Notes on Marketing Management Notes Prepared By Name of Book Written By Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Marketing Management Philip Kotler

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

CHAPTER-1 Assessing Marketing’s Critical Roll in Organizational Performance
GLOBAL ECONOMY: Rapid changes can easily render yesterday’s winning businesses obsolete. After the end of cold war countries and companies are wrestling with increased global competition. A good news is that by global market we means a much larger market for goods and services and the bad news is that now these companies have to face a greater competition for a great number of competitors. Income Gap: A large part of world have grown poorer in the last few decades. Although the wages has risen but the purchasing power has declined especially for the less skilled work force. The gap between rich and poor nations is growing. Poor nations pressure the richer nations to open their markets but richer nations maintain tariffs and quotas to protect their local industry and employment. There are two solutions to this problem; 1 Counter Trade: {poorer nations should pay in goods for other goods and services. 2 Providing More for Less: The poorer nations should sell their goods for less than of the richer nations. Environmental Restrictions: Since 1970’s environmental lows are being implemented which requires to install pollution control equipment. All these laws raised cost of manufacturing for the companies of richer countries. Technical Points: Companies must avoid jumping in too soon (before the market is ready) or too late (after the market has been concurred. WHAT IS MARKETING? THE CORE CONCEPTS: Marketing has been defined in various ways. One scholar has defined it as: - “Creation and Delivery of standard of living.” The definition which serves out purpose is as follows: “A social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering or exchanging products of value with others.” This definition have following important points: A social and managerial process. 2. Individuals and groups 3. Needs and Wants, 4. Creating, offering and exchanging, 5. Products 6. Having value Let us consider them one by one. 1&2 A Social and Managerial Process: Marketing is not an individuals own working but the actions of individuals or groups with other individuals or groups. 3 Needs, Wants and Demands: Needs: Needs of every many are specific and few. They are Food, air, clothing, shelter and survival. Beyond this people have a strong desire for recreation. Need is a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction. They are not created by society they exist in the very texture of human biology. Wants: Wants are the desires for specific satisfiers of needs. Need is food but a desire to eat a chicken or burger are wants. Needs are few but wants are many which are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions like school, families, business, competitors. Demands: Wants for specific products that are backed by 1) ability to buy and 2) willingness to buy them. 4 Creating Offering and Exchanging: People can obtain products in 4 ways 1) Self Production. 2) By coercion, (3) By begging and 4) by exchanging. Marketing emerges when people decided to satisfy their needs and wants through exchange. What is Exchange: It is the act of obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in return. It have 5 conditions 1) At least two parties. 2 Each one have something of value. 3 Each one have a capability of communication and delivery 4 Each one is free to accept or reject the exchange offer. 5 Each one believes in the appropriateness of the exchange. 5 Product (Goods, Services, and Ideas) A product is any thing that can be offered to satisfy a need or want. A product can consist of as many as three components: 1- Goods, 2- Ideas, and 3- Services. 6 1

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

Value Cost and Satisfaction: A consumer chooses among many products to satisfy a need on the basis of value and cost of the article. Value: It is the consumer’s estimate about the overall capacity of the product to satisfy his need, and Cost includes the value he have to pay for the product and includes the opportunity cost (The cost of leaving the other products which he have not purchased.) 7 Markets: Market consists of all potential customers having a particular need or want (who are willing and able to engage in exchange) to satisfy that need or want. Thus market depends upon, 1) the no of persons who have need or want, 2) Have resources of other’s interest, and 3) willing and able to offer these resources in exchange for that they want. Traditionally a market is a place where buyer and sellers are gathered to exchange their goods. MARKETING MANAGEMENT Marketing management takes place when at least one part to a potential exchange thinks about the means of achieving desired responses from other parties. So, “Marketing Management is a process of planning and executing, (conception, pricing, promotion and distribution) ideas, goods and services to create exchange that satisfies individuals and organizational goals. Types of Demands: 1 Negative Demand When people are even ready to pay to avoid such product. i.e. major part of the market dislikes the product. 2 No Demand When customer are unaware of or uninterested in product. 3 Latent Demand A demand which cannot be satisfied by any existing product. 4 Declining Demand: When demand of product starts decline day-by-day. 5 Irregular Demand: Demand for such products which varies seasonally, daily or even on hourly basis and causing problems of idle or overworked capacity. 6 Full Demand: Organizations faces full demand when they produces up to their full capacity. The marketing function is to maintain the current level of demand by continuously improving its quality and by measuring customer’s satisfaction. 7 Overfull Demand When demand goes more than their capacity and want to handle. Marketing management work in such situation is to decrease demand temporarily or permanently. 8 Unwholesome Demand: An organized effort to discourage their utilization. Like unselling compains conducted against cigarettes, alcohol etc. The marketing task is to get people who like something to give it up using such tools as fear messages, price hikes, reduced availability. COMPANY ORIENTATIONS TOWARD THE MARKET PLACE THE SELLING CONCEPTS Companies while making marketing, make certain assumptions on the basis of ideas they have some of these ideas are as follows: 1 Production Concept: Consumers favor those products which are widely available at low cost. Production oriented managers concentrate on high production with wide distribution. 2 Product Concept: Consumer favor those products that offer most quality, performance on innovative features. Product oriented managers focuses on marketing the superior products and improving them over time. 3 Selling Concept/Sales Concept: If customer is left alone, will ordinarily not buy enough of the organization’s products. The organization must, therefore, undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort. THE MARKETING CONCEPTS: The marketing concept is to achieve organizational goals by being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities to wards determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets. Pillars Of Marketing Target Market: Determine a part of total market to be served. 2) Customer Needs: Customers needs are of five types Stated needs: (The customer wants an expensive care) · Real need: (Customer wants a car having low operation cast and not effected by its initial price) Unstated need, (The customer expects good service from the dealer) Delighted Needs, (Customer buys the care and receives a complimentary US. road atlas) · Secret Need. (Wants to be seen by friends as a value-oriented savvy consumer) Coordinated or Integrated Marketing. When all the company’s departments work together to serve the customer’s interests, the result is integrated marketing. It takes place on two levels: Various marketing functions____sales force, advertising, product management, marketing research, and so on____must work together. All these marketing functions must be coordinated from customer’s point of view. · Social marketing must be well coordinated with other company departments. 2

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

Profitability or organization. The ultimate purpose of the marketing is to help organizations to achieve their goals. In for profit organizations the key aim is not only profits but to achieve profit as a by-product of doing the job well. Points That forces organizations More towards the Marketing Concepts: 1 Sales Decline Look for the answer for decline in sales and movers to increase this sales by marketing. 2 Slow Growth: When sales growth rate is low and organization makes organized marketing movement to catch new markets. 3 Changing Buying Patterns: When customer wants changes rapidly. 4 Increased Competition... When companies are suddenly attacked by powerful marketing companies and forced to meet the change. 5 Increased Marketing expenditures: When expenditures of companies for advertising, sales promotion, marketing research, and customer, service getting out of hand. Management then decides it is time to undertake a marketing audit to improve its marketing. 5 Social Concept: In the social concept managers determine needs wants and interests of target markets and to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that preserves or enhances the consumer’s and the society’s well-being. THE RAPID ADOPTION OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Marketing management today is the subject of growing interest in all types of organizations, within and outside the business sector and in countries throughout the world.

CHAPTER-2 Building Customer Satisfaction Through Quality, Service, and Value
DEFINING CUSTOMER VALUE AND SATISFACTION: Customer Value: Customer Delivered Value is the difference between total customer value and total customer cost. Total Customer Value is the bundle of benefits customers expect from a given product or service. Total Customer Cost is the bundle of costs customers expect to incur in evaluating, obtaining and using the product or service. Customer Satisfaction: Satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived/actual performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. Tools for Tracking and Measuring Customer Satisfaction: Complaints & Suggestion System: Make it easy for customer to deliver suggestions and complaints. By way of suggestion boxes, supplying comments cards to customers or hiring a public relationing officer. Customer Satisfaction Survey: Responsive companies uses a direct measure of customer satisfaction by conducting periodic surveys. They send questioner or make a telephone call asking about their satisfaction with the product. Ghost Shopping: Companies hire persons top pose potential buyers to report their findings on strong and weak points they experienced in buying the products of company and of the competitors. These hired persons are called ghost shopper can even pose certain problems to test whether the company’s sells personnel handle the situation well. Lost Customer Analysis: Companies should contact customers who have stopped buying or switched to other suppliers to learn the reason. DELIVERING CUSTOMER VALUE AND SATISFACTION: Keeping in view the importance of customer value and satisfaction, what does the company produce and deliver the customer? To answer this question, we need to discuss the concepts of a value chain and value-delivery systems. Value Chain: is a tool for identifying ways to create more customer value. It is a collection of activities that are performed to design, produce, market, deliver and support product. Value chain identifies nine strategically relevant activities that create value and cost in a specific business. These nine activities consist of five primary and four support activities. The primary activities represent the sequence of bringing materials into the business, converting them in to final products, shipping out them, marketing them and servicing them. The support activities include procurement, technology development, human resources management and firm infrastructure Value Delivery System/Network: To be successful the firm needs to look beyond its own operations, into the value chains of its suppliers, distributors, and customers. Many companies today partnered with specific suppliers and distributors to create a superior value-delivery network Attracting and Retaining Customers: 3

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2) adding social benefits 3) adding structural tiles. Frequency Marketing Programs (FMPs) are designed to provide rewards to customers who buy frequently and/or in substantial amounts. Estimate how much profit it loses when it loses customers. Adding structural Tiles: The company may supply customers with special equipment or computer linkages that help customers manage their orders. Pro-active Marketing: The sales person contacts the customer from time to time telling about improved products and products new uses. Partners: It is an ultimate challenge to turn advocates into partners where the customer and company work together actively. Adding Financial Benefits: A company can offer two financial benefits. Relationship Marketing The process of attracting and keeping customers is called relationship marketing. or by paying a fee. Customers are served as part of the mass or as part of large segments. The cost of attracting a new customer is estimated to be 5 times the cost of keeping a current customer happy. a company should not invest in customer relationship building so much as the cost may exceed the gains. Basic Marketing: The sales person simply sells the product. Clients The next step is to convert repeated customers in to clients. 4 . Disqualified Prospects: Disqualified prospects are those to whom the company rejects because. Adding Social Benefits: Here company personnel work on increasing their social bonds with customers by individualizing and personalizing their customer relationships. First-Time Customers: The company hopes to convert many of its qualified prospects into first-time customers. clients are served by the professional assigned to them. inventory. They may continue to buy from competitors as well. Reactive Marketing: the sales person sells the product and encourages the customers call if they have any question. Customers are served by anyone who happens to be available. The main steps in customer development process are as follows: Suspects: The company locates every one who might buy the product or services. Customers may be nameless to the institution: clients cannot be nameless. There are 5 different levels of company investment in customer relationship building. and so on. or clubs of their customers to bond them closer to the company. Advocate: The next step is to convert clients into advocates. COMPUTING THE COST OF LOST CUSTOMERS: Today companies must pay closer attention to their customer defection rate and take steps to reduce it. Club membership may be offered automatically upon purchase of a certain amount.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 In addition to improving supply many companies are intent on developing stronger bonds and loyalty with their ultimate customers. 4. 3. During all above process some customers may become inactive or drop out due to moving other location. It is often easier to re-attract ex-customers than to find new ones. Developing the loyal customers increases the company’s revenue. A company can use three customer value-building approaches 1) Adding financial benefits. clients are served on an individual basis. However. Repeated Customer: The first time customers which are satisfied with the product and buys it again becomes repeated customers. Accountable Marketing: The sales person phones the customer a short time after the sale to check whether the product is meeting the customer’s expectations and also ask him for any product or service suggestions and any specific disappointments. How it would cost to reduce the defection rate. they have poor credit standing or being unprofitable. Prospects: Out of suspects the persons having strong potential interest in the product and ability to pay for it are separated and are called prospects. Frequency Marketing is an acknowledgment of the fact t that 20% of a company’s customer might account for 80% of its business. b) Many companies have created affinity groups. Advocates are those who praise the company products and encourage others to buy from it. Distinguish the causes of customer attrition and identify those that can be managed better. a) frequency marketing programs and b) club marketing programs. there are four steps to this process: Company must define and measure its retention rate. (Use of sales rapes) Partnership Marketing: The company works continuously with customers to discover ways to effect customer servings or to help the customer to perform better. 2. Clients are those customers who buy only from the company the relevant product categories. comments or complaints. The company have to spend for building greater customer loyalty. payroll. The Need for Customer Retention The cost of attracting a new customer is estimated to be five times the cost of keeping a current customer happy. dissatisfaction or adopting other companies products etc.

Marketing must be the customer’s watchdog or guardian. They bear the responsibility for correctly identifying the customers’ needs and requirements. · They must check that customers have received proper instructions. The marketer must complain like the customer complains when the product or the service is not right. 5 . Marketers play several roles in helping their company in defining and delivering high quality goods and services to target customers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan IMPLEMENTING TOTAL QUALITY MARKETING: Total Quality Marketing (TQM) is an organization-wide approach to continuously improving the quality of all the organization’s processes. One implication of TQM is that marketing people must spend time and effort not only to improve external marketing but also to improve internal marketing. and technical assistance. training. Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service having ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. · They are making their specific contributions to total quality management and customer satisfaction. · They must communicate customer expectations correctly to product designers. and must constantly hold up the standard of giving the customer the best solution. · they must make sure that the customers’ orders are filled correctly and on time. products and services. · They must stay in touch with customers after the sale to ensure that they are satisfied and remain satisfied.

2 GOOD MISSION STATE MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS: The major characteristics of a good mission are as follows: i) Focus on limited number of goals. (SBUs). such companies divide them in to Strategic Business Units. 1) Stakeholders. machines energy etc. policies and achievements. 4 Organization: Organization consist of its structures. c) The market environment: d) Resources Available determines.e. material. They divide them according to their major products or markets. IV) Planning new business. each requiring its own strategy. b) Current Preferences of management and owners. c) Competency Scope: The range of technical and other competencies which the company will master. f) Geographical Scope: The range of regions. over time lose its relevance because of changed market conditions. policies. Successful company renew their mission in the light of following questions: a) When is our business. b) Who is our customer? c) Value of the customer. Each company’s business is shaped by 5 elements: a) History: of aims. The management should adopt the way which provide them best output at labor outlets. B) CARPORATE STRATEGIC PLANNING: All corporate headquarters must undertake planning activities: i. which should be clear and specific. In rapidly changing business environment organizational structures and policies can be changed (with difficulty) but its culture is hard to change. It may be any of the following types: a) Industry Scope: The scope of the industry in which the organization operates. 2 Have a distinct mission from others and the company. 2 Processes: A company can accomplish its goals only by managing and linking its processes. The satisfaction of stakeholders lead to increase in profits and higher value of the organization. But its changing is a key to implementing a new strategy successfully. I Defining Corporate Mission: Organizations exists to accomplish something. These resources can be owned. II) Establishing Strategic Business Units. 2) processes. e) Distinctive Competencies: Mission should be based on what it does best. e) Vertical Scope: The number of channels and levels involved in process from raw material to making finished goods and then their distribution. 3) resources and 4) organization. The aim may. suppliers and distributors. Stakeholders may be customers employees.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-3 Winning Markets Through Market Oriented Strategic Planning A) THE NATURE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE BUSINESS: There are four proposed characteristics of a high-performance business. 1 Stakeholders: The business must define its stakeholders and their needs. 3 Resources: To carry-out processes a company needs resources like labor power. II Establishing Strategic Business Unit: Large companies normally manage quite different business at one time. b) Product and Applications Scope: The range of products and application in which the company will participate. I) Defining company mission. III Assigning Resources to SBUs 6 . and corporate cultures. III) assigning resources to each SBU. leased or rented. CHARACTERISTICS OF SBU: 1 Separately identifiable. 3 Have its own competitors 4 Have its own executive group with profit responsibilities. The business must strive to satisfy the expectations of each stakeholders group. d) What will our business be. counties and groups in which a company will operate. e) What should our business be? 1 ELEMENTS THAT SHAPE THE COMPANY’S BUSINESS. d) Market Segment Scope: the type of customer the company will serve. iii) Define the major competitive scopes within which the company will operate. ii) Stress the major policies and values that the company want to honor. which mission is possible.

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

The purpose of identifying SBUs is to develop separate strategies and assign appropriate funding. Each SBU sends its plan to headquarters, who approves them and sends back for revision or implementation. The purpose of sending plans to the headquarters is to check, which of its SBU is performing well and to decide, which SBU to be build, hold, maintained, harvest and divest. IV Planning New Business: Often the projected sales are less than corporate management wants them to be. If their is a strategic-planning gap between future desired and projected sales, company management will have to develop new business to fill this gape. There are three ways to fill this gap. 1) Intensive Growth 2) Integrative Growth, 3) Diversification Growth, and 4) Downsizing Older Business. 1 INTENSIVE GROWTH: Management first reviews for improving its existing business performance. It may be done by adopting following three strategies: Market Penetration Strategy: Finding the ways to increase the current products market share in the current market. b) Direct Market Development Strategy: A strategy to look for new markets whose needs might be met by its current products. c) Product Development Strategy: In addition to above tow management should also consider new-product possibilities. 2 INTEGRATIVE GROWTH: Sales and profits can often be increased by backward, forward and horizontal integration. Backward Integration: Mixing or engaging the business supplying to you, e.g. raw materials. b) Forward Integration: Integrating with an organization to whom you provide goods, like retailers and wholesalers. c) Horizontal Integration: Acquiring one or more competitors. 3 DIVERSIFICATION GROWTH: When good opportunities are found outside the present business. There are three types of diversified growth. Concentric Diversification Strategy: Seek new products having technological synergy’s with existing product lines even through the new products themselves may appeal to a different group of customers. b) Horizontal Diversification: Search new product that could appeal to current customers through the new product or technology, unrelated to its current product line. c) Conglomerate Diversification: Find new business having no relationship to the companies old business. 4 DOWNSIZING OLDER BUSINESS: Management should not only develop new businesses but also carefully divest / close tired old business in order to release needed resources and reduce costs. C BUSINESS STRATEGIC PLANNING: Individual business units managers prepares their own strategic plans in the light of the organization goals and strategies. It consist of six steps: 1) Business mission, 2) External environmental analysis, 3) Internal Environment Analysis, 4) Goal formulation, 5) Strategy Formulation, 6) Program Formulations, 7) Implementation, and 8)Feedback. 1 Business Mission: Each SBU define its mission within the broad company missions. 2 External Environmental Analysis: A SBU manager has to monitor key external macro-environment and significant micro environment actors e.g. customs, competitors, suppliers etc.) that effect its ability to earn profit. It should identify the associated opportunities and threats. Opportunities: Marketing opportunity is an area of buyers in which a company can perform profitably. Opportunities can be listed and classified according to their attractiveness and success probability. Threats: An environmental threat is a challenge posed by an unfavorable trend or development that would lead in the absence of defensive marketing action to deteriorate the sales and profit. 3 Internal Environment Analysis: Keeping in view the external environmental opportunities and threats they should consider the internal strengths and weaknesses. 4 Goal Formulation: After evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of organization management proceeds to develop specific goals for the planning period. This stage of business strategic planning process is called goal formulation. Every few businesses follow only one objective, rather most businesses pursue a mix of objectives including profitability, sales, growth market shares. The business units sets these objectives and then manages by objectives. Business objectives must meat four criteria's: They must be arranged hierarchically. b) Should be stated quantitatively c) Goals should be realistic. d) Objectives must be consistent. 5 Strategy Formulation: 7

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

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Goals indicate what a business unit wants to achieve. Strategy is a game plan for ____how to get their or how to get above goals. Three generic types of strategies are: Overall Cost Leader Ship: Business works hard to achieve the lowest cost of production and distribution so that it can set price lower than its competitors, and win a large market share. b) Differentiation: In it business concentrate on achieving superior performance in an important customer benefit area valued by a large part of the market. c) Focus: In it business focuses on one or more narrow markets rather than going after a large market. d) Alliances: Many firms make marketing alliances which fall in to 4 categories. Product / Service Alliance or Licensing. company licenses another to produce its product or two companies jointly market their complementary products or an new product. · Promotional Alliances One company agrees to carry a promotion for another company’s product or service. e.g. A ban may agree to display paintings from a local art gallery on its walls. · Logistics Alliances: One company offers logistical support services for another company’s product. For example Abbot Laboratories warehouses and delivers all 3Ms medical and surgical products across the USA. · Pricing Collaboration: One or more companies join in a special pricing collaboration. Program Formulation: After formulating strategies business works out detailed work programs. After formulating programs, marketing people must evaluate the program costs. These are the determination of ways as to, how the strategy will be implemented. Thus if a business decides to achieve technical leadership it must have to make program to develop its research and development department, etc. Implementation: Clear strategy and well-thought-out supporting programs are useless, if the firm fails to implement them carefully. Indeed strategy is one of the seven elements that the best managed companies exhibit. The seven elements are divided in to two groups. Hardware and Software. HARDWARES are Strategy, Structure, and System. SOFTWARES are style, staff, skills and shared value. Style means that employees share a common way of thinking and behaving. Staff: Means company have hired able people, trained them well and assigned them the right jobs. Skills: Means that employees have the skills needed to carry out the company’s strategy. Shared Values: Means employees share the same guiding values. Feed-Back & Control: At the end the firm need to track the results and monitor new developments in the internal and external environments. THE MARKETING PROCESS: To fully understand the marketing process, we must first look at how a company defines its business. The task of any business is to deliver value to the market at a profit. There are at least two views of the value-delivery process. First is the traditional view is that firms makes something and then sells it. In this view marketing takes place in the second half and it assumes that the company knows what to make and that the market will buy enough units to produce profits for the company. Second one is the new view of business process. It places marketing at the beginning of the business planning process. Instead of emphasizing marketing and selling, companies see them-selves as part of a value creation and delivery sequence. This sequence consist of three parts. Choosing the value, represents the “homework” that marketing must do before any product exists. The formula ____ segmentation, targeting, positioning (STP)_____ is the essence of strategic marketing. b) When the value has been chosen, business unit is ready to provide the value. The tangible product’s specifications and services must be detailed, and a target price must be established. Developing specific product features, prices, and distribution occurs at this stage and are part of tactical marketing. c) In the third phase the value is communicated. Here further tactical marketing occurs in utilizing the sales force, sales promotion, advertising, and other promotional tasks to inform the market about the product. The Japanese have further developed this view by promulgating the following concepts: Zero Customer feedback time: Customer feedback should be continuously collected, to learn, how to improve the product and its marketing. 2) Zero product-improvement time: Improvement ideas of customers and employees should be evaluated and the most valued and feasible ideas should be introduced as soon as possible. 3) Zero Purchasing Time: Company should receive required parts continuously through just-in-time arrangements with suppliers. 4) Zero Setup Time: The company should be able to manufacture any of its products as soon as they are ordered. 5) Zero defects: The product should be of high quality and free of flaws. The Marketing Process consist of 1)analyzing marketing opportunities, 2) developing marketing strategies, 3) planning marketing programs, and 4) managing the marketing effort. 8

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

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Analyzing Marketing Opportunities: The first task of marketing managers is to analyze the long-run opportunities in this market for improving the unit’s performance. The purpose of market research is to gather significant information about the marketing environment. Developing Marketing Strategies: It consist of two parts 1) Differentiating, and 2) positioning strategy for the target market. After launching the products the product strategy will have to be modified at the different stages in the product life cycle, consisting of four phases, introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. Planning Marketing Programs: To transform market strategy into marketing programs marketing managers must make basic decisions on i) marketing expenditures, ii) marketing mix, and iii)marketing allocation. i) MARKETING EXPENDITURE: The management have to decide as to what level of marketing expenditure is necessary to achieve its marketing objectives. ii) MARKETING MIX: Marketing mix is the set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market. There are literally dozens of marketing-mix tools. A four factor classification of these tools is very popular, called as four Ps: product, price, place and promotion. Marketing mix decision must be made for both distribution channels and final consumers. All the marketing-mix variables cannot be adjusted in the short run.

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Product Price Promotion Place Variety List Price Sales promotion Channels Quality Discounts Advertising Coverage Design Allowances Sales Force Assortments Brand Name Payment - Public relations Locations Packing period Direct Marketing Inventory Sizes Credit Transport Services terms Warranties Returns. Managing the Marketing Effort. The final step in marketing process is managing the marketing effort. The company must build a marketing organization that is capable of implementing the marketing plan. There are three types of marketing control: Annual Plan control: The task of company is achieving its sales, profits, and other goals. First management state well-defined goals for each month or quarter. · Second, management must measure its ongoing performance in the market place. · Third, management must determine the underlying causes of any serious performance gaps. · Fourth, management must choose corrective actions to close gaps between goals and performance. Profitability Control Measuring the actual profitability of products, customer groups, trade channels, and other sizes. Marketing profitability analysis measures the profitability of different marketing activities. Marketing efficiency studies try to determine how various marketing activities could be carried out more efficiently. c) Strategic Control: Evaluating whether the company’s marketing strategy is appropriate to market conditions. Because of rapid changes in the marketing environment, each company needs to re-assess periodically its marketing effectiveness through a control instrument known as the marketing audit.

