brownish content. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Kunrimani. Kundumani Guriginga. spreading throughout the plains. odourless. composed of 1-2 cells wide. Fabaceae). b) Microscopic Root . a climber. light brown. present at short intervals.) all along Himalayas ascending to 900 m. soft. fruits ripen during winter. thinwalled. exposing internally both cream or yellowish-white. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root. comparatively larger and slightly tangentially elongated cells. flowering in August-September. (Fam. tangentially elongated cells. pitted walls. internal bark yellow with a leathery fibrous texture. Ratti GUØJË (Root) Guµj¡ consists of dried root of Abrus precatorius Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Raktik¡. Gunja (Rt. Chanothee. when distinct. exfoliating in small flakes.Shows thin cork of 3-5 layers of narrow. cylindrical.21. becoming mildly bitter. Ghungchi Guluganji. secondary phloem consists of usual elements traversed by medullary rays 48 . small groups of 4-10 sclerenchymatous cells. gulagunja -Kunni. Chonotee Ratti. bark thin. smaller than stone cells. Gurivinda Ghongchi. feebly sweetish. Kakananti Rati Kunch. surface profusely warty and somewhat rough on account of eruptive development of numerous small lenticels. Shonkainh Jequirity Rati. most often irregularly curved. followed by 2-4 rows of spherical ovoid or slightly elongated stone cells with thick. simple or branched.

groups of sclerenchymatous cells. RukÀa á¢ta Madhura Ke¿ya. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 5. cells in inner phloem region appear circular to polyhedral. in older samples phloem elements usually found in compressed condition forming obliquely and tangentially arranged irregular patches.4. 5-10 or more rows of cells occasionally present. 2. Appendix 4 per cent.75 µ in diameter.3.2. Appendix 10 per cent. Appendix 2. numerous xylem fibres. parenchyma thin-walled.5-13. THERAPEUTIC USES . similar to those occurring in cortex are also present.1 .3 g.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. Tikta á¢ta. annular bands of very thick-walled wood fibres alternating with similar but wider zone of thick-walled parenchyma. mostly tangentially elongated with occasional patches of sieve elements in somewhat collapsed form. 2.75 µ in diameter.2. of the drug in powder form.Indralupta. rounded to oval starch grains measuring 5.Greyish-brown. Appendix 9 per cent. Mukha¿oÀa. wood composed of narrow concentric. áula. mostly containing starch grains of various sizes. medullary rays distinct and 1-6 cells wide.5 -13. 2.5 per cent.7. vessels of varying sizes with thick. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. DOSE . thin-walled and rectangular. medullary rays usually uni or biseriate but a few broader rays. CONSTITUENTS . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 2.2. 49 .Glucoside (Glycyrrhizin). V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Pittahara. 2. cambium forms a complete ring of 1-2 rows of very narrow cells outside the wood. stone cells.2. shows fragments of cork.diverging towards periphery.2. IDENTITY.6. xylem vessels with pitted walls. small groups of sclerenchyma. Powder . parenchyma cells of wood and bast filled with simple. pitted walls. tangentially elongated towards distal end of ray and radially elongated in xylem parts and bast region.2.

besides the xylem and phloem elements. 3-8-12 cm long and 2-4 cm in dia. 50 . Ikshu (St. characteristic. taste. shining and polished pale or dark green to dark yellow. Poaceae). conjoint. smooth. odour. rectangular cells followed by 2-3 layers of sclerenchymatous hypodermis. scattered throughout the ground tissue. closed type of vascular bundles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀu Kusiyar Ganna Sugarcane Sherdi. red violet and often striped having a bud at each node. cylindrical. Serdi Ikha.22.Shows a single layered epidermis consisting of thick-walled. Ganna Kabbu -Karumbu. (Fam. juicy and sweet. parenchymatous cells having a number of collateral. lignified. Karimpu Ush Akhu Ganna Karumbu Gheraku Ganna.) shrub. thickness of the sheath gradually decreasing in the bundles towards the centre. grown and generally cultivated in all hotter parts and in warm climate throughout India. b) Microscopic Stem . each vascular bundle surrounded by a fibrous sheath of sclerenchyma. Naishkar IKâU (Stem) IkÀu consists of the dried stem of Saccharum officinarum Linn. distinct node and internode. with. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stem upto 6 m high. more numerous and closer towards periphery. solid. each bundle surrounds a water containing cavity.

5 per cent. vessels and sclerenchyma.400 ml in the juice form. Pittahara.2.3.2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura B¤Æha¸a. Appendix Not more than 2.Sucrose. ground tissue. Appendix Not more than 6 per cent. Appendix Not less than 17 per cent. Balya. IDENTITY. THERAPEUTIC USES . V¡tahara.Bal¡ Taila. Appendix 2.200 .Powder .Raktapitta. Kaphahara. M£tra KÀaya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . DOSE . 51 .Powder light brick red.2.6. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . M£trala Not more than 2 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2. Appendix Not less than 15 per cent.7.2.2. V¤Àya. 2. shows pieces of epidermis. Sara. 2.2.4. Navaratnar¡jam¥g¡nka Rasa. 2.

Indrayan INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Root) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried root of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Kadukavadi -Valiyakattuvell. pitted. longitudinal fissures present. parenchyma and medullary rays. parenchymatous cells. Tuntikai. elongated with pointed ends. occurring throughout the country.5 µ in dia. Indrayanalata. thick walled.Mature root shows wavy outline consisting of 6-10 layers of rectangular. tangentially elongated cork cells. Endr¢ -Rakhal Sasa Mul Colocynth. b) Microscopic Root . Havumakke. fibres. Valiya Pekkumatti. Gav¡kÀ¢. dull yellow. Tumbi Paikamatti. Varithummati. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Indravall¢. Bitter apple Indravaran. fracture. thick-walled. tangentially elongated.2-2.5 cm thick. Indravaruni (Rt. parenchyma and medullary rays. slightly twisted. 0. vessels mostly solitary or in groups of two to four having reticulate and spiral thickenings. Indravarana Gothakakucti. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root available in cut pieces of 2-7 cm long. mostly simple or rarely 52 . secondary cortex consists of 10-15 layers of elliptical. secondary phloem a narrow-zone. thin walled. a few filled with dark brown contents. fibres aseptate. Aruthununatti Chedu Puchcha Hanzal. Indrayan. composed of sieve elements.5-7. áatakratulat¡. Indrav¡ru¸ik¡. xylem forms bulk of root. medullary rays poorly developed and uniseriate. taste. Cheeiyakattuvellari Endrayana. Indarvaranova Indrayan Havumekke. Paythumatti. starch grains oval to round in shape 2.) Cucurbitaceae). cylindrical.23. lying around vessels. an annual or perennial. consisting of vessels. intensively bitter. Indramanoa. wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem. Garukhiya Kaudatumma. short. Indravaruni. (Fam.

compound having 2-3 components, found scattered throughout but more abundantly in phloem parenchyma. Powder - Dirty yellow; shows aseptate fibres, reticulate and spiral vessels, starch grains simple or occasionally compound measuring 2.5 - 7.5 µ in dia.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 2 per cent, Appendix 6.5 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform:Methanol (85:15) shows under U.V. (366 nm) two fluorescent spots at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both blue). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. 0.16 and 0.30 (both greyish blue).
CONSTITUENTS - Saponin and traces of Alkaloid. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡riÀa, Rodhr¡sava, M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡, B ¤hatmaµjiÀ¶h¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a, Mi¿raka Sheha, Triphal¡di Taila, Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. THERAPEUTIC USES - Apac¢, áv¡sa, Gulma, K¡mal¡, K¡sa, K¤miroga, KuÀ¶ha, Prameha, Vra¸a, Pl¢h¡roga, ViÀavik¡ra, Ga¸·am¡l¡. DOSE - 1-3 g. of the drug in powder form.
53

24. Indravaruni (Lf .)

Cucurbitaceae); an annual or perennial, wild herb with prostrate or climbing stem, occurring throughout the country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatakratulat¡, Eandr¢, Gav¡kÀ¢, Indrav¡ru¸ik¡, Indravall¢ Nantiyah Rahhalasa, Makhal Colocynth, Bitter Apple Indrayana, Indrayanoa, Insbak Indrayana Havumekke Kayi, Havamikke -Kattu vellari, Kadu Indrayan, Peykommuti Indrayana, Kodu indrayan Gothkakudi, Mahakal Tumma, Jamtumma Peyakkumutti, Peytumatti, Peyththumatti, Peykhumutti, Verittumatti Chedupuchcha Hanzal, Indrayan

INDRAVËRUÛÌ (Leaf) Indrav¡ru¸¢ consists of dried leaves of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Fam.

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Leaves very variable, 3.6-6.3 cm long, 2.5-5.0 cm wide, pinnately lobed in outline, generally 3 lobed, sometimes 3-7 lobed, middle lobe largest, each lobe deeply pinnatifid; petiole 1.3-2.5 cm long, entire leaf densely hirsute; taste, very bitter.

b) Microscopic

LeafPetiole - shows ridged outline; epidermis single layered consisting of oval to rounded cells, covered with thick cuticle; hairs uniseriate, 2-4 celled, present on both surfaces; cortex consisting of 3-7 layers, round collenchymatous cells, followed by a single layered endodermis; pith consisting of thin-walled, isodiametric, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles generally eight, arranged in discontinuous ring, bicollateral, each bundle surrounded by semilunar patches of sclerenchymatous cells towards endodermis.

Midrib - shows single layered epidermis, covered with cuticle on both surface; hair present on both surfaces, uniseriate, consisting of 2-3 cells, apical cells being pointed or
54

blunt; cortex consisting of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous cells on dorsal side, followed by thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles present, two well developed, one smaller and other larger, conjoint, bicollateral, composed of xylem and phloem.

Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, hairs similar to those of midrib and present on both surfaces, but more abundant on lower surface; palisade single layered, spongy parenchyma generally 5-8 layered, composed of thin walled, almost isodiametric cells, filled with chlorophyll contents and traversed by a number of veins, vein islet number 29-38 per sq. mm; palisade ratio 2.75-3.75; stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces, stomatal index on upper surface 12.5-28.5 and on lower surface 25.0 -31.2. Powder - Coarse, olive green; shows entire or broken pieces of hairs; epidermal cells polygonal, moderately thick-walled, 27.5-49.5µ long and 19-27 µ wide; spongy parenchyma cells, anomocytic type of stomata and xylem vessels.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than 2 Not more than 18 Not more than 6 Not less than 7 Not less than 18 per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under U.V. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.46, 0.61, 0.75, 0.94 (all green) and 0.97 (red). On spraying with 5% MethanolicSulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. 0.61 (green), 0.75 (green), 0.83 (grey) and 0.94 (grey).
CONSTITUENTS - Colocynthin, traces of an Alkaloid and Flavonoids. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Laghu, Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara, Pittahara, Recana
55

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - Ke¿ap¡ta, Palita, KuÀ¶haroga. DOSE - For external use only

56

taste. oval.. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic 2-5 seeds. a few schizogenous cavities are also found. smooth. shows a few parenchymatous cells and numerous oval. Neredu chettu Jamun height of 30 m and a girth of 3. Jambu (Sd. Seed . (Fam. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. compressed together into a mass resembling a single seed.) JAMBÍ (Seed) Jamb£ consists of dried seeds of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. rounded measuring 7-28 µ in dia. Kalajam Jambul tree Gambu. attaining a SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Badjam. b) Microscopic Powder . thin-walled. Jamu Kol Jaamun Naval Alla Nereduchettu. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Jambu Nerale -Njaval Jambul Jam Kol. 57 . oval or roundish. mesophyll composed of isodiametric.800 m. coriaceous covering. measuring 7-28 µ in diameter. the whole seed enclosed in a cream coloured. E. 1 cm wide.Brown coloured.6 m with a bole up to 15 m.) Skeels Syn. brownish-black.Shows cotyledons consisting of single layered epidermis. astringent. Myrtaceae). Jamun Jamuna Nerale Beeja.. a large evergreen tree. 1 cm long. cuminii Druce.25. parenchymatous cells fully packed with simple starch grains. rounded starch grains.

95 and 0.C.95 (all yellow). 2.3-6 g.4.20.L. Appendix per cent.2.3. Appendix per cent. 58 . 0.2. three spots appear at Rf. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. light (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.6.95 (all violet). Appendix per cent.Madhumeha. Appendix 2. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. DOSE .V. 0. Amla. 0. Tannin. 0. ViÀ¶ambhi. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.30 and 0. 2.L. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylaceate (90: 10) shows under U. Ellagic acid and Gallic acid. 0. 2. Pittahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .12.30 (blue).30 and 0.2. 0. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 5 1 6 15 per cent.2. Appendix per cent.20. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf.IDENTITY.2. Kaphahara. Udakameha. T. KaÀ¡ya Guru.2. CONSTITUENTS .7. of the drug in powder form.C.Glycoside (Jamboline). On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a.

. phloem parenchyma thin-walled and polyhedral in shape. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of cork differentiated into upper and lower cork zones. Jamneralae. Jamu. younger bark mostly channelled.) Skeels Syn. Navval Sambu. attaining a height of 30 m and a girth of 3. a large evergreen tree. Nagal Nesedu Jamun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in slightly curved or flat pieces. fracture.5-2.5 cm thick. elongated.) JAMBÍ (Stem Bark) Jamb£ consists of dried stem bark of Syzygium cuminii (Linn. cuminii Druce.800 m. taste. forming a rhytidoma. Jambu. Jambuda Jomuna. lower cork thin and colourless. Eugenia jambolana Lam. rough.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. internal surface fibrous. astringent. Myrtaceae). Ksudrajambu Jam Jaam -Jambu. 0. cork cambium not distinct. having groups of 2-4 stone cells and crushed elements of phloem. cork consisting of tangentially elongated rectangular cells. Raja Jambu Merale. upper few layers thick. Jambu (St. Mahamaram. stone cells.26. Jam Jammu Naaval. E. stratified and reddish-brown. Naval Jambhool Jamukoli. and reddish brown. Neralamara -Njaval. short and splintery. oval to angular. and phloem rays. light grey to ash coloured. found throughout India upto an altitude of 1. fibres aseptate. external surface more or less rough and rugged due to exfoliation and vertical cracks. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mahajambu. both stone cells and fibres single or in groups present throughout this 59 . (Fam.Bk.

2. DOSE .7. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .U¿¢r¡sava.6. phloem rays 1-4 cells wide. single or in groups.10-20 g. shows fragments of thin-walled cork cells. V¡tala.2. aseptate fibres.4. Pittahara. 2. Kaphahara. oval to angular.2. measuring 5-11µ in diameter. measuring 5-11 µ in diameter Powder . Stambhaka. THERAPEUTIC USES . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2.2. reddish-brown content. 2. 60 . Appendix per cent.Atis¡ra. elongated. round to oval starch grains. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. of the drug for decoction. round to oval starch grains.Light brown. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. Appendix per cent.2.3. Appendix per cent. 2. K¤midoÀaghna Not more than 2 Not more than 11 Not more than 1 Not less than 9 Not less than 11 per cent. Raktapitta.region. stone cells.Tannins PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢.

raphe runs along ventral surface of seed. slightly bent at middle. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. consisting of a large endosperm. Neervalam Jepal. Jayapala (Sd. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. thin-walled cells. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed albuminous. 5-7 m high.27. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. filled with brownish content. inner most zone consists of tangentially elongated. terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. slightly quadrangular. oblong. consisting of an epidermal layer. about 12 mm in length and resemble castor seed in shape. ovate.) small evergreen tree. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. Neervalam. b) Microscopic Seed . Valam Nepalamu Jamalgota JAYAPËLA (Seed) Jayap¡la consists of dried seed of Croton tiglium Linn. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. Japala. kernel yellowish and oily. (Fam. dull cinnamon-brown. Japal beej. Tinti·¢phala. Nervala -Nervalam. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. Japal -Japolota Nervalam. Euphorbiaceae). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Mukula.Shows a hard testa. 61 . no marked odour. found throughout tropical India.

2.49.endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. Resins & Phorbol esters.5 per cent. IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid : Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.39.4. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .34 (grey).Icch¡bhed¢ Rasa.7. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 15 per cent. 0.Fixed oil. Udararoga. under microscope shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. Appendix 2.2.White with black particles of testa.84 (brown).54 and 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. A¿vaka´cuk¢ Rasa. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes three spots appear at Rf.2.C.10.L. 2.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2.54 (yellow). Appendix 0. Appendix 7 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .Jvara. 0.34.2.3. 0. (366 nm) three spots at Rf.6-12 mg. Recana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .84 (all violet).V. T. 0.C.90 (all yellow). 2. Pittahara. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0. 0. a few cells having rosette crystals of calciwn oxalate. 0.2. central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 62 . of the drug in powder form. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. Powder .29. Appendix 3 per cent. 2.63 and 0.L. Vibandha DOSE . 0.2.

-Jayanti -Rajashinganee. very shortly stalked. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis . entire. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. 1. palisade single layered. Atti. -Semp. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. jayata Arinintajinamgi. mucronate to acuminate. consisting of thin-walled. Jalugu.5 cm long. paripinnate. 1. 0. Fabaceae).) JAYANÙÌ (Leaf) Jayan¶¢consists of fresh and dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (Linn. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. pith small.shows single layered epidermis.. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. a quick growing. Nelichettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves pinnately compound.3-0.8 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Jayant¢.Syn. having secretory cavities in phloem.3 cm long. 7. stomata anisocytic.8-6 m high.5-15. Jayanti (Lf. polygonal. Jay¡. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Karum-sempai Sominta. oblong. 63 . Lamina . aegyptiaca Pers. present on both surfaces.28. glabrous. each bundle covered externally with sclerenchymatous sheath. one smaller vascular bundle present in both the wings.7 layered round.0-3. followed by 2-3 layered collenchymatous and 4. found cultivated throughout plains of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Karijimangai. parenchymatous cells. Jayanti Jaita. leaflets 6-16 pairs. Arishimajingai. short lived shrub.) Merr. opposite. á£kÀma patra.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. (Fam. S. linear.

11. 0.2.11.19. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) shows under U.2. stomatal index on upper surface 11-20 and on lower surface 11-25.3-6 g.29.56.97 (yellow). V¡tahara. 0.29.4. THERAPEUTIC USES .3. 0. 0. Ka¸¶ha¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0. 0.7. 0. Appendix per cent.2.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 2 7 25 per cent.05. Galaga¸·a.50 and vein islet number 27-36 per square mm.C. 0.97 (all yellow). IDENTITY.6. Pittahara. 2. 0.69. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix per cent. ViÀaroga.small veins situated between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.48. 2.91 and 0.29.25-4.97 (all grey).37.56. Ras¡yana.19.Dull green. Powder . Calcium and Phosphorus. 0.M£trak¤cchra. 0. palisade ratio 3.C.91 and 0. 0.48. 0. 0. 0. Appendix 2. 0. in powder form.05. CONSTITUENTS .V. On exposure to Iodine vapour ten spots appear at Rf.2. Appendix per cent. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. 0. T.19. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and stomata.2. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic-Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes nine spots appear at Rf.05.37.L.Ratnagiri Rasa.2. 2. 0. Appendix per cent. 2. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.11. shows spongy parenchyma.Protein. 0.56 (all pink) and 0. 64 . 0. Vajrakap¡¶a Rasa. palisade cells.

devoid of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd.5-3. one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the whole margin. brownish-orange. Seed . bitter. followed by 4-6 layers of thin-walled. Gangunge beeja. ripe seeds. lyotishmati Malkangoni Valuluvai Malkangani. a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side. light to dark brown.) JYOTIâMATÌ (Seed) JyotiÀmat¢ consists of dried.hard. seed without aril also prescent. Jyotishmati (Sd. beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal. odour.35 mm in breadth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : -Kapalphotla -Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Doddaganugae. unpleasant. inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Peddamaveru Malkangani DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril. Kangondiballi -Ceruppunnari. mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. a large climbing shrub.29. Celastraceae). colour. measuring 5-6 mm in length and 2. parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces. Gangunge humpu. (Fam. surface generally smooth and. Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni. taste. parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells. endosperm 65 b) Microscopic . collapsed.Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin. tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents.

2. Powder .89 (both greenish blue). 0. V¡maka. Appendix 1.2. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf. thin-walled. Virecaka. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains.82 (pink) & 0. 0.82. (all blue) & 0. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 2.3.20.composed of polygonal.2.V. dark brown.63.89. 0. Under U.C. under microscope shows groups of endospermic parenchyma. Appendix 6 per cent. UÀ¸a. Appendix 2.35. 0. Grenish -brown Light green Yellowish-green Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH T.2.4. 0.94 (yellow). stone cells.V. V¡tahara.15.5 per cent.54 (both blue). Appendix 45 per cent.35. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.Alkaloids. 2. 0. 0.6.2.8 IDENTITY.7. 0. oil globules and aleurone grains and shows fluorescence under U.Oily.54. Appendix 9 per cent.82. 0. 0. Kaphahara.C. 2.04. Oil and Tannins.L. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf.82 & 0.89 (all yellow). 0. 2. 0. D¢pana.2.94 (yellow) in visible light. Appendix 20 per cent.2. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u (Prabh¡va : Meddhya).L. áirovirecanopaga. 0. parenchymatous cells having oil gloubles and aleurone grains. Tikta Sara. CONSTITUENTS .54. Meddhya 66 . 2. light as following :Powder as such : Powder + 1 N NaOH in Methanol : Powder + Nitrocellulose in Amyl Acetate : Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Oil contents T.

Sm¤tidaurbalya. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . JyotiÀmat¢ Taila. Oil : 5-15 drops.Seed: 1-2 g. ávitra.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 67 .Sm¤tis¡gara Rasa.V¡tavy¡dh¢.

Rubiaceae). bitter. phloem composed of sieve tubes. some cells contain chlorophyll. phloem fibres same in structure as found in inner bark. Kadimi Chettu -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark externally greyish-green with shallow fissures. rectangular cells.30. (Fam. Neirumavinamara -Attutekka. a few cells with brown contents. taste.. most cells thick-walled but a few thin-walled containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. traversed by uni to triseriate. Priyka Roghu. Kadappai. Kadamba (St. Kadamba Nipo. Stem Bark -Outer most zone of the bark shows rhytidoma with cork 4-6 layers wide. large tree. Vellai Kadambu Kadambamu. Vellai Kadambam. Kadavala. Kadam Kadam. Rich. easily separates from inner bark into tangential strips. Kadambal Kadamb Arattam. attaining a height of 18 m with a girth of about 2 m. Syn. Kadam Kadam -Kadamb. elongated cells of phloem rays. Indulam. Kadambu Needam. inner bark consists of groups of fibres alternating with phloem. exfoliating in small irregular woody scales. Kadamba Kadamba. A. internally light reddish to reddish-brown.Bk. middle bark composed of rectangular or tangentially elongated cells without intercellular spaces.) KADAMBA (Stem Bark) Kadamba consists of dried stem bark of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : V¤tta PuÀpa. found all over India on the slopes of evergreen forests upto 500 m and planted in parks and near temples etc. 68 b) Microscopic . Kadamba mara. Vellaikhadambu. indicus A. Katampu Kadamb Holiptiya. composed of thin-walled. a deciduous.

