Notes on Marketing Management Notes Prepared By Name of Book Written By Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Marketing Management Philip Kotler

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

CHAPTER-1 Assessing Marketing’s Critical Roll in Organizational Performance
GLOBAL ECONOMY: Rapid changes can easily render yesterday’s winning businesses obsolete. After the end of cold war countries and companies are wrestling with increased global competition. A good news is that by global market we means a much larger market for goods and services and the bad news is that now these companies have to face a greater competition for a great number of competitors. Income Gap: A large part of world have grown poorer in the last few decades. Although the wages has risen but the purchasing power has declined especially for the less skilled work force. The gap between rich and poor nations is growing. Poor nations pressure the richer nations to open their markets but richer nations maintain tariffs and quotas to protect their local industry and employment. There are two solutions to this problem; 1 Counter Trade: {poorer nations should pay in goods for other goods and services. 2 Providing More for Less: The poorer nations should sell their goods for less than of the richer nations. Environmental Restrictions: Since 1970’s environmental lows are being implemented which requires to install pollution control equipment. All these laws raised cost of manufacturing for the companies of richer countries. Technical Points: Companies must avoid jumping in too soon (before the market is ready) or too late (after the market has been concurred. WHAT IS MARKETING? THE CORE CONCEPTS: Marketing has been defined in various ways. One scholar has defined it as: - “Creation and Delivery of standard of living.” The definition which serves out purpose is as follows: “A social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering or exchanging products of value with others.” This definition have following important points: A social and managerial process. 2. Individuals and groups 3. Needs and Wants, 4. Creating, offering and exchanging, 5. Products 6. Having value Let us consider them one by one. 1&2 A Social and Managerial Process: Marketing is not an individuals own working but the actions of individuals or groups with other individuals or groups. 3 Needs, Wants and Demands: Needs: Needs of every many are specific and few. They are Food, air, clothing, shelter and survival. Beyond this people have a strong desire for recreation. Need is a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction. They are not created by society they exist in the very texture of human biology. Wants: Wants are the desires for specific satisfiers of needs. Need is food but a desire to eat a chicken or burger are wants. Needs are few but wants are many which are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions like school, families, business, competitors. Demands: Wants for specific products that are backed by 1) ability to buy and 2) willingness to buy them. 4 Creating Offering and Exchanging: People can obtain products in 4 ways 1) Self Production. 2) By coercion, (3) By begging and 4) by exchanging. Marketing emerges when people decided to satisfy their needs and wants through exchange. What is Exchange: It is the act of obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in return. It have 5 conditions 1) At least two parties. 2 Each one have something of value. 3 Each one have a capability of communication and delivery 4 Each one is free to accept or reject the exchange offer. 5 Each one believes in the appropriateness of the exchange. 5 Product (Goods, Services, and Ideas) A product is any thing that can be offered to satisfy a need or want. A product can consist of as many as three components: 1- Goods, 2- Ideas, and 3- Services. 6 1

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

Value Cost and Satisfaction: A consumer chooses among many products to satisfy a need on the basis of value and cost of the article. Value: It is the consumer’s estimate about the overall capacity of the product to satisfy his need, and Cost includes the value he have to pay for the product and includes the opportunity cost (The cost of leaving the other products which he have not purchased.) 7 Markets: Market consists of all potential customers having a particular need or want (who are willing and able to engage in exchange) to satisfy that need or want. Thus market depends upon, 1) the no of persons who have need or want, 2) Have resources of other’s interest, and 3) willing and able to offer these resources in exchange for that they want. Traditionally a market is a place where buyer and sellers are gathered to exchange their goods. MARKETING MANAGEMENT Marketing management takes place when at least one part to a potential exchange thinks about the means of achieving desired responses from other parties. So, “Marketing Management is a process of planning and executing, (conception, pricing, promotion and distribution) ideas, goods and services to create exchange that satisfies individuals and organizational goals. Types of Demands: 1 Negative Demand When people are even ready to pay to avoid such product. i.e. major part of the market dislikes the product. 2 No Demand When customer are unaware of or uninterested in product. 3 Latent Demand A demand which cannot be satisfied by any existing product. 4 Declining Demand: When demand of product starts decline day-by-day. 5 Irregular Demand: Demand for such products which varies seasonally, daily or even on hourly basis and causing problems of idle or overworked capacity. 6 Full Demand: Organizations faces full demand when they produces up to their full capacity. The marketing function is to maintain the current level of demand by continuously improving its quality and by measuring customer’s satisfaction. 7 Overfull Demand When demand goes more than their capacity and want to handle. Marketing management work in such situation is to decrease demand temporarily or permanently. 8 Unwholesome Demand: An organized effort to discourage their utilization. Like unselling compains conducted against cigarettes, alcohol etc. The marketing task is to get people who like something to give it up using such tools as fear messages, price hikes, reduced availability. COMPANY ORIENTATIONS TOWARD THE MARKET PLACE THE SELLING CONCEPTS Companies while making marketing, make certain assumptions on the basis of ideas they have some of these ideas are as follows: 1 Production Concept: Consumers favor those products which are widely available at low cost. Production oriented managers concentrate on high production with wide distribution. 2 Product Concept: Consumer favor those products that offer most quality, performance on innovative features. Product oriented managers focuses on marketing the superior products and improving them over time. 3 Selling Concept/Sales Concept: If customer is left alone, will ordinarily not buy enough of the organization’s products. The organization must, therefore, undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort. THE MARKETING CONCEPTS: The marketing concept is to achieve organizational goals by being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities to wards determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets. Pillars Of Marketing Target Market: Determine a part of total market to be served. 2) Customer Needs: Customers needs are of five types Stated needs: (The customer wants an expensive care) · Real need: (Customer wants a car having low operation cast and not effected by its initial price) Unstated need, (The customer expects good service from the dealer) Delighted Needs, (Customer buys the care and receives a complimentary US. road atlas) · Secret Need. (Wants to be seen by friends as a value-oriented savvy consumer) Coordinated or Integrated Marketing. When all the company’s departments work together to serve the customer’s interests, the result is integrated marketing. It takes place on two levels: Various marketing functions____sales force, advertising, product management, marketing research, and so on____must work together. All these marketing functions must be coordinated from customer’s point of view. · Social marketing must be well coordinated with other company departments. 2

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

Profitability or organization. The ultimate purpose of the marketing is to help organizations to achieve their goals. In for profit organizations the key aim is not only profits but to achieve profit as a by-product of doing the job well. Points That forces organizations More towards the Marketing Concepts: 1 Sales Decline Look for the answer for decline in sales and movers to increase this sales by marketing. 2 Slow Growth: When sales growth rate is low and organization makes organized marketing movement to catch new markets. 3 Changing Buying Patterns: When customer wants changes rapidly. 4 Increased Competition... When companies are suddenly attacked by powerful marketing companies and forced to meet the change. 5 Increased Marketing expenditures: When expenditures of companies for advertising, sales promotion, marketing research, and customer, service getting out of hand. Management then decides it is time to undertake a marketing audit to improve its marketing. 5 Social Concept: In the social concept managers determine needs wants and interests of target markets and to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that preserves or enhances the consumer’s and the society’s well-being. THE RAPID ADOPTION OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Marketing management today is the subject of growing interest in all types of organizations, within and outside the business sector and in countries throughout the world.