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receivable. b) Using on line information services such as America on Line. Large companies generally have their own marketing research departments. g) talking to other outsiders. sales prices. 3 Marketing Research and 4 Marketing Decision Support System. inventory levels. Sub-systems of MIS 1 Internal Company Records. and distribute needed informations timely and accurately to marketing decision makers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-4 Managing Marketing Information System and Measuring Market Demand A WHAT IS MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM: A marketing information system consist of people equipment and procedure to gather. b reading newspapers. faced to the company. e. 2 Marketing Intelligence System It is a set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain their everyday information about pertinent development in the marketing environment. and what is economically feasible. c) Many small companies routinely visit their competitors to bring new ideas. Large companies can adopt any of the following ways of marketing research. research firms. b) THROUGH DISTRIBUTORS: Company may motivate distributors. I) ORDER-TO-PAYMENT CYCLE It is the heart of the internal record system. 1 Internal Record System: It includes reports on orders. evaluate. 2 Marketing Intelligence Activities. c) PURCHASE INFORMATION FROM OUTSIDE: Company may purchase information from outside suppliers. Computer technology may be used to design fast and comprehensive sales reporting system Marketing Information System represents a cross between what a manager think they need. d) ESTABLISHING AN INTERNAL MARKETING INFORMATION CENTER to collect and circulate the marketing intelligence information. They should know that what type of information to be provided to which manager. retailers. A well run company take following 4 steps to improve quantity and quality of marketing intelligence system: THROUGH TRAINING THE SALES FORCE: By training the sales force to spot and report new developments. valuable information could be lost or arrive too late.g. Today companies need to do these steps quickly and accurately as the customer favor those firms who deliver goods on time. 10 . It is done by: a) reading books. I) SUPPLIERS OF MARKETING RESEARCH: There are a number of ways to do marketing research. By analyzing these information marketing managers can spot light important opportunities and problems. prepare an abstract of relevant news and provide it to marketing manager. It collect and files relevant information to assist manager in evaluating new information. collecting. analyzing and reporting data and findings which are relevant to a specific marketing situation. what manager’s really need. and sell this information to the parties having concern. Many companies are now using electronic data interchange (EDI) software to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the order to payment cycle. sales managers. and h) talking to other managers & personnel within the company. e) talking to suppliers f) talking to distributors. These research firms gather and store data at a much lover cost than the company could do on its own basis. they are in excellent position to pick-up information missed by other means. sort. II) SALES REPORTING: Marketing manager need up-to-date reports of their current sales. In this regard marketing executives ____like product managers. While small companies may not have such departments and can conduct research in creative and affordable manner. The staff scans major publications. shipping goods back ordering of out-of-stock items and receiving payment against shipped items. c) trade publications d) talking to customers. such as given bellow: Engaging students or Professors to design and carry-out marketing research projects. analyze. 3 Marketing Research System: Marketing research system is a systematic way of designing. It includes procedure and time involved in receiving order. payable and so on. The needed information is developed through sub-systems of Marketing Information System. Yet being very busy they may fail to pass on the significant information. and other intermediaries to pass along important intelligence. sales representatives_____ to discover their information needs. If the marketing intelligence system is too casual.

Sampling Plans: After deciding the research approach and instruments. Galvanometers measure the subject’s interest or emotions aroused by exposure to a specific ad or picture. i) Questionnaires: A most commonly used instrument for collecting primary data. Research instruments: Two main research instruments for collecting data are Questionnaires and Mechanical Instruments. But in it response is very low and slow. The interviewer can ask more questions and can record additional observations about the respondent such as dress. ii) Focus Group Research: 6 to 8 people are invited to spend few hour with a skilled researcher and discuss product or issue. Researchers tabulates the data and develops frequency distributions. satisfaction et. beliefs. the researcher must design a sampling plan. It calls for three decisions i) Sampling Unit: Who is to be surveyed. and optical scanners has helped organizations in gathering informations before and after an advertising compain.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Syndicated-service Research Firms: These firms gather information about consumers and trade which they sell for fee. body. It calls for selecting matched groups of subjects. The use of modern instruments like Computers. and measure its magnitude in the general population iv) Experimental Research It is the most significally valid research. d) ANALYZE THE INFORMATION: The next-to-last step is to extract pertinent findings from the collected data. The research plan involves decision about: Data sources: i) Secondary Data: Already gathered data for some purpose and can also be used for this purpose and ii) Primary Data: Data gathered only for the specific purpose. iii) Survey Research: Survey research best suit for descriptive research. but rather should present major findings that are pertinent to the major marketing decisions facing management. ii) Telephone Interviewing a best method for gathering information quickly. subjecting them to different treatments. c) COLLECT THE INFORMATION. 11 . The target population to be sampled. It is necessary for the organization to take care while collecting information and to edit it properly. But causes more difficulties and more expenses. Large sample give more reliable results. ii Mechanical Instruments: Used less frequently. It is the most expensive and prone to error stage of research process. c) Specialty Line Marketing Research Firms: They provide specialized research services to others. Contact methods: When the sampling plan has been determined the researcher must decide how the subject should be contacted. ii) telephone. Generally a sample of 1% of population give the reliable results. Open end questions allow respondents to answer in their own words. It is the most expensive method requires more administrative planning and supervision than other method. II) THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS: Marketing research process is consist of five steps given bellow: Define the problem and research objectives. the choices are i) mail. It involves planning for gathering the needed information. b) Developing the Research Plans depends on the defined problem. ii) Sample Size: How many people should be surveyed. controlling extraneous variables and checking whether observed responses differences are statistically significant. The interviewer is able to clarify questions if the respondents do not under stand them. Averages and measures of dispersion are computed for the major variables. The researcher should not overwhelm management with lots of numbers and fancy statistical techniques. e) PRESENT THE FINDINGS: The last step of marketing research is presenting the findings to the relevant parties. iii) Personal Interviewing is the most versatile of the three methods. iii) Sampling Procedure: How should the respondents be chosen? To obtain a representative sample a probability sample of the population should be drawn. It consist of a set of questions presented to respondents for their answers. A well defined problem is half solved. and language. surveys are under taken to learn about peoples knowledge. · Research approaches Research data may be gathered in four ways i) Observational research: Data gathered by observing the relevant actors and settings. b) Custom Marketing Research Firms: These firms are hired to carry-out certain research projects. cash registers. or iii)personal interviews. They participate along with company in designing the way of study and thus report results which becomes the property of the company. i) Mail Questionnaire is the best way to reach people who would not give personal interviews or whose responses might be biased by the interviewers. Questions may be close end or open end closed end questions specify all the possible answers that are easier to interpret and tabulate.

formulation of hypotheses. Companies Sales Potential It is the sales limit approached by company demand as company marketing effort increases relative to competitors. tools and techniques with supporting software and hardware by which an organization gathers and interprets relevant information from business and environment and turns it into a basis for marketing action. 4 Product line sales 5 Product Form sales 6 Product item sales. Companies sales Forecast expected level of company sales based on a chosen marketing plan and on assumed marketing environment. production. Sales Budget: is a conservative estimate of the expected volume of sales and is used primarily for making current purchasing. MEASURES OF MARKET DEMAND: As a part of their planning companies prepare many estimates of market size. The two would be equal if the company achieved 100% of the market. where further increase in marketing effort would have little effect in stimulating further demand. A Vocabulary for Demand Measurement. 12 . and cash-flow decisions. Sales Quota the sales goal set for a product line. the market potential. Five different space levels 1 world 2 Country wide 3 Region 4 Territory 5 Customer and three time levels 1 Short run 2 Medium run 3 Long run. Definition of Market: A market is a set of all actual and potential buyers of a product. Marketing is responsible to prove sales forecasts which are based on demand. Potential Market is the set of consumers who has shown a sufficient level of interest in a defined market offer. prediction and testing. 4 Marketing Decision Support System:(MDSS) MDSS is a coordinated collection of data. Market Potential The market forecast shows expected market demand not maximum market demand. d) Target Market also called served market is the part of qualified available market the company decide to pursue. Managers need to define carefully what they mean by market demand. To assess market potential we have to visualize the market demand for a “very high” level of industry marketing expenditure. The absolute limit of company demand is. e) Penetrated Market the set of customers who have already bought the product of the company. Company Demand: is the companies estimated share of the market demand at alternative levels of company marketing effort. Market demand for a product is the total volume that would be bought by a defined customer group in a given geographical at a specified time period in a defined marketing environment under a defined market program. Scientific Method: is careful observation. d) Interdependence of Models and Data: e) Value and Cost of Information: f) Healthy Skepticism: g) Ethical Marketing. Market demand can be measured for six different product levels. 2 Industry Sales 3 company sales. 1 All sales. b) Available Market the set of consumer who have interest. It is primarily a managerial device for defining and stimulating sales effort. Market Forecast The market demand corresponding to the level of expenditure actually occurred is called the market forecast. After completing research company evaluate each opportunity before choosing target market. Keeping in view this definition a market may be sub-divided in to following ways. c) Qualified available Market: the set of consumers who have qualifications of available market and also qualification for the particular market offer. income and access to a particular market offer.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan III Characteristics Of A Good Marketing Research: A good marketing research should have seven characteristics. AN OVERVIEW OF FORECASTING AND DEMAND MEASUREMENT Companies undertake marketing research to identify market opportunities. of course. b) Research Creativity: Marketing research should also develop innovative ways to solve a problem c) Multiple Methods: Good Market researchers prefer to use multiple sources to avoid over-reliance on anyone method. division or sales representative.

i. geography and so on. A trend is a direction or sequence of events that have some momentum and durability. e) Professional degrees. 3 ethnic mix. There economies offer few opportunities for marketers b) Raw Material Exporting Economies: These economies are rich in one or more natural resources. Each population group has certain specific wants and buying habits. CURRENT INCOME: Nations vary greatly in their level and distribution of income. 4 educational level 5 household patterns and 6 regional characteristics. The education level also effect the environment of the market. they are also a market for western-style commodities and luxury goods. b) High school drop-outs c) High school degrees d) College degrees. d) Young adults age 25-40 e) Middle-aged adults age 40-65 f) Old adults above 65 ETHNIC MARKETS: Ethnic means national or tribal groups that has a common culture tradition. debt. EDUCATIONAL GROUP: Population of any society falls into five educational groups a) Illiterate. REGIONAL / GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Geographical characteristics also effects the environment. 13 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 B 1 . There are four types of industrial structures Subsistence Economies: In it wast majority is engaged in simple agriculture and consume most of their products. between 7 to 10 years or longer. Economic Environment: Economic environment denotes the available purchasing power of the economy. Much of their revenue comes from exporting these resources. economic. AGE MIX: can be divided in to six age groups a) Pre-school b) School-age children c) Teens. and less on import of finished products. 2) economic environment. They recognize that the marketing environment is constantly spinning new opportunities and threats and the understand the importance of continuously monitoring and adopting to the changing environment.e. and credit availability. Marketers keenly interested 1 growth rate of population in different cities. They are more predictable and durable than fads. They ignore or resist change until it is too late. As manufacturing increases countries relies more on imports of raw materials & heavy machinery. Megatrends are large. It is a major determinant in the nations industrial structure. Each group has its own preferences and consumer characteristics. IDENTIFYING AND RESPONDING TO THE MAJOR MACRO-ENVIRONMENT FORCES: Companies. Depending on number of foreign residing and wealthy native rulers and landholders. short lived. savings. Industrialization creates a new rich class and a small growing middle class.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-5 Scanning the Marketing Environment Successful companies take an outside-inside view of their business. lifestyle. It depends on current income. social. HOUSE HOLD PATTERNS: The traditional house hold pattern quit differs from a modern house hold pattern now all the peoples of house either do job or go to school and use redeemed foods. prices. Changing a mass Market in to Micro Markets: All the above changes causes a mass market to be changed / converted in to numerous micro markets. Such countries are good markets for extractive equipment. A Fad is an unpredictable. Many companies fail to see change as opportunity. both demanding new types of goods. political and technical changes (that are slow to form). 3) Natural environment 4) Technological environment 5) political/legal environment. some of which can be satisfied only by imports. c) Industrializing Economies: Economies in which 10 to 20% of the country’s gross domestic products are manufactured. education. GROWTH RATE: is watched to make the future and present needs planning. 1) Demographic environment. 2 ages distribution. Many opportunities are found by identifying trends. They are non-controllable and must have to be monitored and responded. The people are shifting from rural areas to cities and population of cities is increasing in multiples. customers. and 6) Social/Cultural environment. Within rapidly changing global picture the firms must monitor six major forces effecting the environment. competitors all operate in macro environment of forces and trends that shape opportunities and threats. its suppliers. and without social. ANALYZING NEEDS AND TRENDS IN THE MACRO ENVIRONMENT: Successful companies recognize and respond (profitably) to un-met needs and trends in the macro environment. economic and political significance. Demographic Environment: Means the population forces which effect the environment. and once the come they influence us for some time. but poor in other respects. tools and supplies and material handling trucks.

will pose serious problems as their time of depletion approaches.g. Scientists today are working on a startling range of new technologies that will revolutionize products and production process. They buy manufactured goods from each other and also export them to other types of economies in exchange for raw materials and semi-finished goods. This environment is composed of. c) Increased Level of Pollution: Some industrial activities inevitable damage the natural environment. Safety and health regulations have been increased in the areas of food. b) Increased Energy Cost: Nonrenewable finite resources has created serious problems for the world economy. values and norms. and food must be used wisely. and construction. DEBT: Debts depend upon the savings of the economy. Finite renewable resources. Keeping in view the above situations it is necessary to increase the research and development budgets. 2) the supplier.Governments vary in their concern and efforts to promote a clean environment. 3) market intermediaries 14 . platinum. c) People’s Views About Society. b) Unlimited Opportunities for Inventions. They try to save their interests and thus effect the environments. d) Changing roles of Governments: . Protect interests of society from un-bridled business behavior. It includes following: LEGISLATION REGULATING BUSINESS: Business legislation has three main purposes: Protect companies from unfair competition Protect consumers from unfair business practice. GROWTH OF SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS: Power of special groups have increased over the last few decades. Infinite resources. the quantity of DDT and other chemical pollution’s in the soil etc. b) People’s Views About Others. d) People’s Views About Nature. PRICES: Depends upon various things like inflationary rate. transistors hurt the vacuum-tube etc. As products become more complex the public needs to be assumed of their safety. the finite renewable. d) Increased Regulations of Technological Change. coal. EXTERNAL MICRO ENVIRONMENT: They are part of companies marketing system 1) the market. economic stability etc. CREDIT AVAILABILITY INTEREST RATE STAGE OF ECONOMY IN THE BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE INFLATION Natural Environment: Natural environment also effects the environment trends. People have different views and at the same time from different points of views. People’s Views About Themselves. Every new technology has a force creative force and distructs the previous inventions. and the finite nonrenewable. Marketers should be aware of these regulations when proposing developing and launching new products. The time lag between new ideas and their successful implementation is decreasing rapidly. Laws. such as forests. c) Varying Research and Development Budgets. Many of the today's common products were not available 30 years ago. industrialization in the country. SAVINGS: The economy making more savings will prosper fastly because banks can give loan at lesser interest rate. silver. zinc. The major hopes are that companies around the world will accept more social responsibility and that less expensive devices will be invented to controlled and reduce pollution. e) People’s Views of the Universe. though in long run their are many problems. automobiles. Marketers need to be aware of threats and opportunities associated with four trends in the natural environment. and Finite nonrenewable resources like oil. Government agencies are now investigating to ban potentially unsafe products. Political / Legal Environment: Marketing decision are strongly affected by change in political and legal requirements. Social /Cultural Environment: Societies are shaped with their beliefs. Government agencies and pressure groups that influence organizations as well as markets. clothing. e. Shortage of raw material The earth’s raw materials consist of the infinite. the marketers should watch the following trends in technology: Accelerating Pace of Technological Change. because as they are deteriorating their prices are increasing. electrical appliances.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan d) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C D E F Industrial Economies: the major exporters of manufactured goods and investments funds. Technological Environment: Technology is dramatically changing lives of the people. Such as pollution and the action of “greens” against it. Like dangerous mercury levels in the ocean. such as air and water poses no immediate problem.

Market Intermediaries: They are independent business organizations that directly aid in the flow of goods and services between a marketing organization and its markets. warehousing. financing etc. There are two types of market intermediaries 1) The firms middle-man (the whole seller and retailer appointed by the organization).Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 Market: Market have three factors People or organizations with wants.e. b) Their purchasing power. and 2)Various facilitating organizations which provide services i. They are needed to complete exchange between buyers and sellers. The Supplier: Organizations need cooperative relationship with supplier. c) Their buying behavior. 15 . transportation.

1 Cultural Factors 2 Social Factors 3 Personal Factors 4) psychological Factors. patterns. area of residence. e. a consumer’s behavior is influenced by such social factors as reference groups. 16 1 2 3 4 . perceptions. It include culture. c) Economic Circumstances: Product choice is also greatly effected by one’s economic circumstances. But with the growth of companies direct contact with the consumer has become impossible. Personal Factors: Following are the personal factors which effect the consumer behavior: Age and stage in life cycle: People buy different goods and services over their lifetime. with whom the person interact fairly and continuously. By personality. friends. autonomy. with friends. It includes broad culture/atmosphere of country. sub-culture and social class.g. Social Factors: In addition to cultural factors.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-6 Analyzing Consumer Markets and Buyer Behavior The aim of marketing is to satisfy the target customers needs and wants. Occasions When does the market buy? 7. Objects What does the market buy? 3. savings and assets. 2 Perception. b) Occupation: Occupation also effect the consumption pattern. e) Personality and Self Concept: Each person has a distinct personality that influences his or her buying behavior. Model of consumer Behavior In the beginning marketers could understand consumers through the daily experience of selling them. Operations How does the market buy? 6. and trade-union groups which require less interaction. social class. Primary groups include family. and roles and status's. neighbors and co-workers etc. It do not reflect income alone but also other indicators like occupation. defensiveness. Organizations Who participates in buying? 5. deference. preferences. Reference groups: A persons reference groups consist of all the groups that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect influence on the person’s attitudes or behavior. Which include their spend able income. and adaptability. thirst. speech. in the company where he works. debts. d) Lifestyle: People coming from the same subculture. parents and other i. c) SOCIAL CLASS: It is relatively homogeneous divisions of society which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values. They include. CULTURE: A fundamental determinant of a persons wants and behavior. 1 Occupants Who constitute the market? 2. Groups having a direct influence on a person are called membership groups. 3 Learning 4 Beliefs and Attitudes. while the president of company will buy expensive things. performance. Objectives Why does the market buy? 4. b) Family: Most influential primary group. A lifestyle is the person’s pattern of living in the world as expressed in the person’s activities. Biogenic: The need which arise from physiological states of tension such as hunger. Personality is usually described in terms of such traits as self-confidence. borrowing power and attitude toward spending versus saving. family. and behaviors. b) SUB-CULTURE: Each culture consists of small sub-cultures providing more specific identification. Membership groups may be subdivided in to primary and secondary. They are of two types. education. interests. sociability. Every economy have its own values. and occupation may lead quite different lifestyles. and geographical regions. and opinions. spouse and children c) Roles and Status's: Role is the activities that a person is expected to perform due to his status e. Secondary groups include religious. discomfort etc. a worker will purchase necessities with low price.e. we mean a person’s distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to his or her environment. religions. Psychological Factors: Psychological factors are four: 1 Motivation. and socialization for its members. nationalities. dominance. I) MOTIVATION: A man have many needs at any one time .g. can also be subdivided in two groups. professional. It differs in their dress. Cultural Factors: Culture influences the consumer behavior most effectively than any others. Now managers had to rely on 7 O’s given bellow. Outlets Where does the market buy? MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING BEHAVIOR: These factors can be sub-divided in to following four categories. It is a useful variable in analyzing a persons behavior. in family.

Perception is the process by which an individual selects. he make thoughtful purchase choice. III) LEARNING When people act. e) User: A person who consumes or uses the product or service. It involve three step process. Most psychogenic needs are not intense enough to motivate the person to act on them immediately. there are four types of consumers buying behavior based on degree of buyer’s involvement and degree of differences among brands. 1) Complex buying behavior. How the motivated person actually acts is influenced by his or perception of the situation. what. organizes and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. These in turn influence their buying behavior. how and whom to buy. c) Decider: A person who decides on any component of buying decision _____ whether to buy. people may not necessarily see or hear the message that marketers want to send. DISSONANCE ____REDUCING BUYER BEHAVIOR: Reducing buying behavior is characterized by: consumer is highly involved in purchase. they learn. It involves changes in the individual’s behavior arising from experience. A motive is a need sufficiently pressing to drive the person to act. and · has much to learn. II) PERCEPTION: A motivated person is ready to act. The types of buying decisions and steps in buying process are given bellow. · product is expensive and risky. but also on the stimuli’s relation to the surrounding field and on conditions within the individual. b) Influencer: A person whose view or advice influence the decision. esteem or belonging. b) Selective Distortion: It is the tendency of people to twist information into personal meanings and interpret information in a way that will support their perceptions. d) Buyer: Who actually purchase. But marketers must be careful in making their (targeting)decisions because buying roles change. Different people can perceive the same situation differently due the three perceptual processes: a) Selective Attention. THE BUYING PROCESS: To be successful marketers must go beyond the understanding as to how consumers actually make their buying decisions. and 4) variety seeing buying behavior. · People likely to notice those adds whose deviations are large than normal size adds. Marketers must. 3) Habitual buying behavior. There are five roles people can play in buying decisions Initiator: Who firs suggest the idea of buying product. Selective Attention: Selective attention means the marketers have to work hard to attract consumer’s notice because to consumer pay selective attention to the advertisements. and An Attitude is a person’s (enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations). Buying Roles: It is easy to identify buyer for many products. Perception depends upon not only physical stimuli. · aware of significant differences among brands. 1) buyer develops beliefs about the product. · typically does not know much about product category. People notice those adds that relates to current needs · People notice those adds that they anticipate. A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. be careful to take these perceptual processes into account in designing their marketing campaigns. rather they must identify who makes the buying decision. A need becomes a motive when it is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity. · see litter difference in brands. Second. develops attitudes about the product and third. The marketers must know the consumers information gathering and evaluation process and develop strategies to assist the buyer in learning about the product’s attributes and call for his attention towards high standing of the company’s brand. Buying Behavior: Behavior varies with the type of buying decision. IV) BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES Through doing and learning people acquire beliefs and attitudes. c) Selective Retention: People tends to retain those information that supports their attitudes and beliefs due to selective retention. reducing buyer behavior. 2) dissonance. To differentiate the brand’s features marketers should use print media to describe brand’s benefits. emotional feeling and action tendencies toward sum object or idea. therefore.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 b) Psychogenic They arise from psychological states of tension such as the need for recognition. 17 . b) Selective Distortion and Selective Retention. COMPLEX BUYING BEHAVIOR: Consumer are involved in complex buying behavior when they are highly involved in purchase. As a result.

Marketers need to identify the circumstances that trigger a particular need. our coffee taken early in the morning shake of sleepiness. Consumer may can get information from the following four sources: • Personal sources: Family. Problem Recognition: Buying process begins when buyer recognizes the problem or need. sex etc. THE ACTIVE INFORMATION SEARCH: At this stage he actually looks for reading material. • Commercial sources: Advertising. avoiding out-of-stock conditions. the amount of information he already has. free samples. At this stage the consumer simply pays more attention to information's about the desired product. Challenger firms will encourage variety seeking by offering lower prices. 5) Post purchase behavior. e. the value he gives to the additional information and the value of satisfaction he obtains from the search. 4) Purchase Decision. In such a situation the market leader try to encourage habitual buying behavior by dominating the shelf space. thirst. THE MILDER SEARCH: It may also be called as heightened attention. 18 4 1 2 3 . THE STAGES OF THE BUYING DECISION PROCESS:` Smart companies keep an eye on the buying decision process involved in their product category. acquaintances. tea. friends. perhaps responding primarily to a good price or to purchase convenience. phones friends. like ads of the product.g. · Add an important product feature to a low involvement product. and sponsoring frequent reminder advertising. arise to a thresh hold level and becomes a drive. After the purchase the consumer might experience dissonance that stems from noticing certain disquieting features of the product or hearing favorable things about other product. then they develop the marketing strategies that trigger consumer interest. and advertising that presents reasons for trying something new. displays. • Public sources Mass medial. salespersons. We may distinguish between two levels of arousal. ii) He is looking for certain benefits from the product solution. 3 HABITUAL BUYING BEHAVIOR: Many products are bought under conditions of low consumer involvement and the absence of significant brand differences. • Experiential sources: Handling. for example a person passes a bakery and saw bread and biscuits that stimulates his hunger. · significant brand differences · consumers can do a lot of brand switching. deals. consideration set. Through gathering information. The external need aroused by an external source. He should also identify the consumers information sources and evaluate their relative importance. A need may arise either internally or externally. and the ease of obtaining additional information. Evaluation of Alternatives: There is no single and simple valuation process used by all consumers in all situations. 2) Information Search. The extent of search depends upon the strength of the drive. The company must also identify the other brands in the consumer's choice set so that it can plan its competitive appeals. e. Marketers can convert low involvement products into one of high involvement by four ways given bellow: link product to some involving issue e. Internal needs are like hunger. 3) Evaluation of Alternatives. infrequent and risky. examining. toothpaste resisting cavity. Some basic concepts will help us to understand consumer evaluation process: i) Consumer is trying to satisfy a need. The Milder search and the active information search. In this case the buyer will shop around to learn what is available but will buy fairly quickly.g. VARIETY SEEING BUYING BEHAVIOR: This type of buying behavior is characterized by: Low consumer involvement. Information Search: An aroused consumer will be inclined to search for more information. · link product to some involving personal situation.g. · advertise to trigger strong emotions related to personal values or defence. It is not necessary that consumer pass through them sequentially especially in the case of low involvement purchase in such a case consumer may shift or reverse some stages. using the product. packaging. neighbors. These five stages are 1) Problem recognition. see friends who have purchased that product etc. Generally a buyer while making buying decision passes through 5 different stages. and engages in other activities to learn about the product. toothpaste etc. and choice set. consumer-rating organizations. salt.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan · purchase is expensive . coupons. The selling company must strategies to get its product into the awareness set. the consumer learns about competing sets of brands and their features. dealers. The consumer will be alert to the information to justify his decision of purchase.

the consumer's motivation to comply with the other person's wishes. called competitive repositioning. The amount of perceived risk varies with the amount of money at stake. sharpness. • tyers: safety.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 4 5 iii) He looks at every product as a bundle of attributes. 19 . size. which are not very clear in the mind of the buyer. the intensity of the other person's negative attitude toward the consumer's preferred alternative and. Marketers can do a number of things to influence buyers decision: i) Modify Product: They may redesign the brand so that it offers more characteristics that the buyer desires. with varying abilities of providing benefits sought to satisfy need. and post purchase product use and dispose. postpone. price. two factors may intervene between the purchase intention and purchase decision. iv) Alter the importance weights: The marketer could try to persuade buyers to attach more importance to the attributes in which the brand excels. cleanliness. second. i) Attitudes of Others The extent to which others attitudes reduces one's preferred alternatives depends on two things. and life. The consumer may for an intention to buy the most preferred brand. It is not recommended if buyers are accurately evaluating brand exaggerated claims would lead to buyer dissatisfaction and bad word or mouth. ride quality. or avoid a purchase decision is heavily influenced by perceived risk. atmosphere. • hotel: location. Purchase Decision: In the evaluation stage the consumer forms preferences among brands in the choice set. iii) Alter the beliefs about the competitors brands. the amount of attribute uncertainty. tread life. v) Call attention to neglected attributes: In such a case the marketer draws the buyer's attention to neglected attributes. 1) Attitudes of others. It is often accomplished by running a comparison ad. The more intense the other person's negativism and the closer the other person is to the consumer. However. This strategy. price. price. post purchase actions. and 2) Unanticipated situational factors. A try to alter the buyers beliefs about where competitive brands stand on different attributes. ii) Alter beliefs about the brand: A try to alter the buyers' beliefs about where the brand stands on key attributes. Post Purchase Behavior: After purchasing the product the consumer will experience some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction The marketer's job does not end when the product is bought but continues into the post purchase period Marketer must monitor post purchase satisfaction. the more the consumer will adjust his purchase intention. and the amount of consumer self-confidence. speed. vi) Shift the buyers ideas: The marketers could try to persuade buyers to change their ideal levels for one or more attributes. It is useful where the buyer underestimate the brand qualities. first. It is also called real repositioning. ii) Unanticipated situational Factors: A consumer's decision to modify. The attributes of interest to buyers vary by product: • camera: picture. makes sense when buyer mistakenly believe a competitor's brand has more quality that it actually has.