Alkaloids. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Ethylacetate : Methanol : Water (100:13. 0. ViÀavra¸a (DanÀaja Vra¸a). outer region of inner bark and phloem tissues thin-walled.2.2. V¡tahara.V (366 nm) nine fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.D¡ha. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.1. phloem cells. Lava¸a. comparatively large and consisting of rounded to polygonal cells a few phloem cells in this region compressed.31.63 (yellowish grey). cells of phloem parenchyma thinwalled and polygonal. THERAPEUTIC USES . L C.Brown. Vedan¡st¡pana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.2. 69 . T. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. 2. 0. fibres.83 and 0.6. 0. 2.5 g. Powder .phloem fibres. phloem fibres lignified with narrow lumen and pointed ends.21. Appendix 3 per cent.70 (orange yellow). and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY. Raktapitta.13. 2.79 (grey) and 0. Vra¸a.5 per cent. Graha¸¢mihira Taila.03.90 (grey).Nygrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.3.L. 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. cells distinct and slightly elongated.79.7. Vra¸aropa¸a. Steroids. Appendix 9 per cent.5:10) shows under U.4.2. Appendix 5 per cent. phloem rays uni-to triseriate and arranged close to one another.57. 0.90 (all yellow) On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent on heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes four spots appear at Rf. 0.2. 0. CONSTITUENTS . Fats and Reducing Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 2. of the drug in powder form. some cells at the periphery of inner bark tilled with chlorophyll contents.64.0. Appendix 1.2.C. shows fragments of cork cells. DOSE . YonidoÀa. 0. Appendix 2. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.5 .

5 cm wide. Kakamachi (W. obtuse.Erect. Manitakkali. green. calyx 2-3 mm long. style cylindric. quite common in cultivated lands.5-8. bark thin. Datkachu Gudakamai Garden Night Shade Piludi Makoya Ganikayeagida.Tap root with a few branches and numerous small lateral roots. 3-8 flowered cymes.2-2. rounded at the basal region and angular at the apical region.31. Maniththakkali Kamanchi Makoh KËKAMËCÌ (Whole Plant) K¡kam¡c¢ consists of the dried whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn.Small. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : DhvankÀam¡c¢ Kakamachi. hairy in lower part. divided more than half way down into 5 oblong sub-acute lobes. ovate or oblong. oblong. thin. toothed or lobed. sub-umbellate. Kage hanninagids -Karinthakkali. sinuate. Ganikesopu. Pikachia. Stem . 1. glabrous. a herbaceous annual weed. narrowed at both ends. hairy at base.Simple. ganike. petiolate. oblong. obtuse notched at apex.5 cm long and 2. easily peeled off exposing pale yellow wood. pale brown. yellowish. 70 . white or pale violet. 30-45 cm high. Leaf . externally smooth. pedicels 6-10 mm long. filaments short. flattened. road sides and gardens. glabrous or pubescent. (Fam.P. anther 1. 2. Manjathakkali Kamoni Lunlunia. Ganikegida. Lunilunika Mako Manarthakkali. five lobed.) Solanaceae). extra-axillary. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Manaththakkali. very slender. corolla 4-8 mm long. slender. found throughout the country in dry parts. Flower . slightly woody and branched. peduncles 6-20 mm long. glabrous.5 mm long.25 mm long. ovary globose. Manatakkali.

thin-walled cells with smaller intercellular spaces. thin-walled cells having patches of lignified sclerenchyma fibres. radially elongated cells.5-8. two smaller bundles present laterally on either side of main vascular bundles one in each lateral wing of the petiole. slightly elongated. cambium 2-4 layered. measuring 2. LeafPetiole . arcshaped. single or with two or rarely 3 components. parenchyma 4-6 layered. covering trichomes. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 2-4 rows of tangentially elongated cells. Stem . internal phloem. 5-8 layered parenchyma consisting of round. usually accompanied by fibres. covered with thick. a few parenchyma cells contain microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.Fruit . 3-5 celled having pointed tips and warty walls. pericycle consists of intermittent ring of patches of fibres either isolated or in groups of 2-4. vascular bundles-collateral. uniseriate. covered with striated cuticle.shows single layered epidermis of oval or tangentially elongated cells. but 4. trichomes multicellular. some containing numerous microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and simple. a few containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.Discoid. glandular hairs with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-7 celled head. bicollateral.5 mm in dia. compactly arranged. uniseriate.25 µ in dia. phloem rays uniseriate. tangentially elongated.A berry. obtuse. secondary cortex composed of 2-4 layered collenchyma. vessels arranged in groups of 2-4 in radial rows. measuring 2. covered with striated cuticle. xylem composed of vessels and parenchyma. most of the cortical cells contain oval to round. central vascular bundle shallow. endoderrnis single layered. 6mm in dia.5-11 µ in dia. Midrib . epidermis single layered. trichomes similar to those found on petiole. parenchymatous cells with small intercellular spaces. collenchyma 2-3 layered on both surfaces. uniseriate. parenchyma thick-walled containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate. usually purplish-black but sometimes red.Shows single layered. xylem rays homogenous.10 layered in angular parts. slightly striated cuticle.. embedded in perimedullary zones. smooth shining Seed . a few cells containing microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate.' oval parenchymatous cells. pith large.. showing spiral thickening and simple perforations.shows upper and lower epidermis of round to oval cells. conjoint and open. yellow. epidermis of cubical to barrel-shaped cells. cortex of large.. oval to round starch grains. arc71 . minutely pitted. xylem vessels arranged radially smaller being towards centre. smooth. rays composed of thin-walled. composed of thin-walled. phloem consists of thin-walled. yellow or black. polygonal cells. 1. filled with starch grains.. chlorenchyma 2-3 layered. in small or large patches. starch grains. tracheids pointed tipped and with pitted walls. thin-walled with small intercellular spaces.

5 . oval to round and compound with three components of starch grains. papery epicarp.2. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. pulpy mesocarp and exile placentation. 2.06 & 0.11 µ in diameter. 2. present beneath palisade parenchyma.2. a few broken pieces of pointed. stomatal index 15-17 on upper epidermis and 22-23 on lower epidermis. seeds at first remain attached to the placenta but afterwards separate from it and lie free in pulp of fruit. warty hairs with pointed tips and glandular hairs are present.2.4. Appendix per cent.97 (all yellow). vein islet number 7-10. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90 : 10) shows two spots at Rf. Appendix per cent. T. palisade ratio 2-4. Appendix 2.34 (both brown) in visible light. palisade single layered. Appendix per cent.C. a few vessels with spiral thickenings.06 & 0. both upper and lower epidermis single layered. composed of oval to tangentially elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. 034 and 0.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 7 4 15 per cent.6.7. Lamina . spongy parenchyma 4-6 layered containing chloroplasts with intercellular spaces. IDENTITY.shaped bicollateral vascular bundle placed centrally.2. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.V.Shows thin.06. Under U.3.Alkaloids and Saponins.L. 0. 72 . measuring 2. Fruit .dorsiventral.2. CONSTITUENTS . epidermis with irregular outline.C. 2. scattered on both surfaces but more abundant in lower surface. unicellular hairs. 0.34 (both pink).Creamish-green. single. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening.2. 2. stomata anisocytic. Appendix per cent. in surface preparation a large number of multicellular. 0. light (366 nm) two fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.

H¤dya. Jvara. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in juice form. Tikta Laghu.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphahara. Prameha. Svarya. V¡tahara. V ¤Àya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Sara. Ar¿a. DOSE .áotha. Ras¡yana. Ka¸·u. 73 . Rasar¡ja Rasa. Chardi. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana. Mah¡ ViÀagarbha Taila. H¤droga. Hikk¡.5 -10 ml. KuÀ¶ha.H¤day¡r¸ava Rasa. Netraroga. Pittahara.

crimpled. 3-5 cm long. Kamal. starchy and large. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Sarojam Kaluva. broken pieces also occur.32. Aravindan. Syn. Salaphool Lotus Kamal. petals numerous. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m.) KAMALA (Flower) Kamala consists of dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.2-2 cm wide yellowish-brown. yellowish-brown. 74 .5-3 cm wide. Sitopala. gynoecium and thalamus. sepals leaf-like. Tavaregedd -Tamara. Pankaja Podum Padma Phool. finely veined. Senthamara Komala Padma Kanwal.3-2 cm wide. erect. seed hard. corolla.. Kanwal Kamal. comprising of calyx. extended into clavate appendages.4-2 cm long. obtuse. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Abja. black. Thamaraipoo. Chenthamara. Tamarapuvow Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers. top shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3-5 cm long and 2. anther. 2-4 cm long. embedded in a creamy. Venthamara. 1. Naidile. androecium. Pamposh Tamarai. Kamala (Fl. gynoceium apocarpous. Aravinda. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Nymphaeaceae). a large. Tavare. 1. linear 1. Kamalam. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. elliptic. aquatic herb with creeping stem. Paduman. Padma. free. membranous. carpels many. crimp led. (Fam. dark brown. Kalh¡ra. entire flower 10-15 cm in dia.

4. having smooth exine and intine. Powder . composed of thin-walled.Aravind¡sava. Appendix per cent.2.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than CONSTITUENTS . 2. angular. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues.Raktapitta. rectangular.2. 2. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. vascular bundle single. Var¸ya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .filament appears circular in outline. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.2. Pittahara.shows four chambered anther.2. measuring 50-61 µ in dia. ViÀavik¡ra. followed by ground tissue of oval. spore sac contains yellow. Appendix per cent. Stamen Filament .shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. Anther . columnar. parenchymatous cells with wide air-sacs.7. spherical. KaÀ¡ya Guna : á¢ta. measuring 50-61 µ in diameter. of the drug for decoction. 2. IDENTITY.2. Visarpa. T¤Àn¡ D¡ha. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Madhura.3. Appendix per cent. Sant¡pahara. 2. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. Laghu Virya : á¢ta Vipaka : Madhura Karma : Kaphahara. THERAPEUTIC USES .2. two on either sides.12 -24 g. Catura Kaval Gh¤ta. ground tissue consisting of polygonal. parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thin-walled. Tikta.Alkaloid (Nelumbine). M£tra Virajan¢ya. . yellow pollen grains.b) Microscopic Flower Petal .Dusty brown. Appendix 2. parenchymatous cell. 75 2 12 3 6 14 per cent. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle. Appendix per cent. parenchymatous cells. DOSE . anther consists of a single layer of epidermis.

76 . semicircular. F. Kapittha (Fr. Kavita Wood apple Kotha. Villanga Kaaya Kavatha -Kainth Vilamaram. shows fragments of fibro-vascular bundles. Haminamara -Vilar maram. Pulp. Belada hannu.shows irregular. odour. Vilangai Velaga Kaith DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit pulp occurs mostly in broken pieces and sometimes entire. Belalu. Kavataleal. Syn. sharp. Bilvara. measuring about 4-5 cm in dia.) Swingle. triangular to oval with concentric striations and narrow lumen. fruit rind is removed and the pulp is bruised and dried. having longitudinal ridges and furrows. stone cells. glabrous tree with strong. hard. Balada. thin-walled. Rutaceae). found in groups. elephantum Correa (Faro. reddish brown. b) Microscopic Fruit Pulp . Powder . Siwalik range and forests. straight. xylem vessels having spiral thickenings. at base of Himalayas upto an elevation of 450 m. found throughout the plains of India. axillary thorns. numerous idioblast cells filled with reddish-brown content.Reddish-brown.) KAPITTHA (Fruit Pulp) Kapittha consists of dried pulp of mature fruit of Feronia limonia (Linn. a few fibro-vascular bundles distributed in the pulp. often cultivated in many parts of India. taste.33. vessels and idioblast filled with cell content. aromatic. sour. with concentric striations and narrow lumen. rough. a deciduous. parenchymatous cells. Kapipriya -Kayet Bael. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Danta áatha. Kondhu Kaitha Bekalu. slightly triangular and oval. stone cells.

Unripe Pulp: UÀna Madhura.37. Pittav¡tahara.C. Ripe-T¤À¡. 2. (366 nm) three fluorescent zones appear at Rf 0. 0. 6. CONSTITUENTS . V¡mi.50. Appendix per cent. Unripe Pulp: Amla. Appendix 2. Under U. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Amla.2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. 0. of the drug in powder form. Sangr¡h¢.91 (violet) and 0. 2.91 (blue) and 0.2.2. KaÀ¡ya.1-3 g.4. V¡tala IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .7. Unripe Pulp: Guru á¢ta. 0.37 (brown). Appendix per cent. 0. Agnim¡ndya. 2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform :Ethylacetate : Formic acid (5:4:1) shows one spot at Rf.14 (sky blue).91 (grey) in visible light.2. Yav¡ny¡di C£r¸a.12 (brown).IDENTITY. Unripe Pulp: Kaphaghna. Vra¸an¡¿aka. Hikk¡. Unripe Pulp: Amla V¤Àya.Kapitth¡À¶aka C£r¸a. 0.V. Appendix per cent.50 (violet).6.L. Appendix per cent. 0.3.91 and 0.06.2. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.C. THERAPEUTIC USES . Unripe-Graha¸¢ Roga.áv¡sa.95 (blue). Lekhana.95 (all yellow). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 1 12 25 per cent. T. 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf.12.L. DOSE .95 (violet) . 77 . 0.Citric acid and Mucilage. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. Gr¡h¢.2. 0.

prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in cortical cells and phloem parenchyma. parenchymatous cells having groups of stone cells. 78 . measuring 3-7 µ in dia. starch grains simple. met throughout India in wild state. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. rough due to longitudinal striations. a few stone cells attached with cortical fibres. a dichotomously branched large shrub or small tree. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. found scattered in cortical and phloem parenchyma cells. fracture. tubular. simple and compound starch grains. short. (Fam .Greyish-brown. Karamarda (St. measuring 3-7 µ in dia. external surface brownish-grey. Stem Bark -Mature bark shows a wide zone of stratified cork having lenticels at a few places. shows single and groups of stone cells.) Apocynaceae). flat or slightly curved pieces. sometimes cultivated. b) Microscopic Powder . light in weight. internal surface grey and smooth. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Krsnapakphala -Karamach -Karamadan Karijige Karimkar -Karimkar Karamanda -Garna Kalakke -Karaunda KARAMARDA (Stem Bark) Karamarda consists of dried stem bark of Carissa carandas Linn. and compound having 2-3 components.34.Bk. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark occurs in small and thin. cortical fibres in single or groups of 2-3.

35. 2.2.3.6. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .C.L. 79 . 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru. (366 nm) one fluorescent zone at Rf.90 (pink) and 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 3 4 8 per cent.7. DOSE .48 g. T. 0.97 (violet).2. 2. Appendix per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2.KuÀthahara.Marma Gu¶¢k¡. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara. Appendix per cent.58 (both light grey). Ethylacetate (9 : 1) shows under U.V.2.C.2. Appendix per cent. Pittakara. 2. Appendix 2.4.IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. 0. of the drug for decoction. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about fifteen minutes at 1050C four spots appear at Rf.L.52 (light sky blue). 0.2.Glycosides and â-Sitosterol. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene.

) Merr. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. Fabaceae). Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root Bark) Karaµja consists of dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. fracture. Nakt¡hv¡. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. internally. b) Microscopic Root Bark -Shows cork consisting or 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. Gh¤takaraµja Korach Natakaranja. traversed by phloem rays. taste. reddish-brown externally and yellowishwhite.35. Naktam¡la. due to peeling off. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2-5 components round to oval in shape. Syn. P. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma. a glabrous tree. most of phloem 80 . tangentially elongated cells.. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Karanja (Rt. Dahara karanja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. tangentially elongated.) glabra Vent. stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. cells. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. fibrous. 3-11 µ in dia.. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. external surface rough. (Fam. Bk. of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. single cells of varying shape and size. thin-walled. secondary phloem very wide. very bitter. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Karaµjaka.

C. parenchymatous cells.2. 0. 2.2.98 (all yellow).18 (blue) 0. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. 0.31 (sky blue). phloem fibres.6.V.37 (greenish yellow).42 (sky blue).47. Demethoxy-kanugin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene:Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.2. 2. THERAPEUTIC USES .4. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery.parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-11 µ in diameter. 2. Ka¸·u. IDENTITY. 0. most of ray cells contain starch grain. DuÀ¶avra¸a.47. 0.47 (greenish yellow).25 (sky blue). consisting of thin-walled. shows thin-walled. Appendix 2.L. ViÀaghma. CONSTITUENTS . mostly straight.08 (greenish blue).2.3.7.C. Tikta.5 per cent. 81 . (366 nm) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. Vra¸a¿odhana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix 3. Ëntravidradhi. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.80 and 0.04 (blue). Appendix 17 per cent. cork cells. 0.2. DOSE . V¡tahara. 0.51.13 (Sky blue). of the drug for decoction.Flavones Kanugin.K¤miroga. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0. 0.1-3 g. Ka¸·£ghna. phloem rays many. 0.09. Yoniroga.37. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.31. Pittahara. 0.Prabhaµajana Vimardana Taila. 0.80 (light blue).L. KuÀtha. 0. Powder -Creamish-yellow. 2. Prameha. 0.18. T.2.51 (light blue). similar to those present in secondary cortex. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. 1-2 seriate. Appendix 2 per cent. Appendix 11 per cent. 0.

secondary phloem a very wide zone.) Merr.. bark. thin-walled. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja.) Vent. Karanja (Rt. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. P. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Root) Karaµja consists of dried root of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. consisting of 82 . irregularly distributed. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. b) Microscopic Root -Shows cork consisting of 5-15 or more rows of rectangular. (Fam. tangentially elongated. internally light yellow. a glabrous tree. fibrous in bark portion and hard to break in xylem portion where the root is thick when in pieces splits longitudinally. most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains consisting of 2-3 components. 3-11 µ in dia. bark does not easily separate from xylem. Fabaceae). bitter. rough due to the presence of numerous. taste. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes.36. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. rounded to oval in shape. Karaµjaka. consisting of tangentially arranged fibres. reddish-brown or dull brown. fracture. cells. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. alternating with sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays mostly straight. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. and also transversely arranged rows of lenticels. Syn. light in weight. some cells containing yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. 1-2 seriate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja. Nakt¡hv¡. tangentially elongated cells. stone cells found in single as well as in groups of varying shapes and size..

DuÀ¶avra¸a. Ka¸·£. vessels found scattered throughout secondary xylem region in singles or groups of 2-4 or rarely. Ëntravidradh¢. secondary xylem consisting of vessels.6. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. V¡tahara. Appendix per cent. Vra¸a¿odhana. Prameha. xylem vessels entire or in pieces with reticulate thickenings. 83 . tangentially elongated towards outer region.4. Kanugin.2. and crystals similar to those of cortical cells. xylem rays uni to triseriate consisting of radially elongated cells. Appendix per cent. stone cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. DOSE ..2.2. CONSTITUENTS . also present in phloem parenchyma and phloem rays. ViÀaghna. Vidradh¢.3. of the drug in powder form. 2.Methylfisetin.Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals are similar to those present in cortical cells and also found scattered in xylem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. Appendix 2. K¤miroga. Demethoxy-kanugin.Karanjin. rounded to oval in shape.2. Appendix per cent.2. thin-waned cells towards inner region. THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta.1-2 g. more. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 1 1 7 per cent.7. 2. fibres and parenchyma. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.2. starch grains. KuÀ¶ha. IDENTITY. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. xylem parenchyma cells thin-walled. 2. 2. Powder -Light yellow. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . starch grains in abundance both simple and compound. Kaphahara. tracheids. fibres thick-walled arranged in tangential bands traversed by xylem rays. shows fibres in singles or groups.radially elongated. Pittahara. consisting of 2-3 components. Appendix per cent. Yoniroga. Pongachromene & Tetra-O.

taste. lenticellate pieces. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. fibre small. beneath secondary cortex a large group of oval to elongated stone cells. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements. phloem parenchyma. forming a continuous or discontinuous band. P. slightly quilled. usually 0. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. Karanja (St. unpleasant. Fabaceae). at some places lenticels also appear. secondary cortex 10-15 layered having oval to polygonal. short and fibrous.Shows 5-20 or more layers of cork. Syn. parenchymatous cells. fracture.Bk. composed of rectangular. (Fam. alternating with stone cells. thin-walled. Kanuga Karanj KARAØJA (Stem Bark) Karaµja consists of dried stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Nakt¡hv¡. filled with reddish-brown content. Karanja. tangentially elongated.37. Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai Ganuga. odour. b) Microscopic Bark . arranged in a tangential manner. Karaµjaka. Natakaranja -Kanaji Karanj Honge -Pungu. bitter. thick-walled cells. traversed by medullary rays. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.2-1 cm thick. phloem fibre and stone cells.. recurved. more or less smooth.) glabra Vent. 84 .) Merr. outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in channelled. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. a glabrous tree. sieve elements and parenchyma composed of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells.

rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Ka¸·u. Appendix 18 per cent.2. shows groups of rectangular to polygonal. Pinnatin. aseptate fibre and stone cells. Kaphahara.2. Tetra-o-Methylfisetin. Demethoxy- kanugin. Tikta. elongated. Appendix 13 per cent. ViÀaghma. and rarely. rounded to oval.polygonal. IDENTITY. 2. 3". Ëntravidradh¢. measuring 3-14 µ in dia. Ka¶u. simple and compound starch grains. flavone and 5-Methoxy-3'4' Methylene dioxyfurano (2". Powder -Yellowish-cream.4. medullary rays wavy.2. 2. CONSTITUENTS . Gamatin. Appendix 1. 7 : 8) flavone & two new Furano compounds Glabra-I and Glabra-II. Prameha. radially elongated and rounded to oval in shape.6. 3" 7 : 8). phloem parenchyma and rays cells. thin walled parenchymatous sieve tube. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent. It also contains alkaloids and Triterpenoid saponin. KuÀ¶ha. usually 2-4 cells wide. Kanugin. thin-walled and aseptate. Appendix 2. a few associated with stone cells and arranged radially.1-2 g. 2. Pongapin. rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate found in secondary cortex.2.7.3. Appendix 3 per cent. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Ka¸·£ghna.2.. Vidradh¢. of the drug in powder form. Vra¸a¿odhana PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . starch grains simple. 5Methoxyfurano (2". 2. Must¡karaµj¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. 85 . Yoniroga DOSE . oil globules. THERAPEUTIC USES .B¤hanmaµjiÀh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. a few stone cells scattered in secondary cortex as in secondary phloem. oil globules found in secondary phloem only. K¤miroga. rounded to oval and compound having 2-4 components.5 per cent.Flavones and Furanoflavones like Karanjin. Pittahara.DuÀ¶avra¸a.2. present in secondary cortex. V¡tahara.

parenchymatous cells without intercellular spaces. epidermis single layered. leaflets 2-3 pairs. pericyc1e present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. vascular bundle single.circular in outline. upto 18 m or sometimes more in height. Karaµjaka. Fabaceae).38. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiolule . Kanajo Karuaini. traversed by xylem rays. a few schizogenous cavities found scattered in cortex. a glabrous tree. Hulagilu -Pungu.) Merr. covered with cuticle. Pongana Ganuga. isodiametric. P.) Vent.5 cm long and 3.8 cm. Avittal Karanja Karanja Karanj Pungai. Kanugu Karanj KARAØJA (Leaf) Karaµja consists of dried leaf of Pongamia pinnata (Linn. Karanja. Unu.9-8. Dithouri Honge. Nakt¡hv¡. dark green. 0. Ungu. (Fam.5-0. glabra DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves imparipinnate. 86 . Karanja (Lf. Natakaranja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji. ovate or elliptic with smooth margins.2 .11. consisting of xylem and phloem. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.. Syn. cortex consisting of angular.3 cm wide. Naktam¡la Korach Dahara karanja. consistig of tabular cells. xylem vessels arranged radially. arcshaped. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. petiolule short. 6. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gh¤takaraµja.