CHAPTER-2 Building Customer Satisfaction Through Quality, Service, and Value
DEFINING CUSTOMER VALUE AND SATISFACTION: Customer Value: Customer Delivered Value is the difference between total customer value and total customer cost. Total Customer Value is the bundle of benefits customers expect from a given product or service. Total Customer Cost is the bundle of costs customers expect to incur in evaluating, obtaining and using the product or service. Customer Satisfaction: Satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived/actual performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. Tools for Tracking and Measuring Customer Satisfaction: Complaints & Suggestion System: Make it easy for customer to deliver suggestions and complaints. By way of suggestion boxes, supplying comments cards to customers or hiring a public relationing officer. Customer Satisfaction Survey: Responsive companies uses a direct measure of customer satisfaction by conducting periodic surveys. They send questioner or make a telephone call asking about their satisfaction with the product. Ghost Shopping: Companies hire persons top pose potential buyers to report their findings on strong and weak points they experienced in buying the products of company and of the competitors. These hired persons are called ghost shopper can even pose certain problems to test whether the company’s sells personnel handle the situation well. Lost Customer Analysis: Companies should contact customers who have stopped buying or switched to other suppliers to learn the reason. DELIVERING CUSTOMER VALUE AND SATISFACTION: Keeping in view the importance of customer value and satisfaction, what does the company produce and deliver the customer? To answer this question, we need to discuss the concepts of a value chain and value-delivery systems. Value Chain: is a tool for identifying ways to create more customer value. It is a collection of activities that are performed to design, produce, market, deliver and support product. Value chain identifies nine strategically relevant activities that create value and cost in a specific business. These nine activities consist of five primary and four support activities. The primary activities represent the sequence of bringing materials into the business, converting them in to final products, shipping out them, marketing them and servicing them. The support activities include procurement, technology development, human resources management and firm infrastructure Value Delivery System/Network: To be successful the firm needs to look beyond its own operations, into the value chains of its suppliers, distributors, and customers. Many companies today partnered with specific suppliers and distributors to create a superior value-delivery network Attracting and Retaining Customers: 3

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Adding structural Tiles: The company may supply customers with special equipment or computer linkages that help customers manage their orders.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 In addition to improving supply many companies are intent on developing stronger bonds and loyalty with their ultimate customers. How it would cost to reduce the defection rate. Developing the loyal customers increases the company’s revenue. Accountable Marketing: The sales person phones the customer a short time after the sale to check whether the product is meeting the customer’s expectations and also ask him for any product or service suggestions and any specific disappointments. 2. a company should not invest in customer relationship building so much as the cost may exceed the gains. COMPUTING THE COST OF LOST CUSTOMERS: Today companies must pay closer attention to their customer defection rate and take steps to reduce it. Partners: It is an ultimate challenge to turn advocates into partners where the customer and company work together actively. clients are served by the professional assigned to them. 4 . Adding Financial Benefits: A company can offer two financial benefits. The cost of attracting a new customer is estimated to be 5 times the cost of keeping a current customer happy. b) Many companies have created affinity groups. During all above process some customers may become inactive or drop out due to moving other location. there are four steps to this process: Company must define and measure its retention rate. Estimate how much profit it loses when it loses customers. Distinguish the causes of customer attrition and identify those that can be managed better. Clients The next step is to convert repeated customers in to clients. A company can use three customer value-building approaches 1) Adding financial benefits. Advocate: The next step is to convert clients into advocates. 3. 4. clients are served on an individual basis. There are 5 different levels of company investment in customer relationship building. Customers may be nameless to the institution: clients cannot be nameless. Frequency Marketing Programs (FMPs) are designed to provide rewards to customers who buy frequently and/or in substantial amounts. First-Time Customers: The company hopes to convert many of its qualified prospects into first-time customers. Customers are served by anyone who happens to be available. (Use of sales rapes) Partnership Marketing: The company works continuously with customers to discover ways to effect customer servings or to help the customer to perform better. Customers are served as part of the mass or as part of large segments. They may continue to buy from competitors as well. a) frequency marketing programs and b) club marketing programs. dissatisfaction or adopting other companies products etc. Repeated Customer: The first time customers which are satisfied with the product and buys it again becomes repeated customers. inventory. Prospects: Out of suspects the persons having strong potential interest in the product and ability to pay for it are separated and are called prospects. Basic Marketing: The sales person simply sells the product. payroll. Clients are those customers who buy only from the company the relevant product categories. or by paying a fee. or clubs of their customers to bond them closer to the company. Pro-active Marketing: The sales person contacts the customer from time to time telling about improved products and products new uses. Relationship Marketing The process of attracting and keeping customers is called relationship marketing. Club membership may be offered automatically upon purchase of a certain amount. The Need for Customer Retention The cost of attracting a new customer is estimated to be five times the cost of keeping a current customer happy. It is often easier to re-attract ex-customers than to find new ones. Adding Social Benefits: Here company personnel work on increasing their social bonds with customers by individualizing and personalizing their customer relationships. Reactive Marketing: the sales person sells the product and encourages the customers call if they have any question. and so on. they have poor credit standing or being unprofitable. Frequency Marketing is an acknowledgment of the fact t that 20% of a company’s customer might account for 80% of its business. The company have to spend for building greater customer loyalty. Disqualified Prospects: Disqualified prospects are those to whom the company rejects because. 2) adding social benefits 3) adding structural tiles. Advocates are those who praise the company products and encourage others to buy from it. comments or complaints. However. The main steps in customer development process are as follows: Suspects: The company locates every one who might buy the product or services.

and must constantly hold up the standard of giving the customer the best solution. · They must communicate customer expectations correctly to product designers. · They are making their specific contributions to total quality management and customer satisfaction. and technical assistance. · they must make sure that the customers’ orders are filled correctly and on time. training. Marketing must be the customer’s watchdog or guardian. One implication of TQM is that marketing people must spend time and effort not only to improve external marketing but also to improve internal marketing. products and services.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan IMPLEMENTING TOTAL QUALITY MARKETING: Total Quality Marketing (TQM) is an organization-wide approach to continuously improving the quality of all the organization’s processes. Marketers play several roles in helping their company in defining and delivering high quality goods and services to target customers. 5 . · They must stay in touch with customers after the sale to ensure that they are satisfied and remain satisfied. Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service having ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. · They must check that customers have received proper instructions. They bear the responsibility for correctly identifying the customers’ needs and requirements. The marketer must complain like the customer complains when the product or the service is not right.

The satisfaction of stakeholders lead to increase in profits and higher value of the organization. b) Who is our customer? c) Value of the customer.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-3 Winning Markets Through Market Oriented Strategic Planning A) THE NATURE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE BUSINESS: There are four proposed characteristics of a high-performance business.e. Stakeholders may be customers employees. I Defining Corporate Mission: Organizations exists to accomplish something. policies. d) What will our business be. CHARACTERISTICS OF SBU: 1 Separately identifiable. suppliers and distributors. c) Competency Scope: The range of technical and other competencies which the company will master. material. 4 Organization: Organization consist of its structures. which should be clear and specific. IV) Planning new business. These resources can be owned. The business must strive to satisfy the expectations of each stakeholders group. f) Geographical Scope: The range of regions. 2 Have a distinct mission from others and the company. 2 GOOD MISSION STATE MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS: The major characteristics of a good mission are as follows: i) Focus on limited number of goals. B) CARPORATE STRATEGIC PLANNING: All corporate headquarters must undertake planning activities: i. policies and achievements. (SBUs). They divide them according to their major products or markets. 3) resources and 4) organization. In rapidly changing business environment organizational structures and policies can be changed (with difficulty) but its culture is hard to change. 1) Stakeholders. But its changing is a key to implementing a new strategy successfully. II) Establishing Strategic Business Units. ii) Stress the major policies and values that the company want to honor. 2 Processes: A company can accomplish its goals only by managing and linking its processes. III Assigning Resources to SBUs 6 . 3 Have its own competitors 4 Have its own executive group with profit responsibilities. machines energy etc. Each company’s business is shaped by 5 elements: a) History: of aims. e) Vertical Scope: The number of channels and levels involved in process from raw material to making finished goods and then their distribution. and corporate cultures. The management should adopt the way which provide them best output at labor outlets. b) Current Preferences of management and owners. e) Distinctive Competencies: Mission should be based on what it does best. each requiring its own strategy. d) Market Segment Scope: the type of customer the company will serve. iii) Define the major competitive scopes within which the company will operate. 2) processes. counties and groups in which a company will operate. Successful company renew their mission in the light of following questions: a) When is our business. I) Defining company mission. over time lose its relevance because of changed market conditions. 3 Resources: To carry-out processes a company needs resources like labor power. The aim may. c) The market environment: d) Resources Available determines. leased or rented. III) assigning resources to each SBU. e) What should our business be? 1 ELEMENTS THAT SHAPE THE COMPANY’S BUSINESS. 1 Stakeholders: The business must define its stakeholders and their needs. II Establishing Strategic Business Unit: Large companies normally manage quite different business at one time. such companies divide them in to Strategic Business Units. It may be any of the following types: a) Industry Scope: The scope of the industry in which the organization operates. which mission is possible. b) Product and Applications Scope: The range of products and application in which the company will participate.