System Buying and Selling: Many business buyers prefer to buy a total solution of their problem from one seller. constraints. The major industries making up the business market are agriculture. finance. banking. buyers are concentrated in few localities. public utilities. 3 CLOSER SUPPLIER-CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP: Because of the smaller number of customer base and the importance and power of the large customers. because producers cannot make quick changes in their production methods. This sales volatility has led many business marketers to diversify their products and markets to achieve more balanced sales over the business cycle. 12 LEASING: Many industrial buyers lease their equipment instead of buying it. especially in the short run. Business markets have several characteristics that contrast sharply with consumer markets some of them are given bellow: 1 FEWER BUYERS: Business marketers normally deals with far fewer buyers than the consumer marketers does. transportation. manufacturing. Consequently business marketers have to send well trained representatives and often uses teams to deal with the well-trained buyers. Therefore. The number of decisions depends on the type of buying situation. used in the production of other products or services. Buying Situations: Business buyers faces many decisions in making a purchase. It is called system buying Participants in the Business Buying Process: It is also called buying center and includes all persons involved in purchasing which are given bellow: i) Initiators: Those who request that something be purchased. therefore requires more time and analysis of suppliers. Buying committees consisting of technical experts and senior managers are common in the purchase of major goods. evaluate. sales promotion and publicity plays important role but personal selling usually serves as a main marketing tool. the users initiate the buying proposal. and requirements. communication. A few large buyers do most of the purchases. or supplied to others. Although ad. and a 10% fall in consumer demand may cause a complete collapse in business demand. especially those items that are technically complex and expensive. 6 INELASTIC DEMAND: The demand of such goods is not much effected by the change in price. 8 PROFESSIONAL PURCHASING: Business good are purchased by trained purchasing agents. 11 RECIPROCITY: Business buyers often select suppliers who also buy from them. 2 MODIFIED REBUY: A situation in which the buyer wants some modification in price. 20 . 9 SEVERAL BUYING INFLUENCES: More people can influence a business buying decision than a consumer buying decision. Professional buyers spend their lives in learning how to buy better. Sometimes a rise of 10% in consumer demand can cause as much as 200% rise in business demand for the product in the next period. 4 GEOGRAPHICALLY CONCENTRATED BUYERS: Generally one type of organizations exist in one locality. there are close relationships between customers and suppliers. ii) Users: Those who will use the product or service. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BUSINESS MARKET AND CONSUMER MARKET: Business Market: consist of all the organizations that acquire goods and services. There are three types of buying situations the straight re-buy the modified re-buy and the new task. construction. necessary to produce the additional output. forestry. 1 STRAIGHT REBUY: Purchases are ordered on routine basis from a previous supplier called in-supplier. Out supplier try to get a small order and then enlarge their share over time. distribution and services. who must follow the organizational policies. and choose among alternative brands and suppliers. The out supplier see an opportunity and offer better facilities to gain some business. 5 DERIVED DEMAND: Demand of business goods is ultimately dependent on demand of consumer goods. The out-supplier offer something new or exploit dissatisfaction with the supplier. In many cases. and fisheries mining. and insurance. delivery requirements or other terms. 3 NEW TASK: Purchasing for the first time. rented.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-7 Analyzing Business Markets and Business Buyer Behavior WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BUYING: Organizational buying is the decision-making process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased products and services and identify. It involves additional discussion between buyer and seller representative who tries to defend his position and becomes nervous. 7 FLUCTUATING DEMAND: A small percentage increase in consumer demands can lead to a much larger percentage increase in demand for planed and equipment. are more cost effective. 10 DIRECT PURCHASING: Business buyers often buy directly from the manufacturers rather than through intermediaries. This means the business marketers have to provide greater technical data about their product and its advantages over competitors' products. 2 LARGER QUANTITY BUYERS: Buy in bulk items for reproduction. that are sold.

The attributes may include the delivery reliability. PROPOSAL SOLICITATION: The buyer invite the qualified suppliers to submit proposals with detailed specifications. status. before selecting a supplier. organizational structure. iv) Decider: People who decide on product requirements and or on suppliers. computer search or make phone to other companies for recommendations. Events leading to problem recognition are the following: i) Company decides to produce a new product and needs new equipment and materials to produce it. and preference. They may be classified in to four groups 1) environmental factors. and persuasiveness. and supplier 21 . PROBLEM RECOGNITION: Some one in the organization recognizes the problem that can be met by acquiring a good or service. influenced by the participants age.to make money . vii) Gatekeepers: People who have the power to prevent sellers or information from reaching to members of the buying center. iv) A purchasing manager senses an opportunity to obtain lower prices or better quality. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: Business buyers are heavily effected by factors in the current and expected economic environment. and the company searches for another supplier. v) Approvers: People who authorize the proposed actions of deciders or buyers. perceptions. For this they often use a supplier-evaluation model. The company evaluate proposals and eliminate some suppliers and invite the remaining ones to make a formal presentation. INTERPERSONAL FACTORS: The buying center usually includes several participants with differing interests. v) Purchasing Performance Evaluation and buyers professional development: Many companies have installed the incentive systems to reward purchasing managers for goods buying performance. education. policies. 2) organizational factors. e. and telephone operators may prevent sales persons from contacting user or deciders.to reduce operating cost. 3) interpersonal factors. price.g. job position. What is the product value analysis: PVA is an approach to cost reduction in which components are carefully studied to determine if they can be redesigned or standardized or made by cheaper methods. and culture. and 4) Individual factors. iii) Purchased material turns out to be unsatisfactory. Business marketers should be particularly aware of these. ii) Centralized Purchasing: In multi-divisional companies most purchasing is carried out by separate divisions because of their differing needs. receptionists. empathy. Major Influences on Business Buyers: Business buyers are subject to many influences when they make their buying decision. ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS: Each buying organization has specific objectives. For it a product value analysis is conducted. SUPPLIERS SELECTION: The buying center. Following are the organizational trends in the organizational area: i) Purchasing department upgrading: Purchasing department commonly occupy a low position in the management hierarchy They are now being up graded. GENERAL NEED DESCRIPTION: On recognition the buyer proceeds to determine the needed items general characteristics and quality needed. Recently some of the companies have started the centralized purchasing. Then it will rate suppliers on these attributes and identify the most attractive suppliers. specify the desired attributes of the suppliers. INDIVIDUAL FACTORS: Each participant in the business buying process has his own motivations. SUPPLIER SEARCH: Then the company searches the most appropriate suppliers. ii) A machine breaks down and requires replacement or new parts. attitudes toward risk.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 Influences: People who influence the buying decision by defining specifications and providing information for evaluating alternatives. and political regulatory. vi) Buyers: People who have formal authority to select the supplier and arrange the purchase terms. level of demand for their product Economic outlook. For this purpose organizations uses trade directories. PRODUCT SPECIFICATION: After identifying the general needs the buying organization proceeds to develop the items technical specifications.to satisfy a legal or social obligation. For buying goods business buyers have to go through buying or procurement process having eight steps called buy phases. THE PURCHASING PROCESS: Business buyers purchase goods and services . or . the business marketer is not likely to know what kind of group dynamics take place during the buying process. authority. procedures. and system. Technical personnel are particularly important influences. purchasing agents. personality. interest rate technological developments. income. although whatever information he can discover about the personalities and interpersonal factors would be useful. iii) Decentralized Purchasing of small ticket items: iv) Long-term Contracts: Business buyers are increasingly accepting long term contracts with suppliers.

2) Rate the supplier on several criteria using a weighted score method or 3) aggregate the cost of poor supplier performance to come up with adjusted cost of purchase including price. The buying center also decide as to how many suppliers to use. ORDER-ROUTINE SPECIFICATION: After selection of supplier the buyer negotiate final order listing the i) Technical specifications. iii) expected time of delivery. Then the buying center attempt to negotiate with its preferred suppliers for better prices and terms before making the final selection. Furthermore these companies want each chosen supplier to be responsible for a larger component system. some of these stages would be compressed or bypassed. 1) the buyer may contact the end user and ask for evaluation. 22 . However. In modified-re-buy or straight-re-buy situations. etc. Writing a new purchase order each time is expensive and time consuming. Three methods are commonly used.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 7 8 reputation are highly important. ii) Quantity needed. because it means to carry more inventory. Much of it also applies to the buying practices of institutional and government organizations. their certain special feature found in these markets. PERFORMANCE REVIEW: When all is done the buyer reviews the performance of the chosen supplier. INSTITUTIONAL AND GOVERNMENT MARKETS: So far our discussion is about the profit seeking organizations. A blanket contract establishes a long term relationship in which the supplier promises to re-supply at an agreed price over a specified period of time. They also often require the chosen suppliers to achieve continuous quality and performance improvement while at the same time lowering the supply price each year by a given percentage. The purchaser also do not wants to make a large purchase order ( and thus decreasing number of orders). Above given stages are for the new task buying situation. iv) return policies. v) warrantees.

23 . patents and licensing requirements. strong.e. few. 3 Form competition: Occurs when a company sees its competitors as all companies manufacturing products that supply the same service. The five threats they poses are as follows: 1 Threat of intense segment revelry: A segment is unattractive if it already contains numerous. These are industry competitors.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-8 Analyzing the Industries and Competitors There are five forces that determine the intrinsic long-run profit attractiveness of a market or market segment. Sellers will enjoy different profit rates only to the extent that they achieve lower costs of production or distribution. 2 Threats of new entrants: A segment's attractiveness varies with the high of its entry and exit barriers. The major barriers include high capital requirements. The most attractive segment is one in which entry barriers are high and exit barriers are low i. autos) The differentiation can occur along lines of quality. or distributions. No competitor will advertise unless advertising can create psychological differentiation (cigarettes) in which case it would be more proper to describe the industry and monopolistically competitive. IDENTIFYING COMPETITORS: Competitors may be at four levels: 1 Brand competitors: A company offering similar product and services to the same customers at similar prices. Many of the competitors focus on market segments where they can meet customer needs in a superior way and command a price premium. or services. creditors. Few new firms can enter the industry. Each competitors may seek leadership in one of these major attributes. 2 OLIGOPOLY: An industry structure in which a small number of (usually) large firms produce product that range from highly differentiated to standardized. license. or many sellers of the product and whether the product is homogeneous or highly structure type: 1 PURE MONOPOLY: Exist when only one firm provides a certain product or service in a certain country. patent. steel). and suppliers. or aggressive competitors. low asset salvage value due to over-specialization or obsolescence. It is easy to open a new restaurant but difficult to enter the air craft industry. raw materials. 4 Threat of buyers growing bargaining power: A segment is unattractive if the buyer have strong or growing bargaining power because he will force prices down. lack of alternative opportunities high vertical integration and emotional barriers. Number of Sellers and Degree of Differentiation: The starting point for describing an industry is to specify whether there are one. substitutes. government restrictions. A segment is unattractive when there are actual or potential substitutes for the product are available. 3 Threats of Substitute Products. i) Pure oligopoly: consist of a few companies producing essentially the same commodity (oil. 4 Generic competition: Occurs when a company sees its competitors as all companies compete for the same consumer Rupee. It may by due to a regulatory edict. i) Differentiated Oligopoly: consist of a few companies producing partially differentiated products (cameras. potential entrants. buyers. Most common barriers are lager moral obligations to customers. and employees. commodity market). 3 MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION: Consist of many competitors able to differentiated their offers in whole or part (restaurants. But when the entry and exit both barriers are high it means that poor performing firms will also stay in the market. Entry and Mobility Barriers: Industry differ greatly in their ease of entry. Exit and Shrinkage Barriers: Ideally firms should be free to leave industries in which profit are unattractive. A company in a pure oligopolistic industry would find it hard to charge anything more than the going price unless it can differentiate its services. 5 Threat of suppliers growing bargaining power. features. and if both barriers are low it means more firms can enter in the segment. 4 PURE COMPETITION: Consists of many competitors offering the same product and service (stockmarket. scarce locations. beauty shops). economies of scale. there are two forms of oligopoly pure and differentiated. competitors price will be the same. It is even more unattractive if the segment is stable or declining. attract the consumers favoring that attribute and charge a price premium for that attribute. and poor-performing firms can easily exit. styling. Industry Concept of Competitors: An industry is a group of firms that offer a product or class of products that are close substitutes for each other. Since there is no basis for differentiation. and reputational requirements. scale economics or other factors. and demand more quality. but they often face exit barriers. 2 Industry competitors: Occurs when a company sees its competitors as all companies making the same product or class of products.

Some industries are characterized by relative accord among the competitors. and alternative assumption is that they pursues a mix of objectives : current profitability. and dealers. Name the first company that comes to mind in this industry. or a new-product introduction). service leadership and son on. In addition. 3 THE TIGER COMPETITOR: A competitor that react swiftly and strongly to any assault on its terrain. new investments and capacity utilization. or any thing else. Degree of Vertical Integration: Some firms find it advantageous to integrate backward and forward which often causes lower in cost and give company more control over the value-added stream. Cost Structure: Each industry has a certain cost mix that drive much of its strategic conduct. 24 . return on investment. profit margin. Degree of Globalization: Some industries are highly local others are global. may face lack of funds to react. iii) Share of heart: The percentage of customers who named the competitor in responding to the statement. The laid back competitors may feel their customer are loyal. history. Companies in the global industries need to compete on a global basis if they are to achieve economies of scale and keep up with the latest advances in technology. 2 THE SELECTIVE COMPETITORS: A competitor that react to only certain types of attacks and not to others. and place in the large organization. ii) Share of mind: The percentage of customers who named the competitor in responding to the statement. market share growth cash flow. DETERMINING COMPETITORS' OBJECTIVES: After identifying its main competitors and their strategies a company may ask itself: what is each competitor seeking in the marketplace? What drives each competitor's behavior? An initial assumption is that competitors strive to maximize their profits. and certain guidelines beliefs. A company need to identify the strategic group in which it competes. Such competitor might or might not retaliate on a particular occasion: there is no way of predicting this decision on the basis of its economic situation. suppliers. each competitor has a certain philosophy of doing business. The companies try to reduce the shrinkage barriers to help their ailing competitors get smaller gracefully. personal experience. For example steel making involves heavy manufacturing and raw-materials cost. 2 If a single major factor is the critical factor. it is important to know whether the parent company is running it for growth or milking it. Assessing Competitors Strengths and Weaknesses: To identify the strengths and weaknesses of competitors a company should first gather recent information on each competitor's business. history. In general every company should monitor three variables when analyzing its competitors: i) Share of market: The competitor's share of the target market.g. Moreover. Name the company from whom you would prefer to buy the product. 1 THE LAID BACK COMPETITORS: A competitor that doesn't react quickly or strongly to a rival's move. vertically integrated firms can manipulate their prices and costs in different segments of their business to earn profit where taxes are low. All these sources help a company decide whom to attack in the programmable-controls market. while toy manufacturing involve heavy distribution and marketing cost. 4 THE STOCHASTIC COMPETITORS: A competitor that does not exhibit a predictable reaction pattern. cash flow.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Even if some firms do not want to exit the industry they might want to decrease their size. Estimating Competitors Reaction Patterns: Identification of competitors strangest and weaknesses help managers to anticipate the competitors likely reactions to other companies' strategies (e. a certain internal culture. If the competitor is not critical to its parent company. current management. Firms will pay the greatest attention to their greatest costs and will strategies to reduce these costs. including its size. If a competitor is part of a larger company. A group of firms following the same strategy in a given target market is called a strategic group. Companies normally learn about their competitors position through secondary data. A competitors objectives are shaped by many things. Finally a company must also monitor its competitors expansion plans. IDENTIFYING COMPETITORS' STRATEGIES: A company's closest competitors are those pursuing the same target markets with the same strategy. technological leadership. The reasons may vary. it could be attacked more readily. 1 If competitors are nearly identical and make their living in the same way then their competitive equilibrium is unstable. Two of the most common shrinkage barriers are contract commitments and suborns management. and others by contrast fighting. Most competitors fall into one of following four categories. a price cut. then competitive equilibrium is unstable. a promotion step-up. financial situation. slow in noticing the move. It might respond to price cuts but not to advertising expenditure increases. A company must continuously monitor its competitors' strategies and revise their strategies through time depending upon the competitors strategy. and hearsay. market shale. including data on sales. Here are some of the observations about the likely state of competitive relations. They can augment their knowledge by conducting primary marketing research with customers.

There are four main steps involved in designing a competitive intelligence system: 1 Setting up the System: The first stem calls for identifying vital types of competitive information identifying the best sources of this information and assigning a person who will manage the system and its services. close versus distant competitors. even strong competitors have some weaknesses. 2 Collecting the Data: the data are collected on a continuous basis form the field. and good versus bad competitors. circuits. 4 disseminating information and Responding: Key information is sent to relevant decision maker and managers' inquires about competitors are answered. they lead to more differentiation. A company benefits in several ways from good competitors. and they may service less attractive segments. and organized. 4 Examine how customers in a specific segment rate the company's performance against a specific major competitor on an attribute-by-attribute basis. they motivate other to lower costs or improve differentiation's. 5 Monitor customer values over time. they set prices in a reasonable relation to costs. DESIGNING THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM: Each company should carefully design its competitive intelligence system to be cost effective. SELECTING COMPETITORS TO ATTACK AND AVOID: With good competitive intelligence. The major steps in customer value analysis are: 1 Identifying the major attributes that customers value 2 Assess the quantitative importance of the different attributes. and the accept the general level of their share of profits. they increase total demand. interpreted. Generally managers conduct a customer value analysis to reveal the company's strengths and weaknesses relative to various competitors. Furthermore. the company should avoid trying to destroy the close competitor. Close versus Distant Competitors: Most companies compete with competitors who resemble them the most. they limit themselves to a portion or segment of the industry. The more factors that may provide a advantage. and in general. Competitors confer several strategic benefits: They lower the antitrust risk. they favor healthy industry. They will have a better sense of whom they can effective compete with in the market. offers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 3 If multiple factors may be critical factors. 25 . Sometimes cross-disciplinary teams are formed specifically for this purpose. After the company has done its customer value analysis. defined by the preference for the factor trade-offs that they offer. This strategy requires fewer resources and time per share point gained. Bad competitors violate the rules: They try to buy share rather than earn it: they take large risks. The firm should also compete with strong competitors to keep up worth the state of the art. Strong Versus Weak Competitors: Most companies aim their shots at their weak competitors. managers will find it easier to formulate their competitive strategies. The aim of a customer value analysis is to determine the benefits that customers in a target market segment want and how they perceive the relative value of competing suppliers. Good competitors have a number of characteristics: they play by the industry's rules: they make realistic assumptions about the industry's growth potentials. At the same time. the firm may achieve little in the way of improved capabilities. Competitors all have their competitive segment. Everyone in the company must be only sense. 3 Assess the company's and competitors' performances on the different customer values against their rated importance. then it is possible for each competitor to have some advantage and be differently attractive to some consumers. and the firm may prove to be a worthy competitor. they upset the industrial equilibrium. Good Versus Bad Competitors: Porter argues that every industry contains "good" and "Bad" competitors. But in the process of attacking weak competitors. from people who do business with competitors. 3 Evaluating and Analyzing the Data: The data are checked for validity and reliability. the share the cost of market development and legitimatize a new technology. they improve bargaining power vis-à-vis labor unions or regulators. it can focus its attack on one of the following classes of competitors: strong versus weak competitors. and competitors' employees. they invest in over capacity. serve and satisfy the customer but also be given an incentive to spot competitive information and pass it on to the relevant parties in the company. the more competitors who can coexist.

SELF MARKETING. Here will examine (A) level of segmentation. yet they are not identical. Markets can be segmented in a number of way. SEGMENT MARKETING: A segment consist of large identifiable group within a market. The segment marketing companies know that buyers differ in want. 26 A 1 2 3 4 5 B . A second competitor would locate next to the first brand and fight for market share. Instead of looking at demographic or lifestyle segments. 1) segments. It can be carried out at four levels. 3 Market Positioning: Establish and communicate products. i) those who are seeking basic transportation. Some segment members wants additional features not included in the offer while others would gladly give-up what they do not want very much. INDIVIDUAL MARKETING: It is the ultimate level of segmentation which lead to "one -to-one marketing". (C) market segmentation procedure. Consumers belonging to one segment are considered quit similar in their wants and needs. an auto company identify four levels segments of car buyers. but it is difficult to carry out. i) HOMOGENEOUS PREFERENCES: A market where all the customers roughly have the same preference. target one or more of those segments and develop products and marketing programs for each segment. A form of individual marketing in which individual customer takes more responsibility for determining which product and brands to buy. and 4)individuals and 5) self marketing. and company have to face fewer competitors. LOCAL MARKETING: Also called regional marketing. and (E) requirements for effective segmentation. For example in the segment of heavy smokers a sub-segment of heavy smokers with emphysema. Segment marketing is the mid point between mass marketing and individual marketing. ii) those who are seeking high performance. The choice of distribution channels. Segments being fairly large attract several competitors while niches are fairly small and normally attract only a few competitors. location. NICHE MARKETING: A niche means a small market whose needs are not being well served. In target marketing the sellers distinguish the major market segment. key distinctive benefits in the market. In mass marketing the seller engages in the mass production. which leads to the lowest costs and ultimately results in lower prices or higher margins. Segment marketing offers several benefits over mass marketing. The company can produce a more fine tuned product and price it appropriately for the target audience. or localized marketing. e. Or it could locate in a corner to attract a customer group that was not satisfied with the center brand. buying habits. Before discussing these levels first we have to understand MASS MARKETING. it means producing a thing on receipt of order from customer according to the specifications. It is usually identified by dividing a segment into sub-segments. we can distinguish preference segments. 2) niches. Three different patterns can emerge. Instead of competing everywhere the company needs to identify the market segments that it can serve most effectively. The first brand to enter the market is likely to position in the center to appeal to the most people. Levels of Segmentation: Market segmentation represents an effort to increase a company's targeting precision. and mass promotion of one product for all buyers. (D) basis for segmenting of consumer and business markets. The market shows no natural segments. Patterns of Market Segmentation: Market segments can be built up in many ways. and iv) those who are seeking safety. like coca cola. and communication channels becomes much easier. mass distribution. (B) patterns of segmentation. If several brands are in the market they are likely to position through out the space and show real differences to match consumer-preference differences. ii) DEFUSED PREFERENCES: At the other extreme the customers preferences may be scattered and customers vary greatly in their preferences. etc.g. The company tries to isolate some broad segments. MARKET SEGMENTATION: Market consist of buyers who differ in many ways.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-9 Identifying Market Segments and Selecting Target Markets A company that decide to operate in a broad market recognizes that it cannot serve all customers in that market because customer are too numerous and diverse in their buying requirements. The traditional argument is that mass marketing creates the largest potential market. iii) those who are seeing luxury. (trade areas neighbor hoods). 2 Market Targeting: Select one or more market segments to enter. In it market programs are tailored to the needs and wants of local customers groups. 3) local areas. purchasing power. Target marketing involves three major steps: 1 Market Segmentation: Identifying distinct groups of buyers who might require separate products.