(4". Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 5)-flavone and 8 methoxyfurano. Powder -Green. phloem and pith. consisting of tabular cells.methoxy pongapin in addition to Karanjin.2. KaÀ¡ya ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedana.2. occasionally a few spongy parenchyma cells get elongated and look like palisade cells.2. 2. pericycle present in the form of sclerenchymatous sheath. áothahara PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : 87 .2. Appendix 16 per cent. central portion occupied by oval to polygonal thin-walled parenchymatous pith.flavone and 8-Methoxyfurano-(4". palisade two layered. Appendix 10 per cent. .2. followed by 3-4 layered collenchymatous hypodermis.Mid rib .6.5-50. Ka¶u. 2. Appendix 3. Lamina -shows single layered epidermis covered with thick cuticle. a few containing prismatic crystals similar to midrib. stomatal index 12.7.2. spongy parenchyma 3-5 layered. palisade ratio 3. stomata anisocytic. covered with thick cuticle. K¤imihara. V¡tahara.4. Appendix 11 per cent. Kaphahara.5) .5 per cent. mesophyll cells. 2. 5". 5" . 2.6.5".6.shows single layered epidermis. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex.5-20. Pittavardhaka. present in lower surface. conjoint and arranged in discontinuous ring. epidermal cells and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate IDENTITY.A new Furanoflavone -3' . Tikta. 7) -flavone. vein islet number 18-25 per mm square. Kanjone and its two isomers 7-Methoxyfurano-(4".6. shows spiral xylem vessels.3. CONSTITUENTS . vascular bundle. cortex consists of round to oval. collateral. Ka¸·ughna. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.

DOSE .J¡ty¡di Taila.For external use only. KuÀ¶ha.K¤miroga. Vra¸a. 88 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Ka¸·au. THERAPEUTIC USES .

light green to green in colour containing numerous seeds. Kakiral. Nil Appendix 8. (Fam.25 cm long. usually pointed or beaked. taste.2. Kathilla.4.2. 2. surface rough. Salara Karela Paharkai Kaakara Kaaya Karela KËRAVALLAKA (Fresh Fruit) K¡ravallaka consists of fresh fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. IDENTITY. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K¡ravella. oblong.2. Appendix 2. upto an altitude of 1500 m. Varivall¢. Karavallaka (Fresh.2. K¡ravall¢. fusiform. Appendix 0. ribbed and bearing numerous triangular tubercles. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 89 .6 per cent. 2.39. pendulous. Pavackkai Karla Kalara. 3 valved at the apex when mature.5 .3.6.2.) Cucurbitaceae).7. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit 2. 2.2. 2. a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation.5 per cent. Appendix 28 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent. extremely bitter. Kakral Karolla Bitter gourd Karela Karela Hagalakai -Kaippa.Fr.

50. 0. K¡mal¡. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Bhedi. On exposure to Iodine vapour four spots appear at Rf. 0. K¡sa. 0. THERAPEUTIC USES .16.C.43.T. 0. D¢pana.98 (all blue). 0.46.C.96 (sky blue). 90 . 0.Alkaloid (Momoridicine) and Glycosides. Kaphahara. 0.03. 0. K¤miroga.L.10 .23 (red). On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. Prameha.98 (red & sky blue).17.60. V¡tahara. DOSE . of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90 : 10) shows under U.75. juice of fresh drug. 0. Jvara. 0. P¡¸·u.61 (light sky blue).Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila. H¤dya. 0. Aruci. RaktadoÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0. 0. (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. CONSTITUENTS .15 ml.V. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. KuÀ¶ha. 0.98 (all yellow).67 and 0.áv¡sa.81 and 0.34.L. T. Raktavik¡ra.

Rhizome is cut into small pieces. (Fam. odour. externally greyish-brown.05-0.5-8 cm long and 4-8 mm thick. Rohi¸¢. odour. short. bitter. inner surface black with whitish xylem. Sutiktaka. a perennial.40. short. Root . cork cambium 1-2 layered. Scrophulariaceae). Kav¢. Katuku rohini. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. Kadugurohini Karukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. Katki. 5-10 cm long. fracture.2. at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Kaurohi¸¢. Kutki -Hellebore Kadu. pleasant. cylindrical. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini. .1 cm in diameter. suberised cells. subcylindrical. bitter. Katuka (Rz. mostly attached with rhizomes. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tikt¡. cortex single layered or absent. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars.) KAÙUKË (Rhizome) Kauk¡ consists of the dried rhizome with root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. dusty grey. primary cortex persists 91 . surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. Katuka rohini Kutki. kaur Katuka rohini. taste. straight or slightly curved. b) Microscopic Rhizome .Shows 20-25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated. Kauka. 0. taste. pleasant. Tiktarohi¸¢. Kalikutki Katuki Karru. more or less hairy herb common on the northwestern Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. katuka rohini -Kaduk rohini. fracture.Thin.

0. hypodermis single layered. tapering ends. 0. 2. secondary xylem consists of vessels. 92 . thick-walled. 0.2.05 (blue). 0. cambium 2-4 layered.Dusty grey.4.30 (blue) and 0.2. thick-walled. xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape.C.7.2. starch grains. 1-2 layers of cork cambium. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. 0. abundantly found in all cells.17. fibres aseptate. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95 : 5) shows under U.41 and 0. primary stele tetrach to heptarch.. 0.104 µ in diameter. 0. vessels have varying shape and size. 2. mature root shows 4-15 layers of cork. tracheids.3. starch grains.35 (green). measuring 25 . some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. shows groups of fragments of cork cells. Appendix 2. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells.2. thick-walled. IDENTITY. measuring 25-104 µ in dia. 0.37.V. thick-walled. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres.in some cases.21.L.30. lignified with tapering blunt chisel-like pointed ends. 0. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. lignified. simple round to oval. 0. Appendix per cent. simple round to oval. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 7 1 10 20 per cent.21. On spraying with 5% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.10. Appendix per cent. thick-walled cells of endodermis. 0. light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation.6. On exposure to Iodine vapour nine spots appear at Rf. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex. parenchymatous cells. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends.L.17.C. Appendix per cent. secondary phloem poorly developed.84 (all yellow). parenchyma and fibres. tracheids. consisting of oval to polygonal. T. 2.72 and 0. Powder . Root -Young root shows single layered epidermis. 0. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.05.84 (all brownish grey).10.2. 2. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered.2. cortex 8-14 layered.30. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. some cylindrical with taillike. Appendix per cent. parenchyma.41. tracheids long.62. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thin-walled cells. 0. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs.

Bhedin¢. DOSE . Sarvajvarahara Lauha.Ërogyavardhini Gu¶ik¡. D¢pan¢. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Jvara.áv¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittahara.CONSTITUENTS . K¡mal¡. D¡ha. Tikta Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u H¤dya. Tiktaka Gh¤ta.3 g. Mah¡tikataka Gh¤ta. 93 . KuÀ¶ha. Jvarahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .1 . ViÀamajvara. Arocaka.Glucoside (Picrorhizin). of the drug in powder form.

calyx 4-partite. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Kuliyakhara. Kolavankal ---. Culli. Nerugobbi -Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . bracts about 2. broader than the other three.Usually unbranched. stamens 4.5 cm long. stout. Kettu. Nirchulli.) KOKILËKâË (Whole Plant) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried whole plant of Asteracantha longifolla Nees. swollen at nodes. covered with long hairs which are numerous at the nodes.Acanthaceae). acute. sub-quadrangular. Flower . subsessile. abruptly swollen at top. usually occurring in apparent whorls of eight (in 4 pairs) at each node. Syn. tube 1.Anders (Fam. all linear-lanceolate. coarsely hairy on the back and with hyaline ciliate margins. entire and hairy.Mostly adventitious. corolla 3.6-2 cm long. Hygrophila spinosa T. Stem . which are 1. annual herb.P. 0. a spiny. Kulekhade -Ekharo Talmakhana Kolavali. widely 2 lipped. IkÀuraka. Vayalculli Talikhana. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. no characteristic odour and taste. Leaf . 1-7 cm long.6 cm long. didynamous. Nirguvireru. second pair 94 . no characteristic odour and taste. upper sepal 1. common in water logged places throughout the country.Yellowish-brown.Greenish-brown. Kalsunda --Golmidi. Kokilaksha (W. fasciculate.41.5-1 cm wide. externally greyish-brown. Kolarind. whitish to brown.2 cm long. lanceolate.3 cm long. with long white hairs. creamishbrown in cut surfaces.

composed of polygonal. ray cells thin walled. composed of transversely elongate. secondary phloem narrow consisting of small. fibre walls uniformly thickened. peripheral ones larger. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex composed of round to oval or oblong. some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in cortical cells. xylem present in a ring. variable in size. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. compressed. consisting of round to polygonal cells. fibres thick-walled. surrounded by thick-walled parenchyma and xylem fibres.Ovate. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. arranged in radial rows. thin-walled cells having large intercellular spaces. pubescent. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. round.1 .2-0. 0. phloem narrow. thin-walled. ray cells thin-walled. with a number of large air cavities. thin-walled cells. anthers two celled. vessels angular. brownish cells. medullary rays uni to multi seriate extend upto secondary cortex. a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. capsule about 0.0. where these cells are mostly radially elongated.Root shows a single layered epidermis of thin-walled. most of cells contain numerous acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.Two celled. pointed. linear-oblong. flat or compressed. Seed . fibres elongated with wide lumen and pointed tips. isolated cells found scattered in this zone.larger. cortical cells thin-walled. broader towards centre. Stem . endodermis single layered. occur in groups of 2-6 or singles. a few cells contain calcium oxalate crystals similar to those found in secondary cortex. scattered throughout the phloem region. single or in groups of 2-3. hairy but appearing smooth. transversely elongated in secondary phloem. moderately thick-walled. pith large. polygonal cells. 95 . cork consists of 5-10 rows of rectangular. b) Microscopic Root . phloem fibres thick-walled.15 cm wide. subequal. a special feature of these cells is the formation of tangential and radial walls within the cell dividing it into 4-5 or more parts. vessels with spiral thickenings. having small intercellular spaces.Shows somewhat sub-quadrangular outline. radially arranged. rectangular to cubical. taste slightly bitter and odour not distinct. glabrous. stigma simple. arranged radially. inner cells smaller. multi and uniseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. oblong. truncate at the base. radially elongated in xylem region. a few thick-walled. radially elongated in secondary xylem.25 cm long and 0. parenchymatous cells having unicellular hairs. arranged radially having spiral thickenings. collenchyma 4-8 layered consisting of isodiametric cells. Fruit .8 cm long. light brown. style filiform. ovary two celled with 4 ovules in each cell. 4seeded. involute with a fissure on upper side. circular to transversely elongated in phloem region. filament quite glabrous. size of these cells and intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards the inner region.

sclerenchymatous cells.78. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. tangentially elongated cells covered with pigmented cuticle. loosely arranged cells traversed by a number of veins. stomata diacytic. composed of thin-walled. .7.Shows concavo-convex outline. Appendix per cent. Seed .24-30. thin-walled. palisade. 2.2. palisade 1-2 layered. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . spongy parenchyma composed of 3-5 layered. parenchymatous cells containing oil globules. Lamina . 2. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.Light brown. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. collenchyma 2-5 layered. covered with thick cuticle. V¤Àya.2. lignified. Santarpa¸a 96 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 9 1 4 20 per cent. cystolith present beneath upper and above the lower epidermal cells. elongated fibres. Appendix per cent. palisade ratio 6.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. tangentially elongated cells.2.4.Shows epidermis single layered on either surface. 2.25-15. 1-5 celled hairs present on both surfaces. stele composed of small strands of xylem and phloem having some groups of fibre.Shows single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle followed by 5-10 layered. M£trala. thick-walled.6. parenchymatous cells. parenchymatous. vein islet number 17-42. oval to hexagonal.3. Powder . epidermis on either surface covered with thick cuticle. Appendix per cent.LeafMidrib . unicellular hairs and globules.Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Tikta Picchila.2. Fruit . a few of them containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate .75. vessels with simple pits and spiral thickening. Appendix per cent. Rucya. acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.2. stomatal index 17. shows aseptate.2. V¡jikara. Amla. embryo composed of oval to polygonal.

3 -6 g. of the drug in powder form. V¡tarakta. DOSE . THERAPEUTIC USES . 97 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .T¤À¸¡.P¡naviral¡di Bhasma (KÀ¡ra). Ëmav¡ta áotha.

a few thick-walled cells found scattered singly throughout secondary cortex. thin-walled cells having conspicuously large intercellular spaces. epidermis consists of rectangular to cubical. Kokil¡kÀ¢. Kulekhara --Ekharo Talmakhana Nirmulli. slightly transversely elongated. Nerugobbi. Nirchulli Talimakhana Koillekha. Anders (Fam. Hygrophila spinosa T. 98 . no characteristic odour and taste. thin-walled. a spiny. Kolavankae -Vayalculli. stout. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. consisting of small. Kolavulike. branches on nodes. whitish to brownish. thinwalled cells. annual herb.42.) KOKILËKâË (Root) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried root of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. common in water logged places throughout the country. polygonal cells. most of these cells divided longitudinally and transversely with walls forming 4-6 or more chambers. the size of these cells. Culli --. IkÀuraka. Golmidi Talmakhana DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Roots mostly adventitions. and the intercellular spaces gradually reduce towards inner region of secondary cortex. Syn. Root-Appears circular in outline. secondary phloem narrow. a few epidermal cells elongated to form unicellular hairs. secodnary cortex composed of-rounded to oval or oblong.Acanthaceae). Kokilaksha (Rt. below epidermis 3-4 compactly arranged rows of thin-walled polygonal cells of secondary cortex. inner most row of thin-walled cells of secodnary cortex comparatively smaller in size. Koilrekha --Nirmulle Talmakhana.

2.2. 99 . vessels with spiral thickening. fibre walls uniformly thickened. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Kaphahara. V¡tarakta.R¡snaira¸·¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. angular. M£trala. 2. Pittatis¡ra DOSE .4. radially elongated in the xylem region. scattered throughout the phloem region. Appendix per cent. ray cells thin-walled. Appendix per cent. 2. secondary xylem forms continuous ring. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . shows fragments of pitted.6. uniseriate rays also present in xylem and extend upto the secondary cortex. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta. Powder . having spiral thickening.Ëmav¡ta áotha. IDENTITY. unicellular hairs and a few groups of parenchymatous cells.2. lignified fibres. Appendix per cent.phloem fibres thick-walled occur in groups or as single cells. 2. each group composed of 2-6 cells.Light brown to ash coloured. of the drug for decoction. THERAPEUTIC USES . surrounded by thick-walled xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. broader towards centre. V¤Àya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 12 1 4 8 per cent. 2.2. A¿ma¤¢.7. xylem vessels usually arranged in radial rows. rounded to transversely elongated in phloem region.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.3 -6 g.2.3. multiseriate medullary rays occur from primary xylem region upto secondary cortex. Tikta Picchila. Amla.Essential oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. V¡tahara.

annual herb. Powder . a spiny. oil globules present in this region. thinwalled. The length of the graduated portion of the cylinder should be 125 mm. white. flat or compressed. Kokilaksha (Sd. the 100 .Greyish-brown.) KOKILËKâË (Seed) Kokil¡kÀ¡ consists of dried seed of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. Kokil¡kÀ¢ -Daruharidra Indian Berberry Daruharidra. b) Microscopic Seed . parenchymatous cells. shows hairs and oil globules. Varatiu manjal Manupasupu Darhald DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ovate.8 -10.Shows hairy testa composed of thin-walled. Daruhuladur Darhald. Maradarishana. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : IkÀura. hairy but appearing smooth. Anders. Daruharidra Sumalu Gangeti. tangentially elongated cells covered externally with pigmented cuticle layer. IkÀuraka. common in water logged places throughout the country. (Fam. Daruhaldi Daruhaladi. light yellowish-brown. taste. Hygrophila spinosa T. embryo composed of oval to polygonal. Syn. when soaked in water immediately get coated with mucilage. 2-3 mm long and 1-2 mm wide. slightly bitter and odour not distinct. Maradarishina -Maramannal. Acanthaceae). Introduce the accurately weighed seeds into a 25 ml glass-stoppered measuring cylinder. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruhalidi.43. truncate at the base. Swelling Index . stout.

V¡tarakta. 0. 0.38 (light brown).55 (light blue). 0.C. Lipase. 0. Measure the volume in ml occupied by the seeds. Carry out simultaneously not less than 3 determination and calculate the mean value of the individual determinations. 2. Appendix per cent.24. 0.L.2. and shake the mixture thoroughly at intervals of every 10 minutes for 1 hour. 0.2 ml and marked from 0 to 25 ml in upwards direction.4.C. Pitt¡¿mar¢. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Picchila. CONSTITUENTS .6. 0.17.31.24 (dark brown). Appendix per cent.. 0. 0. 0.72 (all yellow). enzymes like Diastase.Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.2.V.áotha.17 (light brown).41 (light blue). 2. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. related to 1 g of seeds.L. 0.03 (light brown).03. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura Balya. Appendix 2.52 (dark brown) and 0.2. 0. 2. 0. IDENTITY. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (95 : 5) shows under U.72 (dark brown).76 (sky blue) and 0. of the drug in powder form. Allow to stand for 3 hours at room temperature. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 15 8 10 per cent.3 -6 g. Santarpa¸a. 0. Appendix per cent.An yellow semi-drying oil. 0. Yak¤t áulavin¡¿in¢ Va¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES .2.10 (light brown). On spraying with 5% Ethanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for fifteen minutes at 105° C eight spots appear at Rf.2. Kaphahara.52 and 0. including any sticky mucilage.internal diameter 16 mm subdivided in 0. 0. DOSE . T.31 (dark brown).93 (sky blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive T. Protease and an Alkaloid.24 (red).3. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones at Rf. Add 25 ml of water. V¤Àya. Ruchya IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .38. 101 . 0.

Gho¶ik¡. 0. Kuzuppa (W.25-0.1 to 0. (Fam. Kozuppa. Khurfa. petals obovate. ribbed. Kwfa Pasalai. 0. brownish-grey. swollen at the nodes. rounded and truncate at the apex. Kozhuppa. oblique.An ovoid capsule.P) Portulacaceae).4 cm long. Loni -Koricchira. Fruit . dehiscing above the base.5 cm long and 0. branched. at terminal heads. Common Indian Purslane Luni. Payilikura.35-0. Flower . Badanuni.2 cm in diameter.Almost cylindrical. 0. short. style 5-6 fid. smooth and greenish-brown. prostrate herb. less in number. Peddapavila Kura. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . 0. Loni.6 cm wide. secondary roots. bright yellow. sepal 0. Kulfa. 3-4 leaves.44. spathulate. found throughout the country. Kozhuppu Pappukura.Cylindrical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Lonik¡. small. Ghola -Lonak. ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m in the Himalayas. Leaf . fracture. root hairs abundant in upper region. Paruppukkeerai. fracture. Badi Lona Dudagorai. Stem . very delicate and soon falling off.Simple. short. sometimes in axillary clusters of 2-6. Moti Luni Khursa.3 to 2.1 to 0.3 cm long. Chhotalunia.5 cm long. 0. subtended by an involucre. sub-sessile.A few. oblong.4 cm long. Baranunia Garden Purslane. stamens 8-12. Lonika. Loni. odour. characteristic. 102 . surface smooth. 50 cm long. Kozuppaccira Kurfah. cuneiform. -Baraloniya. Pulikkirai. Pavilikura Khurfa KOZUPPË (Whole Plant) Kozupp¡ consists of dried whole plant of Portulaca oleracea Linn. Doddagoni Soppu. an annual succulent.

minute. tracheids and parenchyma. 2. .07 cm across. shows 5-10 layers of thin walled cork. having 2-3 components. palisade single layered. pitted and spiral vessels. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. measuring 6-14 µ in dia. parenchyma abundant. having 2-3 components present in secondary cortex.2.3. b) Microscopic Root . reniform. shows groups of oval to polygonal. pericycle present as patches of pericyclic fibres.6. Appendix 2. secondary cortex composed of thin-walled. dark brown. vassels having simple pits and spiral thickening. 2. oval cells.4.2. Appendix per cent. tracheids thick-walled with wide lumen. secondary xylem composed of vessels. fragments of cork cells. having intercellular spaces. phloem and xylem parenchyma. with reddish-brown content in a few cells. spongy parenchyma cells more or less isodiametric and loosely arranged. oval. LeafMidrib . Appendix per cent. vessels. thin-walled. 0. rest of the tissues between vascular bundle and epidermal cells composed of thin walled. covered externally with a thick cuticle. Stem .Wavy in outline. parenchymatous cells.Seed -Numerous.7. 2. present in mesophyll cells. phloem. simple as well as compound. solitary or in groups of 2-5. arranged in radial rows.2. black. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 103 5 30 5 3 19 per cent. secondary xylem consists of vessels. tracheids. Appendix per cent. xylem parenchyma and ray cells. ray cells and pith.2. secondary phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchymatous cells. 2.Greyish-brown. as well as compound.Shows 5-15 layers of cork.. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains simple. secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve tubes and parenchyma cells. secondary cortex consists of 2-3 layers of collenchymatous and 3-4 layers of parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. tracheids and parenchyma. Lamina .06-0. having simple pits and spiral thickening. inner half filled with reddish-brown contents. measuring 6-14 µ . parenchymatous cells.2. parenchyma abundant and thick-walled. Powder .2. stomata paracytic type. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.shows a collateral vascular bundle surrounded by a sheath of palisade cells.shows a single layered upper and lower epidermis. simple as well as compound starch grains measuring 6-14 µ in dia. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains present in secodnary cortex. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. pericycle fibre present in patches. thick-walled with wide lumen.

L.10. Prameha.V.61. Vitamin C and Mucilage PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Amla Guru.68. (both green).76 (all pinkish red).52 (both faint green). 0.10. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows six spots at Rf. of the drug in powder form.T. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.41. Sara UÀ¸a Amla Kaphahara. Vra¸a DOSE .Agnim¡ndya. 0. V¡tahara. 0. Under U. THERAPEUTIC USES . áotha.68 (yellow) and 0. Pittakara. 0. 0. Carbohydrates. 0. 0.08. 0.L. 0.41. 0. 104 . V¡¸¢doÀahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Gulma. 0.6 g.3 . 0.68 and 0.76 and 0. 0.Marma Gu¶ik¡.C.08. 0. 0.50.10. Ar¿a.. On exposure to Iodine vapour six spots appear at Rf. T.C. CakÀuÀya.Protein.52.98 (all yellow) CONSTITUENTS . RukÀa.76 (green) in visible light.