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

The purpose of identifying SBUs is to develop separate strategies and assign appropriate funding. Each SBU sends its plan to headquarters, who approves them and sends back for revision or implementation. The purpose of sending plans to the headquarters is to check, which of its SBU is performing well and to decide, which SBU to be build, hold, maintained, harvest and divest. IV Planning New Business: Often the projected sales are less than corporate management wants them to be. If their is a strategic-planning gap between future desired and projected sales, company management will have to develop new business to fill this gape. There are three ways to fill this gap. 1) Intensive Growth 2) Integrative Growth, 3) Diversification Growth, and 4) Downsizing Older Business. 1 INTENSIVE GROWTH: Management first reviews for improving its existing business performance. It may be done by adopting following three strategies: Market Penetration Strategy: Finding the ways to increase the current products market share in the current market. b) Direct Market Development Strategy: A strategy to look for new markets whose needs might be met by its current products. c) Product Development Strategy: In addition to above tow management should also consider new-product possibilities. 2 INTEGRATIVE GROWTH: Sales and profits can often be increased by backward, forward and horizontal integration. Backward Integration: Mixing or engaging the business supplying to you, e.g. raw materials. b) Forward Integration: Integrating with an organization to whom you provide goods, like retailers and wholesalers. c) Horizontal Integration: Acquiring one or more competitors. 3 DIVERSIFICATION GROWTH: When good opportunities are found outside the present business. There are three types of diversified growth. Concentric Diversification Strategy: Seek new products having technological synergy’s with existing product lines even through the new products themselves may appeal to a different group of customers. b) Horizontal Diversification: Search new product that could appeal to current customers through the new product or technology, unrelated to its current product line. c) Conglomerate Diversification: Find new business having no relationship to the companies old business. 4 DOWNSIZING OLDER BUSINESS: Management should not only develop new businesses but also carefully divest / close tired old business in order to release needed resources and reduce costs. C BUSINESS STRATEGIC PLANNING: Individual business units managers prepares their own strategic plans in the light of the organization goals and strategies. It consist of six steps: 1) Business mission, 2) External environmental analysis, 3) Internal Environment Analysis, 4) Goal formulation, 5) Strategy Formulation, 6) Program Formulations, 7) Implementation, and 8)Feedback. 1 Business Mission: Each SBU define its mission within the broad company missions. 2 External Environmental Analysis: A SBU manager has to monitor key external macro-environment and significant micro environment actors e.g. customs, competitors, suppliers etc.) that effect its ability to earn profit. It should identify the associated opportunities and threats. Opportunities: Marketing opportunity is an area of buyers in which a company can perform profitably. Opportunities can be listed and classified according to their attractiveness and success probability. Threats: An environmental threat is a challenge posed by an unfavorable trend or development that would lead in the absence of defensive marketing action to deteriorate the sales and profit. 3 Internal Environment Analysis: Keeping in view the external environmental opportunities and threats they should consider the internal strengths and weaknesses. 4 Goal Formulation: After evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of organization management proceeds to develop specific goals for the planning period. This stage of business strategic planning process is called goal formulation. Every few businesses follow only one objective, rather most businesses pursue a mix of objectives including profitability, sales, growth market shares. The business units sets these objectives and then manages by objectives. Business objectives must meat four criteria's: They must be arranged hierarchically. b) Should be stated quantitatively c) Goals should be realistic. d) Objectives must be consistent. 5 Strategy Formulation: 7

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan



8 D

Goals indicate what a business unit wants to achieve. Strategy is a game plan for ____how to get their or how to get above goals. Three generic types of strategies are: Overall Cost Leader Ship: Business works hard to achieve the lowest cost of production and distribution so that it can set price lower than its competitors, and win a large market share. b) Differentiation: In it business concentrate on achieving superior performance in an important customer benefit area valued by a large part of the market. c) Focus: In it business focuses on one or more narrow markets rather than going after a large market. d) Alliances: Many firms make marketing alliances which fall in to 4 categories. Product / Service Alliance or Licensing. company licenses another to produce its product or two companies jointly market their complementary products or an new product. · Promotional Alliances One company agrees to carry a promotion for another company’s product or service. e.g. A ban may agree to display paintings from a local art gallery on its walls. · Logistics Alliances: One company offers logistical support services for another company’s product. For example Abbot Laboratories warehouses and delivers all 3Ms medical and surgical products across the USA. · Pricing Collaboration: One or more companies join in a special pricing collaboration. Program Formulation: After formulating strategies business works out detailed work programs. After formulating programs, marketing people must evaluate the program costs. These are the determination of ways as to, how the strategy will be implemented. Thus if a business decides to achieve technical leadership it must have to make program to develop its research and development department, etc. Implementation: Clear strategy and well-thought-out supporting programs are useless, if the firm fails to implement them carefully. Indeed strategy is one of the seven elements that the best managed companies exhibit. The seven elements are divided in to two groups. Hardware and Software. HARDWARES are Strategy, Structure, and System. SOFTWARES are style, staff, skills and shared value. Style means that employees share a common way of thinking and behaving. Staff: Means company have hired able people, trained them well and assigned them the right jobs. Skills: Means that employees have the skills needed to carry out the company’s strategy. Shared Values: Means employees share the same guiding values. Feed-Back & Control: At the end the firm need to track the results and monitor new developments in the internal and external environments. THE MARKETING PROCESS: To fully understand the marketing process, we must first look at how a company defines its business. The task of any business is to deliver value to the market at a profit. There are at least two views of the value-delivery process. First is the traditional view is that firms makes something and then sells it. In this view marketing takes place in the second half and it assumes that the company knows what to make and that the market will buy enough units to produce profits for the company. Second one is the new view of business process. It places marketing at the beginning of the business planning process. Instead of emphasizing marketing and selling, companies see them-selves as part of a value creation and delivery sequence. This sequence consist of three parts. Choosing the value, represents the “homework” that marketing must do before any product exists. The formula ____ segmentation, targeting, positioning (STP)_____ is the essence of strategic marketing. b) When the value has been chosen, business unit is ready to provide the value. The tangible product’s specifications and services must be detailed, and a target price must be established. Developing specific product features, prices, and distribution occurs at this stage and are part of tactical marketing. c) In the third phase the value is communicated. Here further tactical marketing occurs in utilizing the sales force, sales promotion, advertising, and other promotional tasks to inform the market about the product. The Japanese have further developed this view by promulgating the following concepts: Zero Customer feedback time: Customer feedback should be continuously collected, to learn, how to improve the product and its marketing. 2) Zero product-improvement time: Improvement ideas of customers and employees should be evaluated and the most valued and feasible ideas should be introduced as soon as possible. 3) Zero Purchasing Time: Company should receive required parts continuously through just-in-time arrangements with suppliers. 4) Zero Setup Time: The company should be able to manufacture any of its products as soon as they are ordered. 5) Zero defects: The product should be of high quality and free of flaws. The Marketing Process consist of 1)analyzing marketing opportunities, 2) developing marketing strategies, 3) planning marketing programs, and 4) managing the marketing effort. 8

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

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Analyzing Marketing Opportunities: The first task of marketing managers is to analyze the long-run opportunities in this market for improving the unit’s performance. The purpose of market research is to gather significant information about the marketing environment. Developing Marketing Strategies: It consist of two parts 1) Differentiating, and 2) positioning strategy for the target market. After launching the products the product strategy will have to be modified at the different stages in the product life cycle, consisting of four phases, introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. Planning Marketing Programs: To transform market strategy into marketing programs marketing managers must make basic decisions on i) marketing expenditures, ii) marketing mix, and iii)marketing allocation. i) MARKETING EXPENDITURE: The management have to decide as to what level of marketing expenditure is necessary to achieve its marketing objectives. ii) MARKETING MIX: Marketing mix is the set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market. There are literally dozens of marketing-mix tools. A four factor classification of these tools is very popular, called as four Ps: product, price, place and promotion. Marketing mix decision must be made for both distribution channels and final consumers. All the marketing-mix variables cannot be adjusted in the short run.