STEP THREE PROFILING STAGE: Each cluster is profiled in terms of its distinguished attitudes. states. use of. d) Generation: Each generation is profoundly influenced by the milieu in which it grows up. reading habits etc. From these findings researchers prepare a formal questioner to collect data about their: Attitudes and their importance rating Brand awareness and brand ratings. race. They use occasions and brands. BEHAVIORAL SEGMENTATION: Buyers are divided into groups on the basis of their knowledge of . Occasionally other marketers notice an opportunity for gender segmentation. a) Age and Life . regions countries. while smaller firms will often focus on attracting current users away from the market leader.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) C D 1 2 3 4 CLUSTERED PREFERENCES: The market might reveal distinct preference clusters. or family. It might position in the center. Marketshare leaders will focus on attracting potential users. each positioned in a different segment. home furnishing. 2 Benefit Segmentation: A powerful form of segmentation involves classifying buyers according to the benefits they seek from the product. psycho-graphic and media-graphics of the respondents. competitors would enter and introduce brands in the other segments. first-time users. which may include geographic. income. Marketers are increasingly segmenting their markets by consumer lifestyles. cosmetics. First researchers form segments by looking at consumer characteristics. nationality. and regular users of a product. air travel is triggered by occasions related to business. People within the same demographic group can exhibit very different psycho-graphic profiles. In fact. GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: Dividing the market into different geographical units such as nations. potential users. It may position in the largest market segment. Following are the types of behavioral segmentation. Market Segmentation Procedure: Marketing research firms uses a three-step approach to identify the segments in the market. cosmetics and travel. or use a product. behavior. and psycho-graphic characteristics.g. 1 Occasions: Buyers can be distinguished according to the occasions they develop a need. People product interests are influenced by their lifestyles. demographics. Many companies designee products for specific social classes PSYCHO-GRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: In psycho-graphic segmentation. Other researchers try to form segments by looking at consumer responses to benefits sought. They endow their products with brand personalities that correspond to consumer personalities. Generally applied in clothing hair-styling. clothing. b) Gender. The major segmentation variables are: 1) geographic. and magazines. These variables are the most popular because they are easier to measure than most other types of variables. education religion. rural. and then decide to operate in one or a few geographic areas. However it is a tricky variable and is mostly effected by the psychology. called natural market segments. e. The company's position in the market will also influence its focus. then apply cluster analysis to create a specific number of (maximally different) segments. psycho-graphics. STEP ONE SURVEY STAGE: Researchers conduct exploratory interviews and focus on consumer's motivations. Attitudes towards the product category. or social class. buyers are divided into different groups on the basis of lifestyle and / or personality. climate etc. STEP TWO ANALYSIS STAGE: The researcher applies factor analysis to the data to remove highly correlated variables. It might develop several brands. 3 User Status: Markets can be segmented into groups of nonusers. Basis of Segmenting Consumer Markets: Two broad groups are used to segment consumer markets. based on dominant distinguishing characteristic. attitudes and behavior. hoping to appear to all groups. income does not always predict the best customers for a given product.Cycle Stage: Consumers wants and abilities change with age. vacation. However. psycho-graphics and behavioral segmentation. the goods they consume express their lifestyles. clothing. a) Lifestyle: People exhibit many more lifestyles than seven as are suggested by the social classes. c) Income: Another long-standing practice in such product and service categories as automobiles boats. cities. The first firm in this market has three options. An air line can specialize in serving people for whom one of these occasions dominates. and media patterns. or response to a product. demographic. DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: In it market is divided into groups on the basis of demographic variables such as age. Some marketers target baby bombers using communications and symbols that appeal to the optimism of that generation. occupation. geographic. ex users. attitude toward. 27 . family size. family life cycle gender. generation. Demographics. If the first firm developed only one brand. Product usage patterns. urban. Each segment can be given a name. b Personality: Marketers also use personality variables to segment marketers. purchase a product. e) Social Class: It has a strong influence on a person's preference in cars. demographic.

5 Locality Status: A market can be segmented by consumer-locality patterns. and other entities. engineering dominants. Yet business markets can also use several other variable given bellow: Demographic: It may include: 1 Industry: Which industries should we serve. Some are unaware of the product. negative. 4 DIFFERENTIABLE: The segment are conceptually distinguishable and respond differently to different marketing -mix elements and programs. Buyers can be divided into four groups according to their brand-loyalty. 3 Location: Which geographical areas should we serve. i) Hard-core loyals: Who buy one brand all the time. 4 ACTIONABLE : Effective programs can be formulated for attracting and serving the segments. or go after the most desirable.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 5 E 4 Usage rate: Market can also be segmented into light. Now we will examine the process of evaluating and selecting marketing segments: Evaluating the Market Segments: While evaluating the market segments the firm must look at two factors given bellow: I) The overall attractiveness of the segment and 28 . indifferent. positive. 5 Purchasing Criteria Serve those companies seeking quality? Service? or price? Situational Factors: 1 Urgency: Should we serve companies that need quick and sudden delivery or service? 2 Specific application: Should we focus on certain application of our product rather that all applications? 3 Size of Order: Should we focus on larger or small orders? Personal Characteristics: 1 Buyer Seller Similarity Should we serve companies whose people and values are similar to ours? 2 Attitudes toward risk: Should we serve risk-taking or risk-avoiding customers? 3 Loyalty: Should we serve companies that show high loyalty to their suppliers? Requirements for Effective Segmentation: There are many ways of segmenting a market. Rather they are increasingly crossing several variables in an effort to identify smaller. companies may begin their marketing with one targeted segment. TARGET MARKETING 1 After identifying market-segments the enterprise has to evaluate them and decide. some desire the product. and some intend to buy. and hostile. all segmentation are not effective. system's purchases or sealed bidding. BASIS FOR SEGMENTING BUSINESS MARKETS: Business market s can be segmented with many of the same variables employed in consumer market segmentation. 3 ACCESSIBLE: The segment can be effectively reached and served. Consumers can have varying degrees of loyalty to brands. or even limit their analysis to only a few market segments. financially dominants or so forth? 3 Nature of Existing Relationships: Serve companies having strong relations with us. light or nonuser? 3 Customer Capabilities: Should we serve customers needing many or few goods or services? Purchasing Approach: 1 Purchasing Function Organization: Should we serve highly centralized or decentralized purchasing organizations? 2 Power Structure Should we serve Co. Marketers usually prefer to attract one heavy user to their product or service rather than several light users. stores. how many and which ones to target. service contracts. MULTY ATTRIBUTE SEGMENTATION Marketers no longer talk about the average consumers. 2 Company size: What size companies should we serve. Targeting Multiple Segments: Very often. such as geography. however. 6 Buyers-Readiness Stage: A market consist of people in different stages of readiness to buy a product. some are aware. medium. then expand into other segments. 2 SUBSTANTIAL: Segment should be large and profitable enough to serve. and heavy product users. Heavy users are often a small percentage of the market but account for the high percentage of total consumption. iv) Switchers: Consumers who show no loyalty to any brand. iii) Shifting Loyals: Those shift from favoring one brand to another. ii) Split Loyals: Who are loyal to two or three brands. some are interested. 7 Attitude: Five attitude groups can be found in a market enthusiastic. The relative numbers make a big difference in designing the marketing program. If married and un-married woman respond similarly to a sale on perfume. some are formed. 4 General Purchase Policy: Serve them who prefer leasing. To be useful market segments must be: 1 MEASURABLE: The purchasing power and characteristics of the segment can be measured. benefit sought and usage rate. better defined target groups. medium. Operating Variables: 1 Technology: What customer technologies should we focus on? 2 User /Nonuser status: Should we serve heavy users. they don’t constitute separate segments.

b) Differentiated Marketing: In it firms operate in several market segments and designs different programs for each segment. but each segment promises to be a money maker. IV) MARKET SPECIALIZATION: Here the firm concentrates on serving many needs of a particular custom group. It focuses on buyers needs rather than differences among buyers. II) SELECTIVE SPECIALIZATION: Here the firm selects a number of segments. differentiated market creates more total sales than undifferentiated It also increase the cost of business the following are the costs: Product modification cost: Modifying a product to meet different market segment requirements usually involves more research and development. In it a company can build strong reputation in the specific product area. there may be little or no synergy among the segments. Ethical Choice of Market Targets: Market targeting sometimes generates controversy like cigarette markets have generate much controversy. it is wise to enter one segment at a time and conceal its grand plan. the company should pay close attention to segment interrelationships on the cost. sales analysis. Socially responsible marketing calls for segmentation and targeting that serve not just the interests of the company but also the interests of those targeted. performance and technology side. V) FULL MARKET COVERAGE: When the firm attempts to serve all customer groups with all the products that they might need.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 1 2 3 4 II) The companies objectives and resources. It design a product and a marketing program that will appeal to the broadest number of buyers. Segment By Segment Invasion Plans: Even if the firm plans to target super segment. This multi-segment coverage strategy has the advantage of diversifying the firm's risk. segment managers should not be so segment-focused as to resist cooperation with other company personnel to improve overall company performance. The competitors must not know to what segment(s) the firm will move next. planning and channel management. Promotion costs: The company has to reach different markets segments with different promotion programs. forecasting. Administrative cost: for separate marketing plan for each market segment. promotion. and 4) intersegment cooperation. The downside risk is that the product may be supplanted by an entirely new technology. each objectively attractive and appropriate. engineering and special tooling costs. Inventory Costs: It is usually more to manage inventories containing many products than inventories containing few products. It relies on mass distribution and mass advertising. In market targeting the issue is not who is targeted but rather how and for what. Only very large firms can undertake a full market coverage strategy. Selection can be made in any of the following five patterns I) SINGLE SEGMENT CONCENTRATION: The most simplest case in which company selects only one segment and concentrates on it. 3) segment-by-segment evasion plans. the result is increased promotion-planning costs and media costs. 29 . Intersegment Cooperation: The best way to manage segments is to appoint segment managers with sufficient authority and responsibility for building their segment's business. Even if one segment becomes unattractive the firm can continue to earn more in other one. 2) segment interrelationships and super segments. A super segment is a set of segments sharing some exploitable similarity. Segment Interrelationships and Super segments: In selecting more than one segment. Companies should also identify and try to operate in super segments rather than in isolated segments. Selecting the Market Segment. a) Undifferentiated Marketing: In it the firm ignores market-segment differences and goes after the whole market with one market offer. This requires extra marketing reach. ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATION IN EVALUATING AND SELECTING SEGMENTS: Following four more considerations must be taken into account in evaluating and selecting segments: 1) Ethical choice of market targets. given the firm's objectives and are resources. At the same time. Manufacturing cost: It is usually more expensive to produce 10 units of 10 different products than 100 units of one product. III) PRODUCT SPECIALIZATION: When the firm concentrates on making a certain product that it sells to several segments. Large firms can cover a whole market in two broad ways through undifferentiated marketing or differentiated marketing. After evaluating the firm decide to which and how many segments to serve.

D)Channel. and 7) few others. buildings.g. 2) performance. 2)delivery. entertain more lavishly. 30 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B 1 2 3 4 . special rewards for loyal users. CUSTOMER TRAINING: It refers to training the customers' employees to use the vendor's equipment properly and efficiently. If the firm did not distinguish its offering in any other way than price. CONFORMANCE QUALITY: Is the degree to which all the produced units are identical and meet the promised target specifications. need to think. Companies are constantly trying to differentiate their market offering or value package from competitors. At the other extreme are products capable of high differentiation. but these are small advantages. steel industry. e. DURABILITY: Durability is the measure of the product's expected operating life under natural and / or stressful conditions. PERFORMANCE: Refers the level at which the product's primary characteristics operate. genuine variation is possible. Service Differentiation: In addition to differentiating its physical product a firm can also differentiate its services. or E)Image. Companies that differentiate their offering solely by cutting their costs and price may be making a mistake. construction.g. DESIGN: A most patent way to differentiate and position a company's products and services. how a product looks and functions in terms of customer requirements. 5) customer consulting. DELIVERY: Refers to how well the product or service is delivered to the customer. companies making special machinery for selected market segments. They provide new guarantees. for several reasons. The main product differentiation’s are 1) features. It is the totality of features that affect. How exactly can a company differentiate its product form competitors. INSTALLATION: Installation is the work done to make a product operational in its planned location. Companies therefore. RELIABILITY: It is the measure of the probability that a product will not malfunction or fail within a specified time period. 2 SEGMENTED INDUSTRY: An industry in which there are only few competitive advantages and each is small. and 7) design. new conveniences and enjoyments. Here profitability is correlated with company size and market share. accuracy and care attending the delivery process. Here it is difficult to differentiate its product or decrease its cost Companies try to higher better salespeople. and furniture. it will be soundly beaten by the competitor. TOOLS FOR COMPETITIVE DIFFERENTIATION: DIFFERENTIATION is the act of designing a set of meaningful differences to distinguish the company's offering from competitors' offering. 4)reliability. 4) customer training. At one extreme the products are highly standardized and allow little variation. Buyers of heavy equipment expect good installation service from the vendor. 3)durability. Buyers normally will pay a premium for product with more reliability. ORDERING EASE: It refers to how easy it is for the customer to place an order with the company." The number of differentiation’s varies with the type of industry. e. REPARABILITY: Buyers prefer products that are easy to repair. e. Even when they succeed their competitors adopt such their value package and thus competitive advantages lasts only for a short time. 4 SPECIALIZED INDUSTRY: An industry in which companies faces more opportunities for differentiation and each differentiation can have a high payoff. 3 FRAGMENTED INDUSTRY: Where company faces many opportunities for differentiation. chicken. and so on. second the firm may cut services to keep the price down which may alienate buyers. the dye to competitive success often lies in adding more value-adding services and improving their quality. constantly about new feature and benefits to win the attention and interests of customers. steel aspirin. Yet even here. who can a small company can compete against industry leaders? One answer is by differentiating its product and avoiding direct competition. Third a competitor will usually find a lower-cost production method and offer an even cheaper version. It includes the speed. but each opportunity for competitive advantage is small.g. First cheaper products are often viewed as inferior in quality. C) Personnel. 3) installation.g. When the physical product cannot easily be differentiated. e. such as automobiles. Industries are of four types: 1 VOLUME INDUSTRY: A Industry in which companies can gain only a few but large competitive advantages.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-10 Differentiating and Positioning the Market Offering In an industry know for intense competition. STYLE: Buyers are normally willing to pay a premium for products that are attractively styled. The main service differentiation’s are 1) ordering ease. In it a company can strive for low cast position or the highly differentiated position. FEATURES: Features are characteristics that supplement the product's basic function. Style describes the product's looks and feel to the buyer. 5)reparability. There are five dimensions A) Product. 6) style. 6) maintenance and repair. Product Differentiation: Differentiating the physical products. B)Service.

Double-benefit positioning may be necessary if two or more firms are claiming to be best on the same attribute. MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES: Companies find many other ways to add value by differentiating their customer services. Second. Responsiveness The employees respond quickly to customers' requests and problems. • Communicable: The difference is communicable and visible to buyers. it conveys a message in a distinctive way so that it is not confused with similar messages from competitors. ATMOSPHERE: Distinctive physical condition in which the origination produces or delivers its products and services is another powerful image generator. Virtually there are unlimited number of specific services and benefits that companies can offer to differentiate themselves from their competitors. Positioning is the act of designing the company's offering and image so that they occupy a meaningful and distinct competitive position in the target customers' minds. information system and advising service that the seller offers free or for a price to buyer. best service. EVENTS: A company can build an identity through the type of events it sponsors. respectful and considerate. • Preemptive: The difference cannot be easily copied by the competitors.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 5 6 7 C D 1 2 3 E 1 2 3 4 CUSTOMER CONSULTING: It refers to data. How Many Differences to Promote: Many marketers advocate promoting only one benefit to the target market. safest. best value. Reliability The employees perform the service consistently and accurately. it delivers emotional power so that it stirs the hearts as well as the minds of buyers. DEVELOPING A POSITIONING STRATEGY: A company must carefully select the ways in which it will distinguish itself from competitors a difference is worth establishing to the extent that it satisfies the following criteria: • Important: The difference delivers a high valued benefit to a sufficient number of buyers. WRITTEN AND AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA: The chosen symbols must be worked into advertisements that convey the company or brand personality. Better trained personnel’s exhibit six characteristics Competence: The employee possess the required skill and knowledge. a company must avoid four major positioning errors. 2)expertise. • Affordable: The buyer can afford to pay for the difference." Not everyone agrees that single-benefit positioning is always best. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR: It describes the company's service program for helping customers keep their purchased products in good working order. most convenient and most advanced technology. Each brand should back an attribute and tout itself a s number one on that attribute. The most commonly promoted number-one positioning are "best quality. and 3) performance. The company brands and logos should be designed to instant recognition. they risk disbelief and a sole of clear positioning. Expertise: means its dealers are typically better trained and perform more reliably. lowest price. buyers may respond differently to the company or brand image. Communication: The employees make an effort to understand the customer and communicate clearly Channel Differentiation: Companies can achieve differentiation through the way they shape their distribution channels. • Superior: The difference is superior to other ways of obtaining the same benefit. particularly these channels are 1)coverage. Coverage means its dealers are found in more locations than competitors' dealers. An effective image does three things for a product. Third. Identity comprises the ways that a company aims to identify itself or position its product. They can offer a better product warranty or maintenance contract than their competitors. Identity Versus Image: It is important to distinguish between identity and image. • Distinctive: The difference either is not offered by other or is offered in a more distinctive way by the company. Image is the way the public perceives the company or its products. Performance: refers to developing and managing direct marketing channels of high quality. SYMBOLS: A strong image consists of one or more symbols that trigger company or brand recognition. 31 . first it conveys a singular message that establishes the product's character and value positions. Courtesy: The employees are friendly. Credibility The employees are trustworthy. most customized. Image Differentiation: Even when the offers of two competitors look same. • Profitable: The company will fine it profitable to introduce the difference. fastest. PERSONNEL DIFFERENTIATION: Companies can gain a strong competitive advantage through hiring and training better people than their competitors. They can establish patronage awards. In general. As companies increase the number of claims for their brand.

Benefit positioning: Here the product is positioned as the leader in a certain benefit. Doubtful Positioning: Buyer may found it hard to believe the brand claims in view of the product's features. such as size. User positioning This involves positioning the product as best for some user group. price. Quality / Price positioning: Here the product is positioned as offering the best value for the price. number or years in existence. Confused Positioning: Buyers might have a confused image of the brand resulting to many claims or changing the brand's positioning too frequently. 32 . or manufacturer. Overpositioning: Buyers may have too narrow an image of the brand. The different positioning strategies that a company can adopt are given bellow: Attribute positioning: This occurs when a company positions itself on an attribute. Competitors Positioning: Here the product positions itself as better in some way than a named or implied competitor. Use / application positioning: This involve positioning the product as best for some use or application. The brand is seen just as just an other entry in a crowded marketplace. That he deems it as high standard than his capabilities.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Underpositioning: Some companies discover that buyers have only a vague idea of the brand. Product category positioning: Here the product is positioned as the leader in a certain product category. Buyers don't really sense anything special about it.

sizes. flavors. The companies which fail to develop new products are putting themselves at great risk. Thus top management must establish specific criteria for acceptance of new-product ideas. especially in large multidivisional companies. 2 it can acquire patents from other companies. ii) The idea is good but market size is over estimated. archeological compatibility. their may be few ways left to improve the products ii) Fundamental Markets: Keen competition leads to market fragmentation. There are six categories of new products in terms of their newness to the company and to the marketplace. hoping to achieve a few winners. Still other companies decide how-many successful new products they need and work backward to estimate the required R&D budget investments. 1 The company can buy other companies. etc. iii) Additions to Existing product lines: New product that supplement a company’s established product lines (Package. iii) Social and governmental Constraints: New product have to satisfy such criteria as to consumer safety. Replacement products must be created to maintain or build sales. A new product may fail due to any one or more of the following reasons. In addition several other factors hinder new-product development. company have to face high research and development costs.e. iv) New product is either incorrectly positioned in the market. or 3 it can buy a license or franchise from another company. iii) The actual product is not well designed. A major decision facing top management is how much to budget for new-product development. The acquisition route can take three forms. i) New-to-the-world products: New product that create an entirely new market. The new product development route can take two forms. Other companies set their R&D budget by applying a conventional percentage of sales figures or by spending what the competitors spends. ii) New product lines: New product that allow a company to enter an established market for the first time. A company can add new product through acquisition and/ or new-product development. which are given bellow: i) Shortage of new production ideas in certain areas i. The most common of these are: 33 . which is ultimately responsible for the success of the new product. iv) Coastlines of the new product development process: A company has to develop many new product ideas to find just one worthy of development. New product development requires management to define the business domains and product categories that the company wants to emphasize. An effective organization begins with its top management. vii) Shorter Product Life Cycle: When a new product is successful rivals are quick to copy it. Some companies solve this problem by encouraging and financing as many projects as possible. v) Capital shortages: Some companies with good ideas. or 2 it can contract with independent researchers or new-product-development firms to develop specific products for the company. v) Repositioning: Exhibiting products that are targeted to new markets or market segments. cannot raise the funds needed to research and produce them. Research and development out comes are so uncertain that it is difficult to use normal investment criteria for budgeting. vi) Faster Development Time: Many competitors are likely to get the same idea at the same time and victory often goes to the swiftest. or overpriced. Companies handle the organizational aspects of new product development in several ways.) iv) Improvements and revisions of existing products: New products that provide improved performance or greater perceived value and replace existing products. 1 The company can develop new products in its own laboratories. v) Development costs are higher than expected. CHALLENGES IN NEW-PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: New technologies has shortened the product life cycle. not advertised effectively. i) Putting an new idea (favorite to high level executive) inspite of negative market research findings. At the same time the development of a new product is also risky due to the chances of failure.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-11 Developing New Product Every company must carry on new product development. vi) Competitors fight back harder than expected. vi) Cost reductions: New product that provide similar performance at lower cost. Moreover. EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: Successful new product development requires the company to establish an effective origination for managing the new-product-development process.

one idea sparks another. and carrying out field testing and commercialization. telephone. new-product managers tend to think in terms of product modification and line extensions limited to their product market. 2)idea screening. like customers. Channel Members: Companies sales representatives and intermediaries are a particularly good source of new product ideas. of a problem and examining the relationships among them. and sales representatives. IDEA GENERATION: The new product development process with the search. 4 New-Product Departments Large companies often establish a new-product department headed by a manager who has substantial authority and access to top management. Customers . Scientists / Employees: Companies also rely on their scientists. b) Autonomy of Object: Let the problem take on a life of its own. They can buy their competitors products. vi) Synectics: William J. The product managers are so busy in managing their existing products that they can thought litter about new products. and remember. Competitors: Companies can also find good ideas by examining their competitor's products and services. and 8) commercialization. They have first hand exposure to costumers needs and complaints. before a sufficient number of perspective have been developed. we want as many ideas as possible. Combining and Improving ideas is encouraged: Participants should suggest how other people's ideas can be joined into more ideas. "Remember. iv) Need / Problem Identification: In it idea generation starts from reviewing consumer needs / problems. 5 New-Product Venture Teams: A venture team is a group brought together from various operating departments and charged with developing a specific product or business.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 1 Product Managers: Many companies assign responsibility for new-product ideas to their product managers. 34 . Thus he has exposed a very different technique named as synectics method. However. In practice this system have many faults. scientists. The usual brainstorming group consist of 6 to 10 peoples discussing the specific problem. Top managers should define the products the available markets and state the new products objectives. 6) product development. engineers. and copy machine into one unit. this position professionalise the new-product function. Freewheeling is welcomed: The wilder the idea. and within an hour over a hundred or more new ideas may find their way into the tape recorder. The hope is to find some novel combinations. The departments major responsibilities include generating an screening new ideas. and top management. Consumers needs and wants are logical place to start the search for new-product ideas. d) Involvement / detachment: Alternate between entering into the particulars of the problem and standardizing back from them. 3)concept development and testing 4) marketing strategy development. In it the consumers are asked about needs. competitors. the greater will be the chances of an idea worth pursuing. 5) business analysis. To be maximally effective their four guidelines Criticism is ruled out: negative comments on ideas must be withheld until later. 7) market testing. distributors. c) Use of Common Place: Take advantage of the familiar as a signboard to the strange. Quantity is encouraged: The greater the number of ideas generated. It have five principles: a) Deferment: Look first for viewpoint rather than solutions. it is easier to tame down than to think up. MANAGING THE NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: There are eight stages involved in the new-product development process.g. 2 New Product Managers: Some companies have appointed new-produce managers who report to group product managers. like production managers. They can lean from suppliers. ii) Forced Relationships: In it several aspects are considered in relation to one an other to create a new product. take them apart. Top management: can be another manor source of development of new ideas. a combine machine containing fax. the better.J Gorder felt the brainstorming sessions tent to produce solutions too quickly. employees. what competitors are doing. and other employer for new-product ideas. 1) idea generation. Successful companies have established a culture that encourages every employee to seek new ways for improving the company's production. Idea Generation techniques: There are a number of techniques of idea generation some are given bellow: i) Attribute Listing: Listing the attributes of an existing product and then modifying each attribute in the search for an improved product. problems and ideas. iii) Morphological Analysis: It consist of identifying the structural dimensions. 3 New product Committees: Many companies have a high-level management committee charged with reviewing and approving new-product proposals. working with R&D department. no evaluation. channel members. v) Brainstorming: Group creativity can be stimulated by brain storming technique. designers. The chain starts each discussion by saying. New product ideas can come from many sources. They can find out what customers like and dislike in their competitor's products. and build better ones." The ideas start flowing. e.

in winter. A product Image: is the particular picture that consumer acquire of an actual or potential product. and iii) rejects. The sales forecast etc. and adopt or reject them? Management must under stand this consumer-adoption process to build an effective strategy for early market penetration. and ii) A Go-error: When a company permits a poor idea to move into development and commercialization. at breakfast etc. in hunger.g. accidental things suggest analogies that are sources of new viewpoints. a product concept and a product image. The company determines whether the product idea can be translated into a technically and commercially feasible product. 35 . then getting those consumers' reactions. i) A Drop-error: When dismissed a good idea. What primary benefits should it provide. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING: Attractive ideas must be refined into testable product concepts. v) What action is to be taken on the completion of test. building. try them. ii) Which cities. However the more the tested concepts resemble the final product or experience. By answering these questions a company can for many concepts. ii) Marginal ideas. all companies don’t conduct market testing. that the company might offer to the market A product concept is an elaborated version of the idea expressed in meaningful consumer terms. The company should offer payment or recognition to the employees submitting the best ideas. If it cannot do so the companies accumulated project cost will be lost. The product is ready to be dressed up with a brand name packing and preliminary marketing program. It is better. BUSINESS ANALYSIS: After developing strategy the company evaluate the product's business attractiveness. Third: The long run sales and profit goals and marketing mix strategy. At this stage it jumps in investments evaluation and evaluation of costs to be incurred in the earlier stages. The consumer adoption process is followed by the consumer loyalty process which the concern of the established producer. a drawing or a prototype. At this stage a word or picture description can suffice. Following are the three questions on which the concepts are based. each being a category concept. structure and behavior. CONSUMER ADOPTION PROCESS: How do potential customer learn about new product. COMMERCIALIZATION: If the test is cleared and company has decided to market the product the company have to make heavy expenditure on plant. iii) Length of test. 4 Trail: Consumer try the product to improve his estimate of its value. The concept can be presented symbolically or physically. distribution strategy and marketing budget for the first year. If they do the product concept can move to the product development stage PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: Until now the idea exists only as a word description. the more dependable concept testing is.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 e) Use of Metaphor: Let apparently irrelevant. iv) What information to be collected. A product Idea is a possible product idea. IDEA SCREENING: The new developed ideas should be written down and review each week by an idea committee and sot it into 3 groups. When it can be used e. In doing test marketing managers faces several questions like:i) How many test cities. MARKET TESTING: If the management is satisfied with the products functional and psychological performance. Management prepares estimates of sales cost and profit and determine whether they satisfy the companies objectives or not. Concept Testing: Concept testing calls for testing product concepts with an appropriate group of target consumers. There may be two types of errors while idea screening. The goals are to test the new product in more authentic consumer setting and to learn how target the mark to and how consumers and dealers react to handling using and repurchasing the actual product. A plan to market the product is consist of three parts: First: Target Market size. Second: Planned price. The marketing strategy will undergo further refinement in subsequent stages. that where the more risk is involved the product must be market tested. Who will use it. 3 Evaluation: Consume consider in the light of information whether to try it or not. MARKETING STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT: After testing the new-product manage must develop a preliminary marketing strategy plan for introducing the new product in to the market. i) Promising Ideas. Stages in the Adoption Process: Adopters of the new product have been observed to move through the following five stages: 1 Awareness: The consumer becomes aware of the innovation but lacks information about it. 2 Interests: The consumer is stimulated to seek information about the innovation. However. the planned product positioning and the sales mark. manufacturing facilities. We can distinguish among a product ides. Concept Development: A product idea can be turned into several product concepts.