(Fam. varying in length. bark fibrous. with secondary and tertiary branches. Var¡kr¡nt¡. 0. upto 2 cm thick. Lajamani Chhuimui. sensitive to touch. Lajjavati -Thotta Vati Lajalu Lajakuri Lajan Thottavadi.3-0. alternate.6-1. taste. woody. greyish brown to brown. rependant . slightly astringent. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . Fabaceae). sessile. surface more or less rough or longitudinally wrinkled. 0. stipulate. easily separable from wood. Lajavanti. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : SaÆang¡. bark fibrous.5 cm in dia. 105 . Leaf . internal cut surface grey. fracture hard. 25-50 cm high. Lajauni Muttidasenui. Adamalati Lajaka.45. Lajjalu (W. yellowish-green. found nearly throught hotter and moist regions of the country. Lajjavanti Touch-me-not Risamani.P) diffused undershrub. nearly glabrous. acute. Stem . upto 2. petiolate. obliquely narrow or linear oblong. Tottalchurungi Mudugudamara Chhuimui LAJJËLU (Whole Plant) Lajj¡lu consists of dried whole plant of Mimosa pudica Linn. cut surface of pieces pale yellow. sparsely prickly.4 cm broad. Machikegida.week bristles longitudinally grooved. leaflets 10-20 pairs. tapering. external surface light brown. linear lanceolate.2 cm long. hairy pinnae. covered with long. Namask¡r¢ Lajubilata. odour.Cylindrical.Cylindrical. obliquely rounded at base. distinct.Digitately compound with one or two pairs of sessile.

radially elongated. vessels drum-shaped with spiral thickenings. crystal fibres elongated. fibres of two types. thick-walled. pith consisting of polygonal. tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. fibres single or in groups. wider towards secondary phloem and narrower towards centre. secondary xylem consists of usual elements traversed by xylem rays.6 cm long.3 long. containing single crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber. ovules numerous. much exserted. glabrous. scattered throughout.5 mm broad having a central ring on each face. dry.Lomentum.Flower .Mature stem shows 4-8 layered. corolla pink.Mature root shows cork 5-12 layered.5 cm broad with indehisced segments and persistent sutures having 2-5 seeds with yellowish. 0. stamens 4. parenchyma. 3-25 chambered. brown to grey. phloem rays uni to multiseriate. Seed . rarely multiseriate.3 cm long. secondary xylem composed of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. phloem fibres single or in groups. fibres. a number of lignified. crystal fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays. thick-walled. lobes 4. b) Microscopic Root . prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and tannin present in secondary cortex. consisting of large. tangentially elongated cells. 0. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. moderately thick-walled. secondary cortex wide. 2-3 seriate more common. in globose head. oval-elliptic. straw coloured. rounded to oval measuring 6-20 µ and 16-28 µ in dia. crystal fibres containing one or rarely 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in each chamber. tracheids pitted with pointed ends.Compressed. phloem rays thick-walled. Fruit . 1-6 cells wide and 3-30 cells high. a few outer layers crushed or exfoliated. filled with reddish-brown contents. each with single or 2-4 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. calyx very small. crystal fibres thick-walled. 1-1. ovary sessile. respectively. a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. shorter with wide lumen and longer with narrow lumen. peduncles prickly. Stem . vessels scattered throughout secondary xylem having bordered pits and reticulate thickenings. xylem rays radially elongated.Pink. exfoliated cork of tangentially elongated cells filled with reddish-brown contents. parenchymatous cells. starch grains both simple and compound having 2-3 components. thick-walled. secondary cortex consisting of 6-10 layered. scattered throughout secondary xylem. secondary phloem compossed of sieves elements. spreading bristle at sutures.4-0. xylem rays uni to bi-seriate. arranged in tangential bands. 0. secondary phloem consisting of usual elements. 2-5 transversely arranged strips of fibres occur alternating with narrow strips of sieve elements and parenchyma. ovate oblong. phloem and xylem rays and parenchyma. starch grains. 106 . tangentially elongated to oval. 2. simple.

Appendix per cent. On exposure to Iodine vapour two 107 .Reddish-brown.2. mesocarp of 5-6 layers of thin-walled.7. Appendix per cent. a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. pericycle same as in petiole. followed by 5-6 layered angular cells filled with dark brown contents. 0.L.62.69 (all blue) and 0. Appendix per cent. some amphicribral vascular bundles found scattered in this region.35. Appendix 2. 0.Leaf- Petiole . 3-5 layers consisting of circular cells. embryo straight with short and thick radicle.2.81 (bluish-pink). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 5 9 9 per cent.C. Powder . fibres. single and compound starch grains. 2. cotyledons consists of thin-walled cells. upper epidermis followed by a single layered palisade. 2.C. yellow or brown parenchymatous cells.6. with 2 . Midrib . 0. Fruit . Lamina . 4 central vascular bundles present with two smaller vascular bundles arranged laterally. cortex 4-7 layered of thin walled. palisade cells non glandular.Shows single layered epidermis with a few non-glandular. Appendix per cent. shows. pericycle arranged in a ring. branched.3.V. parenchymatous cells Seed . (366 nm) four fluorescent zones appear at Rf.shows epidermis on both surfaces. a few containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. rosette crystals and a few veins present in spongy parenchyma.Shows single layered radially elongated cells. measuring 6-25 µ in dia. crystal fibres.4. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water: (4:1:5) Under U. parenchymatous cells. shaggy hairs. prismatic and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. parenchymatous cells.2.L. branched. T. endosperm consists of angular or elongated cells. lignified cells followed by single layered.3 components IDENTITY. one in each wing. pitted vessels.2. covered with thin-cuticle. thin-walled.2.shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle. endocarp of thick-walled. vascular bundle single.shows single layered epidermis. shaggy hairs. spongy parenchyma single layered. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. 2. reticulate. spongy parenchyma. palisade single layered.

RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . Yoniroga. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. áv¡sa. PuÀy¡nuga C£r¸a. Kaphahara. Raktapita DOSE .10-20 g of the drug for decoction. CONSTITUENTS . Atis¡ra. KuÀ¶ha. 0.94 (both yellow) On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent one spot appears at Rf. Pittahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .35 and 0.áopha. Vra¸a. Ku¶aj¡valeha.35 (orange). D¡ha. 108 .Sama´g¡di C£r¸a. 0.Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. B ¤hat Gang¡dhara C£r¸a.spots appear at Rf.

Anther shows 4 pollen chambers and prominent cells of connective tissue in the centre of the chambers.Petal shows a single layered epidermis. Madhuka (Fl. sweet. Ilippa. corolla fleshy. Mahua Katiluppai. Kattu Iluppai. reddish-brown. a medium sized deciduous tree occurs in mixed deciduous forests throughout India. short. basifixed. Hippe. tabular. irregularly shaped parenchymatous cells.46.5-2 cm long.) MADHÍKA (Flower) Madh£ka consists of flower usually without stalk or calyx of Madhuca indica J. lanceolate. erect 0. Hippenara. (Fam. Mahawash tree Mahudo. latifolia (Roxb. lobes 7-14 (usually 8-9). SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Gu·apuÀp¡ Mahua. Madhuka. Syn. epipetalous and arranged in two series. pointed at tip and hairy at the back with prominent dark brown connective strand. epipetalous. and also cultivated. Sapotaceae) . taste. b) Microscopic Corolla . Eluppa Mohda Mahula Maua. Iluppa. followed by thin-walled.Gmel.F. Iluppi lppa Puvvu Mahuva DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of mostly corolla and androecium. Bassia latifolia Roxb. vascular bundles found scattered in parenchymatous tissues. Mahuwa Mahuwa Hippegida. Eppimara -Irippa.) Macbride. anther sub-sessile. Halippe. epidermis single layered covered with thin cuticle. ovate lanceolate. Androecium . stamen 20-30 (usually 24-26). a few 109 . M. Mahuwa Mahuwa The Indian Butter tree. Ippa.

THERAPEUTIC USES . Pittakara.3. spherical.6. unicellular hairs. Appendix 5 per cent. 110 . 2. brown pollen grains with clear exine and intine walls. Dr¡kaÀ¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. oval shaped.unicellular hairs present on one side. Appendix 2. KÀata.5 per cent.2. 2. Appendix 0. KÀaya. áramahara. Balya. árama DOSE . Appendix 25 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent.7. tapetum not distinct. IDENTITY. D¡ha. 2.2. Powder . endothecium composed of radially elongated. of the drug. pollen grains single or in groups.9 IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . V¡tahara.2.10 . lignified cells.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not more than 2 per cent.áv¡sa. 2. Ah¤dya.Madh£k¡sava. round.4. Appendix 70 per cent. shows fragments of epidermal cells.15 g.Dark brown.2. with clear exine and intine walls scattered in the pollen sac. El¡di Modaka.2.2.2. a few cells of the vascular bundles are seen embedded in the connective tissues. 2. T¤À¸¡. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Moisture content CONSTITUENTS .

47. triandra Lam... fracture. nodiflora R.3-7. Leaf . or elliptic. linear-oblong. 0. Br. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Matsyagandh¡.Cylindrical. no characteristic odour and taste.) R. Amaranthaceae)..6 cm diameter. Matsy¡duni. Br.. Bahli. nodes and internodes distinct.5 cm long.) MATSYËKâÌ (Whole Plant) Matsy¡kÀ¢ consists of dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. (Fam. sometimes reaching 10 cm long. obtuse or subacute. often rooting at lower nodes. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. Br. repens Gmel. Salincha Saaga --Ponnangkanni Ponnaganti Koora ----- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . internodes 0. bracteoles 111 . with spreading branches from the base. Flower .1. short..5-5 cm long. A. no characteristic odour and taste. Syn.3-2 cm wide. short.Herbaceous. sessile.P. Stem . yellowish-brown to light-brown. no characteristic odour and taste. A. Gandal¢. 0. Gartkalambuk¡ -Sanchesak. denticulata R.Flower in small axillary sessile heads. Ponnankanni Kanchari Matsagandha. white often tinged with pink. weak. Matshyakshi (W. 2. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts ofthe country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. fracture. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. Salincha Sak -Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu -Kozuppa. A. non Link. A. cream to grey.5 cm wide.1-0.

b) Microscopic Root . a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. consisting of thin-walled cells. scarious. isodiametric. present in the centre.Shows circular outline consisting of 5-7 layered. open and exarch.Utricle. in the pith there are two larger vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. xylem tissues lignified. thin-walled round or oval. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. numerous.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. with anomalous secondary growth. vascualr bundles arranged in a ring. spongy parenchyma 3-4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish. sepals ovate. compressed with thickened margins. with are conjoint. isodiametic cells. more on ventral side and less on dorsal side. ovary obcordate.shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. perianth 2. parenchymatous cells. round to oval. thin. consistig of thin-walled. Stem . there are two vascular bundles sittuated in the peripheral region of pith. each consisting of xylem and phloem. Fruit . pith consisting of thin-walled.5 mm long. ovate. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle.2 cm long. secondary cortex narrow. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. irregular. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 55-77 µ in diameter. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vascular bundles three. acute. 112 . parenchymatous cells. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. stomatal index 22-26 in lower surface and 12-20 upper surface. collenchymatous cells. palisade ratio 3-5. cortex 6-10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round. palisade 2-3 layers. parenchymatous cells. no characteristic odour and taste. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. Lamina . shows wavy or undulate. tabular epidermis cells present on both surfaces.5-3 mm long. single layered. covered wtith striated cuticle. Leaf- Midrib . 2-4 layered towards ventral side forming 1-2 small patches. round or oval. no characteristic odour and taste. vein-islet number 6-12 and veinlet termination number 8-10.1. compressed. open and endarch phloem narrow consisting of thinwalled cells traversed by phloem rays. radially arranged cork cells. thin-walled. vascualr bundles radially arranged. capitellate. orbicular. pith distinct. parenchymatous cells. composed of thin-walled. stomata paracytic.dorsiventral. 1-2 layered towards dorsal side. bicollateral. style very short. 1.

KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Tikta.KuÀ¶ha.16. Kaphahara.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . 0. T.44 (all green). Appendix 3 per cent. Pittavik¡ra.18.35.54 and 0.2 -3 g. 113 . of the drug in powder form. 0.96 (all yellow). palisade cells and xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.Sugar. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. wavy or undulate irregular epidermal cells in surface view. Raktavik¡ra DOSE . Appendix 4.C. 2. Appendix 19 per cent.59.L. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells.25. 0.5 per cent. Appendix 10 per cent. 0.Powder . V¡tahara.6. paracytic stomata. 2.16. 0. 0.2. (366 nm) five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0.94 and 0. 2. Pitthara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3. Saponins & Sterols PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.Olive green.81. IDENTITY. 0.2. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf.68 (all red).44.33 and 0.V. CONSTITUENTS .. 0.7.33. 0.Traika¸¶aka Gh¤ta.4.C.44. On exposure to Iodine vapour eight spots appear at Rf.2. 2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Appendix 2. 0. 0. Under U.2.L.

thin-walled. Methi (Sd. cultivated throughout the country. Fabaceae). annual herb.walled. 30-60 cm tall.5 cm long. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed oblong.) aromatic. dull yellow.35 cm broad.15-0.2-0. smooth. Ventaiyam Mentulu Methi METHÌ (Seed) Meth¢ consists of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Methini --Fenugreek Methi Methi Menthe. followed by 4-5 layers of tangentially elongated. bitter. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. b) Microscopic Seed . cells flat at base. varying in size. endosperm consists of a layer of thick-walled cells containing aleurone grains. rhomboidal with deep furrow running obliquely from one side. dividing seed into a larger and smaller part. pleasant. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. columnar palisade. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. 0. 114 . (Fam.48. parenchymatous cells. several layers of thin walled. Mente -Uluva Methi -Methi Mendium.Seed shows a layer of thick. 0. very hard. mucilaginous cells. taste. covered externally with thick cuticle. cotyledons consists of 3-4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. odour.

2.2. Kaphahara.2. 2. M¤tasaµj¢van¢ Sur¡.3-6 g.2. Sapogenins and Mucilage. 115 . shows groups of palisade parenchymatous cells. Prameha. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent.4. Jvara.2. oil globules.2. IDENTITY. Appendix 5 per cent. Appendix 2.Alkaloid. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. 2. aleurone grains.3.6.Yellow.Graha¸¢. Powder . Appendix 4 per cent. V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 2 per cent. CONSTITUENTS . Aruci DOSE .rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Rucya. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. Appendix 0.Mustak¡riÀ¶a. of the drug in powder form.

Slender. light greyish-brown externally and faint yellowish internally.P. slightly pungent.49. smooth with branches arising at node and show longitudinal striations on drying. sub-marginate at the apex.Lower leaves hairy. Rakhyasmula Mulaka..000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions. bright green. Stem . Flower .1-1.Flower in long terminal raceme. Mulaka (W. cylindrical. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : --Mula Radish Mulo Muli Moolangi -Mullanki Mula Mula. lyrate.) Brassicaceae). variable size and thickness. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. compressed. seplas 6.2 cm long. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . complete 1-2 cm long. blade obovate. Mula Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Whole Plant) M£laka consists of fresh whole plant of Raphanus sativus Linn. yellowish-green. petiole 5-5. pedicel with scattered hairs. oblong. (Fam. having a few longitudinal striations.7-2.3 cm long. Muli.Root cylindrical. Leaf . an annual or biennial bristly herb. sub-linear but narrowed at the base. white or lilac with yellow or 116 . odour. regular. not distinct. taste. hollow. sometimes brown red.0 cm in dia. petals 1. 0. bisexual. upper most leaves simple. coarsely toothed.5-10 cm long.

epidermis followed by 6. style about 4 mm long. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups. taste. thin-walled. irregularly globose. xylem parenchyma and ray cells.appears nearly circular in outline with two lateral wings. Stem . single layered. present in cortex. traversed by xylem rays. secondary xylem mostly consisting of vessels and parenchyma. one central and two lateral.Siliqua. round to oval. two outer smaller and four inner longer. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide. Fruit .shows 3-10 layered tangentially elongated.4 cm thick. parenchymatous cells. secondary cortex composed of wide zone of oval to polygonal.12 layers of parenchymatous cortex on both sides. epidermis on either surface with thin-cuticle. radially arranged. cork cells. 2-4 mm long. round to oval. elliptical. vascular bundle three in number. cortex 6-12 layers of oval to polygonal. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layers. Midrib . tracheids and fibres aseptate with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. phloem. 2 mm wide. present only on upper side. Leaf- Petiole . secondary phloem mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. epidermis on both side covered with thin cuticle. epidermis single layered. oily. parenchymatous cells. vessels mostly solitary or 2-3 in group. collateral vascular bundles arranged in a ring. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. surface generally smooth and sometimes wrinkled and grooved at micropylar end.Shows single layered epidermis with thick cuticle.purple vein. continuous or more or less constricted. medullary rays four to many cells wide. 1-2 chambered. in macerated preparation show borderd pits and spiral thickening. thin-walled. starch grains simple and compound having 2-4 components.dorsiventral. erect. ovary superior. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. pericycle occurs as crescent shaped groups of peri cyclic fibres. b) Microscopic Root . 117 .appears biconvex in outline. 10-12 ovuled. cortex consists of 5-12 layers with intercellular spaces. stamen 6 in two whorls.8. palisade 2-3 layers. greenish-yellow. green or brown-purple. occasionally pale purple. hairs unicellular. endodermis at some places. Seed . 3-9 cm long and 0. starch grains simple. traversed by phloem rays. sometimes flattened. covered with thick cuticle.measuring 6-14 µ in dia. pith a wide zone of polygonal. solitary or ingroups. cylindrical.Reddish-brown.1. present in cortex and phloem. Lamina . longitudinally sulcatus.

beneath integument 2-3 layers of compressed. of the drug in juice form. Appendix per cent. thin-walled. Ud¡varta. Pittahara. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana.Yellowish-green. covered with thin.2. Gulma. IDENTITY. reddish-brown. parenchymatous cells present. epidermis followed by a wide zone of oval to polygonal. P¢nasa.7. Rucya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 18 1 30 22 per cent. Seed . 2.2. Kaphahara. Appendix 2. Ar¿a.2. Appendix per cent.Agnim¡ndya.3.2. containing aleurone grains and oil globules. H¤dya. Appendix per cent. DOSE . shows aseptate fibres.Shows a single layered epidermis. thinwalled.4. measuring 3-14 µ diameter. Appendix per cent. spiral vessels.Seed coat consists of single layered epidermis of nearly rectanglular cells. straight cuticle. Svarya.2. Hajarulayah£da Bhasma THERAPEUTIC USES . Tikta Laghu. CONSTITUENTS . covered with a thin-cuticle. parenchymatous cells. P¡cana.Fruit . oil globules and round to oval starch grains. endosperm and embryo consists of oval to polygonal.Glucoside. tangentially elongated. Volatile oil (containing butyl crotonyl isothiocyanate sulphide) with a typical radish odour PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2.20 . V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .40 ml. parenchymatous cells in which a few vascular bundles are embedded.6. 2. Powder . Gandhaka Va¶¢. epidermis followed by integument of radially elongated. 2. 2. of columnar cells. 118 .M£lakakÀ¡ra.

2.000 m in the Himalayas and other hilly regions.2. Mullangi.2. Mulaka. Marusambhava Mula Mula Radish Mulo. sometime cultivated species 75-90 cm in length and 50-60 cm in girth. having a few lateral fibrous roots. slightly or strongly pungent. Mugunigadde -Mullanki Mula Mula. Appendix 2. Appendix per cent.4. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Salamarkataka. Visra.50. Appendix per cent. fusiform.3.2. 2. 2.6. white in colour.) annual or biennial bristly herb. Mulaka (Rt. an DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fleshy.2. Mula Muli Moolangi.2. 119 .2. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 24 2 36 33 per cent. Appendix per cent. (Fam. 2. cultivated throughout the country upto an altitude of 3. taste. Brassicaceae).7. rarely sweet. Saleya. variable in size. Moclangi gadde. cylindrical. Rakhyasmula Mula. Muli Mullangi Mullangi Muli MÍLAKA (Root) M£laka consists of fresh root of Raphanus sativus Linn. usually 25-40 cm in length. Appendix per cent.

(366 nm) two fluorescent zones appear at Rf. Kaphahara. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.Glucoside. T. Dadru. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Jvara.V. Rucya. P¢nasa. áv¡sa.09 & 0.47 (all violet) CONSTITUENTS . 0. Vrana. P¡cana. Gulma. 0. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Pittahara. Ar¿a. Galaroga.Agnim¡ndya. Netraroga.09. of the drug in the juice form 120 . H¤dya.09 (both blue). Svarya. Methylmercaptan and Volatile Oil.15-30 ml. Ud¡varta DOSE .49 & 0.C. Tikta Laghu. K¡sa.L.T. On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf 0. 0. 0.04. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila.69 (all yellow). 0. 0.LC. of alcoholic extract of drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) Under U.04 & 0. M£laka KÀ¡ra THERAPEUTIC USES .04.34.

consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma. Root . parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.6 . Mura (Rt.3 . (Fam. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-6 or more 121 b) Microscopic . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Surabhi. Syn. 0. Gandhakuti. Daitya. tangentially elongated.5 cm thick with stem portions attached and covered with leaf sheaths.51. secondary phloem shows wide zone.) DC.25 layers of cork cells consisting of radially elongated. Haggoratige -Muramanchi Mura Muramansi -Mural Mura -- MURË (Root) Mur¡ consists of dried root of Selinum candollei DC. taste. cork cambium consisting of 1-2 layered tangentially elongated. thin-walled cells. thin-walled cells. ex DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in broken and cylindrical pieces. consisting of tangentially elongated.4 m tall. secondary cortex composed of rounded. outer cork cells filled with dark brown contents. traversed by phloem rays. Gandhavati -Musamansi --Mura Halukoratige.Shows 10 . rectangular cells. S.1. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. slightly bitter. cambium 2-4 layered. inner cells thin-walled. aromatic.42000 m. a perennial herb. roots rough due to longitudinal striations and root scars. 6-12 cm long and 0. tenuifolium Wall. traversed by xylem rays. odour. found commonly in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal at an altitude of 1800 . dull brown. fibres and parenchyma.2. Apiaceae ). colour.