Marketing Mix


Product Price Promotion Place Variety List Price Sales promotion Channels Quality Discounts Advertising Coverage Design Allowances Sales Force Assortments Brand Name Payment - Public relations Locations Packing period Direct Marketing Inventory Sizes Credit Transport Services terms Warranties Returns. Managing the Marketing Effort. The final step in marketing process is managing the marketing effort. The company must build a marketing organization that is capable of implementing the marketing plan. There are three types of marketing control: Annual Plan control: The task of company is achieving its sales, profits, and other goals. First management state well-defined goals for each month or quarter. · Second, management must measure its ongoing performance in the market place. · Third, management must determine the underlying causes of any serious performance gaps. · Fourth, management must choose corrective actions to close gaps between goals and performance. Profitability Control Measuring the actual profitability of products, customer groups, trade channels, and other sizes. Marketing profitability analysis measures the profitability of different marketing activities. Marketing efficiency studies try to determine how various marketing activities could be carried out more efficiently. c) Strategic Control: Evaluating whether the company’s marketing strategy is appropriate to market conditions. Because of rapid changes in the marketing environment, each company needs to re-assess periodically its marketing effectiveness through a control instrument known as the marketing audit.


II) SALES REPORTING: Marketing manager need up-to-date reports of their current sales. It is done by: a) reading books. Sub-systems of MIS 1 Internal Company Records. c) trade publications d) talking to customers. A well run company take following 4 steps to improve quantity and quality of marketing intelligence system: THROUGH TRAINING THE SALES FORCE: By training the sales force to spot and report new developments. what manager’s really need. e. research firms. Computer technology may be used to design fast and comprehensive sales reporting system Marketing Information System represents a cross between what a manager think they need. collecting. 10 . evaluate. I) ORDER-TO-PAYMENT CYCLE It is the heart of the internal record system. Large companies can adopt any of the following ways of marketing research. b reading newspapers. I) SUPPLIERS OF MARKETING RESEARCH: There are a number of ways to do marketing research. and what is economically feasible. inventory levels. These research firms gather and store data at a much lover cost than the company could do on its own basis. 1 Internal Record System: It includes reports on orders. c) Many small companies routinely visit their competitors to bring new ideas. and sell this information to the parties having concern. g) talking to other outsiders. shipping goods back ordering of out-of-stock items and receiving payment against shipped items. and distribute needed informations timely and accurately to marketing decision makers. 3 Marketing Research System: Marketing research system is a systematic way of designing. 2 Marketing Intelligence Activities. e) talking to suppliers f) talking to distributors. Large companies generally have their own marketing research departments. b) Using on line information services such as America on Line. They should know that what type of information to be provided to which manager. Many companies are now using electronic data interchange (EDI) software to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the order to payment cycle. By analyzing these information marketing managers can spot light important opportunities and problems.g. such as given bellow: Engaging students or Professors to design and carry-out marketing research projects. It collect and files relevant information to assist manager in evaluating new information. payable and so on. Yet being very busy they may fail to pass on the significant information. It includes procedure and time involved in receiving order. While small companies may not have such departments and can conduct research in creative and affordable manner. sales prices. sales representatives_____ to discover their information needs. The staff scans major publications. valuable information could be lost or arrive too late. they are in excellent position to pick-up information missed by other means. sort. receivable. sales managers. In this regard marketing executives ____like product managers. Today companies need to do these steps quickly and accurately as the customer favor those firms who deliver goods on time. The needed information is developed through sub-systems of Marketing Information System. c) PURCHASE INFORMATION FROM OUTSIDE: Company may purchase information from outside suppliers. and h) talking to other managers & personnel within the company.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-4 Managing Marketing Information System and Measuring Market Demand A WHAT IS MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM: A marketing information system consist of people equipment and procedure to gather. prepare an abstract of relevant news and provide it to marketing manager. d) ESTABLISHING AN INTERNAL MARKETING INFORMATION CENTER to collect and circulate the marketing intelligence information. and other intermediaries to pass along important intelligence. retailers. 2 Marketing Intelligence System It is a set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain their everyday information about pertinent development in the marketing environment. faced to the company. b) THROUGH DISTRIBUTORS: Company may motivate distributors. 3 Marketing Research and 4 Marketing Decision Support System. If the marketing intelligence system is too casual. analyze. analyzing and reporting data and findings which are relevant to a specific marketing situation.

It is necessary for the organization to take care while collecting information and to edit it properly. and measure its magnitude in the general population iv) Experimental Research It is the most significally valid research. body. subjecting them to different treatments. ii) Sample Size: How many people should be surveyed. iii) Personal Interviewing is the most versatile of the three methods. ii) Telephone Interviewing a best method for gathering information quickly. Researchers tabulates the data and develops frequency distributions. They participate along with company in designing the way of study and thus report results which becomes the property of the company. The researcher should not overwhelm management with lots of numbers and fancy statistical techniques. It calls for three decisions i) Sampling Unit: Who is to be surveyed. The research plan involves decision about: Data sources: i) Secondary Data: Already gathered data for some purpose and can also be used for this purpose and ii) Primary Data: Data gathered only for the specific purpose. Large sample give more reliable results. Averages and measures of dispersion are computed for the major variables. and language. II) THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS: Marketing research process is consist of five steps given bellow: Define the problem and research objectives. · Research approaches Research data may be gathered in four ways i) Observational research: Data gathered by observing the relevant actors and settings. But in it response is very low and slow. beliefs. iii) Sampling Procedure: How should the respondents be chosen? To obtain a representative sample a probability sample of the population should be drawn. Galvanometers measure the subject’s interest or emotions aroused by exposure to a specific ad or picture. It is the most expensive and prone to error stage of research process. It consist of a set of questions presented to respondents for their answers. The interviewer can ask more questions and can record additional observations about the respondent such as dress. Sampling Plans: After deciding the research approach and instruments. A well defined problem is half solved. or iii)personal interviews. It calls for selecting matched groups of subjects. e) PRESENT THE FINDINGS: The last step of marketing research is presenting the findings to the relevant parties.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Syndicated-service Research Firms: These firms gather information about consumers and trade which they sell for fee. ii) Focus Group Research: 6 to 8 people are invited to spend few hour with a skilled researcher and discuss product or issue. but rather should present major findings that are pertinent to the major marketing decisions facing management. d) ANALYZE THE INFORMATION: The next-to-last step is to extract pertinent findings from the collected data. Research instruments: Two main research instruments for collecting data are Questionnaires and Mechanical Instruments. Open end questions allow respondents to answer in their own words. iii) Survey Research: Survey research best suit for descriptive research. and optical scanners has helped organizations in gathering informations before and after an advertising compain. It involves planning for gathering the needed information. 11 . But causes more difficulties and more expenses. b) Developing the Research Plans depends on the defined problem. the choices are i) mail. cash registers. ii Mechanical Instruments: Used less frequently. controlling extraneous variables and checking whether observed responses differences are statistically significant. The use of modern instruments like Computers. The interviewer is able to clarify questions if the respondents do not under stand them. the researcher must design a sampling plan. It is the most expensive method requires more administrative planning and supervision than other method. ii) telephone. Generally a sample of 1% of population give the reliable results. c) COLLECT THE INFORMATION. i) Mail Questionnaire is the best way to reach people who would not give personal interviews or whose responses might be biased by the interviewers. The target population to be sampled. surveys are under taken to learn about peoples knowledge. b) Custom Marketing Research Firms: These firms are hired to carry-out certain research projects. c) Specialty Line Marketing Research Firms: They provide specialized research services to others. i) Questionnaires: A most commonly used instrument for collecting primary data. satisfaction et. Contact methods: When the sampling plan has been determined the researcher must decide how the subject should be contacted. Questions may be close end or open end closed end questions specify all the possible answers that are easier to interpret and tabulate.