Factors Influencing Adoption Process: It is sometimes harder to generalize about consumers. They can be classified according to following five groups: i) Innovators: Willing to try new ideas at some risk ii) Early Adopters: Those who adopt new ideas early but carefully. Five characteristics are especially important in influencing the rate of adoption of an innovation. LIKE PEOPLE ORGANIZATIONS VARY IN THEIR READINESS TO ADOPT AN INNOVATION: 36 . one person have. Other characteristics that influence the rate of adoption are cost. marketers recognize a few basic truths about the adoption process: PEOPLE DIFFER GREATLY IN THEIR READINESS TO TRY NEW PRODUCTS: Different people exhibit different behaviors in respect of adopting new ideas.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 5 Adoption: The consumer decides to make full and regular use of the innovation. v) The innovation's Communicability: The degree to which its beneficial results are observable or describable to others. ii) The innovation's compatibility: The degree to which it is relatively difficult to understand or use. They rarely are leaders. It is an important factor. iii) Deliberates: They adopt new ideas before the average persons. iii) The innovation's Complexity: The degree to which it is relatively difficult to understand or use. However. v) Laggards: They are suspicious of changes and adopt the innovation only when it takes on a measure for tradition itself. Its significance is greater in some situations and for some individuals than for others. scientific credibility. and social approval. iv) The innovation's Divisibility: The degree to which it can be tried on a limited basis. The new-product marketer has to research all these factors and give the key ones maximum attention in designing the new-product and marketing program. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INNOVATION PRODUCT EFFECTS ITS RATE OF ADOPTION: Some products gain attention immediately while others take long time to gain acceptance. iv) Skeptical: They adopt a product after a majority of people have tried it. It is more important in the evaluation stage of the adoption process than in the other stages. risk and uncertainty. the more quickly it will be adopted. on others attitudes. i) Innovations relative advantages: The degree it appears superior to the existing products. It have more influence on late adopters than early adopters and it is more important in risky situation than is safe situation. PERSONAL INFLUENCE PLAYS A LARGE ROLE IN THE ADOPTION OF A PRODUCT: Personal influence is the effect.

each early. AND BRAND LIFE CYCLES: The product life-cycle concept can be used to analyze product-category. we will firs describe its present concept the demand/technology life cycle. 3) Maturity. and decline slowly. nylon's sales shows a scalloped pattern because of the many new uses. The petrified level is sustained by the late adopters buying the product for the first time and early adopters replacing the product.g. 4 Branded Products: can have a short or long product life cycle. It is difficult to predict whether something will be only a fad or how long a fad will last. A fashion is a currently accepted or popular style in a given field. Usually the stages are marked where the rates of sales growth or decline becomes pronounced. 2 GROWTH: A period of rapid market acceptance and substantial profit improvements 3 MATURITY: A period of slowdown in sales growth because the product has achieved acceptance by most potential buyers. and decline very fast. Their acceptance cycle is short. cigarettes. If we draw a curve of past sales history of products it will take bell shape and can be divided in to four stages: 1) Introduction. 1 Product Category have the longest life cycle. And Fad Life Cycles: There are three special categories of product life cycles that should be distinguished  those pertaining to styles. Each of them can have different life cycle.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-12 Managing Life-Cycle Strategies PRODUCTS LIFE CYCLE:(PLC) The product life cycle is an important concept that provides insight into a product's competitive dynamics. Although many new brands die an early death. uses or users e. product and brand-lifecycle. Three common alternate patterns are. Once a style is invented. Many product categories stays at maturity stage indefinitely e. Fads are fashions that come quickly into the public eye. The changing need level is described by a demand life-cycle curve. Fads do not survive because they do not normally satisfy a strong need or do not satisfy well. which produces a second cycle. some brand names have a very long PLC. 2 Product Form: follows the standard life-cycle. 3 Scalloped Pattern: Her sales passes through a succession of cycles based on the discovery of the new product characteristics. Marketer should check the normal sequence of stages in their industry and the average duration of each stage. To fully explain the PLC. 2) Growth. 2 Cycle-Recycle Pattern: In it the company aggressively promotes its new product and this produces the firs cycle. going in and out of vogue. Profit are nonexistent in this stage because of the heavy expenses incurred with product introduction. A fashion tent to grow slowly. and 4) Decline. profit rise and fall at different stages of the life cycle of the product. Researchers have fond six to seventeen different life cycle patterns. It is difficult to designate where each stage begins and ends. it can last for generations.. PRODUCT-FORM. sales passes through distinct stages. 3 Product follows either the standard product-life-cycle or one of several variant shapes. more faithfully than product categories. 1 Growth-slump-Maturity Patterns: In it sales grow rapidly when product first introduced and then fell to "petrified" level. Fads appears to people who are searching for excitement or who want to distinguish themselves from others. 4 DECLINE: The period when sales show downward drift and profits erode. Other Shapes of the Product Life Cycle: Not all products exhibit the bell-shaped life cycle. adopted with great zeal. and they tend to attract only a limited following. Profit stabilize or decline because of increasing marketing outlays to defend the product against competition. along with other factors. PRODUCT-CATEGORY. Each new technology satisfies demand in a better way than the previous technology. For example jeans are a fashion in today's clothing. product-form. newspapers etc. The amount of media attention. The length of fashion cycle is hard to predict. sales start declining and the company gives the other promotion push. Once the need is identified. 2) cycle-recycle patterns and 3) scalloped pattern. Product requires different marketing strategies at different stages of their life cycle. Later. remains popular for a while. and are used to name and launch new products. A Style is a basic and distinctive mode of expression appearing in a field of human endeavor. Demand /Technology Life Cycle: Remember that most products exist as one solution among many to meet a need. 1 INTRODUCTION: A period of slow sales growth and substantial profit improvement. Stages in the Product Life Cycle: To understand the product life cycle one should understand positively that: Product have a limited life. Style. Fashion. 1) growth-slump-maturity patterns. influence the duration of the fad's. fashions and fads.g. PRODUCT. 37 . it is satisfied by some technology.

Introduction Stage: The introduction stage starts when the new product is launched. Most of the market is aware of the product. and customers start switching to other products. The reasons for slow growth may be i) delay in the expansion of production capacity. Profits increase during growth stage as 1) promotion costs are spread over the large volume and 2) unit manufacturing cost fall faster than price decline. The high promotion acts to accelerate the rate of market penetration. The Growth Stage: Marked by rapid climb in sales.the firm faces potential competition and wants to build brand preference. Considering the price and promotion management can pursue one of the four strategies given bellow: i) A Rapid-Skimming Strategy: Launching product at high price and high promotion level. This combination is expected to skim lot of profit from the market. v) Shifting from product awareness advertising to product preference advertising. II) Stable Maturity: Sales flatten on a per capital basis because of market saturation. MARKET STRATEGIES IN THE GROWTH STAGE: To sustain rapid market growth as long as possible following are the strategies: i) improve product quality and adds new product features and improved styling. 38 . Companies maintain their promotional expenses. or brand strength. The rate of growth eventually changes from an accelerating rate to decelerating rate. Its characteristics are: Prices remain the same or slightly changes due to change in demand. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE MATURITY STAGE: Some company abandon their weak products. III) Declining Maturity: The absolute level of sales starts to decline. and . Maturity Stage: Here the product's rate of sales growth will slow down.those who become aware of the product are eager to have it and pay the asking price. Assumptions are: Market is large. and iii) customer reluctance to change established behaviors. Firms have to watch for the on set of the decelerating rate in order to prepare new strategies. Market is unaware of the product. This strategy makes sense when . High price helps to recover much profit per-unit and low promotion keeps the marketing expenses down. marketing management can set a high or a low level for each marketing variable (price. Maturity stage can be subdivided in to three phases. and the product will enter a stage of relative maturity. there are no new distribution channels to fill. product quality). ii) Add new models and flanker products iii) Enters new market segments. Marketers should systematically consider strategies of market product and marketing-mix modification. distribution. Seeing the attractive market opportunities competitors enter in the market.buyers are willing to pay high price potential competition is not eminent.a large part of the potential market is unaware of the product . MARKETING STRATEGIES THROUGHOUT THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE: Each stage of the product life cycle have an appropriate marketing strategy. quality. iv) A Slow penetration strategy: Launch a product at low price with low promotional expenses THE MARKET PIONEERS: Companies while entering in the market must decide either to be first in the market which is highly rewarding but risky.Market is of limited size.most buyers are price sensitive Strong potential competition. promotion. and it poses formidable challenges to marketing management. . The introduce the new product features and expand the distribution chain. iv) Increase its distribution coverage and enters new distribution channels. I) Growth maturity: The sales growth rate starts to decline. retail outlets.e. This strategy promises to bring about fastest market penetration and the largest market share. . In launching a new product. . ii) delay in obtaining adequate distribution i.manufacturing cost falls with scale of production and accumulated manufacturing expenses. and expensive. This stage normally lasts longer than the previous stages. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE INTRODUCTION STAGE. or to come in later which would make sense that the firm can bring superior technology. vi) Low down the price to attract the next layer of price-sensitive buyers. Because it takes time to roll out the product in several markets and to fill the dealer pipelines.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 The real winner in the fad war are those who recognize them early and can leverage those fads into products with staying power. The early adopters like to adopt the product and additional costumers start to buy the product. This strategy make sense under the following assumptions: . ii) A Slow Skimming Strategy: Launching a product at high price and low promotion. iii) A Rapid Penetration Strategy: Launching a product at low price and spend heavily on promotion. sales growth is slow at this stage.

it must decide whether to liquidate the brand quickly or slowly. volume or early purchase discounts. 4 Decline Stage: The sales of most product forms and brands eventually decline. They may withdraw from smaller market segments and weaker trade channels. which products are dubious. frequency or size of add be changed? iv) Sales Promotion: Making trade deals. reliability. vi) Services: Like speeding up delivery. Sales may polunge to zero or they may petrify at a low level. All lead to overcapacity. The controllers office supplies data. with and without any changes in marketing strategy. b) Determining Marketing Strategies: Some firms will abandon declining markets earlier than others. Those remaining may reduce the number of products they offer. iii) Win competitors' Customers: Try to attract the competitors' customers or adopt the brand. 1 The company can try to expand the number of brand users in three ways: i) Convert Nonusers: The company can try to attract nonusers to the product. There are many reasons for sales decline including technological advances. R&D. gifts and contests. feature improvement. Much depends on the exit barriers in the industry. safety or convenience. more outlets be penetrated. increased price outing. This attitude yields the product-oriented picture rather than a market-oriented picture. and finance. maturity. MARKETING STRATEGIES DURING THE DECLINE STAGE: In handling its aging products. If the fir can't find any buyers. Increase the sales force incentives. ii) More usage per occasion: try to interest users in using more of the product on each occasion. The manager responsible for the dubious products fill out the ratting forms showing where they thin sales and profits will go. a) Identifying the Weak Products: The first task is to establish a system for identifying weak products. iii) New and more varied uses: The company can try to discover new product uses and convince people to use the product in more varied ways. Firms may appoint a product-review committee with representatives from marketing . modify its marketing strategy. cents-off-coupons. that expand the products versatility. It might be slow. c) Marketing-Mix Modification: Product managers might also try to stimulate sales by modifying other marketingmix elements. rebates. and they may cut their promotion budget and reduce their prices further. re-division of sales territories. MARKET EVOLUTION: Firms while viewing product life cycle pay particular attention to product or brand rather than to the overall market. If so should the list price be lowed or lowered through price specials. shifts in consumer tastes. The remaining firms will enjoy increased sales and profits. c) The Drop Decision: When a company decides to drop a product. 39 . weight. or rapid. and increased domestic and foreign competition. some firms withdraw from the market. iii) Advertising: Increase the advertising expenditure. The product-review committee examines this information and makes a recommendation for each dubious product leave it alone.g. or easier credit terms? Or the raise the price to signal higher quality? ii) Distribution: Obtain more product support and display in the existing outlets. size. v) Personal Selling: Increase the quality or number of sales-people. or drop it. STAGES IN MARKET EVOLUTION: Like product market evolve through four stages: emergence. the company can probably sell it to another firm. growth.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan a) Market Modification: The company might try to expand the market for its mature brand by working with the two factors that make up sales volume. The committee develops the system for identify weak products. introduce product into new distribution channel. i) Quality Improvement: Aims at increasing the products functional performance its durability. a computer program analyzes this and helps manager to decide. 2 Volume can also be increased by convincing current brand users to increase annual usage of the brand. The demand / technology life cycle requires to take a broader look at the whole market. ii) Enter new market segments: Try to enter new segments that use the product but not the brand. It must also decide on how much parts inventory and service to maintain for past customers. manufacturing. freight cost absorption. warranties. b) Product Modification: Managers also try to stimulate sales by modifying the product's characteristics through quality improvement. and profit erosion. a company faces a number of tasks and decisions. Here are also three strategies: i) More frequent use: The company can try to get customers to use the product more frequently. additives etc. or style improvement. technical assistance. it faces further decisions. speed. and credit facility. and decline. ii) Feature Improvement: aims at adding new features e. adds message be changed or timing. iii) Style improvement: increasing to product's aesthetic appeal. taste etc. they should ask the following questions: i) Prices: Includes a price cut to attract new tries and users. As sales decline. If the product has strong distribution and residual goodwill.

Defending the Market Share: While trying to expand total market size. more usage. ii) FLANK DEFENCE: The market leader should not only guard its territory but also erect outposts to protect a weak front or possibly serve as an invasion base for counterattacking. high-pressure strategies and at retaining the initiative at all times and keeping the competition always on the defensive. It is not market abandonment but rather giving up the weaker territories. or sales-territory invasion. will respond with a counterattack. Sustained. A company can launch a preemptive defence in several ways. product improvement. Defending the Strategic Objectives and Opponent(s) First of all a market challenger have to define his strategic objectives. Challengers. Planned contraction is a move to consolidate one's competitive strength in the market and concentrate mass at pivotal positions. 3 Favorable: Have a exploitable strength and a better-than-average opportunity to improve its position. There are six defense strategies that dominant firm can use. 4 Tenable: Performing at a sufficiently satisfactory level to continue business but exist in the sufferance of another dominant company and has a less than average opportunity to improve its position. i) New Users: Finding new users for the product and exploring the new markets. Expanding the total Market: Expansion can be made by way of new users.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-13 Designing Marketing Strategies for Market Leaders. 1 Dominant: Control the behavior of other competitors and has a wide choice of strategic option. ii) New Uses: Expanding market by discovering and promoting new uses for the product iii) More Usage: Convincing people to use more of the product per use occasion. an effective counterattack is to invade the attacker's main territory so that it will have to pull back some of its troops to defend its territory. 5 Weak: have unsatisfactory performance but an opportunity exists for improvement. or launching a pricer movement to cut off the attacking formations from their base of operation. v) MOBILE DEFENCE: It involves more than the leader aggressively defending its territory. When a market leader's territory is attacked. In many markets. vi) CONTRACTION DEFENSE: Large companies sometimes recognize that they can no longer defend all of their territory. MARKET CHALLENGER STRATEGIES: Second. third. iii) PREEMPTIVE DEFENCE: A more aggressive defense maneuver is to launch an attach on the enemy before the enemy starts its offense against the leader. Or it could try to achieve a grand market envelopment. and competitors are nibbling away on several fronts. like waging guerrilla action against the market by hitting one competitor here. Followers. 40 1 2 . but first it have to decide as to whom to attack. the leader stretches its domain over new territories that can serve as future centers for defense and offense. iv) COUNTEROFFENSIVE DEFENSE: Most market leaders. new uses. and reassigning resources to stronger territories. In mobile defense. promotion blitz. and lower ranked firms are often called runner up or trailing they can adopt one of the two postures: 1) Attack the leader and other competitors in an aggressive bid for further market share (called market challengers). the dominant firm must continuously defend it s current business against rival attacks The leader is like a large elephant being attacked by a swarm of bees. maneuvering against the attacker's flank. The leader cannot remain passive in the face of a competitor's price cut. The leader has the strategic choice of meeting the attacker frontly. The best fours of action then appears to be planned contraction (called strategic withdrawal). 3 Try to increase its market share further even if market size remains constant. MARKET LEADER STRATEGIES: If a dominant firm want to remain number one it have to take three actions: 1 Find way to expand total market demand. when attacked. 6 Nonviable: Unsatisfactory performance and no opportunity to improvement. These are summarized bellow: i) POSITION DEFENCE: The most basic idea is to build an impregnable fortification around one's territory. another there and keep everyone off balance. Most market challengers strategic objective is top increase their market share. 2) They can play ball and not rock the boat (market followers). 3 Expanding Market Share: Market leaders can improve their profitability by increasing their market share. The firm must change or els exit. one share point is worth tens of millions of rupees. and Nichers A firm can occupy any of the following six competitive positions in the target market. Their forces are spread too thin. 2 Defend its current market share through good defensive and offensive actions. 2 Strong: Can take action (without putting in danger its long-term position) regardless competitors action. It requires a decision to attack. Or it could begin sustained price attacks.

The aggressor may offer the market everything the opponent offers and more. the leader can quickly match these to diffuse the attack. v) Product-innovation strategy: The challenger might pursue product innovation to attack the leader's position. The follower has to define a growth path. The challenger must put together a total strategy consisting of several specific strategies. but one that does not ignite competitive relation. 2 FLANK ATTACK: When the company attacks the others weak points. It must also enter new markets as they open up. and so on. The cloner emulates the leader's products. iii) Prestige-goods Strategy: Launch a higher-quality product and charge a higher price than the leader. ii) Cheaper-goods strategy: The challenger can offer an average or low-quality product at a much lower price. and so on. diversifying into new geographical markets and leapfrogging into new technologies to supplant existing products. iii) Imitator: copies some thing from the leader but maintain differentiation in terms of packaging advertising. 5 GUERRILLA ATTACK: Consist of small intermittent attacks on the opponent's different territories. improved service or additional product features. MARKET FOLLOWER STRATEGIES: Many runner-up / followers companies prefer to follow rather than challenge the market leader. Take the leader's products and adapt or improve them. ii) Cloner. ii) Attack firms of Its own size: That are not doing the sob and are under-financed. iv) Adapter. vii) Distribution-innovation strategy: Discovering or developing new channels of distribution. pricing. Choosing a General Attack Strategy: Given clear opponents an objective. 3 ENRICHMENT ATTACK: An attempt to capture a wide slice of the enemy's territory through a comprehensive blitz attack. The adapter may choose to sell to different markets to avoid direct confrontation with the leader. intense promotional blitzes. iii) Attack small and regional firms which are not doing the job well. Choosing a Specific Attack Strategy: The above five strategies are very broad. Follower duplicates the leader's product and package and sells it on the black market or through disputable leaders. lower labor costs. Follower ship is usually not the same as being passive or a carbon copy of the leader. and rear simultaneously. vi) Improved-Services Strategy: Offering new or better services to customers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan i) Attack the Market Leader: This is a high risk but potentially high-payoff strategy and makes good sense if the leader is "falls leader" who is not serving the market. These include selective price cuts. But leaders never take lightly any effort to draw away their customers. Market challengers can choose from several specific attack strategies: i) Price-discount Strategy: Selling a comparable product at a lower price. MARKET-NICHER STRATEGIES: 41 . The strategy offers three lines of approaches diversifying into unrelated products. it must keep its manufacturing costs low and its product quality and services high. This is not to say that market followers lack strategies. and occasional legal actions. It involves launching a grand offensive or several fronts. The major principle of modern offensive warfare is concentration of strength against weakness. The out come depends on who has the more strength. A follower is often a major target of attach by challengers. Each follower tries to bring distinctive advantages to its target market. thus giving buyer more choice. Its success depends on combining several principles to improve its position over time. The aim is to harass and demoralize the opponent and eventually secure permanent footholds. In such a case a substantial segment that is unnerved or poorly served provide an excellent strategic target. 4 BYPASS ATTACK: Consist of most indirect strategies. A market follower must know how to hold current customers and win a fair share of new customers. If the runner-up's take any action like lower prices. Four broad followership strategies can be distinguished: i) Counterfeiter. and are under financed. so that the offer is unrefusable. and use lower costs to price more aggressively to gain market share. A challenger can rarely improve its market share by relying only one strategy. Enrichment makes sense where the aggressor commands superior resources and believes that a swift enrichment will break the opponent's will. sides. iv) Product-proliferation Strategy: Challenger attack the leader by launching a larger product variety. The guerrilla aggressor uses both conventional and unconventional means to attack the opponent. The aggressor may attack the strong side to tie up the defender's troops but will launch the real attack at the side or rear. distribution advertising. But often the adopter grows into the future challenger. viii) Manufacturing-cost-reduction strategy: Pursuing lower manufacturing costs than the competitors through more efficient purchasing. It means by passing the enemy and attacking easier markets to broaden one's resource base. or modern production equipment. what options are available in attacking an enemy? We can make progress by imaging at opponent who occupies a certain market territory. and endurance. so that the enemy must protect its front. We distinguish among five attack strategies: 1 FRONTAL ATTACK: When a company attacks the opponents strengths rather than its weaknesses. ix) Intensive advertising promotion: Some challengers attack the leader by increasing their expenditure on advertising and promotion. therefore.

vi) Product or product-line specialists: The firm carries or produces only one product or product line. The firm limits its selling to one or a few major customers. iv) Specific-customer specialists. viii) Job-shop Specialist: The firm customize its products for individual customers. ix) Quality / price specialists: the firm operates at the low-or high-quality ends of the market. The following specialists roles are open to nichers: i) End-user Specialist: The firm specializes in serving one type of end-use customer. xi) Channel Specialists: The firm specializes in serving only one channel of distribution. of being a follower in a large market. Niche Specialization: The key idea in nichemanship is specialization.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan An alternative. The company is then stuck with highly specialized resources that may not have high-value alternative uses. Niching carries a major risk in that the market niche might dry up or be attacked. is to be a leader in a small market. iii) Customer-size Specialist: The firm concentrates on selling to either small. medium-size. 42 . Many nichers specialize in serving small customers who are neglected by the majors. x) Service specialist: The firm offers one ore more services not available from other firms. v) Geographic Specialists: The firms sells only in a certain locality. region or area of the world. vii) Product-feature specialist: The firm specials in producing a certain type of product feature. or large customers. ii) Vertical-level Specialists: The firm specials at some vertical level of the production-distribution value chain. Small firms commonly avoid competing with larger firms by targeting small markets of littler or no interest to the larger firms.