2.áv¡sa. Tikta.2.having spiral thickenings. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. KaÀ¡ya Laghu á¢ta Madhura Pittahara. Appendix 3. 2.Dihydropyrano-coumarines (identified as Isopteryxin and Anomalin). secretory canals numerous. Appendix 2. Powder . Bhrama.5 per cent. of the drug in powder form. shows groups of cork cells. 2. Karp£r¡dyariÀ¶a THERAPEUTIC USES .3. 2. oil globules and simple starch grains. Sucrose and Mannitol. D¡ha. Appendix 9 per cent.2.Brown. round to oval measuring 7-55 µ in diameter. CONSTITUENTS . short with blunt ends. secondary phloem.2. parenchymatous cells.Arvind¡sava. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. Ka¶u. composed of radially arranged. xylem and phloem rays. round to oval. distributed throughout secondary cortex. secretory canals lined by varying number of epithelial cells and filled with yellowish contents. fibres aseptate.2. starch grains simple. secretory canals.7. secondary phloem.1-3 g.4. 122 . somewhat oval cells. Appendix 9 per cent. measuring 7-55 µ in dia. secondary xylem and medullary rays. IDENTITY. 2.6. M£rchha. xylem rays 2-5 cells wide.. xylem parenchyma. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . T¤Àn¡ DOSE . Appendix 17 per cent. present in secondary cortex. Jvara.

Kallu Shambu. externally yellow to buff coloured with dark brown patches on the cork. odour. taste. Murga -Perunkurinjan Chagaveru Turbud Safed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cylindrical. tangentially elongated. b) Microscopic Root . similar to those present in secondary cortex. resin cells present irregularly in this region. some filled with reddish-brown contents. Murva (Rt. growing throughout the country SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : MURVË (Root) Murv¡ consists of dried root of Marsdenia tenacissima Wight. secondary phloem composed of mostly parenchyma with small patches of sieve elements and small strands of stone cells.5-3 cm thick. Koratige. indistinct. Madhusrava. Madhurasa Murha --Moravel Murva. rectangular cells. Jartor Koratige Hambu. slightly bitter. prominent longitudinal ridges and furrows and transverse cracks present. phloem fibres absent.) Asclepiadaceae). composed of 15-25 layers of thin-walled. fracture. short and granular in bark region and fibrous in wood. & Am. available in cut pieces of varying length and 0. stone cells yellow in colour of variable shapes and size. secondary cortex composed of an outer region of broken ring of stone cells of varying thickness.Shows a cork. a large stout. phloem rays 1 123 . followed by wide zone of oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells. twining shrub.52. (Fam. Kadaluhaleballi -Perumkurumba Morvel Murva. Halukaratige. bark easily separable from wood.

H¤droga. Sara UÀ¸a Madhura Kaphahara. rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Appendix 5 per cent. 124 . shows a number of stone cells. measuring 5. K¤miroga. 2. ViÀaghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.5 per cent.5 . 2. thick-walled and lignified parenchyma possess simple and bordered pits and scalariform thickening. Tikta Guru. Ka¸·£.4.. xylem rays not distinctly marked where adjoining parenchyma is delignified. Raktapitta. Mukha áosa.2. Powder . Appendix 2. Pittahara. fibres much elongated with mostly tapering ends and pitted walls. elliptical to spherical with central hilum. of the drug for decoction. 10-20 g. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . concentric bands of unlignified masses of parenchymatous tissue. V¡tahara. fibretracheids. fibre tracheids and xylem parenchyma. Pa¶olad¢ Kv¡tha C£r¸a. consisting of small tangential.3 cells wide.3.Ar¿a. present in parenchymatous tissues. 5. Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.5-22 µ dia. T¤Àn¡. Appendix 7 per cent. rosette and a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and abundant starch grains. vessels with pitted walls.2-6 g.. secondary xylem segmented and shows a wedge-shaped structure. Prameha Mihira Taila. DOSE . simple and compound starch grains.2. 2. Appendix 14 per cent.22 µ in diameter.Light brown.Resin PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.2.2. fibres. separated by similar concentric band of lignified tissue. fragments of cork.7.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . composed of vessels. vary in shape and size with borderd pits. in isolated preparation xylem vessels cylindrical with transverse articulations. IDENTITY. compound starch grains having 2-3 or rarely upto 6 components. fibres. Jvara. Appendix 0.tracheids. tracheids. 2. of the drug in powder form.6. Medoroga. starch grains simple.Ëragvadh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Meha.

1. fragrant. parenchymatous cells. Nagakesari -Nangaa. pollen grains numerous in groups or in single. Nagesar Cobras Saffron Nagkesara. Bengal. odour. often buttressed at the base. coppery or golden brown. about 15-18 m high with short trunk. Nagchampa. evergreen rain forests of North Kanara. longitudinally dehiscent anther wall. filament united at base forming a fleshy ring. soft to touch. Powder . each stamen 0. N¡gapuÀpa.8 . connective and filament. forests of Western Ghats and Andhra Pradesh. more or less twisted. containing pollen grains. Konkan. Hem¡. shows elongated cells of filament. occurring in the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards. Sirunagappu Nagachampakamu Narmushk.Brown. yellowish and thin-walled. Nauga.0 cm long. anther about 0. 125 . thick-walled.9 cm long.) evergreen tree. connective not visible with naked eye. basifixed.Anther shows golden-brown.53. b) Microscopic Androecium . consisting of thin-walled. Assam. Nagppu. many pollen grains having 1-3 minute. Guttiferae). Sachunagkeshara. Pilunagkesar. Tamranagkesar Nagkesara. Nagkesar DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stamen consists of anther. linear. Peri. distinct protuberances on walls. (Fam. Pila Nagkesara Nagsampige. Nagachampakam. Naugaliral. Gajake¿ara Negeshvar. N¡ga. Nagakesar (Stmn. Nahar Nageshvara. connective and numerous golden yellow pollen grains having 1-3 protuberances. filament 0. filiform. exine and intine distinct.5 cm long. Veluthapala. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : NËGAKEáARA (Stamen) N¡gake¿ara consists of dried stamens of Mesua ferrea Linn.9-1. taste. slender. an Ke¿ara. astringent. quite brittle. Nagappovu Nagkesara Nageswar Nageswar Naugu.

4. Appendix 2.1-3 g. Laghu UÀ¸a Ka¶u Írdhajatrugatarogahara.2. Appendix per cent. 2.3. Kum¡ry¡sava.2. of the drug in powder form.2. Vastiroga DOSE .IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS . Var¸ya. Appendix per cent.6. Appendix per cent.Candanabal¡l¡kÀ¡di Taila. Tikta. V¡tarakta. N¡gakesar¡di C£r¸a. Kaphahara. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .Raktapitta. Vastiv¡t¡mayghna Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 6 3 15 12 per cent.7. THERAPEUTIC USES . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.2. 126 . 2. 2. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa.2.Essential oil and Oleo-resin.2. áopharoga. 2.

vascular bundles collateral and three in number. (Fam.5 cm long and 0. 1. N¢l¢n¢. leaflet 1-2.) shrub. Galiparna Nili Karunili -Neelamar Neel Nili. Rangapatr¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo Gali.3-1. b) Microscopic Leaf- Petiole .54. pericycle present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. 127 . large one present in central and two smaller in lateral wings. pale green to greenish-black. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Fabaceae). epidermis single layered covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by single layered collcnchymatous cells. no characteristic odour and taste. Nili Neel NÌLÌ (Leaf) N¢l¢ (leaf) consists of dried leaf of Indigofera tinctoria Linn.1. Nili (Lf. oblong or oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs mostly in the form of leaflets and broken pieces of rachis. pith composed of round to oval. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region.2 cm wide.appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country.8 m high. Nila Neel Avuri Nili Chettu.2.

prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate rarely present in me sophyll cells. Appendix 2. collateral and crescent shaped. Mah¡pancagavya Gh¤ta THERAPEUTIC USES . paracytic stomata and hair present on both surfaces but abundant in lower surface Powder .Midrib . cuticle and hair. cuticle and hair. ViÀavik¡ra DOSE ..4.3.2. 2. Appendix 7. of decoction. Gulma.Glycoside (Indican). 2.5 per cent. aseptate fibres. Appendix 2 per cent. Pl¢haroga. Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u Kaphahara.2. pitted vessels. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. similar as in petiole. Appendix 25 per cent.2. both followed by 23 layers of thin-walled parenchyma. 2.. spongy parenchyma 2-4 layered. 128 . IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .50-100 g. Udararoga. Ud¡varta.shows epidermis. epidermis. Recan¢ Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.2. 2. Lamina .Ëmav¡ta. Ke¿ya..6. V¡tahara. unicellular hairs and rarely prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.Greenish-grey. CONSTITUENTS . similar as in petiole and midrib.7. V¡tarakta.2. IDENTITY. Jvara. vascular bundle single. K¤imiroga. palisade 2-3 layers. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.shows dorsiventral structure.N¢l¢ Bh¤´g¡di Taila. Appendix 10 per cent.2. beneath epidermis on lower side single or 2-3 layers of colienchyma on upper side present. shows groups of mesophyll cells. K¡sa.

b) Microscopic Root -Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4..10 layers of tangentially elongated. taste.2-1. Karunili. thin-walled cells. Nili Chettu. rectangular. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : N¢l¢k¡. Neeligida. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex.5 cm thick. 0. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. consisting of usual elements. odour not distinct. vessels solitary or 2-4 in groups having simple pits. Nila Nili. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. woody. found throughout and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. cylindrical. Nili (Rt. Rangapatr¢.) shrub. Nili. hard. medullary rays 1 -4 cells wide. thin-walled cells. slightly bitter. N¢lin¢ Nilbam Nil Indigo. thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. wood occupies bulk parts of the root. Gari Nili Kadunili. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. measuring 11-17 µ in dia. secondary cortex a narrow zone. pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. with lenticels. Aviri Neel NÌLÌ (Root) N¢l¢ (Root) consists of dried root of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels.55. Nila -Neel Avuri. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and attached on both the opposite sides of vessels.8 m high. (Fam. Neeli Nili. 1. Nil. phloem and xylem parenchyma and rays. Olleneeli -Amari. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root mostly available in pieces. group of fibres. Indian Indigo Gali.1 -1. Fabaceae). 129 .

0. 0.63.30 (bluish green).27. round to oval. Appendix 2. K¤imiroga.86 (green) and 0.40. Tikta Guna : Sara Virya : UÀ¸a Vipaka : Ka¶u Karma : Kaphahara. 0. simple and compound starch grains. Appendix 4 per cent. and 0. Triphal¡di Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .2.4.63. CONSTITUENTS . 0.C. 0.2.oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma.. Appendix 0. Bhrama Mohahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . On spraying with 5% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110°C for ten minutes fourteen spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.58 (blue).50. K¡sa. 0. Pl¢h¡roga. 0. pitted vessels. Ud¡varta.75 (blue).14.63 (bluish green). 0.2. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.14 (blue). 2. rarely oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. On exposure to Iodine vapour thirteen spots appear at Rf. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.80. Ke¿ya. IDENTITY. Powder .7. 0.L. 0. of drug for decoction. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'GF 254 + Silica gel 'G' (1:3 w/w) plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate (6:4) show under U. Appendix 6 per cent.Glycoside (Indican) PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa : Ka¶u.58..L. 0.C.47 (blue).33.10.3. 0.50.21.75. 0.91 (all yellow).6. T. 0.27. 2.91 (all grey).06. 0. 0. Udararoga. 0.40. xylem parenchyma and rays. shows aseptate fibres.0.7 per cent. 0. 130 . 0. DOSE .33. V¡tahara.2.0. 0.V. ViÀavik¡ra. 0. 0.06. 0. 2.14.81. 0. 0. (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf.81 (blue).Gulma.Creamish-brown.48 g.Arvind¡sava. 0. Appendix 3 per cent.58.10.40 (blue).75.86. V¡tarakta. Ëmav¡ta.2.91 (blue). 2.2.86 and 0. measuring 3-11 µ in dia. present in cortex. phloem. 0. 0. starch grains simple. Recan¢. 0.

crystals also present in phloem region. Meliaceae). Kadunimb Nimba Nimba. 131 . a moderate sized to fairly large evergreen tree. serrate. Bevu. Limado. 7-8. Oilevevu. Nim. Nimgach Margosa Tree Limba.7 cm wide. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. epidermis on either side covered externally with thick cuticle. below epidermis 4-5 layered collenchyma present. Veppan Vemu.5 cm long and 1. indistinct. Aryaveppu.0-1.56. opposite. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. Melia azadirachta Linn. Veppu. exstipulate. Limbado. Kohumba Nim. lanceolate. (Fam. bitter b) Microscopic Leaf- Midrib -leaflet through midrib shows a biconvex outline. parenchymatous cells having secretory cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Veppa Balantanimba. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. taste. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves . Bakayan. Bevinama -Veppu. leaflets with oblique base. Arulundi. Nim Vemmu. Nimba (Lf. slightly yellowish-green. Kahibevu. Juss Syn.Compound. occurring throughout the country up to an elevation of 900 m. 0. alternate. Nimbam.1 cm thick. Limba. odour. stele composed of one crescent-shaped vascular bundle towards lower and two to three smaller bundle towards upper surface. Bakan. Nimba Nimba. phloem surrounded by non-lignified fibre strand. rachis 15-25 cm long. acute.) NIMBA (Leaf) Nimba (Leaf) consists of dried leaf of Azadirachta indica A. rest of tissues composed of thin-walled.

rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Netraroga. Prameha. 2. 2. fibres. Ëma¿otha.Triterpenoids and Sterols. composed of thin walled. epidermis on either surface. fragments of spongy and palisade parenchyma.5 on lower surface and 8. J¡ty¡di Gh¤ta. palisade ratio 3. of the drug in powder form.K¡s¢s¡di Gh¤ta. Pa¸cagu¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . 10-20 ml of the drug for decoction.2.2.1-3 g.0-11. shows vessels. CONSTITUENTS . Appendix per cent. spongy parenchyma composed of 5-6 layered.5 on upper surface. thin-walled cells. covered externally with thick cuticle.2.shows dorsiventral structure.4.Jvara.0-4. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in a few cells. K¤miroga. Appendix per cent.5.0-14. Nimbapatr¡diupan¡ha. 2. palisade single layered. ViÀarogas DOSE .2.7. traversed by a number of veins. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . tangentially elongated cells.6. Appendix per cent.2. anomocytic stomata present on lower surface only. 2. Vrana. 132 . Ërogyavardhin¢ Gu¶ik¡. stomatal index 13. Pittan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 10 1 13 19 per cent. Appendix 2. Powder . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Gr¡h¢. Appendix per cent. KuÀ¶ha. V¡tal¡.Lamina . IDENTITY.3.Green.2.

57. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. extemal surface rough. Nimgacha Margosa Trees Kadvo Limbdo Nim. Bakam Veppai. Meliaceae). occurring throughout the country upto an elevation of 900 m. considerably thick in older barks.Bk) NIMBA (Stem Bark) Nimba (stem bark) consists of stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. Kahibevu. taste. thinwalled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards 133 . fibrous. Syn. fracture. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of regular. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3-5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. Nimba. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. evergreen tree. Vepa Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Aruveppu Balantanimba. Picumarda Mahanim Nim. woody. (Fam. characteristic. a moderate sized to fairly large. fissured and rusty-grey. attaining a height of 12-15 m with stout trunk and spreading branches. Melia azadirachta Linn. Nimba (St. Vembu Vemu. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ari˦a. Kadunimb. Oilevevu -Veppu. bitter b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. Nimba. Limba Nimba Nim. Juss. Nimb Bevu. odour. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem.

0. simple starch grains. T.2. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Ka¸·ughna. phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. IDENTITY. 0.C.90 (green).2.86 (blue). 0. starch grains. H ¤dayavid¡ha¿¡ntikara 134 .2. Appendix 5 per cent. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin walled. Appendix 2.90 (all blue). Pittahara. ViÀaghna.Reddish-brown. Powder .outer surface.75-5 µ structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. having wide lumen and distinct striations. secondary cortex absent in most cases. measuring 2.75-5 µ in diameter. Formic acid (5:4: I:) shows under U. simple. 2. stone cells mostly in groups. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2-4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.5 per cent. lignified rectangular to polygonal.2. Appendix 6 per cent. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. round with central hilum.63 and 0.72 (blue).6.3. (366nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.C. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 1.45.Bitter principles Nimbin and Nimbiol PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Laghu. Vra¸a¿odhanakara.4.L. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Ethylacetate. cork cells. 2.V.L. 2. Kaphahara. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 0.2. CONSTITUENTS .7.2.measuring 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C four spots appear at Rf. Appendix 7 per cent. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. 0. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends.20. 2. and 0.

Nimb¡di C £r¸a.2-4 g.D¡ha. 135 . Nimb¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. Pathy¡di Kv¡tha (âa·anga) C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . Prameha. Rakta Pitta.Sudar¿ana C£r¸a.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Decoction should be used externally. Pa´catikta Guggulu Gh¤ta. Jvara. of the drug in powder form. KuÀ¶ha. Vra¸a DOSE . Pa´canimba C£r¸a. Ka¸·u.. K¤miroga.

moderately thick-walled. dark-brown. beneath this zone regular cork consisting of 4-12 rows of radially arranged. dark brown. taste. Modugu. Khakharo. Palasha (St. Palaspapda PALËSA (Stem Bark) Pal¡sa consists of dried stem bark of Butea monosperma (Lam. a medium sized tree with somewhat crooked trunk. 5-10 or more layered. secondary cortical cells round and irregular in outline. rough due to presence of rhytidoma. laminated in outer part and fibrous in inner part. Tesu Purasu. commonly found throughout the greater part of the country upto about 915 m. rectangular 136 .15 m high with irregular branches. having brown colour. curved. except in very arid parts. RaktapuÀpaka -Palash Gachha. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature stem bark. slightly astringent. Chettu Dhak. Paras Moduga. internal surface rough. tanniniferous cells. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : KiÆ¿uka. Khakhapado Dhak. Palash. pale brown. Muttuga.5 . b) Microscopic Stem Bark -Mature bark shows rhytidoma consisting of alternating layers of cork.58.Bk) Fabaceae). Muttala -Plasu. Palas Bastard peak Kesudo. 0. greyish to pale brown. Camata. fracture. 12 . rhytidoma 0. exfoliation of cork and presence of shallow longitudinal and transverse fissures. sometimes containing mucilage and other materials found scattered in this zone. cork cells. and scattered dark brown spots of exudate. secondary cortex and phloem tissue. Chama Tha Palas -Palash.) Kuntze (Fam. rectangular.1 cm thick. Dhak. exposing light brown surface.2 cm thick usually peels off. Plas. Tesu Muttug. often in groups.

75 .C. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 105°C three spots appear at Rf. 137 . Appendix 14 per cent.L.7. 2.48 and 0. phloem fibres arranged in tangential bands alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.67 (all yellow).50 cells in height. dark brown coloured cells.2. 0. secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes.48. companion cells.2. (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones at Rf. sclereids mostly in groups. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. CONSTITUENTS . On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf. thin-walled cork cells. 0. Powder . phloem fibres. in outer and middle phloem regions phloem tissues get crushed and form tangential bands of ceratenchyma. 0.cells followed by a zone of 2 .2. numerous crystal fibres in group or singles IDENTITY. traversed by phloem rays. phloem parenchyma.48 and 0.L. straight. 0.3. 2. crystal fibres.2.5 per cent..C. starch grains simple and compound with 2 . 2. Appendix 10 per cent. in macerated preparation phloem fibres appear thick-walled lignified elongated with tapering or bifurcated ends. crystal fibres divided into a number of chambers containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate in each chamber.75 µ in dia. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in the secondary phloem tissues and phloem rays. Appendix 1. starch grains simple or compound having 2 .Kinotannic acid and Gallic acid. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.10.65 (all blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 2. Appendix 2. T. most of fibre groups contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate forming crystal sheath.10.2.13.3 components measuring 3-14 µ in dia.18.4 layers of sclereids. 7 .67 (all violet).6. found scattered in phloem parenchyma and phloem ray cells abundantly. 0. 0. measuring 2. Appendix 12 per cent.3 components.12 cells wide. 0.Reddish-brown. phloem rays multiseriate 4 .2.V.4. tanniniferous cells and secretory cavities also occur in secondary phloem. 0.. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (90: 10) under U.10.

Mah¡n¡r¡ya¸a Taila. DOSE . Graha¸¢. Vra¸a.5-10 g. K¤miroga. Tikta. Gulma. Agnid¢paka. 138 .Pal¡¿a KÀ¡ra. Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. of the drug in powder form for decoction. KaÀ¡ya Sara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Kaphav¡ta¿¡maka. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS THERAPEUTIC USES . S¡raka .Ar¿a. Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¤Àya.

5-2. parenchymatous cells. exfoliating in narrow strips. Pangara Hongar. radially arranged and thin-walled. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : P¡ribhadraka. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. smooth. Ka¸takiÆ¿uka -Pattemadar Coral tree Panderavo Pharahada. tangentially elongated to squarish. secondary cortex consists of large. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. stone 139 . Halivanadamar -Murrikku Pangara --Kalyanamurongai. Varifamu -- PËRIBHADRA (Stem Bark) P¡ribhadra consists of the dried stem bark of Erythrina indica Lam. inner bark fibrous. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . outer surface yellowish to yellowish-grey.59. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Mature dried stem bark about 0. somewhat tangentially elongated to polygonal. Paribhadra (St. Mulmurumgai Badisa.Mature bark shows stratified and lignified cork of about 2-9 or more alternating bands of narrow tangentially elongated compressed. quick growing tree. (Fam.Bk) Fabaceae). whole bark differentiated into outer non-fibrous and inner fibrous zones. distributed widely in deciduous forests throughout India.0 cm thick. medium sized. outer bark breaks readily with a short fracture. yellowish to cream coloured. yellowish coloured cells and of wider cells in 3-25 or more layers. also grown in gardens as an ornamental plant and as a support for black pepper vine. lenticels found at short intervals longitudinal lines on the outer surface.

cells occur in singles or in groups which are circular, elongated or rectangular in shape, parenchymatous cells surrounding stone cells groups, contain large crystals of calcium oxalate; secondary phloem consisting of sieve tubes with their companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; phloem fibres, mostly arranged in tangential strips alternating with the regular thin-walled phloem elements, sieve elements in outer and middle regions of phloem mostly get collapsed and crushed and form many tangential strips of ceratenchyma between the tangential groups of phloem fibres;fibres large, thick-walled with narrow lumen; crystal fibres numerous, septate and each chamber contains a single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem parenchyma thin-walled, a few of them contains crystals of calcium oxalate similar to those found in the secondary cortex and crystal fibres; phloem rays numerous and mostly multiseriate running almost straight in the inner phloem region but bent towards left or right in the outer phloem region; ray cells thin-walled, radially elongated in the inner region and slightly tangentially elongated towards outer region in transverse section. Powder - Crearnish-yellow; shows stratified cork, pieces of phloem fibres, stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, Tikta Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u K¤mighna, Kaphahara, Medohara, V¡tahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 13 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 2.5 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids and Resins

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Abhay¡ Lava¸a, Nyagrodh¡di C£r¸a, N¡r¡ya¸a Taila THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, K¤miroga, Kar¸aroga. DOSE - 6-12 g. of the drug in powder form. 12-24 g of the drug for decoction.
140

60. Pippali mula (Stm.)

PIPPALÌMÍLA (Stem)

Pippal¢m£la consists of dried, cut, stem pieces of Piper longum Linn. (Fam. Piperaceae); a slender, aromatic, creeping and perennial herb; native of the hotter parts of the counrty and found wild as well as cultivated extensively in Bengal and southern states. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : M¡gadh¢, Granthik¡, Pippalik¡ -Pipulmul Piper root Gantoda, Ganthoda Piparamula Modikaddi, Hippali, Tippali, Modi -Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru Pimplimula Pippalimula, Bana Pippalimula Pippalimula, Magha Kanda Tippili, Ambinadi Desavaram Modi, Madikatta Filfil Daraz

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Drug available in cut pieces, having distinct internodes and swollen nodes with a number of small rootlets and root scars; stout, cylindrical, 0.2-0.6 cm thick, reddish brown to grey; odour, aromatic; taste, pungent.
b) Microscopic

Stem - Shows a single layered epidermis followed by a continuous ring of collenchymatous and round to oval thin-walled, parenchymatous cells; vascular bundles show peripheral and medullary arrangment, separated from each other by a wavy strip of sclerenchyma forming a ring, enclosing pith; bundles collateral and arranged in rings, having sclerenchymatous sheath of pericyclic cap over phloem; xylem wedge-shaped; starch grains simple and compound having 2-7 components, round to oval, measuring 3-14 µ in dia., present abundantly throughout the section.