b) Research Creativity: Marketing research should also develop innovative ways to solve a problem c) Multiple Methods: Good Market researchers prefer to use multiple sources to avoid over-reliance on anyone method. where further increase in marketing effort would have little effect in stimulating further demand. AN OVERVIEW OF FORECASTING AND DEMAND MEASUREMENT Companies undertake marketing research to identify market opportunities. To assess market potential we have to visualize the market demand for a “very high” level of industry marketing expenditure. Managers need to define carefully what they mean by market demand. Market demand can be measured for six different product levels. Companies sales Forecast expected level of company sales based on a chosen marketing plan and on assumed marketing environment. the market potential. Market demand for a product is the total volume that would be bought by a defined customer group in a given geographical at a specified time period in a defined marketing environment under a defined market program. The two would be equal if the company achieved 100% of the market. 12 . b) Available Market the set of consumer who have interest. 4 Product line sales 5 Product Form sales 6 Product item sales. and cash-flow decisions. d) Interdependence of Models and Data: e) Value and Cost of Information: f) Healthy Skepticism: g) Ethical Marketing. tools and techniques with supporting software and hardware by which an organization gathers and interprets relevant information from business and environment and turns it into a basis for marketing action. Five different space levels 1 world 2 Country wide 3 Region 4 Territory 5 Customer and three time levels 1 Short run 2 Medium run 3 Long run. Definition of Market: A market is a set of all actual and potential buyers of a product. The absolute limit of company demand is. formulation of hypotheses. prediction and testing. 4 Marketing Decision Support System:(MDSS) MDSS is a coordinated collection of data. 2 Industry Sales 3 company sales. income and access to a particular market offer. Companies Sales Potential It is the sales limit approached by company demand as company marketing effort increases relative to competitors. division or sales representative. e) Penetrated Market the set of customers who have already bought the product of the company. After completing research company evaluate each opportunity before choosing target market. Sales Budget: is a conservative estimate of the expected volume of sales and is used primarily for making current purchasing. d) Target Market also called served market is the part of qualified available market the company decide to pursue. of course. production. Keeping in view this definition a market may be sub-divided in to following ways. Potential Market is the set of consumers who has shown a sufficient level of interest in a defined market offer. MEASURES OF MARKET DEMAND: As a part of their planning companies prepare many estimates of market size. Market Forecast The market demand corresponding to the level of expenditure actually occurred is called the market forecast. Marketing is responsible to prove sales forecasts which are based on demand. 1 All sales.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan III Characteristics Of A Good Marketing Research: A good marketing research should have seven characteristics. Sales Quota the sales goal set for a product line. Scientific Method: is careful observation. Market Potential The market forecast shows expected market demand not maximum market demand. Company Demand: is the companies estimated share of the market demand at alternative levels of company marketing effort. c) Qualified available Market: the set of consumers who have qualifications of available market and also qualification for the particular market offer. It is primarily a managerial device for defining and stimulating sales effort. A Vocabulary for Demand Measurement.

they are also a market for western-style commodities and luxury goods. debt.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-5 Scanning the Marketing Environment Successful companies take an outside-inside view of their business. competitors all operate in macro environment of forces and trends that shape opportunities and threats. Industrialization creates a new rich class and a small growing middle class. between 7 to 10 years or longer. b) High school drop-outs c) High school degrees d) College degrees. 4 educational level 5 household patterns and 6 regional characteristics. 2) economic environment. 3 ethnic mix. and 6) Social/Cultural environment. They ignore or resist change until it is too late. HOUSE HOLD PATTERNS: The traditional house hold pattern quit differs from a modern house hold pattern now all the peoples of house either do job or go to school and use redeemed foods. There economies offer few opportunities for marketers b) Raw Material Exporting Economies: These economies are rich in one or more natural resources. CURRENT INCOME: Nations vary greatly in their level and distribution of income. ANALYZING NEEDS AND TRENDS IN THE MACRO ENVIRONMENT: Successful companies recognize and respond (profitably) to un-met needs and trends in the macro environment. some of which can be satisfied only by imports. and credit availability. It is a major determinant in the nations industrial structure. c) Industrializing Economies: Economies in which 10 to 20% of the country’s gross domestic products are manufactured. Marketers keenly interested 1 growth rate of population in different cities. The education level also effect the environment of the market. The people are shifting from rural areas to cities and population of cities is increasing in multiples. REGIONAL / GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Geographical characteristics also effects the environment. education. Such countries are good markets for extractive equipment. 13 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 B 1 . Each population group has certain specific wants and buying habits. EDUCATIONAL GROUP: Population of any society falls into five educational groups a) Illiterate. There are four types of industrial structures Subsistence Economies: In it wast majority is engaged in simple agriculture and consume most of their products. They recognize that the marketing environment is constantly spinning new opportunities and threats and the understand the importance of continuously monitoring and adopting to the changing environment. GROWTH RATE: is watched to make the future and present needs planning. Economic Environment: Economic environment denotes the available purchasing power of the economy. 2 ages distribution. savings. 3) Natural environment 4) Technological environment 5) political/legal environment. but poor in other respects. economic and political significance. Demographic Environment: Means the population forces which effect the environment. Many opportunities are found by identifying trends. It depends on current income. lifestyle. They are more predictable and durable than fads. Much of their revenue comes from exporting these resources. short lived. and once the come they influence us for some time. political and technical changes (that are slow to form). geography and so on. prices. both demanding new types of goods. A Fad is an unpredictable. A trend is a direction or sequence of events that have some momentum and durability. Each group has its own preferences and consumer characteristics. d) Young adults age 25-40 e) Middle-aged adults age 40-65 f) Old adults above 65 ETHNIC MARKETS: Ethnic means national or tribal groups that has a common culture tradition. i. customers. They are non-controllable and must have to be monitored and responded. social. e) Professional degrees. economic. tools and supplies and material handling trucks. and without social. its suppliers. and less on import of finished products. Within rapidly changing global picture the firms must monitor six major forces effecting the environment. 1) Demographic environment. AGE MIX: can be divided in to six age groups a) Pre-school b) School-age children c) Teens. Changing a mass Market in to Micro Markets: All the above changes causes a mass market to be changed / converted in to numerous micro markets. IDENTIFYING AND RESPONDING TO THE MAJOR MACRO-ENVIRONMENT FORCES: Companies. Many companies fail to see change as opportunity. Depending on number of foreign residing and wealthy native rulers and landholders. As manufacturing increases countries relies more on imports of raw materials & heavy machinery.e. Megatrends are large.

People have different views and at the same time from different points of views. and the finite nonrenewable. c) People’s Views About Society. automobiles. This environment is composed of. e) People’s Views of the Universe. the quantity of DDT and other chemical pollution’s in the soil etc. Such as pollution and the action of “greens” against it. Political / Legal Environment: Marketing decision are strongly affected by change in political and legal requirements. GROWTH OF SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS: Power of special groups have increased over the last few decades. Infinite resources. b) People’s Views About Others. Marketers should be aware of these regulations when proposing developing and launching new products. Every new technology has a force creative force and distructs the previous inventions. and food must be used wisely. PRICES: Depends upon various things like inflationary rate. and Finite nonrenewable resources like oil.Governments vary in their concern and efforts to promote a clean environment. such as air and water poses no immediate problem. CREDIT AVAILABILITY INTEREST RATE STAGE OF ECONOMY IN THE BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE INFLATION Natural Environment: Natural environment also effects the environment trends. zinc. e.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan d) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C D E F Industrial Economies: the major exporters of manufactured goods and investments funds. Protect interests of society from un-bridled business behavior. Social /Cultural Environment: Societies are shaped with their beliefs. Safety and health regulations have been increased in the areas of food. Government agencies and pressure groups that influence organizations as well as markets. DEBT: Debts depend upon the savings of the economy. the marketers should watch the following trends in technology: Accelerating Pace of Technological Change. c) Increased Level of Pollution: Some industrial activities inevitable damage the natural environment. Like dangerous mercury levels in the ocean. Shortage of raw material The earth’s raw materials consist of the infinite. SAVINGS: The economy making more savings will prosper fastly because banks can give loan at lesser interest rate. though in long run their are many problems. d) Increased Regulations of Technological Change. platinum. Government agencies are now investigating to ban potentially unsafe products. b) Increased Energy Cost: Nonrenewable finite resources has created serious problems for the world economy. They try to save their interests and thus effect the environments. clothing. EXTERNAL MICRO ENVIRONMENT: They are part of companies marketing system 1) the market. and construction. transistors hurt the vacuum-tube etc. coal. because as they are deteriorating their prices are increasing. 3) market intermediaries 14 . Marketers need to be aware of threats and opportunities associated with four trends in the natural environment. d) People’s Views About Nature. the finite renewable. The major hopes are that companies around the world will accept more social responsibility and that less expensive devices will be invented to controlled and reduce pollution. Many of the today's common products were not available 30 years ago. Laws. The time lag between new ideas and their successful implementation is decreasing rapidly.g. They buy manufactured goods from each other and also export them to other types of economies in exchange for raw materials and semi-finished goods. People’s Views About Themselves. economic stability etc. Technological Environment: Technology is dramatically changing lives of the people. It includes following: LEGISLATION REGULATING BUSINESS: Business legislation has three main purposes: Protect companies from unfair competition Protect consumers from unfair business practice. such as forests. 2) the supplier. silver. industrialization in the country. Scientists today are working on a startling range of new technologies that will revolutionize products and production process. values and norms. c) Varying Research and Development Budgets. As products become more complex the public needs to be assumed of their safety. Keeping in view the above situations it is necessary to increase the research and development budgets. electrical appliances. will pose serious problems as their time of depletion approaches. Finite renewable resources. b) Unlimited Opportunities for Inventions. d) Changing roles of Governments: .