Indirect Export: It is exporting through independent intermediaries. IV EXPORT MANAGEMENT COMPANY: A company who agrees to manage a company's export activities for a fee. Product and communication adoption costs are high. In it the investment and the risk are somewhat greater but so is the potential return. What proportion of foreign to total sales will it seek? Most companies start small when the venture abroad. or undergo a political revolution and expropriate foreign property. Its broad choices are indirect exporting. 2 Might not understand the foreign country’s business culture or know how to deal effectively with foreign nationals. It often serves as a display center and customer-service center. III TRAVELING EXPORT SALES REPRESENTATIVE: The company can send home-based sales representatives abroad to finds business. it has to determine the best mode of entry. Various methods of licensing are: I MANAGEMENT CONTRACT: When the company exports management services by appointing a manager to help the management of foreign country. DECIDING WHICH MARKET TO ENTER: The company has to define its international marketing objectives and policies. negotiate with them and receives commission it includes trading companies. transportation and financial flaws. 4 Company may lacks in managers with international experience.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-14 Designing and Managing Global Marketing Strategies The world is rapidly shrinking with the advent of faster communication. Direct Export: Companies may deiced to handle their exports. 4 To reduce firms dependence on any one market. A GLOBAL INDUSTRY: means an industry in which the position of competitors ( in geographic or national markets) are fundamentally affected by their overall global position. licensing. There are four types of intermediaries. Generally speaking. 3 Might underestimate foreign regulations and incur unexpected costs. The company must decide whether to market in a few countries or many countries. 5 The foreign country might change its commercial laws. direct exporting. IV FOREIGN BASED DISTRIBUTORS OR AGENTS: Highiring foreign based distribution and sales agents. population and income size and growth are high in the initial countries chosen and Dominant foreign firms can establish high barriers to entry. The ways of direct export are given bellow: I DOMESTIC BASED EXPORT DEPARTMENT OR DIVISION: and an export sales manager carries on the actual selling. trade secrete or other items of value for a fee or royalty. patent. Yet there are several factors that might draw a company into international arena: 1 Global firms attach the company's domestic market and the company wants to counterattack these competitors in their home markets to tie up their resources. Some plan to stay small. DECIDING HOW TO ENTER: After deciding the target countries. DECIDING WHETHER TO GO ABROAD: Most companies prefer to remain domestic if their domestic market were large enough. III CORPORATIVE ORGANIZATION: The export goods on behalf of several producers and are partly under the control of those producers. They might be given exclusive rights to represent the manufactures in that country or only limited rights. 2 Higher profit opportunities in foreign market than domestic market. I DOMESTIC-BASED EXPORT MERCHANT: Who buyers the manufacturer's products and then sells them abroad. Licensing: In it the licenser licenses a foreign company to use a manufacturing process. viewing foreign operations as a small part of their business. II OVERSEAS SALES BRANCH OR SUBSIDIARY: which handles the sales and distribution and might handle warehousing and promotion as well. A company should enter fewer countries when Market entry and control costs are high. Before going abroad the company must weigh several risks given bellow: 1 The company might not understand the foreign customers preferences an fail to offer competitively attractive products. II DOMESTIC-BASED EXPORT AGENT: Who seeks foreign purchasers. devalue its currency. A GLOBAL FIRM: is a firm that operates in more than one country and captures (production. a company which decides to operate in fewer countries can do so with deeper commitment and penetration in each. trademark. and direct investment. 5 Customer going abroad requires international services. costs and reputation that are not available to purely domestic competitors. joint ventures. 3 When firm needs a larger customer base to achieve economics of scale. themselves. 43 B C 1 2 3 .

DECISION OF MARKETING ORIGINATION: Depending upon the level of involvement in the international arena. How many intermediaries will be involved in the distribution process. The process is called communication adoption. The franchiser offers a franchisee a complete brand concept and operating system In return the franchisee invests in the business and pays certain fee to the franchiser.) as they enters foreign markets. III FRANCHISING: A complete form of licensing. It can take two forms that are well adapted to a foreign country's needs. or b) Country Version: iii) PRODUCT INNOVATION: It consists of creating something new. and b) Forward Invention: Creating a new product to meet the needs of an other country. When international sales expand the company organizes an export department consisting of sales manager and a few assistants. price etc. Place: Deciding as how the product will reach to the final users. They creates an international division to handle international activities. Promotion: Either adopting some advertising campaigns used in the home market or change them for the local market. 2 Export via independent representative. They have three choices i Setting a uniform price everywhere in local as well as foreign countries. It may be of two types a) Backward Invention: re introducing earlier product. IV JOINT VENTURES: Foreign and local investors join together by investing and sharing ownership and control. 3 Establishing one or more subsidiaries. transfer prices dumping charges and gray markets.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan II D 1 2 3 4 E 1 2 3 CONTRACT MANUFACTURING: The manufacturer engages a local manufacturer to product the product on behalf of the company. There are several levels of adaptation. Let us consider them one by one. licenses to other still make joint venture in the third. International Division: Involving in several markets by different way. ii) Product Adoption. Global Origination: When it becomes impossible to control through international division then they become global organization. The potential adoptions that firms might make (in respect of their product. DECIDING ON THE MARKETING PROGRAM International companies must have to decide. iii Setting a cost based price in each country. V DIRECT INVESTMENT: Also called direct owner ship of foreign based assembly or manufacturing facilities. 4 Establishing of production facilitates abroad. ii Setting a market based price in each country. companies may arrange their marketing activities in three ways Export Department: Begins simply by shipping out its goods. 44 . iii) Product Innovation i) STRAIGHT EXTENSION: Introducing the product in the foreign market without any change. as to how much adopt the marketing strategy mix to local conditions. promotion. Export to one. ii) PRODUCT ADOPTION: Involves altering the product to meet local conditions or preferences. Product: There are five different product strategies that companies can adopt are i) Straight Extension. locally in the country in which they are to be soled. They must had to deal with Price escalation. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS In the internationalization process a firm moves through four stages given bellow: 1 No regular export activity. A company can produce a a) Regional version: naming it on the basis of the region northern version etc. Price: Multinationals face several problems in pricing.

PRODUCT-LINE DECISIONS: A product line consist of various product lines. shopping. men’s suits. A consumer buying drill is actually buying a hole. The Depth: refers to how many variants are offered of each product in the line. capital items. size. variable and perishable. consumed by one or few uses. quality. adding more product variants and deepen its product mix or pursue more product-line consistency or less. Specialty Goods: Goods with unique characteristics and for which the buyer habitually willing to make a special purchasing effort e. or some other way. Product Family: All the product classes that can satisfy the core need.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-15 Product Lines Brands & Packing 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 FIVE LEVELS OF THE PRODUCT: These five levels constitute consumer value hierarchy: Core Benefit: Is the fundamental benefit that customer really buying. and 3 Use. 2) equipment. Basic Benefit: Marketers converts the core benefit into basic product the core benefit in getting a hotel room is the buyer rest & sleep while core benefits include a bed. newspapers. desk etc. Each product type has an appropriate marketing-mix strategy. Material and Parts: goods that enter the manufacturer's product completely. or fall within given price ranges. Product Class: A group of products within the product family. depth. soap.. depending upon whether it wants to acquire a strong reputation in a single field or participate in several fields. towels. The Length of product mix refers to the total number of items in its product mix. Convenience Goods are those goods that the customer usually purchases frequently. and with a minimum of-effort. etc. and style e.g. Product Line: A group in product class performing some functions. A product line is a group of products that are closely related because they perform a similar function. characteristically compares on such bases as suitability. Augmented Product: That meets the customer's desires beyond their expectations. Durable Goods: They are tangible and normally survive many uses. and unsought goods. Shopping Goods: That the consumer. Supplies and Business Services: Short lasting goods and services helps in developing and managing the finished products. A companies product mix has a certain width. e. e. Durability and Tangibility: According to durability and tangibility there are three groups Nondurable Goods. PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION: Marketers traditionally classified product on the basis of the varying product characteristic i. The Width refers of product mix refers to how many different product lines the company caries. etc. They can be classified in three coups materials and parts. Consumption System: The way the purchaser performs trying to accomplish the benefits by using the product. by adding new product lines. etc. PRODUCT HIERARCHY: It stretches from basic needs to particular items that satisfy needs. in the process of selection and purchase.g. Tangible.g. immediately. refrigerator.e. furniture. price. 1 Durability. lengths. Brand: The name associated with one or more products in the product line. Need Family: The core need that under lies the existence of a product family. production requirements. clothing used cars etc. Consumer Goods Classification: Consumer buy a vast array of goods we can classify them among convenience. The Consistency of the product mix refers to how closely related the various product lines are in end use. The can expand its business in four ways i. and supplies & business services. clothing machine etc. Unsought Goods: Consumer does not know about and not normally think to buy. PRODUCT MIX DECISIONS A product Mid is the set of all products and items that a particular seller offers for sale to buyers. These four dimensions of the product mix provide the handles for defining the company's product strategy. distribution channels. They fall into two classes. raw materials and manufactured materials and parts. soap. Product Type: A group in product line that share one of several possible forms of a product.g. There are seven levels of product hierarchy. sociality. and consistency. inseparable. Item: A distinct unit in a brand or product line distinguishable by price. 2 Tangibility. bathroom.e. fancy goods like cars. are marketed through the same channels. are soled to the same customer groups. 45 1 2 3 . Expected Product: A set of characteristics a buyer normally expects while purchasing a product. Industrial Goods Classification: Industrial goods can be classified in terms of how they enter the production process and their relative coastlines. Capital Items: Long lasting goods facilitates developing and managing finished products including two groups 1) Installations. Services: Intangible. like. salt etc.

Intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. 6 User: The brand suggest the kind to consumer who buyouts or uses the product. Line Stretching: When a company lengthen its product line beyond its current range. 1 Attributes: A brand first bring some characteristics of the product. or design. CHALLENGES IN BRANDING: Banding poses several challenges to the marketer. Line Featuring: The product line manager typically selects one or a few items in the line to feature. Customers are not buying attributes . 4 Customer values the brand and sees it as a friend. 4 The company can more easily launch brand extensions since the brand name carries high credibility. upward. Product Line Length: The product line manager should have to maintain a the optimal product-line length. A brand is a seller's promise to consistently deliver a specific set of features. Branding is a major issue in product strategy. The key decisions are discussed in the following section. or other symbol. Line Pruning: Product-line managers must periodically review items for pruning. The concept and measurement of Brand Equity: Brands vary in the amount of power and value they have in the marketplace.. Thus it differs from other assets like patents and copyrights. High brand equity provides a number of competitive advantages: 1 The company will enjoy reduced marketing costs because of the high level of consumer brand awareness and loyalty. The best brand convey a warranty of quality. Few customers are brand-loyal. One is when the product line includes deadwood that is depressing profit. a brand identifies the seller or maker. Managers might feature low-end promotional models to service as traffic builders. Or may feature a high-end item to lend prestige to the product line. 2 The company will have more trade leverage in bargaining with distributors and retailers. they are buying benefits. 3 The company can charge a higher price that its competitors because the brand has higher perceived quality. sign. the seller is granted exclusive rights to the use of the brand name in perpetuity. symbol. or a combination of them. in mind of the buyer. legal protection and the risk that the product may prove unsatisfying to the user? On the other hand branding gives the user several advantages: 1 Brand name makes it easier for the seller to process orders and track down problems. A product line is too short if the manager can increase profits by adding times. 5 Customer is devoted to the brand. WHAT IS A BRAND: A brand is a name. logo. which have expiration dates. stoves. 2 Benefits: A brand is more that a set of attributes. labeling. The manager should concentrate on producing the higher-margin items. The brand marketer must figure out the specific groups of buyers who are seeking these values. The company uses one ore more of these attributes to advertise the product. Line Modernization: Even when product-line length is adequate. A brand can convey up to six levels of meanings. since customers expect them to carry the brand. 46 . In essence. 5 The brand offers the company some defense against fierce price competition. and services to the buyers. Under the trademark law. washing machines. the line is too long if the manager can increase profit by dropping items. trademark. It can be a name. Product Line Analysis: The product line manager needs to know the percentage of total sales and profits contributed by each item in the line. especially for price reasons No brand loyalty. the seller has to confront the branding decision. Five levels of customer attitude towers their brand from lowest to highest: 1 Customer will change brands. The other occasion for product pruning is when the company is short of production capacity. benefits. The company can stretch its line downward. and other appliance. 4 Culture: The brand may represent a certain culture . BRAND DECISIONS: In developing a marketing strategy for individual products. 3 Value: The brand also conveys something about the producers values. or both ways. 5 Personality: The brand can also project certain personality. Product-Line Market Profile: The product line manager must also review how the product line is positioned against competitors' product lines. It may be an overhaul by piecemeal or all at once. Branding Decision: The Brand or Not To Brand: While branding the products the management have to review two things the costspackaging. No reason the change the brand. term. 3 Customer is satisfied and would incur costs by changing brand.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Each product line is usually managed by a different executive. the line might need to be modernized. There are two occasions for pruning. advertising. 2 Customer is satisfied. The weak items can be identified through sales and cost analysis. Examples or product line are a company manufacturing Consumer Appliances like refrigerators.

3 Branding gives the seller the opportunity to attract a loyal and profitable set of customers. house or private brand) or a licensed brand name Brand Name Decision Manufacturer who decide to band their products must choose which brand names to use. to establish different features or appeal to different buying motives. The company can introduce line extensions. added ingredients.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 The sellers brand name and trademark provide legal protection of unique product features. etc. When the present brand image is not likely to help the new product. companies are better off creating new brand names. Each brand sponsor expects that the other brand name will strengthen band preference or purchase intention. a bottle. 4 Branding helps the seller segment markets. lawnmowers. leaving the company's brand with less demand. brand extensions. It must attract attention. PACKING: refers to the providing overall container. Brand loyalty gives sellers some protection from competition and greater control in planning their marketing program. is which two or more will-know brands are combined in an offer. large commercial users or industrial consumers.) for handling. store. Multi brands: A company will often introduce additional brands in the same product category. usually with new features. However these two terms are being used interchangeably. and snowmobiles. 47 . motorcycles. cartons crates. forms. multi brands. In the case of co-packaged products. packaging also includes the label and inserts. For example Honda uses its company name to cover such different products as its automobiles. etc. meant for the members of distribution channels. Brand-Sponsor Decision: A manufacturer has several options with respect to brand sponsorship The product may be launched as a manufacturer's brand (sometimes called nationals brand) a distributor's brand (also called retailer. making it easier to launch new brands and gain acceptance by distributors and consumers. Four strategies are available here: 1 Individual Brand names 2 Blanket family name for all products 3 Separately family names for all products 4 Company trade name combined with individual product names Brand Strategy Decision: A company have five choices when it comes to brand strategy. Or customer preferences may shift. It is the immediate wrapping or covering provided alongwith the product to facilitate handling. and so on. and make a favorable overall impression. PACKAGING: PACKAGING includes the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. In recent times packaging has become a potent marketing tool. 2 Consumer Affluence: Rising consumer affluence means consumers are willing to pay a little more for the convenience. Various motives are there for it i. Well-designed packages can create convenience value for the consumer and promotional value for the producer. A competitor may launch a brand next to the company's brand and cut into its market share. and some treat it as an element of product strategy. Line Extensions: When the company introduces additional items in the same product category under the same brand name. a can or and container which goes alongwith the product into the hands of the ultimate users. if any. 4 Innovation opportunity: Innovative packaging can bring large benefits to consumers and profits to producers. Various tools have contributed to the growing use of packaging as a marketing tool: 1 Self-service: An increasing number of products are sold on a self-service basis in super markets and discount houses. dependability. and prestige of better packages. 5 Strong brands help build the corporate image. the company may have to reposition it later. marine engines. distribution and identification of products in commercial quantities. which competitors would otherwise be likely to copy. appearance. such as new flavors. Co-brands: A rising phenomenon is the appearance of co-branding (also called dual branding). 3 Company and Brand Image: Companies are recognizing the power of well-designed packages to contribute to instant recognition of the company or brand.e. describe the product's features. it may find that non of its current brand names are appropriate. each brand hopes it might be reaching a new audience by associating with the other brand. PACKAGING AND LABELING DECISIONS: Many marketers have called packaging a fifth P alongwith price. In broader sense. New brands: When a company launches products in a new category. colors. The package must perform many of the sales tasks. package sizes. protection. new brands and co-brands. (boxes. create consumer confidence. It may be a box. protection and identification of the product. Brand Extensions: Using existing brand name to launch a product in a new category. product place and promotion. snow-bowers. Brand-Repositioning Decision: However well a brand is positioned in a market.

type. quality. Package might include up to three levels of material Primary package (like bottle). Should the package's main function be to offer superior product protection. characteristics. decisions must be made on additional packaging elements i. Once a packaging concept has be determined. The first task is to establish packaging concept. size. Packaging concept defines what the package should be or do for the particular product. It is a piece of written communication informing the user of the product about its name. the law may require additional information. specifications. Secondary Package (Cardboard box) or shipping package( containing dozens of packages of packed product) Labeling: It is a subset of packaging. Not many labels are to carry all this information at one place. origin. text and brand mark. Sellers must label their products. size.e. 48 . maintaining or servicing the product. materials . Even if the seller prefers a simple label. shape. The label might carry only the brand name or a great deal of information.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Developing an effective package for a new product requires several decisions. introduce a novel dispensing method. or something else. model or the method of using. color. handling. color. The label may be a simple tag attached to the product or an elaborately designed graphic that is part of the package. suggest certain qualities about the product or the company.

It is also called market penetration pricing. prestige or exclusiveness. To do so. However it is only a short run objective the firm must have to lean as how to add value. There are six types of objectives a company can pursue survival. and other factors to estimate their relationship. assuming the market is price sensitive. 5)selecting a pricing method. they can use several methods. or product-quality leadership. we will describe a six step procedure for price setting: 1) selecting the pricing objective. They set the lowest price. vi) PRODUCT QUALITY LEADERSHIP: A company might aim to be the product quality leader in the market. vii) OTHER PRICING OBJECTIVES: Non profit and public organizations may adopt a number of other pricing objectives. iii) MAXIMUM CURRENT REVENUE: Revenues maximization requires estimating only the demand function. In a normal case they are inversely related. In the following paragraphs. The firm has to consider many factors in setting its pricing policy. Is sums the reactions of many individuals who have different price sensitivities. They cut prices to keep the plant running and the inventories turnover. prices. Selecting the Pricing Objective: The company first has to decide what it wants to accomplish with particular product offer. quantities sold. The first step in estimating demand is thus understanding the factors that affect the buyers price sensitivity: i) Unique Value Effect: Buyers is less price sensitive if the product is more distinctive. maximum current profit. Determining Demand: Each price will lead to different level of demand. A university aims for partial cost recovery. v) MAXIMUM MARKET SKIMMING: Means setting high prices to "skim" the market. and 6) selecting the final price. and offers. A nonprofit hospital may aim for full cost recovery in its pricing. v) End-benefit effect: Buyers are less price sensitive if the expenditure is smaller as compare to the total end benefit of the product. viii) Price Quality Effect: Buyers are less price sensitive when the product is assumed to have more quality. If the objectives of the organization are clear it will be easy to set price. Profits are less important than survival. maximum current revenue. 1) First time when it develops new product. the companies stay in business. Many managers believe that revenue maximization will lead to long-run profit maximization and market share growth. knowing that it must rely on private gifts and public grants to cover the remaining costs. vii) Sunk Investment Effect: Buyer is less price sensitive when the product its to be used in connection with asset previously bought.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-17 Designing Pricing Strategies and Programs SETTING PRICE: A firm must have to set its price on three occasion. As long as prices covers the variable cost and some portion of fixed cost. maximum sales growth. ix) Inventory Effect: Buyers are less price sensitive when they cannot store the product. They examine the estimated demand under different price levels and set that price at which the profit or cash inflow is maximum. iv) MAXIMUM SALES GROWTH: Some companies want to maximize unit sales they believe that a higher sales volume will lead to lower unit costs and higher long-run profit. iii) Difficult Comparison Effect: Buyer is less sensitive if they cannot compare the quality of product with other product. 2) When it introduces its regular product in a new distribution channel or geographical area. ii) Substitute Awareness Effect: Buyer is less sensitive if he knows less about substitutes. Then its major objective shall be to survive. maximum market skimming. and 3) when it enters or bids on new contract work. vi) Shared-Cost Effect: Buyer is less price sensitive when part of the cost is born by other parties. i) Statistically analyzing the existing data on past prices. 2) determining demand. 49 1 2 . ii) MAXIMUM CURRENT PROFIT: Many companies set the price that will maximize current profit. i) SURVIVAL: If the company is working with over capacity. iv) Total Expenditure Effect: Buyer is less sensitive for price if the amount of expenditure is less as a part of their total income. or in intense competition or changing consumer wants. c) The high initial price does not attract more competitors to the market d) the high price communicates the image of a superior product. Methods of Estimating Demand Curves: Most companies make some attempt to measure their demand curves. It makes sense under the following conditions a) a sufficient number of buyers have a high current demand: b) the unit cost of producing a small volume are not so high that they cancel the advantage of charging what the traffic will bear. 3) estimating costs. 4) analyzing competitors' costs. Factors affecting price Sensitivity : The demand curve shows the market’s purchase rate at alternative prices.

Companies also charge when hidden or highly variable costs are involved. Conversely brands with low quality and low advertising charred the lowest prices. The company can send out comparison shoppers to price and assess competitors' offers. b) Brand with high relative quality and high relative advertising obtained the highest prices. iii) Asking buyers to state how many units they would buy at different proposed prices. Analyzing competitors Costs Prices and Offers: Within the range of possible prices determined by the market demand and costs competitors' costs. and demand-inelastic items. buy competitors' product and take it apart. PERCEIVED VALUE PRICING: In it marketer see the buyers perception of value not the sellers cost as a key to pricing. and ask buyers how they perceive the price and quality of each competitor's offer. Selecting the Final Price: Pricing methods arrows the pricing range. acquire competitors' price lists.. distributing. If the firm’s offer is inferior the firm is not able to charge more than the competitors. Estimating Costs: Demand sets a ceiling of the price while costs sets the floor. Markups vary considerably amend different goods. demand would be to a change in price. and purchasing agents to reduce them. fixed and variable. Systematically carry the prices of several products sold and observed the results. As a Function of Accumulated Production: Change of costs due to different levels of production. engineers. SEALED-BID PRICING: In it the firm basis its price on expectations of how competitors will price their products. Target Costing is a Japanese technique. a) Brands with average quality but high relative advertising budgets were able to charge premium prices. There are three major considerations in price setting 1) cost 2) competitors prices and 3) prices of substitutes. c) The positive relationship between high prices and high advertising held most strongly in the later stages of the product life cycle. Price Elasticity of Demand: Marketers need to know how responsive. MARK UP PRICING: A most elementary pricing method is to add a standard markup to the product's cost. Company may select any pricing method that includes one or more of these three considerations. Selecting a Pricing Method: Now the organization will be ready to select a price. then the firm will have to price close to the competitor or lose sales. and alternative approach is to charge different prices in similar territories to see how sales are affected. and selling the product. 50 . It will be some where between one that is too low to produce profit and that is too high to produce enough demand. including a fair return for its effort and risk. items with high storage and handling costs. If the firm's offer is superior. They also change as a result of a concentrated effort by the company's designers. In considering the final price following additional factors should be considered. it can use them a s an orienting point for its own pricing. specialty items. With research they determine product desired functions. If the firm’s offer is similar to a manor competitor's one . The company wants to charge a price that covers its costs of producing. Following are the price setting methods. Once the company is aware of competitors' prices and offers. It say that the price should represent the high value offered to consumers. TYPES OF COSTS: A company's costs take two forms. As a Function of Differentiated Marketing Offers: Different buyers want different terms. or elastic. Target costing: Costs change with production scale and experience. VALUE PRICING: Charge a fairly how price for a high quality offering. Markups are generally higher on seasonal items ( to cover the risk of not selling). for market leaders and for low-cost product. The firm which is making more production can charge low costs because of the expertness of the workers. i) Psychological Pricing: Many consumers use price as an indicator of quality. Therefore a company have to make activity-based cost accounting instead of standard cost accounting. prices and possible price reactions help the firms establishing where to set its prices. TARGET RETURN PRICING: A price which yields organization target rate of return on investment. GOING RATE PRICING: Basing price on competitors price. ii) The influence of Other Marketing Mix Elements on Price: The final price must take into account the brands quality and advertising relative to competition. COST BEHAVIORS: At different product ion Levels: Management should know how cost vary with different levels of production. The pricing method will then lead to a specific price.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 3 4 5 i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) 6 ii Conduct price experiments. They are collectively called as total cost and when they are divided in to units are called average cost. Some wants daily delivery some wants weakly and some wants monthly with the consideration of saving which results the company in different costs. slower moving items. Then they set the competitive price of the product from this they deduct profit margin and this leaves the target cost they must have to achieve. the firm can charge more than the competitor.