Powder - Reddish-brown to crearnish-grey; under microscope shows scalariform vessels, aseptate fibres, simple and compound starch grains measuring 3-14 µ in diameter.
141

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.L.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent, Appendix 5.5 per cent, Appendix 0.2 per cent, Appendix 4.0 per cent, Appendix 12 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows under U.V. light eight spots at Rf. 0.04 (yellow), 0.12 (light green), 0.25 (green), 0.31 (light green), 0.36 (light green),0.53 (light green), 0.65 (green) and 0.97 (blue). On exposure to Iodine vapour five spots appear at Rf. 0.13, 0.25, 0.40, 0.89, 0.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two orange coloured spots appear at Rf. 0.13 & 0.25.
CONSTITUENTS - Alkaloids (Piperine, Piperlongumine, Piperlonguminine etc),

Essential Oils.
Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma

PROPERTIES AND ACTION : : : : : Ka¶u Laghu, RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana, Kaphahara, P¡cana, Rucya, V¡tahara, V¡t¡nulomana, Vulaprasamana - Pa´cakola C£r¸a, Da¿am£la Taila, Da¿am £lapa¸cakol¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, Da¿am £laÀ¶apalaka Gh¤ta.

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS

THERAPEUTIC USES - Ën¡ha, Gulma, K¤miroga, Udararoga, V¡taroga DOSE - 0.5 - 1g. of the drug in powder form.

142

61. Plaksha (St.Bk)

PLAKâA (Stem Bark) PlakÀa consists of dried stem bark of Ficus lacor Buch. - Ham. = F. lucescens Blume., Syn. F. infectoria Roxb. (Fam. Moraceae); a large spreading tree, with occasional
aerial roots, found nearly throughout the country and commonly planted as an avenue and ornamental tree.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Parkar¢, Parkat¢, Jat¢ -Pakur -Paras pipalo, Pepli Pakad Karibasari, Kadubasari, Jeevibasari, Basari, Juvvebasari -Itti, Ittiyadi, Itthy -Pakali, Pakal -Icchi, Itthi, Kallalnaram --Pakhad

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Bark rough, occurring in flat to curved, quilled pieces, measuring 0.4-0.7 cm in thickness; external surface ash or whitish-grey; numerous transversely arranged lenticels; ranging from 0.1 cm - 1.3 cm in length, lip-shaped and exfoliating; internal surface rough, fibrous, longitudinally striated, reddish-brown; fracture, fibrous.
b) Microscopic

Shows 5-8 layered cork consisting of thin-walled, rectangular cells, a few external layers exfoliating; secondary cortex very wide consisting of compactly arranged, rectangular, thick-walled, pitted cells, patches of circular to elongated, lignified, elliptical stone cells with radiating canals, a few with concentric striations; a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and reddish-brown contents found scattered throughout the secondary cortex; secondary phloem very wide consisting of mostly stratified layers of collapsed cells forming ceratenchyma, groups of fibres, phloem
143

parenchyma, laticiferous cells, traversed by 2-5 seriate phloem rays; phloem fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed tips; thin-walled, rectangular, a few phloem parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Powder - Reddish-brown; shows thick-walled parenchyma with simple pits; stone cells in groups and singles, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, elongated phloem fibres with wide lumen and pointed tips.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u, KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u áramahara, Kaphahara, Medohara, Pittahara, Stambhana, Dahahara, Sa ´gr¡h¢, Bhagnas¡dhaka, Yonidosahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 1.5 per cent, Appendix 5 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

CONSTITUENTS - Sterols, Sugar, Tannin, Alkaloid and Saponin

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS - Nyagrodh¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a, N¡lp¡mar¡di Taila, Marma Gu¶ik¡ THERAPEUTIC USES - áotha, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Vra¸a, Yoniroga, M£rc¡, Atis¡ra. DOSE - 50 g. of the drug in powder form for decoction.

144

62. Prasarini (W.P.)

an extensive foetid smelling perennial climber, found in most of the parts of country.
SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡ra¸¢, Pras¡ra¸¢, Gandhapatra Bhedilata --Prasarini Gandha Prasarini Hesarani, Prasarini bail -Tala nili Hiranvel, Haranvel -Prasarini Mudiyar Kundal Gontima goru-Teega ---

PRASËRIÛÌ (Whole Plant) Pras¡ri¸¢ consists of dried whole plant of Paederia foetida Linn. (Fam. Rubiaceae);

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic

Root - Tap root 2-4 cm long, 0.5-2 cm thick, cylindrical or sub cylindrical, tortuous, having a number of branches and rootlets; dark brown; surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, ridges and fissures; remnants of rootlet, thin scars and numerous horizontal lenticels also present; fracture, short in bark region and somewhat fibrous in wood; odour, disagreeable and foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Stem - Slender, sub-erect with diffuse branching, upto 4 cm thick; subcylindrical showing a dumb-bell shaped appearance in transverse view due to presence of two prominant furrows running opposite each other on both surfaces, externally dark brown, longitudinal anastomosing wrinkles, ridges and a few transverse cracks and circular lenticels, fracture, fibrous; odour, foetid more marked in fresh samples; taste, indistinct.

145

Leaf - Simple, petiolate, stipulate; 10-15 cm long, 5-6 cm broad; somewhat glabrous; ovate, entire, base narrow or broad, apex acute or cuspidate; stipule ovate, lanceolate, bifid, entire, acute, base broad with hairy surface, texture, thin; odour, foetid more distinct in fresh samples; taste, indistinct. Flower - Violet to pink; bracteate, pedicellate, bisexual, calyx campanulate, acutely, toothed; corolla funnel-shaped, usually pubescent, somewhat gibbous and wooly inside, limb narrow, divided into five cordate crenulate segments, lobes short; filament short, inserted irregularly about the middle of the tube, anther erect within the tube; ovary turbinate, two celled containing one ovule, each attached to the bottom of the cell; style, simple; stigma two cleft with lobes bent amongst the anther. Fruit - Berry, orbicular, ellipsoid, compressed, smooth with five lines on each side, one celled, two seeded, 1.1 cm across, red or black. Seed - Compressed, smooth, enlarged with somewhat membranous ring all round.
b) Microscopic

Root - Mature root shows 6-13 layers of cork, composed of tangentially elongated cells, in outer few layers somewhat collapsed, lignified and filled with brown content; cork cambium 1-2 layers; secondary cortex 5-16 layers of thin-walled; somewhat radially arranged parenchymatous cells; secondary phloem appears as wedge-shaped conical masses consisting of sieve elements and parenchyma traversed by phloem rays; major portion of phloem element thick-walled, sieve elements form collapsed masses of ceratenchyma in outer region and intact in inner most region; uni to biseriate phloem rays composed of usually thick-walled cells in outer and middle phloem region; multiseriate phloem rays composed of thin-walled parenchymatous cells showing funnel-shaped dilatation in outer phloem region; in tangential section through inner phloem region sieve cells shows beaded thickening; cambium 1-3 layered; secondary xylem consists of wide zope of lignified and non-lignified tissue traversed by xylem rays; lignified tissue consists of vessels, tracheids and fibres; non-lignified tissue consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; xylem vessels distributed singly or in groups of two to three having variable shape and bordered pits; tracheids long and narrow having bordered pits; fibres long, narrow having simple pits; xylem parenchyma have simple pits or reticulate thickening; xylem ray cells thin-walled, circular to somewhat radially elongated in non-lignified zone and thick-walled, lignified and radially elongated in lignified zone having simple pits; starch grains as granular masses, oil globules as small circular bodies and raphides of calcium oxalate present in a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem and medullary rays. Stem - Mature stem shows 7-11 layers of cork composed of rectangular cells, a few outer layers lignified; secondary cortex 6-9 layers consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells; pericyclic fibres present in singles or in groups of two to three,
146

much elongated and septate with very narrow lumen; secondary phloem much similar to that of root having thick-walled phloem elements, arranged in wedged-shaped conical masses, with ceratenchyma, two types of phloem rays, sieve cells with beaded thickening; cambium 1-2 layers; secondary xylem represented by lignified and nonlignified tissues; inner most xylem composed of thin compact band of 8-9 layers of lignified tissue with primary xylem attached towards pits, xylem vessels associated with tracheids, fibres and lignified or non-lignified parenchyma; a few xylem vessels show tyloses; all elements have similar pittings as described in case of root; uni and biseriate rays thin-walled but lignified; in lignified region, multiseriate rays usually thin-walled; centre of stem occupied by small pith and a few sclereids; a few cells of secondary cortex, phloem, xylem, medullary rays and pith contain starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate.
Leaf-

Petiole - shows similar structure as midrib but differs in possesing trichomes comparatively smaller, as well as two more somewhat spherical accessory bundles, one flanking on each side of median vascular bundle close to lateral extensions where they further split after reaching distal end of petiole; starch grains, oil globules and raphides of calcium oxalate similar to those of root and stem also present in parenchymatous cells of petiole, midrib and in mesophyll cells ofleaf. Midrib - composed of single layered epidermis covered with cuticle; ground tissue consisting of 2-5 layered of collenchyma towards upper and lower side and rest parenchyma; a larger median crescent-shaped vascular bundle consisting usual elements with xylem towards upper side and phloem towards lower side. Lamina - shows a dorsiventral structure; epidermis single layered covered externally with striated cuticle; uniseriate covering trichomes and paracytic stomata present on both surfaces; mesophyll composed of single layered palisade cells and 3-4 layered spongy tissue; in margin of leaf mesophyll replaced by thick- walled cells; veins usually surrounded by bundle sheath, larger veins transcurrent and smaller ones embedded; vein islet number 5-10 per sq. mm., palisade ratio 6.75-14.2 . Powder - Dark green; shows fragments of cork cells, palisade cells, raphides of calcium oxalate, oil globules and starch grains
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than
147

2 21 6 2 9

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

of drug in powder form.Da¿am£l¡riÀ¶a. Sara UÀ¸a Ka¶u V¡tahara. Balak¤t. V¤Àya. V¡taroga DOSE .CONSTITUENTS . Sandh¡¸k¤t IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 148 ..2-4 g.V¡tarakta.Alkaloids. Pras¡ri¸¢ Taila THERAPEUTIC USES . Volatile Oil. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta Guru..

collapsed cells of integument.4-0. below which a band of parenchymatous cells present. found throughout the country in dry deciduous forests. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Piy¡laka. thick-walled. taste.6 cm long. occasionally separate cotyledons also occur. funicle stout. linear. B. Saraparuppu Sara.) Anacardiaceae). cotyledons consisting of epidermis and thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Syn. odour. hilum present at the apex of round edge. Korka. large. slight pressure separates oily cotyledons. latifolia Roxb. thin-walled and parenchymatous cells filled with brownish content and form a pigment layer.63. pleasant. which are of various size. Piyar. micropyle superior. sclerenchymatous cells. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed laterally much compressed. occurring mostly in groups. mottled with darker brown lines. consisting of elongated or tubular cells. epidermal cells of cotyledons barrel-shaped and the parenchymatous cells polyhedral and filled with aleurone grains of globoid 149 . Sarapappu Chironji PRIYËLA (Seed) Priy¡la consists of seed of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. sweetish-oily.3-0. Priyalam. Satdhan -Charal. Bhaulavalkala -Chirangi. Mural maram Charoli --Muolaima. Priyala (Sd. creamish-brown. b) Microscopic Seed .Longitudinal section of seed-coat shows epidermis consisting of polygonal cells with scattered. 0.5 cm wide. 0. Chiraungi Nurlaal -Mural. Shalichokha Piyal. pitted. followed by remnants of disorganised. an evergreen tree upto 15 m high. (Farn. Chowl.

THERAPEUTIC USES . Raktapitta. in surface view seed coat polyhedral in shape.0 µ in dia. 0.94 and 0. 0.91. 0. BrÆha¸a.27. KÀata. H¤dya. Appendix 7 per cent.3. 0.2.08.2. Ëmavardhaka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .10 .94 and 0.L. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.C. thick-walled and filled with brownish contents. 0. 2. V¤Àya.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.98 (all yellow).27. Priy¡la Taila. Bhagnas¡dhaka.type.A creamish-brown paste.54. Pittahara.08.5-5. Kaphakara. Powder . Balya. 0.6. filled with oil globules and aleurone grains of globoid type measuring 2.7.Albuminoids.5 per cent. KÀaya.2. 2.P£gakha¸·a. IDENTITY. 0.84. Appendix 10 per cent. Oil and Starch. T.72.72 and 0.measuring 2.C.54.0 µ in dia.98 (all violet). and sclerenchymatous cells. of the drug in powder form. 0. (254 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf. Appendix 0. shows numerous mesophyll cells. and oil globules.72. 0.91. áukrakara. CONSTITUENTS . procambium bundles.V. running longitudinally also occur among these parenchyma cells. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 0. Appendix 2. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áramahara. On exposure to Iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°c eight spots appear at Rf. 0. Appendix 4 per cent.2.20 g.94 (blue).L.5-5. 0. 2.D¡ha. 150 . DOSE . Sara.2. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica Gel 'G' plate using Benzene : Ethylacetate (3:1) shows under U. V¡tahara. 2.4.

1.3 mm in dia.0. Gandhapriyangu -Njazhal Priyangu. basifixed.5 cm across. ovary 2-4 celled. thin-walled. stamens 4. b) Microscopic Peduncle .Shows more or less wavy outline.5 cm long. long.) Verbenaceae). anther ovate. 4 toothed covered with wooly hairs.64. brown. peduncle cylindrical. hairy. pericycle appears in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres.4 m high shrub. Prenkanamu --- PRIYA×GU (Inflorescence) Priya´gu consists of dried inflorescence of Callicarpa macrophylla Yahl. Priyangu (Infl. Vanit¡ Priyangu Priyangu -Lata Priyangu Priyangu Priyangu. parenchymatous cells.5 . 4 lobbed spreading. 2. (Fam. Flower .Cymose. cortex composed of 10-18 layers of elliptical. epidermis single layered with stellate hairs. Gnazalpoo Prakhanam. an erect. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Inflorescence . Gavhala Priyangu Priyangu Gnazhal. brown.2. found throughout North and East India ascending to 1800 m in the West Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam. epipetalous. filament very long. phloem composed of usual elements except phloem 151 .5-7. densely clothed with wooly hairs. style. tubular. 1. stigma minutely capitate.2. densely hairy. equal in size. bell-shaped. calyx. and abundant in Bengal plains. a few upper layers filled with reddish-brown contents. corolla. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Phalin¢.

Phenolic compound. of the drug in powder form. shows abundant numbers of stellate hairs. oval and round pollen grains with clear exine and yellowish in colour.2. Pakv¡tis¡ra. M£travirajan¢ya. fibres aseptate. 2. aseptate fibres. DOSE . Rakta. V¡tahara. Pras¡dana.4.Khad¢r¡di Gu¶ik¡.7. Sandh¡n¢ya. Vra¸aropa¸a. Sved¡dhikya. Jvara. Appendix 2. groups of thin-walled. KaÀ¡ya RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Pittahara. (Mukharoga). Pur¢Àasa ´graha¸¢ya.2.2. Kanaka Taila. xylem consists of usual elements. 2. Powder . Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 8 2 10 14 per cent.1-3 g.Glycosides. Rakta-Pitta.D¡ha.fibres. Terpenes. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening. N¢lik¡dya Taila. spiral vessels. Daurgandhyahara. CONSTITUENTS .6. IDENTITY. Appendix per cent. El¡di C£r¸a. Appendix per cent.Brown. THERAPEUTIC USES . 152 . Resin and Saponin. Ku´kum¡di Taila. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3.2. Appendix per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Appendix per cent.2. elliptical. 2.2. 2.

Poaceae). creamish-brown to greyish-brown. Dhana Bhatto. parenchymatous cells having very large air-spaces. both consisting of round to oval. (Fam. Nellu Tandulamul. Dhanarmul. Cala. pitted vessels and 153 . Chawl. soft. Bhata. middle zone consisting of radially elongated. composed of thick-walled. Vr¢hi. Jhona Arishi. endodermis and pericycle both single layered. smooth. centre occupied by a small pith composed of polygonal. Dhana.) cultivated throughout India. shows groups of sclerenchymatous cells. Akki -Ari. Dh¡nya. Bhata Chamul -Dhan. xylem and phloem form equal number of bundles arranged alternately with each other. 5-15 cm in length and 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áËLÌ (Root) á¡l¢ consists of dried root of Oryza sativa Linn. exodermis 1-2 layered. Biranj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root fibrous. outer 5-8 and inner 2-3 layered. Corava. sclerenchymatous cells. Nellu.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of thin-walled. Paddy Shalichokha. rectangular cells with a few unicellular root hairs. sclerenchymatous cells. thick-walled. Damgara. b) Microscopic Root .1 cm thick with a few rootlets. parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Nivara -Chaval. Nelver Dhanyamu. Powder . Biyyamu Chaval.65. Shali (Rt.05-0. Odalu.Greyish-cream. thin. cylindrical. Coke Chaval. Sali. Bhatta. cortex differentiated into three zones. an annual herb. Dhan Rice.

2. 2.2. Baddh¡lpavarcasa.3. BrÆha¸a.50 g. Appendix 2. Laghu.Sugars PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS .2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . of the drug for decoction. Svarya.7. Pittahara. Appendix per cent. Kaphahara.4. Stanyajanana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than 5 21 16 3 per cent. 154 . M£trak¤cchra DOSE . Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. Stanyajanana KaÀk¡ C£r¸a THERAPEUTIC USES . IDENTITY. Rucya.2.Br¡hma Ras¡yana. CakÀuÀya. V¡tahara.2. Balya. H¤dya. 2. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.StanyakÀaya. KaÀ¡ya Guru. 2.prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. M£trala. Var¸ak¤t.

about 0. Sanghupushpam Shankhapushpi -- áA×KHAPUâPÌ (Whole Plant) áa´khapuÀp¢ consists of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Fam. light green. ovary superior and bicarpellary. Flower . cylindrical. corolla shortly discoid. áa´kh¡hv¡ -Sankhapuspi -Shankhavali Shankhapushpi Bilikantisoppu. Karakhuratt.White or pinkish. 155 . a prostrate. cylindrical. hairy.1-0. acute. light green. Sankhahuli Kakattam. sub-erect. Stem . linear-lanceolate. spreading. Kakkanangudi. sparsely hairy. stamen 5.Shortly petiolate. sepals narrowly. yellowish-brown to light brown. Sankha pushpin (W. inserted deep in the corolla tube.5 cm broad. Sankhapuspi.5-2 cm long and 0. Sankhapuspi Sankhapuspi Ksirapuspi. Shankhauli --Sankhahuli. perennial herb with a woody root stock.) Convolvulaceae).66. Leaf . found throughout the country. 0. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áa´khpuÀp¡.Usually branched. epipetalous.P.Slender. solitary or in pairs sessile or sub-sessile in the leaf axis. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . ribbed having some rough stem nodules and small secondary roots.4 cm thick. 1-5 cm long.1-0. free. linear-lanceolate. Shankhapushpi. Shankhavela. alternate with the petals. 0. hairy on both surfaces.1 cm or less in thickness with clear hairy nodes and internodes.

lower epidermis followed by 2-3 layers of chlorenchymatous cells. mesophyll cells and gives positive test for tannin. mm. pale brown pericarp. fibres and tracheids. xylem rays and parenchyma. 13. present in cortex. palisade two layered. both having round to oval. thick-walled cells.8-17. a few bicollateral vascular bundles present in spongy parenchyma. parenchymatous cells and yellowish-brown. simple and composed of 2-3 components.0. xylem consists of vessels. measuring 3-8 µ in dia. palisade ratio 6-9. hairs unicellular. 2-3 upper collenchymatous and 1-2 lower parenchymatous layers. phloem. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered. present on both surfaces. rest of tissue between chlorenchyrna and vascular bundles composed of 4-5 layers of parenchymatous cells. fibres and parenchyma.shows epidermis on both surfaces covered with thick cuticle. cortex differentiated in two zones. vessels mostly solitary with spiral thickening.. epidermis single layered. Stem . phloem a narrow zone. simple and compound starch grains. starch grains solitary or in groups.Light yellowish-green. strand of internal phloem present around the slightly lignified pith. phloem composed of sieve elements. b) Microscopic Root . composed of usual elements of phloem and xylem.walled cells. stomatal number in lower surface 184-248. stomatal index in lower surface 17-20 and in upper surface. Seed . tanniniferous. at places unicellular hairs present.8 µ in dia. elliptical. . unicellular hairs. round to oval in shape. mostly composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. shows groups of vessels with spria1 thickening and simple pits. Powder . vascular bundle bicollateral.appears convex in lower and concave in upper side.Fruit . LeafMidrib . pericycle present in the form of single strand of fibres. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.Shows single layered epidermis. fibres aseptate having pointed ends and narrow lumen. medullary rays and tracheids not distinct.Brown. 156 . mm. cork composed of 10-15 layers of tangentially elongated. oblong globose with coriaceous. thin. vessels solitary or in groups of two with simple pits.. xylem consisting of usual elements. and in upper surface 202-238 per sq. secretory cells present in this region. vein islet number 21-25 per sq. endoderrnis single layered. elongated.Capsule. cortex composed of 6-10 layers of oval to elongated. fibres and tracheids aseptate and pitted. Lamina . covered with thick cuticle. measuring 3 . minutely puberulous. covered with thick cuticle. medullary rays 1-3 cells wide and multicellular in length.Appears nearly circular in outline.