c) Their buying behavior. financing etc.e. transportation. warehousing. There are two types of market intermediaries 1) The firms middle-man (the whole seller and retailer appointed by the organization). 15 . b) Their purchasing power. Market Intermediaries: They are independent business organizations that directly aid in the flow of goods and services between a marketing organization and its markets. They are needed to complete exchange between buyers and sellers. The Supplier: Organizations need cooperative relationship with supplier. and 2)Various facilitating organizations which provide services i.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 Market: Market have three factors People or organizations with wants.

Outlets Where does the market buy? MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING BEHAVIOR: These factors can be sub-divided in to following four categories. perceptions. a consumer’s behavior is influenced by such social factors as reference groups. But with the growth of companies direct contact with the consumer has become impossible. b) Occupation: Occupation also effect the consumption pattern.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-6 Analyzing Consumer Markets and Buyer Behavior The aim of marketing is to satisfy the target customers needs and wants. professional. and geographical regions. I) MOTIVATION: A man have many needs at any one time . a worker will purchase necessities with low price. e) Personality and Self Concept: Each person has a distinct personality that influences his or her buying behavior. patterns. sociability. It is a useful variable in analyzing a persons behavior. CULTURE: A fundamental determinant of a persons wants and behavior. Reference groups: A persons reference groups consist of all the groups that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect influence on the person’s attitudes or behavior. spouse and children c) Roles and Status's: Role is the activities that a person is expected to perform due to his status e. Occasions When does the market buy? 7. Model of consumer Behavior In the beginning marketers could understand consumers through the daily experience of selling them. autonomy. They include. deference. while the president of company will buy expensive things. can also be subdivided in two groups. family. borrowing power and attitude toward spending versus saving. speech. and opinions. Social Factors: In addition to cultural factors. with whom the person interact fairly and continuously. 1 Occupants Who constitute the market? 2.e. Biogenic: The need which arise from physiological states of tension such as hunger. 2 Perception. Organizations Who participates in buying? 5. preferences. savings and assets. education. Membership groups may be subdivided in to primary and secondary. c) SOCIAL CLASS: It is relatively homogeneous divisions of society which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values. Now managers had to rely on 7 O’s given bellow. It do not reflect income alone but also other indicators like occupation. and trade-union groups which require less interaction. religions. 1 Cultural Factors 2 Social Factors 3 Personal Factors 4) psychological Factors. It includes broad culture/atmosphere of country. and socialization for its members. interests. dominance. Operations How does the market buy? 6. Secondary groups include religious. discomfort etc. b) SUB-CULTURE: Each culture consists of small sub-cultures providing more specific identification. nationalities. sub-culture and social class. neighbors and co-workers etc. and behaviors. Primary groups include family. performance. 3 Learning 4 Beliefs and Attitudes. e. and adaptability. Groups having a direct influence on a person are called membership groups. They are of two types. c) Economic Circumstances: Product choice is also greatly effected by one’s economic circumstances. and occupation may lead quite different lifestyles. parents and other i.g. social class. By personality. in family. Objects What does the market buy? 3. Psychological Factors: Psychological factors are four: 1 Motivation. in the company where he works. we mean a person’s distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to his or her environment. It differs in their dress. b) Family: Most influential primary group. Which include their spend able income. friends. 16 1 2 3 4 . Objectives Why does the market buy? 4. Cultural Factors: Culture influences the consumer behavior most effectively than any others. Personal Factors: Following are the personal factors which effect the consumer behavior: Age and stage in life cycle: People buy different goods and services over their lifetime. d) Lifestyle: People coming from the same subculture. Every economy have its own values. with friends. and roles and status's. defensiveness. thirst. Personality is usually described in terms of such traits as self-confidence.g. debts. It include culture. area of residence. A lifestyle is the person’s pattern of living in the world as expressed in the person’s activities.

organizes and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. · product is expensive and risky. reducing buyer behavior. rather they must identify who makes the buying decision. A need becomes a motive when it is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity. therefore. Perception is the process by which an individual selects. be careful to take these perceptual processes into account in designing their marketing campaigns. c) Selective Retention: People tends to retain those information that supports their attitudes and beliefs due to selective retention. DISSONANCE ____REDUCING BUYER BEHAVIOR: Reducing buying behavior is characterized by: consumer is highly involved in purchase. II) PERCEPTION: A motivated person is ready to act. It involves changes in the individual’s behavior arising from experience. 17 . Buying Behavior: Behavior varies with the type of buying decision. e) User: A person who consumes or uses the product or service. The marketers must know the consumers information gathering and evaluation process and develop strategies to assist the buyer in learning about the product’s attributes and call for his attention towards high standing of the company’s brand. develops attitudes about the product and third. people may not necessarily see or hear the message that marketers want to send. how and whom to buy.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 b) Psychogenic They arise from psychological states of tension such as the need for recognition. 2) dissonance. · typically does not know much about product category. As a result. 1) Complex buying behavior. THE BUYING PROCESS: To be successful marketers must go beyond the understanding as to how consumers actually make their buying decisions. but also on the stimuli’s relation to the surrounding field and on conditions within the individual. COMPLEX BUYING BEHAVIOR: Consumer are involved in complex buying behavior when they are highly involved in purchase. c) Decider: A person who decides on any component of buying decision _____ whether to buy. How the motivated person actually acts is influenced by his or perception of the situation. Selective Attention: Selective attention means the marketers have to work hard to attract consumer’s notice because to consumer pay selective attention to the advertisements. 1) buyer develops beliefs about the product. People notice those adds that relates to current needs · People notice those adds that they anticipate. · People likely to notice those adds whose deviations are large than normal size adds. and · has much to learn. d) Buyer: Who actually purchase. · aware of significant differences among brands. III) LEARNING When people act. To differentiate the brand’s features marketers should use print media to describe brand’s benefits. A motive is a need sufficiently pressing to drive the person to act. they learn. esteem or belonging. b) Influencer: A person whose view or advice influence the decision. and An Attitude is a person’s (enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations). Marketers must. · see litter difference in brands. what. Second. These in turn influence their buying behavior. Most psychogenic needs are not intense enough to motivate the person to act on them immediately. The types of buying decisions and steps in buying process are given bellow. It involve three step process. There are five roles people can play in buying decisions Initiator: Who firs suggest the idea of buying product. Perception depends upon not only physical stimuli. IV) BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES Through doing and learning people acquire beliefs and attitudes. there are four types of consumers buying behavior based on degree of buyer’s involvement and degree of differences among brands. A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. he make thoughtful purchase choice. emotional feeling and action tendencies toward sum object or idea. Different people can perceive the same situation differently due the three perceptual processes: a) Selective Attention. 3) Habitual buying behavior. b) Selective Distortion and Selective Retention. Buying Roles: It is easy to identify buyer for many products. But marketers must be careful in making their (targeting)decisions because buying roles change. b) Selective Distortion: It is the tendency of people to twist information into personal meanings and interpret information in a way that will support their perceptions. and 4) variety seeing buying behavior.