Pricing these options is sticky problem. and 6) product-bundling pricing. It can take several forms: a) Customer Segment pricing: Different customer groups are charged different prices for the same product. 3 Buyback Arrangement: The seller sells the plant and technology and agrees to accept partial in cash and partial payment in the products manufactured with that equipment. 5) byproduct pricing. c) Captive product pricing: Some products require the use of ancillary or captive product. Many companies set up a pricing department to develop pricing policies and establish approve pricing decisions. 51 . d) Two-part pricing: Service firms often engage in this type of pricing. because companies must have to decide which item is to include in the sticker price and which to offer as options. 4)two-part pricing. a) Product line Pricing: Companies normally develop product lines. e) Allowances: Are other types of reductions from price such as at the time of launching new product. a) Cash discounts: For early payment.g. razor and blades camera and camera films etc. d) Low Interest Financing: Instead of decreasing price the company offer customers low-interest financing. Thus telephone users pay a minimum monthly fee plus charges for calls beyond a certain limit. Either to charge high price to distant customers or low price to increase the volume of sales. or hour. 2 Compensation Deal: Some percentage is received in cash and remaining in goods. c) Functional Discount: For performing certain functions such as storing. selling and record keeping. c) Image pricing: Pricing same product at two different levels based on image differences. rather than single product.g. In such a case the firm searches for a set of prices that maximize the profits on the total product mix. Management must decide on pricing steps to establish from one line to the next. iv) Impact of Price on Other parties: Management should also consider the reaction of parties to the contemplated price. b) Quantity Discount: Discount allowed for large purchases. b) Product Form Pricing: Different versions of the product are priced differently. 2) optional-feature pricing. They charge a fixed fee plus a variable usage fee. cities and countries. iv) DISCRIMINATORY PRICING: When company sells one product at two or more prices that do not reflect a proportional difference in costs. The techniques are : a) Loss Leader Pricing: Selling at less than cost to increase sales. and competitors’ prices. COUNTERTRADE FORMS: 1 Barter: Direct exchange of goods. b) Optional-feature pricing: Many companies offer optional products or features alongwith their main product. We can distinguish six situations involving product-mix pricing: 1) product line pricing. V) PRODUCT PRICING MIX: The pricing logic must be modified when the product is a part of productmix. The price steps should take into account cost differences between different lines. 4 Offset: Seller received full amount in cash but agrees to spend a substantial amount of that in that country. d) Seasonal Discount: For out of season products.. in any of the following ways. customer evaluations of different features. e.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) 7 Companies Pricing Policy: The contemplated price must be consistent with company pricing policies. e) Longer Payment Terms: Sellers stretch their loans over longer periods and thus lower monthly payments. How will the distributors and deals feel about it? will the company sales force be silting to sell at that price or complain that the price is too high? How will competitors react to Adopting the Price: Companies usually not set a single price but sets a pricing structure reflecting i) GEOGRAPHICAL PRICING: Pricing in different location. e) Time pricing: Prices are varied by season. iii) PROMOTIONAL PRICING: Companies uses several pricing techniques to stimulate early purchase. 3) captive-product pricing. Moreover whether the price will be revived in hard cash or in other items in payment which cause counter trade. f) Warranties and service contracts: The company can promote sales by adding a free warranty offer or service contract. ii) PRICE DISCOUNT ALLOWANCE: Most companies reward customers for 1) early payment 2) volume purchased and 3) off season buying. Manufacturers of main product often price them low and set high markups on the supplies. d) Location Pricing: When same product is priced differently at different locations even though the cost of offering at each location is the same. day. lower admission fee for children and higher for the senior citizens. g) Psychological Discounting: Putting an artificially high price on product and then offering it at substantial savings. b) Special-event pricing: Like Eid and Christmas c) Cash Rebates: for a special time period. e.

Competitors are most likely to react where the number of firms in the industry is small the 52 e) . iv) Reduction of discounts: The company instructs its sales force not to offer its normal cash and quantity discounts. b) Declining Market Share: When companies found that they are loosing their market share. iii) Shallow-pockets trap: High priced competitors may also cuts their price and may have longer staying power because of deeper cash reserves. Reactions to Price Changes: Any price change can effect the customers. b) Over Demand: When a company cannot supply all of its customers. free delivery. Companies often raise prices by more than the cost increase in anticipation of further inflation or government price controls. or long warranties. v) Using less expensive packaging material or promoting larger package size to keep down packaging cost. or may do both. companies will face situations where they need to cut or raise prices. the savings on the price bundle must be substantial enough to induce them to buy the bundle. such as installation. Customers are most price sensitive to products that cost a lot and are bought frequently. Since customers may not have planned to buy all of the components. competitors. ii) Fragile-market-share trap: A low price buys market share but not market loyalty. While passing on price increases to the customers. to restore their market they have to decries their price. distributors. because customer will turn against the price gougers when the market softens. ii) Substituting less-expensive materials or ingredients. such as free delivery or installation. f) Product-building Pricing: When the sellers bundle their products at a set price with some saving. then they should be priced on their value. this practice is called anticipatory pricing. Other ways of Responding High Costs: There are some ways that a company can respond to high costs or demand without raising prices. The circumstances provoking price increases are: a) Cost Inflation: Rising costs unmatched by productive gains squeeze profit margins and lead companies to regular round to increase prices. The possibilities include the following: I) Shrinking the amount of product instead of raising the price. CUSTOMERS’ REACTIONS: Customers often question about the motive behind the reduction or increase in price. INITIATING AND RESPONDING TO PRICE CHANGES: After developing price strategies. e) Try to Dominate the Market through Lower Cost: and to increase their market share. Initiating Price Increases: Successful price increase can increase profits considerably if the sales volume is unaffected. if competitors forces it to do so. A seller can charge more than competitors and still get the business if the customer can be convinced that the products total lifetime costs are lower. If the by-products have value to the customer group. vii) Creating new economy brands. COMPETITORS REACTIONS: A firm changing its price had to be worried about competitors’ as well as customers’ reactions. Any income earned on the byproducts will make it easier for the company to charge a lower price on its main product. Customers will shift to another lower-price firm that comes along. iii) Reducing or removing product features to reduce cost. vi) Reducing the number of models offered. iv) Removing or deducing product service. On the other hand an increase in price may seem them that the item is hot and might be unobtainable if it is not bought soon. A company might also have to decide whether to raise the price sharply on a one-time basis or to raise it by small amounts several times. it can raise its prices.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan By-product pricing: The production of certain products often results in the development of by-products. while they hardly notice higher prices on low-cost items that they buy infrequently. This strategy also involves high risks: i) Low quality trap: Consumers will assume that the quality is below that of the higher priced competitors. or ration supplies to customers. and suppliers and may provoke government reaction as well. They may treat it as a decrease in quality or strength of the company. the company needs to avoid the image of a price gouge. iii) Unbundling of goods and services: The company maintains its price but removes or prices separately one or more elements that were par of the former offer. In over demand situation price can be increased in several ways: i) Adoption of delayed quotation pricing: When company does not fix the price of its product until it is finished or delivered. Initiating Price Cuts: There are many circumstances which lead a firm to cut its prices: a) Excess Plant capacity: and additional revenues cannot be generated without price reduction. ii) Use of escalator clauses: When company requires the customers to pay today’s price and all or any part of inflation increase that takes place before delivery.

When the attacking firms product is comparable to the leaders. If it cannot find any way it have to meet the price reduction. When there are several competitors the company must estimate each close competitor’s likely reaction. The problem is complicated because the competitor can put different interpretations on a company price cut and take such action which may surprises the company. The company under attack has to consider • the product’s stage in the life cycle. 5. b) it would lose market share because the market is price sensitive. The best response varies with situation. Launch low-price fighter line: One of the best responses is to add lower-price items to the line or to create a separate lower-price brand. its lower price will cut into the leader’s share. Responding to Competitors’ Price Changes: How should a firm respond to a price change initiated by a competitor? In markets characterized by high product homogeneity. This is necessary if the particular market segment being lost is price sensitive. its price and introduce new brands to market the attacking brand. • the behavior of costs with volume. services. Reduce Price: The leader might drop its price to the competitor’s price. • the competitor’s intentions and resources. It could improve its product. and the buyers are highly informed. and c) it could regain market share when necessary. When it believes a) its cost fall with volume. 2.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan product is homogeneous. Raise perceived quality: The leader could maintain price but strengthen the value of its offer. The leader at this point has several options: 1. Maintain price: The leader maintain its price and profit margin . The firm should search for ways to enhance its augmented product. • the market price and quality sensitivity. • its importance in the company’s product portfolio. 53 . 3. 4. and communications. It could stress the relative quality of its product over that of the low-price competitors. Before reacting the firm need to consider the following issues: 1) Why did the competitors change the price? 2) Does the competitor plan to make the price change temporary or permanent? 3) What will happen to the company’s market share and profits if it does not respond? 4) What are the other competitors and other firms’ responses likely to be to each possible reaction? Market leaders often face aggressive price cutting by smaller firms trying to build market share. believing that: a) It would lose too much profit if it reduced its price b) it would not loose to much market share. and c) it would be hard to rebuild market share one it is lost.. the firm has little choice but top meet a competitor’s price cut. Increase price and improve quality: The leader might raise. and • the company’s alternative opportunities.

5 Risk taking: The assumption of risks connected with carrying out the channel work. Members of the marketing channel perform a number of dye functions: 1 Information: The collection and distribution of marketing research information about potential and current customers. why. They must also understand the service output levels desired by the customers the types and levels of services that people want and expect when they purchase a product. iv) PRODUCT VARIETY: The assortment breadth provided by the marketing channel. A one-level channel One selling intermediary. what is feasible. Why Intermediaries Used: Producers gain several advantages you the use of intermediaries. mail order. consist of a manufacturer selling directly to the final customer. iii) SPECIAL CONVENIENCE: The degree to which the marketing channel makes it easy for customers to purchase the product. the greater the service output level that the channel must provide. Channels produce five channel out puts: I) LOT SIZE: It is the number of units that the marketing channel permits a typical customer to purchase on a occasion. trash collection specialists. 6 Physical possession: The successive storage and movement of physical products from raw materials to the final customers. 4 Financing: The acquisition and allocation of funds required to finance inventories at different levels of the marketing channel. such as retailer. Several intermediaries play a role in backward channels e. CHANNEL-DESIGN DECISIONS: In designing marketing channels. The market intermediaries make up a marketing channel. recycling centers. Channel normally describe a forward movement of products. softdrink intermediaries. A two-level channel contains two intermediaries. Channel Functions and Flows: A marketing channel performs the work of moving goods from producers to consumers. 1 They have lack of financial resources to carry out direct marketing. Its major types are door-to door sales. 2)establishing channel objectives. 3 Negotiation: The attempt to reach final agreement on price and other terms so that transfer of ownership or possession can be effected. Channel Levels: Each intermediary that performs work in bringing the product and its title closer to the final buyer constitutes a channel level. The smaller the size. trash-recycling brokers etc. and 3) identifying and evaluating the major channel activities. It overcomes the time. WHAT ARE THE MARKETING CHANNELS: Marketing channels are the sets of interdependent organizations involved in process of making a product or service available for use. TV. One can also talk about backward channels. telemarketing. where. ii) WAITING TIME: The average time that customers of that channel wait for receipt of the goods. A three-level channel involving three levels of intermediaries. Obviously different channels are set up for household buyers and the resale purpose buyers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-18 Selecting and Managing Marketing Channels Between the producer and the final user stands the marketing channel. when and how target customers buy) is the first step in designing the marketing channel. Designing of a channel system calls for: 1)analyzing customer needs.g. they are part of every channel. It is the recycling of solid wastes. 2 If direct marketing is not feasible 3 The producers who establish their own channels can often earn a greater return by increasing their investment in their main business (Production of the goods). and possession gaps that separate goods and services from those who need or want them. Since the produce and the final customer both perform work. 7 Payment: Buyers’ payment of their bills to the sellers through banks and other financial institutions. 2 Promotion The development and dissemination of persuasive communications designed to attract customers to the offer. competitors and other actors. A zero-level channel (Also called direct marketing). place. 54 . By using the number of intermediary levels we designate the length of a channel. manufactures have to decide what is ideal. In consumer markets they are typically a wholesaler and a retailer. 1 Analyzing Customers’ Desired Service Output Levels: Understanding (what. They are also called trade channel or distribution channel. selling and manufacturer-owned stores. 8 Title: The actual transfer of ownership from one organization or person to another. and what is available.

c) Industrial Distribution: Find distributors in different regions and end-use industries. When the consumer requires a great deal of location convenience. c) Mutual services and responsibilities: must be carefully spelled out. b) Distributors’ territorial Rights: Distributors want to know where and under what terms the producer will enfranchise other distributors. product training and promotional support. CHANNEL-MANAGEMENT DECISIONS: After choosing a channel alternative. In rapidly changing or uncertain product markets. A channel alternative is described by three elements i)the types of available intermediaries. Under competitive conditions. especially in franchised and exclusive-agency channels. control and adaptive criteria. The greater the service backup. Several market segments desire differing service outputs. Using a sales agency poses a control problem. 2 Establishing the Channel Objectives and Constraints: Channels objectives should be stated in terms of targeted service output levels. conditions of sale territorial rights. Each alternative needs to be evaluated against economic. Channel arrangements must also be modified over time. making sure that each channel member is treated respectfully and given the opportunity to be profitable. and specific services to be performed by each party.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan v) SERVICE BACKUP: The added services like. The main elements in the trade relations mix are price policies. b) selective distribution. Most marketing managers believe that company sales force will sell more and some believes that sales agency could conceivably sell more than a company sales force. Effective channel planning requires determining which market segments to serve and the best channels to use in each case. channel institutions should arrange their functional tasks so as to minimize total channel costs with respect to desired levels of service outputs. These commitments invariably lead to a decrease in the producer’s ability to respond to a changing marketplace. individual intermediaries must be selected. repairs. Three strategies are available a) exclusive distribution. or to develop the different sales force for different industries. motivated and evaluated. ii) TERMS AND RESPONSIBILITY OF CHANNEL MEMBERS: The producer must determine the rights and responsibilities of the participating channel members. b) Manufacturers’ Agency: Higher manufacturers’ agents in different regions or en-use industries to sell the new test equipment. not necessarily of the manufacturer’s goods. or services. the greater the work provided by the channel. Give them exclusive distribution. iii) the terms and responsibilities of each channel participant. who will buy and audio device. The first step is to determine whether a company sales force or sales agency will produce more sales. iii) ADAPTIVE CRITERIA: To develop a channel. a) Price Policy: the producer establish a price list and schedule of discounts that the intermediaries see as equitable and sufficient. 1 Selecting Channel Members: 55 . The agents may concentrate on the customers who buy the most. the producer needs to seek channel structures and policies that maximize control and ability to change marketing strategy swiftly. i)TYPES OF INTERMEDIARIES: The firm needs to identify the types of intermediaries available to carry on its channel work. They are of following three types: a) Company Sales Force: Expand the companies direct sales force. c) Intensive Distribution: The manufacturer places the goods or services in as many outlets as possible. Assign sales representatives to territories to contact all prospects in the areas. credit. 3 Identifying the major channel Alternatives: After defining the target market and desired positioning it should identify its channel alternatives. a) Exclusive Distribution: Severely limiting the number of intermediaries handling the company’s goods. and c) intensive distribution. b) Selective Distribution: It involves the use of more than a few but less than all of the intermediaries. adequate margins. installation. delivery. 4 Evaluating the Major Channel Alternatives: The producer may identify several channel alternatives and have to determine the one best suited to its needs. because it is an independent business firm seeking to maximize its profit. the channel members must make some degree of commitment to each other for a specified period of time. provided by the channel. This strategy is generally used for convenience items. ii) CONTROL CRITERIA: The produce must take into account control issues. i) ECONOMIC CRITERIA: Each channel can produce different level of sales and costs. ii) NUMBER OF INTERMEDIARIES: Companies have to decide the number of intermediaries to use at each channel level. ii) the number of intermediaries needed. It is used to maintain a great deal of control over the service level and service outputs offered by the revelers. Used by the old and new companies seeking to obtain distributors. who are willing to carry a particular product.

A conventional marketing channel comprises an independent producer. 2)horizontal. Once the expertise is palled on to the intermediaries. New wholesaling and relating institutions emerge. c) growth and profit records. and 3) contractual. A vertical marketing system (VMS). We will see how these systems cooperate. The VMS can be dominated by the producer. average inventory levels. or the retailer. c) Franchise Organizations: A channel member called a franchiser might link several successive stages in the production-distribution process. and compete. iii) LEGITIMATE POWER: When the manufacturer requires a behavior that is warranted by the contract. wholesaler(s). ii) ADMINISTERED VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEM: Coordinate successive stages of production and distribution not through common ownership but through the size and power of one of the members. a promise of exclusive or selective distribution will draw a sufficient number of applicants and some producers have to work hard to get qualified intermediaries. and e) reputation. This is an effective form of power. the market expands. comprises the producer. v) REFERENT POWER: occurs when the manufacturer is so highly respected that intermediaries are proud to be identified with it. even if this goal reduces profit for the system as a whole. b) the other lines carried by them. consumer buying patterns change. iv) EXPERT POWER: Can be applied when the manufacturer has special knowledge that the intermediaries value. pre-engineered to achieve operating economies and maximum market impact. One channel member owns the others or franchises them or has so much power that they all cooperate. the wholesaler. It is favored by companies that desire a high level of control over their channels. Contractual VMSs are of three types: a) Wholesaler sponsored voluntary chains: Wholesales organize voluntary chains of independent retailers to help them compete with large chain organizations. if intermediaries would perform poorly without this help. CHANNEL DYNAMICS: Distribution channels do not stand still. b) Retailer Cooperatives: Retailer might take the initiative and organize a new business entity to carry on wholesaling and possibly some production. This power is quit effective if the intermediaries are highly dependent upon the manufacturer. innovative distribution channel emerge and the product moves into later stages in the product life cycle. The producer has to determine the required characteristics of better intermediaries. and cooperation in promotional and training programs. and 3)multi-channel marketing systems. Evaluating Channel Members: The producer must periodically evaluate intermediaries’ performance against such standards as sales-quota attainment. this basis of power weakens The manufacturer must continue to develop new expertise so that the intermediaries will want to continue cooperating. The system will require periodic modification to meet new conditions in the marketplace. Modifying Channel Arrangements: A producer must do more than design a good channel system and set it into motion. There are three types of VMS: I) corporate. and new channel systems evolve. d) cooperativeness. new competitions arises. Modification becomes necessary when existing channel is not working as planned. They will want to evaluate intermediaries on the basis of : a) Number of years in business. Each is a separate business entity seeking to maximize its own profits. Motivating Channel Members: A manufacturer must have to motivate the intermediaries to do their best fob. ii) REWARD POWER: When the manufacturer offers intermediaries an extra benefit for performing specific acts or functions. ii) administered. whole seller(s) and retailer(s) acting as a unified system.. 56 . and retailer(s). iii) CONTRACTUAL VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEM: It is consist of independent firms at different levels of production and distribution integrating their programs on a contractual basis to obtain more economise and sales impact than they could achieve alone. Manufacturers of a dominant brand are able to secure strong trade cooperation and support from revelers. It produces better results than coercive power but can be overrated. treatment of damaged and lost goods. customer delivery time. Some producers have no trouble in recruiting intermediaries. It is a professionally managed and centrally programmed networks. i) CORPORATE VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEM: Combining successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership. conflict. d) solvency of the intermediary. The manufacturer feels it has this right and the intermediaries have this obligation. Vertical Marketing Systems: It is a challenge for the conventional marketing channels. by contrast.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 3 4 1 Different producers attract qualified intermediaries differently within the chosen channel. Following are some ways to motivate them: I) COERCIVE POWER: When the manufacturer threatens to withdraw a resource or terminate a relationship if intermediaries fail to cooperate. Recently the market channels have grown as 1) vertical.

production or marketing resources to venture alone. or it is afraid of the risk. Each company lacks the capital. (See Lesson Notes for this chapter at page 24) 57 . 1) increased market coverage. 2) the channel cost will be lower. The companies might work with each other on a temporary or permanent basis or create a separate company. Multi-channel Marketing System: It occurs when a single firm uses two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments. know-how. and 3) is the more customized selling. By adding more channels companies can gain three important benefits.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 3 Horizontal Marketing Systems: In it two or more unrelated companies put together resources or programs to exploit an emerging marketing opportunity.

Why are whole-salers used ? Manufacturers could by pass them and sell directly to retailers or final consumer. the product-and-service-assortment mix.19 Managing Retailing. SERVICE AND STORE ATMOSPHERE DECISION: Retailer must also decide on the services mix to offer customers. location and location. spoilage. A retailer or Retail Store is any business enterprise whose sales volume comes primarily from retailing. and increasing number are falling under some form of corporate retailing. 6) promotion and 7) place. 1) Selfservice retailing. NONSTORE RETAILING: It is growing much faster than store rtailing. STORE RETAILING: The most important retail-store types fall into eight categories specialty stores. Warehousing: He hold inventories. convenience stores. 3)Limited-service retailing and 4) Full. PROMOTION DECISION Retailers use a vide range of promotion tools to generate traffic and purchases. and competition. 3) automatic vending. thus saving the customers considerable work. Retailers in most product categories can position themselves as offering one of four levels of services. Financing: They finance their customers by granting them credit. 58 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . Buying and assortment building: Wholesalers are able t select items and build the assortments where customers need. and obsolescence. Retailer Marketing Decisions: Retailers have to make marketing decisions about 1) target market.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Chapter . They place ads. and Retail Organizations. off-price retailers. Non store retailing. 2) direct marketing. Wholesalers differ from retailers in a number of ways: First: Wholesalers pay less attention to promotion. runs special sales.service retailing. and catalog showrooms. issue money-saving coupons. and Market logistics RETAILING: Retailing includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for their personal. etc. midscale. and wholesalers usually cover a large trade area than retailers. but usually the two do not go together.. Types of Retailers: Store retailing. department stores. It is a key tool for differentiating one store from another. training their employees and telling them about layouts and displays. All retailers would like to charge high markups and achieve high volumes. super stores. supermarkets. In general . nonbusiness use. Third: the government deals with wholesalers and retailers differently in regard to legal regulations and taxes.arlet’s shopping expectations. RETAIL ORGANIZATIONS Although many retail stores are independently owned. damage. Risk Bearing: Wholesaler absorb some risk by taking title and bearing the cost of theft. Transportation: They provide quicker delivery to buyers because they are closer to the buyers than the manufacturer. wholesalers are used when they are more efficient in performing one or more of the following functions: Selling and promoting: They provide a sales force who helps the producer to reach many small business customers at a relatively low cost. discount stores. Bulk Breaking: He achieve savings for their customers through buying in large carload lots and breaking the bulk into smaller units. Wholesaling excludes manufacturers and farmers because they are engaged primarily in production. Wholesaling. and location because they are dealing with business customers rather than final consumers. New store types emerge to meet widely different consumer preferences for service levels and specific services. PRICE DECISION: It is the key positioning factor and must be decided in relation to the target market. TARGET MARKET DECISION: Should the store focus on upscale. must use promotion tools that support and reinforce its image positioning. 5) price.ASSORTMENT AND PROCUREMENT DECISION: The product assortment must match the target . PLACE DECISION: There are three keys to the success are location. Non-store retailing falls into four major categories: 1) direct selling. and it excludes retailers. Market Information: Supply information to the manufacturer and the customers. Management Services and Consultancy They help retailers in improving their operations. thereby reducing the inventory costs and risks to suppliers and customers. and finance their supplier by ordering early and paying their bills on time. atmosphere. Second: Wholesale transactions are usually larger than retail transactions. Each retailer. or downscale shoppers? Do they want variety assortment depth. 21) product assortment and procurement. 2) Self-selection retailing. and 4)buying services. They may also help their supplier by providing training and technical services. Retail organizations achieve many economies of scale. WHOLESALING: Wholesaling includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services to those who buy for resale or business use. or convenience? PRODUCT . 3) services and store atmosphere.

Physical distribution starts at the factory. The longer the cycle takes.” Unfortunately. WAREHOUSING: Every company has to store its finished goods until they are sold. The storage function helps to smooth discrepancies between desired quantities and timing to the market. The number of stocking locations must strike a balance between customer service levels and distribution cost.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 MARKET LOGISTICS: The process of getting goods to customers has traditionally been called physical distribution. and the condition of the goods when they arrive. 4) Transportation. ORDERING PROCESS: Market logistics begins with a customer order. and controlling the physical flows of materials and final goods from points of origin to points of use to meet customer requirements at a profit. Managers try to choose a set of whorehouses and transportation carriers that will deliver produced goods to final destinations in the desired time and at the lowest total cost. A storage facility is necessary because production and consumption cycle rarely mach. It is necessary to shorten the order-toremittance cycle. INVENTORY: It is a major market logistics which effect the customers satisfaction. the lower the customer’s satisfaction and the lower the company’s profits. The company has to decide the number of stocking locations. Objectives of Market Logistics: Some companies state their market-logistics objectives as “getting the right goods to right places at the right time for the least cost. all of which will affect customer satisfaction 59 . on-time delivery performance. 3) Inventory. Market Logistics: involves planning. this objective provides little practical guidance. TRANSPORTATION: Transportation choices will affect product pricing. 2) Warehousing. implementing. Market-Logistics Decisions: There are four major decisions that must be made with regard to market logistics 1) Ordering Process.