Tikta. Appendix per cent.2. Mohan¡¿aka Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 17 8 6 10 per cent. Ras¡yana. 2. Kaphahara. and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive CONSTITUENTS . Br¡hÆ¢ Va¢ THERAPEUTIC USES .M¡nasaroga.3-8 g. Pittahara.2.2.4.6. Br¡hma.IDENTITY. 2. Agastyahar¢tak¢. Medhya. ËyuÀya.7. of the drug in powder form Note: In certain parts of India.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta.2. Appendix per cent. Clitoria ternatea Linn.2. Appendix per cent. 2. Appendix per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Apasm¡ra DOSE . Appendix 2. Ras¡yana. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. Ras¡yana.2.3. KaÀ¡ya Sara á¢ta Ka¶u Balya. 2. are used as áa´khapuÀp¢ 157 .Alkaloid PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u.

) Euphorbiaceae). Leaf . 1 mm long. cylindrical. CaramakaÀ¡ -Chagalpupti -Satale Titali. Fruit . smooth.8 cm wide.Small. gradually tapering. Carmas¡hv¡. fracture. short.7-7 cm long. annual herb. 3-4 mm in dia. a much branched. glabrous outside and pubescent inside. Kalli -Chasma Lantha. ribbed. subacute. Joyachi. Flower . greenish-yellow. 0. 4-5 cm long. 20-40 cm high. solitary. Pathiri Nivadung Naagapheni. ciliolate. pale brown. lobes short. base rarely rounded or sub-cordate.Involucre broadly campanulate. ovate. Thusimullai Tillakada Thuhar SAPTALË (Whole Plant) Saptal¡ consists of dried whole plant of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. 2. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : S¡tal¡. Saptala Kangi Tillakada. style. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . gland semilunate.1.2-0.Capsule.celled with or without attached pedicel. Siju. filament pubescent. Saptala (W. horned.5-2 mm thick. (Fam. odour and taste not distinct. Chagulputputi Satala. odour and taste indistinct. Bilikalli. 3.5 mm across at the mouth. 158 . lanceolate or linear oblong. sessile. found throughout India in the plains and low hills. free to the base. trilocular. 0.P. linear. sub-sessile. having a few secondary roots. shortly 2-fid at the apex.67.

fibres. parenchymatous cells.5-19. single layered epidermis. mature root shows thin walled cork. endodermis not distinct. 2. a few small collateral vascular bundles embedded in spongy parenchyma.Shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. starch grains more abundant in phloem and pith region. hypodermis consists of single layered collenchymatous cells towards lower side. simple. b) Microscopic Root . centre occupied by a pith. 159 .75 µ in dia. tangentially elongated cells. oval to elongated elliptical thick walled. tangentially elongated elliptical. covered externally with thick. parenchymatous cells.3 mm long. Stem . striated cuticle. secondary xylem consists of vessels. epidermis single layered. Leaf- Midrib . older stem shows 4-5 layers of cork composed of thinwalled. fibres and tracheids. endoderm is and pericycle not distinct. stone cells oval to elongated. ellipsoidal to oblong with a white. traversed by numerous xylem rays. elliptical. with wide lumen present in this region. with an arillode at the oblique depressed apex. phloem parenchyma and a few elongated laticiferous sacs. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. rectangular. fibres and vessels having simple pits. cortex composed of 4-5 layers of oval to rectangular. vessels having simple pits. small laticiferous sacs present in peripheral pith cells. spongy parenchyma 4-5 layered consisting of irregularly arranged cells present between upper and lower palisade. elliptical. grooved at one side. secondary cortex consists of 4. rounded at the base. epidermis on either covered with thick cuticle.Seed .shows slightly convex outline. all elements thick-walled and lignified. palisade single layered present on both sides. composed of 10-12 layers of rectangular cells. composed of sieve elements. Lamina -shows slightly wavy outline. groups of stone cells and a few fibres present in this region. tracheids and medullary rays. secondary phloem narrow. all elements. circular to oval. leprous tuberculate testa. rounded to oval.Young root shows exfoliated. rarely a few oil globules also present. thickwalled and lignified. measuring 5. consisting of thick-walled. flattended. secondary xylem composed of vessels. fibres elongated and aseptate. thick-walled lignified. solitary or in groups. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. parenchymatous cells. starch grains simple. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.25 µ in diameter.6 layers of oval. filled with yellowish-brown content. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. rounded to oval. lignified cells with wide lumen. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces. vascular bundle collateral and surrounded by 4-6 layers of thinwalled. some rounded. found scattered in phloem region. pericycle represented by groups of lignified fibres.

measuring 3-19 µ in diameter. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Tikta. Pittahara. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS . ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Ka¶u Kaphahara.4. and 0. 160 . 0.87 (violet). 2. Appendix per cent. V¡tal¡. RaktadoÀahara.Light yellow.6.0. Appendix per cent. elliptical.2.04 and 0. oval to elongated.C. On spraying with 5% Methanolic-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C two spots appear at Rf. stone cells thick-walled.57 (all yellow). Appendix per cent. rounded to oval starch grains. Visarpa. 2.67.Powder . lignified with wide lumen.46. Gulma. (366 nm) two blue fluorescent zones at Rf. On exposure to Iodine vapour three spots appear at Rf.50 g. N¡r¡ya¸a C£r¸a. aseptate fibres. 2. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T.2. RukÀa.7.V. Vibandha. Appendix per cent. 0.2. Udararoga.L. DOSE .3. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (95:5) shows under U. of the drug for decoction.C. T. shows vessels with simple pits.L. simple.Glyco-alkaloid (Euphorbine). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 11 1 5 10 per cent.Ën¡ha.2.04. Ud¡vartta.2. 2.46 (brown) and 0. Vi·bhedin¢ IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 0.Br¡hm¢ Gh¤ta. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mi¿raka Sneha.2.

Shepa. Sulpha. vittae. A. broadly oval and compressed dorsally. slightly raised. ex Flem. graveolens Linn. traversed from the base to apex by 5 lighter coloured primary ridges of which 3 dorsal.. dark brown. a tall. 2 lateral prolonged into thin. sowa Roxb. Shulupa. odour. A.) áATËHVË (Root) áat¡hv¡ consists of the dried ripe fruits of Anethum sowa Roxb. akin to caraway. endocarp consists of tabular cells sometimes with sinuous anticlinal walls.Pericarp shows epidermis of polygonal tabular cells having thick outer wall and striated cuticle. 4 on the dorsal valleculae and 2 on the commissural surface. brown. some cells lignified and show reticulate thickening. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áatapuÀp¡ -Suva. dorsal 161 . and a warm. often stalk attached. mericarps usually separate and free. glabrous. glabrous. mesocarp. Syn. P. graveolens DC. Sowa Indian Dil Fruit Suva Soya. yellowish membranous wings. graveolens Benth. Satahva (Fr. 4 mm long. Shepu -Soya Satakuppa Sadapa Shibt. faintly aromatic resembling that of caraway. var. (Fam. b) Microscopic Fruit .. filiform and incospicuous. aromatic herb found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and cultivated. slightly sharp taste. extending the length of each mericarp with an endothelium of brown cells and containing volatile oil. Sova Sabasige --Badishep. Apiaceae).. Soya DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits. 2-3 mm broad and 1 mm thick. parenchymatous.68. Peucedanum sowa Roxb.

2. Vra¸a.Essential Oil. Tikta Snigdha UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. carpophore split.3.37 (pink) 0. 162 . Jvara. Appendix 3 per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene shows on exposure to Iodine vapour two spots at Rf. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T.7.2.2. Kaphahara.á£la.2.6.59 and 0.Brown.L.68 (all yellow). shows spiral vessels. cellulosic. N¡r¡yana C£r¸a. each costae with vascular strands. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110° C three spots appear at Rf.5 per cent.68 (violet). 0.C. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 5 per cent.2.2. Appendix 14 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .Gorocan¡di Va¶¢. of the drug in powder form. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and oil globules.2. V¡tahara. á£lpra¿amana IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . B¤hat Phala Gh¤ta. Netra Roga DOSE . passing at the apex into the raphe of each mericarp containing a vascular strand of sclerenchymatous fibres and spiral vessels. IDENTITY.10 T.59 (blue) and 0. Appendix 4 per cent.4. Appendix 15 per cent. Powder . one larger and the two lateral broadly winged. aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter.L. 2.3-6 g. âa·bindu Taila THERAPEUTIC USES .C. Appendix 1. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. parenchyma containing fixed oil and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µ in diameter containing micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Atis¡ra. 2. Appendix 2. 2.2. endosperm much flattened and consists of thick-walled.costae three. 2.

SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : áobh¡µjana. Sajna. palisade single layered. Segata.5-1 cm wide.Leaflet shows dorsiventral structure. Muringa Elai Sevaga.) Gaertn. Munika Sohanjana Murungai. Munga. T¢kÀ¸agandh¡. available in the form of leaflets and some broken pieces of rachis. thin walled. pericycle forming a broken ring. spongy parenchyma 2-3 layers. Tishnagandha. Moringa pterygosperma DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves tripinnate compound.69. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortex. Shewgachi pane Sajana. smooth and greenish-grey to pale green.2-2 cm long and 0. Leaflet . odour and taste not distinct. commonly cultivated throughout the country. leaflet 1. Sekato. Muringa. Segata pana. Rachis . Drum Stick Tree Sargavo. parenchymatous cells. Syn. ovate or obovate. slender. Shigru (Lf. (Fam. oval to elliptical. cortex consisting of 5-10 layered.Rachis shows single layered epidermis. Mocaka -Sajina. found wild in sub Himalayan tract. Mungna Neegge. parenchymatous cells. vascular bundle collateral. pith and phloem parenchyma. consisting of pericyclic fibres. elliptic. entire. and articulated at the base. AkÀ¢va. central region 163 b) Microscopic . rounded or narrowed at base and obtuse at apex. epidermis and unicellular hairs present on both the surfaces. followed by single layer of pigmented collenchymatous hypodermis. Saragavo Parna Shajoma. Bahala. Nugge ele -Murinna. Murungai Ilai Munaga Aku Sehjan áIGRU (Leaf) áigru consists of dried leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam. thickened. a small or medium sized tree. Sajne Horse Radish Tree. Moringaceae). pith composed of wide zone of thin-walled.

82 (yellow) and 0. (366 nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. V¡tahara. 0. 0. 0. unicellular hairs with blunt tip.2.2. K¤mihara. pieces of polyhedral epidermal cells in surface view. 0. 0.52 (green).2. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. Pittahara.05.18. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll and collenchymatous cells.C. Sirovirecaka 164 . CONSTITUENTS . 0.26.38. 0. Under U.4.18.46 (all red) & 0. spiral vessels. palisade cells.87 (blue). IDENTITY. Carotene and Ascorbic acid. 0. 0.20. stomata anornocytic.L. Powder -Greyish-green. stomata and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.V.0. 2.46 (both blue). B ¤Æhana. 0.occupied by a crescent-shaped. Appendix 2.69 (blue) and 0.2. collateral vascular bundle surrounded by 2-4 layers of collenchymatous cells.36.94 (blue).36 (green). áukra N¡¿aka.59 (blue). 0. 0. 0.3. present on both surface but more on lower sur face.Carbohydrate.46 (green).26.94 (yellow) in visible light. Protein.05.L. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric acid reagent ten spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C at Rf. 0. 0. 2.46 (dark green) & 0.6. stomatal index 10-13-15 stomatal number 100-137 upper surface and 290-350 lower surface per mm square. 2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic Phosphomolybdic acid reagent six spots appear on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105° C at Rf. Appendix per cent.26 (all green).53 (yellow). 0. palisade ratio 6-11.2.05.69 (yellow). 0.C. 0. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 16 4 8 22 per cent. Medohara. 0.36 (yellowish green). T. 0. 2. vein islets number 50-65. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows six spots at Rf. shows groups of spongy parenchyma.94 (violet). (all green).30 (pink).7.2. 0. RukÀa. ÙikÀ¸a á¢ta Madhura CakÀuÀya. Appendix per cent.

Galaga¸·a. Vidradhi.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .áopha. ViÀatinduka Taila.10 .20 ml of the fresh drug in juice form. DOSE . Gulma. 165 . K¤miroga. Pl¢haroga. Ek¡ngav¢ra Rasa THERAPEUTIC USES . Medoroga.Ratnagiri Rasa.

a herb with leafy stem and perennial root stock.. and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. Kattu Elam Pedda Elakulu Badi Elaichi. spicy pungent. testa consists of single layered epidermis of rectangular cells followed by 1-2 layers of collapsed. perispenn encloses the 166 . perisperm surrounded externally by thick-walled. membraneous aril. Perelam Mothi Elayachi Bada aleicha. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bhadr¡. b) Microscopic Seed -Shows a very thin membraneous aril composed of several layers of collapsed cells containing oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.4 cm long. Nepdi Elakki -Valiya Elam. cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Bengal and Assam. thin-walled. aromatic.70. sclerenchymatous. which is internally surrounded by several layers of flattened.3 cm wide. brown to dark brown. thin walled. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Sthulaela (Sd. taste. beneath this a single layered large rectangular cells containing oil globules present. irregularly ovoid with 3 flattened face covered externally with a colourless. (Fam. Bhadrail¡ -Baara aliach Greater or Nepal cardamom Elaicho. Aleicha Budi Eleichi Periya Elam. parenchymatous cells.) Zingiberaceae). radially elongated dark brown beaker cells. odour. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Seed 0. perisperm consists of polygonal. 0. Beraelam. Heel Kalan STHÍLAILË (Seed) Sth£lail¡ consists of dried seed of Amomum subulatum Roxb. Mothi Elichi Bari elachi Dodda Yalakki. parenchymatous cells containing round to oval starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in dia.

6. Vastyamay¡ntaka Gh¤ta.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .3.7.4. shows fragments of testa. Chardi. THERAPEUTIC USES . starch grains measuring 2-5 µ in diameter. Rocaka.2. both composed of polygonal.10 CONSTITUENTS .Light brown. Appendix 2. rounded to oval. Appendix 5 per cent. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. 2.2.endosperm and embryo. Karp£r¡dy¡rka. polygonal. V¡tahara. K¡sa. 2. Angamardapra¿amana Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 per cent.S¡rivady¡sava. 2. 167 . IDENTITY.Cluster crystals of calcium oxalate are present in Sthulaela ( Amomum subulatum Roxb. Tikta Laghu. Kaly¡¸aka Gh¤ta. Appendix 14 per cent. Appendix 4 per cent. 2. rarely cluster crystals of calcium oxalate.5 per cent. Mukha¿odhaka.2.2. while absent in Suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Mukharoga. of the drug in powder form. thin-walled.5 -1 g. simple. 2. oil globules.Volatile Oil (rich in Cineole). thin-walled. H¤ll¡sa.0. Appendix 1 v/wper cent. Note . perisperm cells. Powder . RukÀa.áv¡sa. (Seed). DOSE .2.(Seed). rich in protein. T¤À¸¡. Kaphahara.2. Ka¸·u. parenchymatous cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Appendix 1. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢.

thick-walled cells. parenchyma and fibres traversed by phloem rays. Jimmi. aromatic. Syn. Tejbal Tejbal Tejapatri. stone cells found in 168 . lignified. short.71. Tumburudra. channelled and single quilled with large marks of tubercular prickles. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Tejohva -Tejovati -Tejabala. brownish.0. cork 15-20 layers of tabular.Bk.1-0. taste. Tejabal Thejyovathi Tejovathi Kabab-e-Khandan TEJOVATÌ (Stem Bark) Tejovat¢ consists of dried stem bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . Thumbooni.Shows exfoliated cork interrupted by lenticels at some places. phloem fibres thickwalled. thin-walled. small groups of stone cells and some fibres found scattered in this region. odour.2 cm thick. also sometimes planted for hedges in Assam. external surface pale brown. Tumbura. Rutaceae). Z. fracture. secondary phloem consisting of sieve elements. found in the hot valleys of the Himalayas from Jammu to Khasia hills at 600-1800 m and eastern ghats in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh at 1200 m. aseptate and arranged in tangential rows. internal surface smooth. aromatic pungent. rough with numerous scattered patches of lenticels. (Fam. an evergreen or sub-deciduous shrub or occasionally a small tree upto 6 m high. armed with long. stem and branches. Valiyavaluzhavam Tejabal Tejabala Tejovati. sharp prickles. light yellow to pale brown. secondary cortex 10-20 layers of tangentially elongated or oval. rather deeply furrowed. Tejovati (St. alatum DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark corky. parenchymatous cells. Tejovanti -Thumboonal.) Roxb.

a number of secretory cells found scattered throughout secondary phloem. K¡laka C£r¸a (Lepa). 2. shows fragments of cork cells.75 µ in diameter.2. aseptate fibres. Appendix 1. of the drug for decoction. stone cells. round and oval measuring 2. áv¡sa.75 . P¡cana.4. 2. Appendix 8. THERAPEUTIC USES .5 per cent. CONSTITUENTS .2.2.Pancatikta Guggulu Gh¤ta.75 . Tikta RukÀa UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. Rucya. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Mukharoga.Yellowish-brown. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains found scattered in secondary cortex. phloem rays 1-2 cells wide and 10-15 cells high. K¡sa. 2. IDENTITY.7. Powder . Appendix 2.2.A bitter crystalline principle identical with Berberine. Hikk¡. measuring 2.2. Appendix 13 per cent.10-20 g.3. secretory cells contain ing oily or resinous substances. V¡tahara IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . 2. Medhya. Appendix 12 per cent.75 µ in diameter. starch grains round and oval.Aruci.13.5 per cent.2. oil globules and starch grains. a Volatile Oil and Resin. DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem parenchyma and phloem rays.13.6. Ëmav¡ta. Kaphahara. 169 .tangential bands alternating with phloem fibres.

Flower .2 cm wide. K¤À¸atulas¢. Tulsi TULASÌ (Whole Plant) Tulas¢ consists of dried whole plant of Ocimum sanctum Linn. violet internally. annual herb. sub quadrangular. Stem . pubescent. 30 . characteristic.Thin. bracts about 3 mm long and broad. fracture. lower lip 170 .) an erect. taste.Erect. hairy. Lamiaceae).Purplish or crimson coloured.2. petiole thin. obtuse or acute. pedicels longer than calyx. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . hairy. odour. coloured. about 1.60 cm high. entire or serrate. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi. much branched. branched. pubescent on both sides.5-5 cm long 1. Bana Tulas¢ Tulasi Tulasi Holy Basil Tulasi.5-3 cm long hairy. Tulasi (W. Thiru Theezai Tulasi Raihan. Thulasi. shortly apiculate. calyx ovoid or campanulate 3-4 mm bilipped. externally purplish-brown to black. branched. odour faintly aromatic. small in close whorls. wiry. Leaf . slender. (Fam. Tulasa Tulas -Tulasi Tulasi. Vishnu Tulasi -Tulasi. found throughout the country. fibrous in bark and short in xylem. aromatic.72. Shree Tulasi. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Suras¡.P. herbaceous. upper lip broadly obovate or suborbicular.6 . woody. elliptic oblong. blackish-brown externally and pale.3. soft. internally cream.

epidermis followed by 1 or 2 layers and 2 or 3 layers of thin-walled. corolla about 4 mm long. taste. veined calyx. filled with brown content. tracheids fibres and parenchyma. round to oval polygonal. fibres with pointed ends. nearly smooth. tracheids. odour. brown. Fruit . phloem consisting of sieve elements. pungent. slightly compressed. enclosed in an enlarged. pungent. thin-walled. odour.shows somewhat cordate outline. xylem surrounded by phloem. b) Microscopic Root . covering trichomes multicellular 1-8 celled long. thin-walled. measuring 22-27 in dia. pungent. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole except cortical layers reduced towards apical region. fibre tracheides. middle one larger than other two. fibres and parenchyma.Shows a single layered epidermis with uniseriate. taste. Seed .longer than upper having four mucronate teeth. thin-walled. slightly notched at the base. rectangular parenchyma cells and fibres. vessels pitted. rectangular parenchyma cells and scattered groups of fibres.Shows a single layered epidermis followed by cortex.rarely slightly reflexed at tip. pale brown or reddish with small black marking at the place of attachment to the thalamus. inner layers of cortex devoid of contents. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. phloem consists of sieve elements. xylem occupies major portion of stem consisting of vessels. sessile with 1-2 celled stalk and 2-8 celled balloonshaped head. 0. aromatic. each with one seed. parenchymatous cells. mucilaginous when soaked in water. Stem .A group of 4 nutlets. three vascular bundles situated centrally. fibres thick walled and with pointed ends. pitted with pointed ends. parenchymatous cells. membranous. parenchyma cells towards upper and lower surfaces respectively. long. vessels pitted. no odour. glandular trichomes short. occasionally a few cells collapsed. aromatic. cortex consists of 10 or more layers of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin-walled. lateral two short and central two largest. fibres found scattered mostly throughout phloem. consisting of seven or more layers of rectangular. slightly mucilaginous. Leaf- Petiole . thin-walled. in groups and rarely in singles. found scattered in phloem. centre occupied by nan-ow pith consisting of round to oval. rectangular. taste.epidermis. multicellular covering trichomes having 5-6 cells.1 cm long. 171 .Rounded to oval. Midrib . elongated. pubescent. xylem consists of vessels. nutlets sub-globose or broadly elliptic.

KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix 10 per cent. slightly raised above the level of epidermis.Essential Oil. Eugenol (orange brown) approx. Appendix 2. fragments of epidermal cells in surface view having irregular shape.Greenish: shows thin-walled. Eugenol to be applied as standard also diluted in 130 ratio and 10 µl of each to be applied in band form.16 on lower surface. unicellular and rnulticellular-trichomes either entire or in pieces. caryophyllence (reddish violet) runs to solvent front.C. V¡tahara.5 per cent.L. values of eugenol and caryophyllence.7. measuring 3-17 µ in diameter. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Rf. both anomocytic and diacytic type of stomata present on both surfaces. a few containing reddish brown contents. Record Rf.Lamina . of Tulasi oil obtained by stem distillation is carried out on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethylacetate (93:7) Tulasi oil is diluted in chloroform-toluene (1: 10). palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layers of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplast and oleo-resin. CONSTITUENTS . palisade ratio 3. Powder . Tikta. thin walled fibres.1.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. oil globules. rounded to oval. Kaphahara. IDENTITY. Appendix 8 per cent.2. After running distance of 10 cm the plate is air drying for 15 minutes and than kept in the over for 2 to 5 minutes. parenchymatous cells. RukÀa.2. in thoroughly vanillin .3. Pittavardhin¢.7.C.15 .L. Rucya.Sulphuric acid reagent and heat the plate at 110° C for 5 .2. On cooling spray.35. Appendix 4 per cent. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent.4. simple as well as compound starch grains having 2-5 components. value 0. Durgandhihara 172 . xylem vessels with pitted thickenings.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pana. vein islet number 31 .8.6. H¤dya. stomatal index 10-12-15 on upper surface and 14 . 2. 2. 2.minutes Under observation.2.2. 2. T. Appendix 1.