and advertising that presents reasons for trying something new. 2) Information Search. the value he gives to the additional information and the value of satisfaction he obtains from the search. Evaluation of Alternatives: There is no single and simple valuation process used by all consumers in all situations. Consumer may can get information from the following four sources: • Personal sources: Family. then they develop the marketing strategies that trigger consumer interest. · link product to some involving personal situation. our coffee taken early in the morning shake of sleepiness. • Commercial sources: Advertising. · significant brand differences · consumers can do a lot of brand switching. infrequent and risky. Problem Recognition: Buying process begins when buyer recognizes the problem or need. Marketers can convert low involvement products into one of high involvement by four ways given bellow: link product to some involving issue e. Through gathering information. consumer-rating organizations. The extent of search depends upon the strength of the drive. These five stages are 1) Problem recognition. The external need aroused by an external source.g. After the purchase the consumer might experience dissonance that stems from noticing certain disquieting features of the product or hearing favorable things about other product. consideration set. Information Search: An aroused consumer will be inclined to search for more information. 3) Evaluation of Alternatives. e. He should also identify the consumers information sources and evaluate their relative importance. coupons. for example a person passes a bakery and saw bread and biscuits that stimulates his hunger. It is not necessary that consumer pass through them sequentially especially in the case of low involvement purchase in such a case consumer may shift or reverse some stages. Challenger firms will encourage variety seeking by offering lower prices. and sponsoring frequent reminder advertising. examining. acquaintances. see friends who have purchased that product etc. thirst. · Add an important product feature to a low involvement product. salt. 3 HABITUAL BUYING BEHAVIOR: Many products are bought under conditions of low consumer involvement and the absence of significant brand differences. THE STAGES OF THE BUYING DECISION PROCESS:` Smart companies keep an eye on the buying decision process involved in their product category. The Milder search and the active information search. 18 4 1 2 3 . toothpaste etc. We may distinguish between two levels of arousal.g. perhaps responding primarily to a good price or to purchase convenience.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan · purchase is expensive . In this case the buyer will shop around to learn what is available but will buy fairly quickly. arise to a thresh hold level and becomes a drive. the amount of information he already has. packaging. tea. • Public sources Mass medial. THE MILDER SEARCH: It may also be called as heightened attention. VARIETY SEEING BUYING BEHAVIOR: This type of buying behavior is characterized by: Low consumer involvement. deals. Internal needs are like hunger. In such a situation the market leader try to encourage habitual buying behavior by dominating the shelf space. and choice set. friends. e. ii) He is looking for certain benefits from the product solution. Generally a buyer while making buying decision passes through 5 different stages. 4) Purchase Decision. dealers. The selling company must strategies to get its product into the awareness set. The company must also identify the other brands in the consumer's choice set so that it can plan its competitive appeals. the consumer learns about competing sets of brands and their features. The consumer will be alert to the information to justify his decision of purchase. sex etc. avoiding out-of-stock conditions. toothpaste resisting cavity. Marketers need to identify the circumstances that trigger a particular need. salespersons. and engages in other activities to learn about the product. THE ACTIVE INFORMATION SEARCH: At this stage he actually looks for reading material. neighbors. using the product. and the ease of obtaining additional information. displays. like ads of the product.g. At this stage the consumer simply pays more attention to information's about the desired product. • Experiential sources: Handling. 5) Post purchase behavior. free samples. · advertise to trigger strong emotions related to personal values or defence. phones friends. A need may arise either internally or externally. Some basic concepts will help us to understand consumer evaluation process: i) Consumer is trying to satisfy a need.

atmosphere. makes sense when buyer mistakenly believe a competitor's brand has more quality that it actually has. Post Purchase Behavior: After purchasing the product the consumer will experience some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction The marketer's job does not end when the product is bought but continues into the post purchase period Marketer must monitor post purchase satisfaction. two factors may intervene between the purchase intention and purchase decision. ii) Unanticipated situational Factors: A consumer's decision to modify. which are not very clear in the mind of the buyer. vi) Shift the buyers ideas: The marketers could try to persuade buyers to change their ideal levels for one or more attributes. second. and post purchase product use and dispose. A try to alter the buyers beliefs about where competitive brands stand on different attributes. with varying abilities of providing benefits sought to satisfy need. tread life. price. speed. the consumer's motivation to comply with the other person's wishes. • hotel: location. The more intense the other person's negativism and the closer the other person is to the consumer. iv) Alter the importance weights: The marketer could try to persuade buyers to attach more importance to the attributes in which the brand excels.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 4 5 iii) He looks at every product as a bundle of attributes. 1) Attitudes of others. post purchase actions. It is also called real repositioning. first. called competitive repositioning. and the amount of consumer self-confidence. sharpness. It is not recommended if buyers are accurately evaluating brand exaggerated claims would lead to buyer dissatisfaction and bad word or mouth. cleanliness. ride quality. Marketers can do a number of things to influence buyers decision: i) Modify Product: They may redesign the brand so that it offers more characteristics that the buyer desires. or avoid a purchase decision is heavily influenced by perceived risk. • tyers: safety. Purchase Decision: In the evaluation stage the consumer forms preferences among brands in the choice set. the intensity of the other person's negative attitude toward the consumer's preferred alternative and. It is often accomplished by running a comparison ad. It is useful where the buyer underestimate the brand qualities. i) Attitudes of Others The extent to which others attitudes reduces one's preferred alternatives depends on two things. 19 . However. price. ii) Alter beliefs about the brand: A try to alter the buyers' beliefs about where the brand stands on key attributes. The attributes of interest to buyers vary by product: • camera: picture. and life. size. price. The consumer may for an intention to buy the most preferred brand. postpone. the amount of attribute uncertainty. and 2) Unanticipated situational factors. the more the consumer will adjust his purchase intention. This strategy. iii) Alter the beliefs about the competitors brands. v) Call attention to neglected attributes: In such a case the marketer draws the buyer's attention to neglected attributes. The amount of perceived risk varies with the amount of money at stake.