The communicator must lead these consumers to take the final step. They may weight for information or plan to act later. d) Preference: The target audience might like the product but not prefer it to others. liking. voice qualities etc. Presenters have to pay attention to 60 1 2 3 a) b) c) .Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER . and who should say it (message source MESSAGE CONTENTS. management search for an appeal. and 8) manage and coordinate the integrated marketing communication process. If the message is to be carried of the radio. The communicator can check on the compaign’s success by measuring audience preferences again after the compeign. Determining the Communication Objectives: The marketing communicator must decide on the desired audience response. equal right for women. The audience could be individuals. e) Conviction: A target audience might prefer a particular product but not develop a conviction about buying it. iii) Moral Appeals: are directed to the audience’s sense of what is right and proper. This task can be accomplished with simple messages repeating the product’s name. the message should gain attention. Ideally. Formulating the message will require solving four problems: 1) what to say (message contents). which may be potential buyers of the product. or reason why the audience should think about or investigate the product. Here we will discuss the marketers behavior in six buyer-readiness states  awareness. hold interest. particular publics or the general public. knowledge. If the message is to be carried on television or in person. IMAGE ANALYSIS: Image is the set of beliefs. the communicator has to choose words. 3) design the message. The communicator will promote the product’s quality. Conclusion drawing might cause negative reactions in the following situation: • If the communicator is untrustworthy. This amounts to formulating some kind of benefit. arouse desire and elicit action. Designing the Message: Having defined the desired audience response. the marketer may want its target audience to know about the organization and the product. conviction and purchase. or unique selling proposition. motivation. such as a cleaner environment. and aid to the disadvantaged. They show that the product will produce the claimed benefits.. • if the issue is highly personal. high satisfaction. when to say. 2) how to say it logically (message structure). or influencers. identification. and favorable word-of-mouth. There are three types of appeals rational. MESSAGE FORMAT: The communicator must develop a strong format for the message. c) how to say it symbolically (message format). Some early experiments supported stating conclusions for the audience rather than allowing the audience to reach its own conclusions. Identifying the Target Audience: A marketing communicator must start with a clear target audience in mind. MESSAGE STRUCTURE: The effectiveness of the message depends upon its structure as well as its contents. where and to whom to say. • If the issue is simple or the audience is intelligent. theme. some members of the target audience might have conviction but not quit get around to making the purchase. They are often used to exhort people to support social causes. ii) Emotional Appeals: Attempt to stir up negative or positive emotions that will motivate purchase. i) Rational Appeals: to the audience’s self interest.. In this case the communicator must try to build consumer preference. 4) select the communication channels. a) Awareness: When most of the audience is aware of the object. If the message is written the communicator has to decide on the headline. copy. The target audience will critically influence the communicator’s decisions on what to say. the communicator’s task is to build awareness. that the product is their best choice. b) Knowledge: When the target audience might have product’s awareness but not much more. The communicator’s job is to build conviction among interested customers. preference. The marketing communicator must 1) identify the target audience. People’s attitude and actions toward an object are highly conditioned by that object’s image. better race relations. the communicator move to developing an effective message. groups.20 Designing and managing integrated marketing communications DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: There are eight steps in developing an effective total communication and promotion program. f) Purchase: Finally. c) Linking: If the target members know the product. which may be a purchase. idea. and other features. 2) determine the communication objectives. 5) establish the total promotion’s results. how they feel about it? If they look favorably it is necessary to find out why and then develop a communication compaign to shore up favorable feelings. how to say it. current users. ideas and impressions that a person holds regarding an object. emotional. then all of the above elements plus body language have to be planned. and color. In determining the best message content. value. and moral. performance.

and d)objective-and-task method. iii)public relations and publicity. ii) SALES PROMOTION: Although the sales-promotion tools are highly diverse. iv) PERSONAL SELLING: is the most cost-effective tool at later stages of the buying process. or contribution that gives value to the consumer. atmospheres. d) OBJECTIVE-AND-TASK METHOD: In it the marketers develop their promotion budgets by defining their specific objectives. not a dialogue with the audience. which makes long-range market communication planning difficult. Personal communication channels derive their effectiveness through the opportunities for individualizing the presentation and feedback. dress. It leads to an uncertain annual promotion budget. The sum of these costs is the proposed promotion budget. The message gets to the buyers as news rather than as a sales-directed communication. they all offer three distinctive benefits. • Dramatization: Like advertising. They might communicate face to face. ii)sales promotion. II) NONPERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS: They carry messages without personal contact or interaction. and action. and v) direct marketing. iii) PUBLIC RELATIONS AND PUBLICITY: The appeal of public relations and publicity is based on their three distinctive qualities: • High credibility: News stories and features are more authentic and credible to readers than ads. In many cases many different channels must be used. b)percentage-of-sales method. Advertising is able to carry on only a monologue in front of. • Response: It makes the buyer feel under some obligation for having listened to the sales talk. • Invitation: They include a distinct invitation to engage in the transaction now. a) AFFORDABLE METHOD: Setting promotion budget at what company think that it can afford. If the message is carried by the product or its packaging. Each party is able to observe the others’ needs and characteristics at close hand and make immediate adjustments. c) Amplified expressiveness: Advertising provides opportunities for dramatizing the company and its product throughout the artful use of print. b) Persuasiveness: It is a pervasive medium that permits the seller to repeat a message many times. Most non personal messages come through paid media. • Communication: Gain attention and usually provide information that may lead the consumer to the product. particularly in building up the customers preference. This method of setting budgets completely ignores the role of promotion as an investment and the immediate impact of promotion on sales volume. They include media. texture. public relations has the potential for dramatizing a company or product. iv) sales force. The buyer has a greater need to attend and respond. and events. sound. • Incentive: They incorporate some concession. 1) personal and non personal Win each are found many sub channels: I) PERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS: It involves two or more persons communicating directly with each other. • Cultivation: Personal selling permits all kinds of relationship to spring up. or respond. gestures. 6 Deciding on the Promotion Mix: Companies face the task of distributing the total promotion budget over the five promotional tools  i)advertising. broadcast media. c) COMPETITIVE-PARITY METHOD: Some companies set their promotion budget to achieve share-of voice parity with their competitors. 5 Establishing the total Promotional Budget: A most difficult marketing decision. person to audience. inducement. determining the tasks that must be performed to achieve these objectives. d) Impersonality: Cannot be a compelling as a company sales representative. scent. It also allows the buyer to receive and compare the message of various competitors. and color. • Ability to catch buyers off guard: Public relations can reach many prospects who prefer to avoid sales people and advertisements. posture. Industries and companies vary considerably in how much they spend on promotion. the communicator has to pay attention to color. c)competitive-parity method. It have three distinctive benefits: • Personal confrontation: It involve an interactive relationship between two or more persons.” 61 . even if the response is a polite “thank you. Media: Consist of print media.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan their facial expression. Their are four common methods used to set a promotion budget a) the affordable method. ranging from a matter-of-fact selling relationship to a deep personal friendship. and heir style. b) PERCENTAGE-OF-SALES METHOD: any companies set their promotion expenditures at a specified percentage of sales or of the sales price. size and shape. conviction. electronic media and display media. Communication channels are of two broad types. I) ADVERTISING: Qualities of advertising are a) Public presentation: A highly public mode of communication. d) 4 MESSAGE SOURS: Message delivered by attractive or popular sources achieve higher attention and recall. Selecting the Communication Channel: The communicator must select efficient channels of communication to carry the message. over the telephone or through the mails. and estimating the costs of performing these tasks. The audience does not feel obligated to pay attention.

telemarketing. Different strategies are: • In the introduction stage. the product’s stage in the product life cycle and the companies market rank. The purpose is to induce them to ask intermediaries for the product and thus induce the intermediaries to order the product from the manufacturer. sales promotion continues strong. • Interactive The message can be altered depending on the person’s response. 4 PRODUCT-LIFE-CYCLE STAGE: Promotional tools also vary in their cost effectiveness at different stages of the product life cycle. 2 PUSH VERSUS PULL STRATEGY: A push strategy involves manufacturers making activities (primarily sales force and trade promotion) directed at channel intermediaries. In general personal selling is more heavily used with complex.. and so on they all share four distinctive characteristics Direct marketing is: • Nonpublic: The message is normally addressed to a specific person. followed by personal selling to gain distribution coverage and sales promotion to induce trail. Measuring the Promotion’s Results: After implementing the promotional plan. Consumergoods companies spend on sales promotion. and their previous and current attitudes toward the product and company.. • Customized: The message can be customized to appeal to the addressed individual. Factors in setting the promotion Mix: Companies must consider several factors in developing their promotion mix. how many times they says it. • In the maturity stage. adverting and publicity are reduced and sales people give the product only minimal attention. 3 BUYER-READINESS STAGE: Promotional tools vary in their cost effectiveness at different stages of buyer readiness. The goal is to induce the intermediaries to order and carry the product and promote it to en users. how ready consumers are to make a purchase. This involve asking the target audience whether they recognize or recall the message. each requiring its own communication approach. 5 COMPANY MARKET RANK: Top ranking brands drive more benefits from advertising than sales promotions. sales promotion.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan v) DIRECT MARKETING: Although their are many forms of direct marketing direct mail. and the growing sophistication of consumers. advertising personal selling. A pull Strategy: involves marketing activities (primarily advertising and consumer promotion) directed at end users. • In the growth stage. and public relations in that order. the communicator must measure its impact on the target audience. all the tools can be toned down because demand has its own momentum through word-ofmouth. what points they recall. the proliferation of new types of media. Business-goods companies spend on personal selling. Managing and Coordinating Integrated Marketing Communications: Many companies still rely primarily on one or two communication tools to achieve their communication aims This practice persists in spite of the disintegration of mass markets into a multitude of mini-markets. and personal selling all grow more important in that order. electronic marketing. • Up-to-date: A message can be prepared very quickly for delivery to an individual. and risky goods and in markets with fewer and larger sellers. 62 . expensive. the type of product market in which they are selling. whether to use a push or pull strategy. advertising and public relations in that order. 1 TYPE OF PRODUCT KARATE: Promotional tools vary between consumer and business markets. how they felt about the message. sales promotion. adv. advertising and publicity have the highest cost effectiveness. • In decline stage. Ad and publicity play the most important roles in the awareness stage. much more important than the roles played by “cold calls” from sales representatives or by sales promotion.

soft drinks) require heavy advertising to establish a differential image. 2. Choosing the Advertising Message: Advertising compaigns differ in their creativity which is more important than the number of dollars spent Only after gaining attention can a commercial help to increase the brand’s sales. 3. Deciding on the Advertising Budget: After setting objectives the company can proceed to establish its advertising budget for each product. b) PERSUASIVE ADVERTISING: It is important in the competitive stage. where a company’s objective is to build selective demand for a particular brand.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER . It may be defined as follows: → ADVERTISING is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideal. They builds share by increasing market size requires larger advertising expenditures. Advertising is also important when a brand can offer unique physical benefits or features. especially if consumers are seeking new or different benefits format the product. Sales Promotion. or remind. whose manager reports to the vice president of marketing. marketing managers must always start by identifying the target market and buyer motives. b) message evaluation and selection. goods. Over time. STAGE IN THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE: New product typically receive large advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumer trial.21 Managing Advertising. PRODUCT SUBSTITUTABILITY: Brands in accommodate class (e. or services by an identified sponsor. Organizations handle their advertising in different ways. market positioning and marketing mix are to be made. a) INFORMATIVE ADVERTISING: Carried out heavily in the pioneering stage of a product category. the marketer might want to change the message without changing the product. and Public Relations DEVELOPING AND MANAGING AN ADVERTISING PROGRAM: It is the most common tool used by the organizations to direct persuasive communications to target buyers and publics. Choice of objectives should be based on a thorough analysis of the current marketing situation. MARKET SHARE AND CONSUMER BIAS: High-market-share brands usually requires less advertising expenditure as a percentage of sales to maintain their share. 4. a company should make sure that it can prove its claim of superiority and that it cannot be counterattacked in an area where the other brand is stronger. Established brands usually are supported with lower advertising budgets as a ration to sales. c) REMINDER ADVERTISING: is highly important with mature products. is handled by someone in the sales or marketing department. know as the five Ms: • Mission: What are the advertising objectives? • Money: How much can be spent? • Message: What message should be sent? • Media: What media should be used? • Measurement: How should the results be evaluated? These decisions are further described in the following sections. Advertising go through four steps to develop a creative strategy: a) message generation. A related form of advertising is reinforcement advertising which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice.g. Setting the Objectives: Prior to setting objectives decisions on the target market. adv. c) message execution. cigarettes. Comparative advertising works best when it elicits cognitive and affective motivations simultaneously. In small companies. MESSAGE GENERATION: In principle the product’s message major benefits that the brand offers should the be decided as part of developing the product concept. 5. and d) message social responsibility review. Advertising objectives can be classified according to whether their aim is to inform persuade. Then they can proceed to make the five major decisions in developing an advertising program. where the objective is to build primary demand. COMPETITION AND CLUTTER: In a market with a large number of competitors and high advertising spending. who works with and advertising agency. 63 1 2 3 a) . But how does a company know it is spending the right amount? There are five specific factors to consider when setting the advertising budget: 1. Even simple clutter from advertisements not directly competitive to the brand creates a need for heavier advertising. The market positioning and marketing mix strategies define the job that advertising must do in the total marketing program. A large company will often set up its own advertising department. The role of advertising is to increase the demand of the product. a brand must advertise more heavily to be heard above the noise in the market. The company wants to spend the amount required to achieve the sales goal. In developing and advertising program. ADVERTISING FREQUENCY: The number of repetitions needed to put across the brand’s message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget. In using comparative advertising. Most advertising falls into this category.

No claim is made about the product except through suggestion. Creative people must also find a style. DECIDING ON REACH. • Musical: Uses background music or shows one or more persons or cartoon characters singing a song involving the product. tone. equally mundane products. • Slice of Life: Shows one or more persons using the product in a normal setting.” more for our customers.e. Style : A message can be presented in any of the following different styles. frequency and impact. c) MESSAGE EXECUTION: The message’s impact depends not only upon what is said but also on how it is said. Some proceed inductively by talking to the consumers. Buyers are expecting one of the four types of rewards form a product i. Crossing these four types of rewards with three types of experiences generates 12 types of advertising messages. focus on a hurorous situation rather than on the products themselves. The character might be animated (Mr. Some ads aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. clean) or real (Marlboro man). 64 . • Personality symbol: Creates a character that personifies the product. Theme Creative Copy 7-up is not a cola “The Un-Cola” Let us drive you in our bus instead of driving your car. Media planner make their choice among these media categories by considering several variables. Other companies use emotions to set the tone. • Testimonial evidence: This features a highly credible.” We don’t rent as many cars. Tone: The Communicator must also choose an appropriate tone for the ad. The message must first say something desirable or interesting about the product. “Let your fingers do the walking. likable. Exposures mean the seeking a certain response from the target audience. Still. CHOOSING AMONG MAJOR MEDIA TYPES: The media planner has to know the capacity of the major media types to deliver reach. and illustration will make a difference in an ad’s impact as well as its cost. and pride in making the product. AND IMPACT: Media selection involves finding the most cost-effective media top deliver the desired number of exposures to the target audience. deciding on media timing. “Take the bus an leave the driving to us. The message should be rated on desirability. The following themes listed on the left would have had much less impact without the creative phrasing on the right. while intended use or in incidental use. rational. exclusiveness. or expert source endorsing the product. sensory. and competitors. social or ego satisfaction. the most important of which are the following: • Target-audience media habits: for example. Larger-size ads gain more attention. though not necessarily by as much as their difference in cost. d) SOCIAL-RESPONSIBILITY REVIEW: Advertisers and their agencies must make sure that their “creative” advertising doesn’t overstep social and legal norms. Finally. selecting specific media vehicles. b) MESSAGE EVALUATION AND SELECTION: The advertisers needs to evaluate the alternative messages. • Mood or image: Evokes a mood or image around the product. He might visualize (experience) these rewards after intended use. frequency. • Fantasy: Creates a fantasy around the product or its use. and believability. • Scientific Evidence: Presents survey or scientific evidence that the brand is preferred over or outperforms other brands. 4 Deciding on the Media: The next task is to choose advertising media to carry it. in the adds for staples office-supply. super stores. or combinations of them. radio and television are the most effective media for reaching teenagers. Some creative people user deductive framework for generating advertising message. The message must also say something exclusive or distinctive that does not apply to every brand in the product category. Format: The elements such as ad six. experts. In contrast. dealers. All of these elements must deliver a cohesive image and message. A good ad normally focuses on one core selling proposition. color. FREQUENCY. choosing among major media types. love or serenity.” Shop by turning the pages of the telephone directory. and deciding on geographical media allocation. such as beauty. A minor rearrangement of mechanical elements within the ad can improve its attention-getting power. and format of executing message. so we have to do “We try harder.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Creative people use several methods to generate possible advertising appeals. Some companies uses positive tone and almost always avoid humors so as not to take attention away from the message. The advertisers can generate a theme for each of the 12 cells as possible messages for the product. experience. words. and impact. Words: Memorable and attention-getting works must be found. Most marketers work hard to communicate openly and honestly with consumers. The selection of media depends upon desired reach. abuses may occur. and public policy makers have developed a substantial body of laws and regulations to govern advertising. • Life style: Emphasize how a product fits in with a lifestyle. • Technical expertise: Shows the company’s expertise. the message must be believable or provable.

Portfolio test: ask consumers to view and listen to a portfolio of advertisements. aided or unaided by the interviewer. attitudes. Only 46% of the compaigns appeared to result in a long-term sales boost. 4. Impact of Ad on Brand Switching: Advertising appears effective in increasing the volume purchased by loyal buyers but less effective in winning new buyers. professional researchers have drawn some general conclusions that are useful to marketers. Also called copy testing. but that the effect was strong only in 30% of the cases. heavy amount during the famous programs and lesser amount at other times. taking as much time as they need. The direct rating method asks consumer to rate alternative ads. and Polaroid cameras are best demonstrated on television. What counts is the cost-per-thousand exposures rather than the total cost. The fewer or more controllable these others factors are. For example. yet the amount of fundamental research on ad effectiveness is appallingly small. 3. the advertiser who decides to buy 30 seconds of advertising on network television can pay different amounts in relation to program timings.e. consumers are then asked to recall all the ads and their content.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan • 5 1 2 3 Product: Women’s dresses are best shown in color magazines. The company makes “national buys” when it places ads on national TV networks or in nationally circulated magazines. such as the product’s features. affective. They would also like to measure the Ad’s sales effect but often feel it is too difficult to measure. A message containing a great deal of technical data might require specialized magazines or mailings. cognitive. Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness: Good planning and control of advertising depends critically on measures of advertising effectiveness. SALES PROMOTION: It is a key ingredient in marketing compaigns. while newspaper advertising is relatively inexpensive. mostly short term. Laboratory Tests: use equipment to measure consumers’ physiological reactions to an ad. Macro scheduling Problem: It calls for deciding how to schedule the advertising in relation to seasonal and business-cycle trends. DECIDING ON MEDIA TIMING: In deciding the types of media to use the advertiser faces macro scheduling problem and a micro scheduling problem. 65 . COMMUNICATION-EFFECT RESEARCH: seeks to determine whether an ad is communicating effectively. The media planner relies on media-measurement services that provide estimates of audience size. Advertising Effectiveness: A summary of Current Research: Although companies need to do more research into ad effectiveness. or preference. There are three major methods of advertising pretesting. designed to stimulate quicker and greater purchase of particular products/services by consumers or the trade. Advertising’s sales effect is generally harder to measure that its communication effect. rather. What sales are generated by an ad that increases brand awareness by 20% and brand preference by 10%. features. DECIDING ON GEOGRAPHICAL MEDIA ALLOCATION: A company has to decide how to allocate its advertising budget over space as well as over time. 1. it can be done before an ad is put into media and after it is printed or broadcast. • Message A message announcing a major sale tomorrow will require radio or newspaper. and especially price have a stronger impact on response that dose advertising. The effect of positive versus negative messages: Consumers may sometimes respond more to negative messages than to positive messages. Advertising versus sales promotions: In a recent study a market-research firm studying the effects of advertising found that 70% of the ad compaigns boosted sales immediately. Micro scheduling Problem: It calls for allocating advertising expenditures within a short period to obtain the maximum impact. The effect of surroundings: Ads may be more effective when their message is congruent with their surroundings. composition. SALES-EFFECT RESEARCH: Communication-effect advertising research helps advertisers assess advertising’s communication effects but reveals little about its sales impact. Advertising appears to be unlikely to have some cumulative effect that leads to loyalty. Most advertisers try to measure the communication effect of an ad that is. availability and competitors’ actions. or intentions. i. These tests measure an ad’s attention-getting power but re reveal nothing about its impact on beliefs. Their recall level indicates and ad’s ability to stand out and to have its message understood and remembered. displays. 2. and behavior strengths. knowledge. price. Sales Promotion consist of a diverse collection of incentive tools. SELECTING SPECIFIC MEDIA VEHICLES: The media planner must next search for the most cost-effective media vehicles within each chosen media type. and media cost. read through. Audience size has several possible measures. Sales are influenced by many factors besides advertising. the easier it is to measure advertising’s effect on sales. These ratings are used to evaluate an ad’s attention. its potential effect on awareness. Yet both can be searched. • Cost: Television is very expensive.

The specific objectives set for sales promotion vary with the target market.) Purpose of Sales Promotion: Sales promotion tools vary in their specific objectives a free sample stimulates consumer trial. ii) Allowance: An amount offered in return for the retailer’s agreeing to feature the manufacturer’s products in some way. • building trail among nonusers. The promotion planner should take into account the type of market. vii) Patronage Aware: Values in cash or other form that are proportional to one’s patronage of a certain vendor or group of vendors. or merchandise as a result of purchasing something. cross promotions. For retailers objectives include • persuading retailers to carry new items and higher levels of inventory. and free goods) and business and sales force promotion (trade shows and conventions. 2 SELECTING THE SALES-PROMOTION TOOLS: Many sales-promotion tools are available. Sales promotion includes tools for consumer promotion (e. Sales promotions do not tend to yield new. xi) Cross promotion: Involve using one hand to advertise another noncompeting brand. advertising and display allowances. Its major tools are: I) Price off: A straight discount off the list price on each call purchased during a stated time period. select the tools.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Advertising offers a reason to buy while sales promotion offers an incentive to buy. cash refund offers prices off. refunds and contests to increase their pulling power. contests for sales reps. Consumer-Promotion Tools: The main consumer promotion tools are I) samples. viii) Free Trails: Invite prospective purchasers to try the product without cost in the hope that they will buy the product ix) Product Warranties: Explicit or implicit promises by sellers that the product will prefer as specified or that the seller will fix it or refund the customer’s money during a specified period. trips. which are derived from more basic marketing objectives developed for the product. prizes. Today. 66 . • encouraging purchase of larger-size units. tie-in promotions. For the sales force objectives include: • encouraging support of a new product or model • encouraging more prospecting. implement and control it and evaluate the results. develop the program protest the program. samples. free trials. point-of-purchase displays and demonstrations etc. Major Decisions in Sales Promotion: In using sales promotion. • attracting Switchers away from competitors’ brands. coupons. vi) Prizes: offers of the chance to win cash. 1 ESTABLISHING THE SALES-PROMOTION OBJECTIVES: Sales promotion objectives are derived from broader promotion objectives. • building brand loyalty. sales promotion objectives. and each tool’s cost effectiveness. many marketing managers firs estimate what they need to spend in trade promotion.g. iii) Cash refund (by the manufacturer to consumer who proves that he has purchased the product). iv) Price packs: Offering by jointing many units in one place at discounted price v) Premium: (Gift) Providing goods at reasonably low price as an incentive to purchase a particular product. patronage rewards. long-term buyers in mature markets because they attract mainly del-prone consumers who switch among brands as deal become available. xii) Point-of-Purchase Displays and Demonstrations. and • gaining entry into new retail outlets. and specialty advertising. and stimulating off-season sales. a company must establish its objectives. while a free management-advisory service aims at cementing a long-term relationship with a retailer.) trade promotion (prices off. • offsetting competitive promotions. warranties. Loyal brand buyers tend not to change their buying patterns as a result of competitive promotion. For consumer. • encouraging stocking of related items. • encouraging off-season buying . x) Tie-in Promotions: Two or more companies that team up or coupons. advertising appears to be capable of deepening brand loyalty. competitive conditions. Trade Promotion Tools: Persuading the retailer or wholesaler to carry the brand. more than the normal amount. ii) coupons(certificates to provide buyer some gift who fill and mail the coupon). There is a danger Sales promotions yield faster and more measurable responses in sales than advertising does. objects includes. then what they need to spend in consumer promotion Whatever is left they will budget for advertising.

Press relations: Presenting news and information about organization in the most positive light. 5. 3 PRESENTING THE SALES-PROMOTION PROGRAM: Al 4 IMPLEMENTING AND CONTROLLING THE SALES PROMOTION PROGRAM: 5 EVALUATING THE RESULTS: PUBLIC RELATIONS: A public is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on a company’s ability to achieve its objectives. Product publicity: Sponsoring various efforts to publicize specific products. Business and Sales Force Promotion Tools: These tools are used to gather business leads impress and reward customers and motivate the sales force to greater effort. Corporate Communication: Promoting understanding of the organization with internal and external communications. Public Relations (PR) involves a variety of programs designed to promote and or protect a company’s image or its individual products. 4. aimed at including them to increase their sales results over a stated period. 67 . 3. iii) Specialty Advertising: consist of useful low-cost items bearing the combines name and address and sometimes advertising message. Public relations departments perform the following five activities.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) Free goods: Offers of extra causes of merchandise to intermediaries who buy a certain quantity or who feature a certain flavor or size. ii) Sales Contests: a contest involving the sales force or dealer. Counseling: Advising management about public issues and company positions and image. This includes advising in the event of a product mishap when the public confidence in a product is shaken. Sales people give these items to prospects. not all of which support marketing objectives. Lobbying: Dealing with legislators and government officials to promote or defeat legislation and regulation. 1. 2. Its major tools are I) Trade Shows and Conventions: Organize annual trade shows.

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