Chardi. Mukt¡paµc¡m¤ta Rasa. M¡nasamitra Va¶aka THERAPEUTIC USES . K¡sa.A¿mar¢. Hikk¡.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . KuÀ¶ha. 1-2 g of the drug in powder form (seed). áv¡sa. K¤miroga. Mukt¡di Mah¡µjana.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Netraroga.1-3 ml of the drug in juice form. P¡r¿va á£la DOSE . 173 .

uniseriate 1-8 celled long.73. and 2-8 celled. K¤À¸atulas¢. pubescent on both surfaces. Tulasi Tulasi Raihan. LeafPetiole . balloon-shaped head. thin. followed by 3-4 layers of collenchymatous and 1-2 layers of parenchymatous cells..2 cm wide. Tulasi (Lf. rarely slightly reflexed at tip. found throughout the country. consisting of single layered epidermis composed of thin walled. taste. Suras¡ Tulasi Tulasi Sacred Basil. middle one larger than the other two. upper epidermis. glandular trichomes short. sessile or with 1-2 celled stalk. 174 b) Microscopic . 1.5-5 cm long. (Fam. measuring 22-27 µ dia. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves 2. Tulsi Tulasi Tulasi -Tulasi Tulas -Tulasi Thulasi. oval cells having a number of covering and glandular trichomes. Lamiaceae). Tulsi TULASÌ (Leaf) Tulas¢ consists of dried leaf of Ocimum sanctum Linn. covering trichomes multicellular.6-3. lower epidermis followed by 1-3 layers of collenchymatous and 2-3 layers of parenchymatous cells. entire or serrate. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bana Tulas¢. consisting of xylem and phloem. an erect. Holy Basil Tulasi. obtuse or acute. much branched annual herb.shows cordate outline. enclosed in a cuticular bladder. hairy. characteristic. elliptic-oblong. odour. aromatic.5-3 cm long. petiole 1. three vascular bundles situated centrally.) 30-60 cm high. petiolate.

0. 0. 0. Caryophyllene. 2.08 (both green). stomata anomocytic and diacytic present on both surfaces and slightly raised above the level of epidermis. 0.45 (yellowish green).21 (brown).75 (violet).08 (violet).8. 0..85 (blue). 0.33 (violet).2.epidermis and trichomes similar to those of petiole on both surfaces. except reduced in cortical layers towards apical region of midrib.98 (blue).75.). Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 19 3 6 13 per cent. anomocytic and diacytic stomata. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9: 1) shows in visible light nine spots at Rf.54 (blue).Light-green. 0. 0.45. 0.33 (both green) 0. 0. Appendix per cent.04. 0. vein islet number 31-33. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. On exposure to Iodine vapour eleven spots appear at Rf. IDENTITY.93 (violet) and 0.12 (light green). Appendix per cent.3.Essential Oil (Carvacrol. Appendix per cent.epidermis. stomatal index 10-13-15 on upper surface and 14-15-16 on lower surface.C. 0.98 (blue). less wavy walled epidermal cells in surface view. 0. 0.93 (pink) & 0.04. covering and glandular trichomes as a whole or in pieces.2.88 and 0.08.V. On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 110 Cfor ten minutes ten spots appear at Rf. T.2.45 (violet).2. (366 nm) eight fluorescent zones appear at Rf.85 & 0.12 (light violet).45. 2. trichomes and vascular bundles similar to those of petiole.54. shows fragments of polygonal. 0. palisade ratio 3. 0. CONSTITUENTS .C.33. Nerol and Camphene etc. 0. 0.04. Under U.83 (blue).2. 0. 2.7. palisade single layered followed by 4-6 layeres of closely packed spongy parenchyma with chloroplasts and oleo-resin. Appendix per cent. Appendix 2.21. 0. 0.33.L.2.Midrib . 0.93 (all0 yellow). Lamina . 0.30.03 (dark green). 0.4.83 (all pink) 0. 0.21. 0. 0. Powder . 0.93 (both light green).L. 2. 175 .83. 0.12.6. 0. 0. palisade and spongy parenchyma.

Tikta. KuÀ¶ha. THERAPEUTIC USES . Mah¡jvar¡´ku¿a Rasa. Hikk¡.M¡nasamitra Va¶aka. K¤miroga. Mukt¡ Paµc¡m¤t Rasa. áv¡sa.Aruci. RukÀa. P¡r¿va¿ £la DOSE . Tribhuvana K¢rti Rasa. Pittahara. K¤mighna IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .2-3 g.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Prati¿y¡ya. ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Kaphahara. 176 . V¡tahara. K¡sa. H¤dya. of the drug in powder form. KaÀ¡ya Laghu.

(Fam. taste. enclosing large air spaces. broadly.) semiaquatic herb. Vekhandas -Varch. Rhizome . lower side shows elevated tubercular spots of root scars.74. Vacha (Rz. and 0. pungent and bitter. transverse leaf scars which almost encircle the rhizome. light-brown with reddish-tinge to pinkish externally. Araceae). upper side marked with alternately arranged. Ugr¡. a DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in simple or rarely with thumb-like branches at nodes.5-1. Ghodvach Bach. cells towards periphery. fracture. Gora-bach Baje. sub cylindrical to slightly flattened. more or less closely arranged cells towards inner side. cut pieces of 1-5 cm long. Pillai maruntho Vasa Waja-e-Turki VACË (Rhizome) Vac¡ consists of dried rhizome of Acarus calamus Linn. âa·granth¡ --The Sweet Flag Ghoduvaj. present in this 177 b) Microscopic . SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ugragandh¡. buff coloured intemally. fibro-vascular bundles and secretory cells having light yellowish-brown contents. odour.5 cm thick. aromatic. Ghodavaca Vasambu. wild or cultivated throughout the country ascending upto 1800 m in the Himalayas. at nodes leaf sheath mostly having an appearence present. large. cortex composed of spherical to oblong. somewhat collenchymatous. triangular.Shows single layered epidermis. Narru Berua -Vayambu Vaca. smaller. somewhat tortuous or rarely straight. rounded and form a network of chains of single row of cells. short. thin-walled cells of various sizes.

C. Observation of powder and its extracts on exposure under UV light :- a. parenchymatous cells enclosing large air spaces similar to those of cortex and several concentric vascular bundles arranged in a ring towards endodermis. CONSTITUENTS . reticulate. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 1 7 1 9 16 2 per cent. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent. endodermis distinct. stele composed of round.73 (violet) on spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C.2.region. also contains a bitter principle Acorin (Glucoside).2. Powder as such: . shows fibres.2.4.10 T.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive Volatile oil T. Extracts in i. Appendix 2. 2. Eugenol and Asarone). present in cortex and ground tissue. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. Appendix per cent.Yellowish-cream b. 2. annular vessels and simple spherical starch grains. Methanol-Yellowish green iv. Petroleum ether-No change ii.14 (violet) and 0. measuring 3-6 µ in dia. 178 .L. 2.2. Appendix per cent.L.7. Appendix per cent. 0. a few vascular bundles scattered in ground tissues.3. Benzene-No change IDENTITY.Buff coloured. spherical.. measuring 3-6 µ in diameter.Volatile Oil (principal constituents of the Volatile oil are Asamyl alcohol. 2. starch grains simple. 2. Starch and Tannin.6. Powder .2.2. Chloroform-Light green iii.C.

Hinguvac¡di C£r¸a. Unm¡da. Sm¤ti daurbalya. K¡sa. Kar¸a Sr¡va.60 -120 mg of the drug in powder form. Note: áodhana of Vac¡ is to be done before internal use. Medhya. áv¡sa.2 g.Vac¡di Taila. Apasm¡ra. of the drug in powder form for inducing vomiting. Kaphahara.PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Ka¶u. Ka¸¶hya. Tikta Laghu. K¤mihara. M¡nasmitra Va¶aka. Mala M £travi¿odhan¢. Ëdhm¡na. V¡tahara. S¡rasvat¡ RiÀ¶a. C£r¸a. S¡rasvata. 1.á£la. Vibandha. V¡mak IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Candra Prabh¡ Va¶¢. DOSE . Khadir¡di Va¶¢. THERAPEUTIC USES . 179 . ÙikÀ¸a UÀ¸a Ka¶u D¢pan¢. Vac¡ La¿un¡di Taila.

rarely 5 cm long. gradually decrease in thickness towards tapering end. Teliya Bish Basanalli. Vachanaga -Vatsanabhi Bachnaga Tahara. Mithvisa Mitha Visha. slightly bitter followed by a strong tingling sensation. primary cortex consisting of 8-10 layers of oval to tangentially elongated. Sth¡varaviÀa. ex Holmes DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots paired. Beesh. occasionally separated due to breakage. plant is an erect. in high plateaus between 2000-4000 m. Atees VATSANËBHA (Root) Vatsan¡bha consists of dried roots of Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. tapering downwards to a point. Ranunculaceae).1.5 cm. rough due to root scars. roots are generally collected late in September. Bachhnaag. Meethabisha. thin-walled. 0. dark brown to blackish-brown. fracture. Vatsan¡gaka Mithavish. perennial herb. Vatsanabhi. taste. small portions of stem sometimes attached. parenchymatous cells. primary cortex separated by distinct 180 . Vasanabhi Vatsanaabhi. Vatsanabha (Rt. Bish Kathavish Aconite Vachhanaag. b) Microscopic Root -Shows epidermis 1-3 layered. ovoid. without or with a few intercellular spaces. Vatsanabhi. occurs in subalpine and alpine zones of the western Himalayas.8 cm thick. 2-4. hard and white within the cambium ring and brownish outside cambium. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Amra. Naabhi Bachnak.4 . papillose on outside. cartilaginous. suberised. ViÀa Vajran¡ga. odour indistinct. Mithatelia Vasanaavi. Vatsanabha. conical. a few rectangular or triangular stone cells in singles found scattered in this zone.) (Fam.75. wrinkled longitudinally and transversely. Nabhi. Mithalelia. Basanaag Bisa. Mahura. poisonous.

96 (all yellow) on exposure to Iodine vapour. Appendix 5. starch grains simple measuring 6-18 µ in dia.L. present in cortical cells.74 and 0.C. IDENTITY. consisting of round to oval cells. cambium having 6 10 angles. single grain measuring 6-18 µ in dia. 0. Appendix 24 per cent. 0.Tribhuvanak¢rti Rasa. Mah¡viÀagarbha Taila 181 .39 and 0.2. phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Trid°Àahara. Pittasant¡pak¡raka IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . containing a few groups of phloem strands. Yogav¡hi UÀ¸a Madhura Ras¡yana. S £tasekhara Rasa.2.6.2. Sv®dala. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.5 per cent.C. ÙikÀ¸a. 2. 0. Appendix 2. a few aseptate fibres.20.3. Powder .Alkaloids PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Vik¡si. shows vessels.7. and numerous simple and compound starch grains having hilum in the centre. CONSTITUENTS . enclosing xylem parenchyma in older portions. occupying more than half the radius.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. Appendix 2 per cent.96 (both orange).2.2. xylem vessels arranged almost in a ring.39. 0. 2. UÀ¸a. metaxylem vessels met in centre. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (90:10) shows six spots at Rf. Anandabhairava Rasa. often forming 'V' shaped ring. some scattered. Laghu. RukÀa.56. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. 2.4. 2. xylem exarch.Light grey.2. and compound grains consisting of 2-5 components with hilum in centre. bundles compact often wedge-shaped having acute apex. 0. inner bark parenchymatous.endodermis. V¡tavidhwansana Rasa.10. Appendix 8 per cent. T. 0. Viyav¡yi.

15 . Kanharoga. 182 . DOSE . V¡takaphajvara.THERAPEUTIC USES . Sannip¡ta.30 mgs of the drug in powder form. Note: It is dangerous to exceed the normal dose.V¡taroga. Jvar¡tis¡ra.

starchy and somewhat porous.76. varying in shape and size and having well marked striations 183 . stone cells moderately thick-walled. (Fam. Nelagumbala. Bhonykoru. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells filled with dark reddish-brown content except in a few inner layers. secondary cortex consists of 6-15 layers of circular. yellow band of 2-6 layers of compactly arranged stone cells present towards inner side of cortex.Rt. a perennial climber with very large tuberous root. Bhumikusmanda. Ghodvel Bhuiankakharu -Nilapoosani Nelagummuda. oval to rectangular and tangentially elongated. Bhuikumra Vidari. Nelagumbula. BhumikuÀm¡n·a Bhedeleton. sweetish.) VIDËRÌ (Tuberous Root) Vid¡r¢ consists of sliced and dried pieces of tuberous root of Pueraria tuberosa DC. -Mudakku Bhuikohala. smooth except for protuberances at some places. Vidari (Tub. usually does not break. Sakharvel Vidarikanda Nelagumbala Gudde. taste. outer surface reddish-brown. Darigummadi -- DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug available in the form of longitudinally sliced pieces of variable size. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Gumadigida Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Vid¡r¢.Mature tuber shows 20-30 layers of cork consisting of rectangular. thin-walled cells. Eagio. distributed nearly throughout the country except in very humid or very arid regions and ascending upto 1200 m. but pliable. Fabaceae). Bhuinkumra -Vidarikanta. Bhoikolu. thinwalled. Vid¡rik¡. Gumadi belli. cut surface creamish-brown. b) Microscopic Tuberous Root .

3-6 g. CONSTITUENTS . Stanyada.7. xylem forms whole of inner white spongy zone. a number of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate found in parenchymatous cells. present in all parenchymatous cells. Appendix 4. consisting of several concentric rings of one or a few xylem vessels associated with a few xylem elements.75 µ in dia. and also rarely in stone cells. Appendix 17 per cent. of the drug in powder form. vessels mostly drum-shaped having reticulate thickening. lignified with narrow lumen. Manmath¡bhra Rasa.Gluconic and Malic acids. Raktapitta.2. a few latex duct also present. having central hilum and striations. Appendix 4 per cent. measuring 5. Svarya.2. xylem rays multi seriate and well marked consisting of thin walled. Ras¡yana.2.6. THERAPEUTIC USES . J¢van¢ya. somewhat round. a number of tanniniferous ducts filled with brown content. a few xylem vessels with reticulate thickening and phloem fibres. distributed throughout this region. Balya.5 . Daurbalya. Angmarda. shows plenty of starch grains with central hilum and striations measuring 5. highly thickened. 2. 2.2. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .4. 2.13.. B¤Æhan¢ya Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Snigdha á¢ta Madhura áukrala. IDENTITY. Appendix 2. Powder . sieve elements somewhat collapsed in outer region forming tangential bands.Buff coloured.2. Vid¡ry¡dikv¡tha C£r¸a. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura Guru. 2.13.3. áoÀa. M£trala. Var¸ya. 184 . secondary phloem consists of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma having a number of strands of phloem fibres and a few stone cells. phloem fibres much elongated. Vid¡ry¡di Gh ¤ta. plenty of starch grains mostly simple. radially elongated cells. Pittahara. fragments of cork. P£gakha¸·a (Aparah).5 .2. Appendix 24 per cent. DOSE .Marma Gu¶ik¡. angular to oval.and pits. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. V¡tahara.D¡ha.75 µ in dia.5 per cent.

not distinct.) Poaceae). Jau Jav --Javegambu Yava. Yava Dhanya Jau YAVA (Fruit) Yava consists of dried fruit of Hordeum vulgare Linn. square or quadrilateral. a few inner epidermal cells having unicellular claw-shaped hair and stomata. below the sclerenchyma are present irregular. an annual. seed coat appears as a colourless line. pale-greenish-yellow. erect herb. T¢kÀ¸a¿uka. smooth. a few cell walls having silica bodies through which run the fibro-vascular bundles of the ribs. round to oval wavy walled cells. perisperm composed of cells with more or less wavy walls having 185 b) Microscopic . Jav Barley Cheno. odour. sweetish-acrid. H. grains tightly enclosed and adhering the lemma and palea. Java -Javo Barley Barlibiyam. sclerenchymatous fibres. taste.77. Fruit -Shows single layered epidermis consisting of crescent-shaped. followed by 2-3 layers. 50-100 cm high.2-0. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit a caryopsis. thick-walled. cultivated chiefly in North India. spongy parenchymatous cells. polygortal inner epidermal cells. elliptic.3 cm wide. Yava (Fr. sativum Pers. followed by more or less. oblong. Syn. (Fam. HayeÀ¶¡ -Jau. pericarp composed of cells with more or less compressed parenchymatous cells. 3-5 ridges having shallow depression between them. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dh¡nyar¡ja. dorsally compressed and flattened on the sides with a shallow longitudinal furrow. ovoid-and tapering at both ends. about 1 cm long and 0.

0. Orientin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Water-soluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive T. 0. Appendix 2.) CONSTITUENTS .14. round to oval.2.10. Vitexin etc. simple starch grains. 0.22. 0.C. thin-walled flowering glume cells in surface view. Proteins (Albumin. Powder .3. 0. 0. of alcoholic extract of the drug on Silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol : Acetic acid: Water (4: 1 :5) shows under U.92 (yellow).Creamish-white.2. endosperm divided into two zones. RukÀa á¢ta Ka¶u Balya.31. 0. 2. Lekhana. Sugars. 2. KaÀ¡ya M¤du.2. 2-4 cells deep aleurone layers.24. Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Pur¢Àak ¤t. V¤Àya.31. 2. Appendix 4 per cent. and the rest starch layers.7 T. 0. M£trahara. 2.72 (all pink.5 2. IDENTITY. Appendix 5.83 (all violet) and 0. Orientoside. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.narrow lumens. Fats. Medahara.44. 0.45.36. Svarya. On spraying with Ninhydrin reagent eleven spots appear at Rf. 0.56.5 per cent.68. 0. On spraying with Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and on heating the plate for ten minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.31.C. 0. Pittahara. Appendix 1.L.65 & 0. shows groups of fragments of polygonal. 0.6. Sthairyakara. 0. 0. measuring 3-30 µ in diameter.10. Appendix 4 per cent.Starch.4. light (366 nm) seven fluorescent zones at Rf.22. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura.53.5 per cent. 0. Globulin. scalariform vessels and abundant round to oval. starch grains simple.5 per cent. Appendix 2.V. 0.68. sclerenchymatous fibres.2.2.06.16.L. Kaphahara. V¡tak¤t.92 (all grey).83 and 0. Prolamin and Glutilin) also contains Flavone Glycosides viz. 0.2. 0. 0.2. Var¸ya 186 .

of the drug. Kanharoga.IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS .D¡dhika Gh¤ta. Dh¡nvantara Gh¤ta. Sarsap¡di Pralepa. Tvagroga DOSE . K¡yasth¡dya Vartti. T¤À¸¡. B¤hatm¡Àa Taila. Gandharvahasta Taila. Medoroga. El¡dya Modaka. Prameha. Agastyahar¢tak¢ Ras¡yana.100 . Urustambha. K¡sa. THERAPEUTIC USES . 187 . Dh¡nvantara Taila. P¢nasa.áv¡sa.200 g.

Simple. Neladangara.) Fabaceae). secondary and tertiary root absent. Leaf . Utter Pradesh and Rajasthan. Yavasaka (W. 20-30 cm long and 0. drooping. mostly found in arid and dry regions of Gujarat. (Fam.8 cm long. Kanchori Chinnadoolagondi. fracture. slightly rough at basal region with slender. radially arranged cork cells. glabrous. Valiya Kotithuva Dhamasa ---Punaikanjuri. SYNONYMS Sanskrit Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Yav¡sa. cork cambium single layered. smooth or puberulous with very short petiole.5-0. 0. Dhanvayasamu Turanjabeen YAVËSAKA (Whole Plant) Yav¡saka consists of dried whole plant of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb).78. DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . elliptical. terete.Well developed. nearly 0. hard. striate. gradually tapering. filled with reddish-brown contents. glabrous. Y¡sa. Duralabha -Venkatithura. yellowish-green to yellowish-brown. ballidurabi. opposite.1-1 cm thick. short. Root -Shows 6-10 layers of tangentially elongated. sharp axillary spines upto 3. no taste and odour. mucronate obtuse. oblong. dark brown.P. a small thorny shrub.Cylindrical. Stem . 0. Desv. stipules green. secondary cortex almost 188 . Javasa. Yav¡saka Bhatuashak -Persian Manna Plant Javaso Javasa Turuchana gida.7 cm broad. alternate. Punjab. extipulate.5-1 cm long.2-1 cm thick. branched.

Midrib .5-14. rounded to oval. pith composed of a few thin-walled. vessels mostly solitary with simple pits. paracytic stomata present on both surfaces hypodermis single layered filler vith tannin. some parenchyma cells filled with tannin. simple. covered with cuticle. Stem . parenchymatous cells.75 µ in diameter. shows fragments of epidermal cells consisting of rectangular to polygonal. shows single layered epidermis covered externally with cuticle. pericycle present in form of fibre groups. parenchymatous cells. fibres. numerous tanniniferous cells found scattered in this region. covered externally with thick cuticle. a few with thick wall and simple pits. angular. thin-walled. Lamina . tracheids. medullary rays 2-3 cells wide pith composed of rounded. rounded to elongated tanniniferous cells found scattered in mesophyll. tanniniferous cells. filled with tannin. phloem composed of sieve elements. pericycle present in the form of fibres strands. cortex composed of 8-15 layers of oval.Greenish-brown. xylem consists of vessels.5. rest of tissue between vascular bundle and pericyclic strand is parenchymatous.appears circular in outline. starch grains simple. xylem situated above phlome. tracheids and fibres.14. parenchymtous cells some of which are filled with tannin.absent. ascptate with bluntly pointed ends. tracheids. xylem fibres. Powder . 189 . some phloem parenchyma cells filled with tannin. round and oval starch grains measuring 5. consisting of thin-walled oval to polygonal cells having chlorophyll. vessels solitary or in groups of 2-3 with simple pits. medullary rays 1-4 cells wide. tangentially elongated cells. phloem composed of sieve elements. tracheids and fibres thick-walled. xylem consists of vessels.Shows a single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle. parenchyma and fibres. elongated. xylem parenchyma and xylem rays. 'D'' shaped collateral vascular bundle present in central region. hypodermis 1-2 layered. fibres parenchyma and xylem rays. epidermis single layered. pitted vessels. filled with tannin. rest of tissue between vasculr bundle and hypodermis composed of thin-walled.appears biconvex in outline. hypodermis 2-3 layered.75 µ in dia. Leaf- Petiole . parenchymatous cells with paracytic stomata. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. 3-45 cells long. mesophyll not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.epidermis consisting of single layered cells. some cells filled with tannin. 5. thin-walled. present throughout the region. vascular bundle collateral.

2.20 . 2. 190 . Appendix 2.5 per cent.2. THERAPEUTIC USES . of the drug in powder form for decoction.2. CONSTITUENTS .2.Sugars (Melizitose. Pittahara Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 per cent. Sara á¢ta Madhura Balak¤t.3. 2. Kaphahara.50 g. Arimed¡di Taila. K¡sa. Appendix 13.6.5 per cent. IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS . Raktapitta.IDENTITY. Sucrose. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive PROPERTIES AND ACTION Rasa Guna Virya Vipaka Karma : : : : : Madhura. Jvara. Visarpa DOSE .Chinnodbhav¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a. KaÀ¡ya Laghu. Appendix 2. Appendix 2 per cent. T¤À¸¡. Bh¡rangy¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.7.2. 2. Invert Sugars).2. V¡tarakta.4. Tikta. 2. D¢pana.Chardi. Appendix 10 per cent. Gandharvahast¡di Kv¡tha C£r¸a.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->