Business markets have several characteristics that contrast sharply with consumer markets some of them are given bellow: 1 FEWER BUYERS: Business marketers normally deals with far fewer buyers than the consumer marketers does. evaluate. The major industries making up the business market are agriculture. 6 INELASTIC DEMAND: The demand of such goods is not much effected by the change in price. System Buying and Selling: Many business buyers prefer to buy a total solution of their problem from one seller. communication. 5 DERIVED DEMAND: Demand of business goods is ultimately dependent on demand of consumer goods. because producers cannot make quick changes in their production methods. construction. the users initiate the buying proposal. 1 STRAIGHT REBUY: Purchases are ordered on routine basis from a previous supplier called in-supplier. therefore requires more time and analysis of suppliers. 9 SEVERAL BUYING INFLUENCES: More people can influence a business buying decision than a consumer buying decision. or supplied to others. necessary to produce the additional output. Consequently business marketers have to send well trained representatives and often uses teams to deal with the well-trained buyers. especially in the short run. Buying Situations: Business buyers faces many decisions in making a purchase. and choose among alternative brands and suppliers. and insurance. rented. It is called system buying Participants in the Business Buying Process: It is also called buying center and includes all persons involved in purchasing which are given bellow: i) Initiators: Those who request that something be purchased. This means the business marketers have to provide greater technical data about their product and its advantages over competitors' products. sales promotion and publicity plays important role but personal selling usually serves as a main marketing tool. transportation. forestry. Professional buyers spend their lives in learning how to buy better. ii) Users: Those who will use the product or service. finance. 10 DIRECT PURCHASING: Business buyers often buy directly from the manufacturers rather than through intermediaries. Sometimes a rise of 10% in consumer demand can cause as much as 200% rise in business demand for the product in the next period. and fisheries mining. Although ad. 2 LARGER QUANTITY BUYERS: Buy in bulk items for reproduction. constraints.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-7 Analyzing Business Markets and Business Buyer Behavior WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BUYING: Organizational buying is the decision-making process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased products and services and identify. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BUSINESS MARKET AND CONSUMER MARKET: Business Market: consist of all the organizations that acquire goods and services. 12 LEASING: Many industrial buyers lease their equipment instead of buying it. The out-supplier offer something new or exploit dissatisfaction with the supplier. 8 PROFESSIONAL PURCHASING: Business good are purchased by trained purchasing agents. are more cost effective. 3 CLOSER SUPPLIER-CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP: Because of the smaller number of customer base and the importance and power of the large customers. manufacturing. who must follow the organizational policies. and a 10% fall in consumer demand may cause a complete collapse in business demand. There are three types of buying situations the straight re-buy the modified re-buy and the new task. 4 GEOGRAPHICALLY CONCENTRATED BUYERS: Generally one type of organizations exist in one locality. banking. 11 RECIPROCITY: Business buyers often select suppliers who also buy from them. there are close relationships between customers and suppliers. Buying committees consisting of technical experts and senior managers are common in the purchase of major goods. Out supplier try to get a small order and then enlarge their share over time. A few large buyers do most of the purchases. In many cases. 2 MODIFIED REBUY: A situation in which the buyer wants some modification in price. Therefore. It involves additional discussion between buyer and seller representative who tries to defend his position and becomes nervous. especially those items that are technically complex and expensive. 3 NEW TASK: Purchasing for the first time. used in the production of other products or services. 7 FLUCTUATING DEMAND: A small percentage increase in consumer demands can lead to a much larger percentage increase in demand for planed and equipment. delivery requirements or other terms. distribution and services. The out supplier see an opportunity and offer better facilities to gain some business. that are sold. The number of decisions depends on the type of buying situation. 20 . This sales volatility has led many business marketers to diversify their products and markets to achieve more balanced sales over the business cycle. public utilities. buyers are concentrated in few localities. and requirements.

or . and political regulatory. procedures. PRODUCT SPECIFICATION: After identifying the general needs the buying organization proceeds to develop the items technical specifications. personality. 3) interpersonal factors. The company evaluate proposals and eliminate some suppliers and invite the remaining ones to make a formal presentation. and system. and telephone operators may prevent sales persons from contacting user or deciders. and the company searches for another supplier. influenced by the participants age. Business marketers should be particularly aware of these. Following are the organizational trends in the organizational area: i) Purchasing department upgrading: Purchasing department commonly occupy a low position in the management hierarchy They are now being up graded. ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS: Each buying organization has specific objectives. The attributes may include the delivery reliability. price. Then it will rate suppliers on these attributes and identify the most attractive suppliers. 2) organizational factors. and persuasiveness. and 4) Individual factors. purchasing agents. What is the product value analysis: PVA is an approach to cost reduction in which components are carefully studied to determine if they can be redesigned or standardized or made by cheaper make money . Technical personnel are particularly important influences. THE PURCHASING PROCESS: Business buyers purchase goods and services . v) Purchasing Performance Evaluation and buyers professional development: Many companies have installed the incentive systems to reward purchasing managers for goods buying performance. PROBLEM RECOGNITION: Some one in the organization recognizes the problem that can be met by acquiring a good or service. e. They may be classified in to four groups 1) environmental factors. perceptions. vii) Gatekeepers: People who have the power to prevent sellers or information from reaching to members of the buying satisfy a legal or social obligation. iv) Decider: People who decide on product requirements and or on suppliers. SUPPLIERS SELECTION: The buying center. INDIVIDUAL FACTORS: Each participant in the business buying process has his own motivations. specify the desired attributes of the suppliers. and supplier 21 . PROPOSAL SOLICITATION: The buyer invite the qualified suppliers to submit proposals with detailed specifications. For this purpose organizations uses trade directories. iii) Decentralized Purchasing of small ticket items: iv) Long-term Contracts: Business buyers are increasingly accepting long term contracts with suppliers. although whatever information he can discover about the personalities and interpersonal factors would be useful. organizational structure. GENERAL NEED DESCRIPTION: On recognition the buyer proceeds to determine the needed items general characteristics and quality needed. ii) Centralized Purchasing: In multi-divisional companies most purchasing is carried out by separate divisions because of their differing needs. authority. Recently some of the companies have started the centralized purchasing. level of demand for their product Economic outlook. For this they often use a supplier-evaluation model. For buying goods business buyers have to go through buying or procurement process having eight steps called buy phases. policies. interest rate technological developments.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 Influences: People who influence the buying decision by defining specifications and providing information for evaluating alternatives. attitudes toward risk. status. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: Business buyers are heavily effected by factors in the current and expected economic environment. SUPPLIER SEARCH: Then the company searches the most appropriate suppliers. Events leading to problem recognition are the following: i) Company decides to produce a new product and needs new equipment and materials to produce it. job position. Major Influences on Business Buyers: Business buyers are subject to many influences when they make their buying decision. vi) Buyers: People who have formal authority to select the supplier and arrange the purchase terms. education. before selecting a supplier. the business marketer is not likely to know what kind of group dynamics take place during the buying process. computer search or make phone to other companies for recommendations.g. ii) A machine breaks down and requires replacement or new parts. For it a product value analysis is conducted. and culture. v) Approvers: People who authorize the proposed actions of deciders or buyers. receptionists. INTERPERSONAL FACTORS: The buying center usually includes several participants with differing interests. iv) A purchasing manager senses an opportunity to obtain lower prices or better quality. iii) Purchased material turns out to be unsatisfactory. empathy. income. and reduce operating cost.

ORDER-ROUTINE SPECIFICATION: After selection of supplier the buyer negotiate final order listing the i) Technical specifications. Writing a new purchase order each time is expensive and time consuming. The buying center also decide as to how many suppliers to use. iv) return policies. etc. They also often require the chosen suppliers to achieve continuous quality and performance improvement while at the same time lowering the supply price each year by a given percentage. because it means to carry more inventory. The purchaser also do not wants to make a large purchase order ( and thus decreasing number of orders). A blanket contract establishes a long term relationship in which the supplier promises to re-supply at an agreed price over a specified period of time. v) warrantees. 22 . 2) Rate the supplier on several criteria using a weighted score method or 3) aggregate the cost of poor supplier performance to come up with adjusted cost of purchase including price. Furthermore these companies want each chosen supplier to be responsible for a larger component system. In modified-re-buy or straight-re-buy situations. PERFORMANCE REVIEW: When all is done the buyer reviews the performance of the chosen supplier. their certain special feature found in these markets. However. Three methods are commonly used. iii) expected time of delivery. INSTITUTIONAL AND GOVERNMENT MARKETS: So far our discussion is about the profit seeking organizations. ii) Quantity needed. some of these stages would be compressed or bypassed. Then the buying center attempt to negotiate with its preferred suppliers for better prices and terms before making the final selection.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 7 8 reputation are highly important. Above given stages are for the new task buying situation. Much of it also applies to the buying practices of institutional and government organizations. 1) the buyer may contact the end user and ask for evaluation.

license. Exit and Shrinkage Barriers: Ideally firms should be free to leave industries in which profit are unattractive. economies of scale. The major barriers include high capital requirements. A company in a pure oligopolistic industry would find it hard to charge anything more than the going price unless it can differentiate its services. i) Differentiated Oligopoly: consist of a few companies producing partially differentiated products (cameras. potential entrants. patent.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-8 Analyzing the Industries and Competitors There are five forces that determine the intrinsic long-run profit attractiveness of a market or market segment. Each competitors may seek leadership in one of these major attributes. Sellers will enjoy different profit rates only to the extent that they achieve lower costs of production or distribution. i) Pure oligopoly: consist of a few companies producing essentially the same commodity (oil. autos) The differentiation can occur along lines of quality. there are two forms of oligopoly pure and differentiated. It is even more unattractive if the segment is stable or declining. and poor-performing firms can easily exit.e. or many sellers of the product and whether the product is homogeneous or highly structure type: 1 PURE MONOPOLY: Exist when only one firm provides a certain product or service in a certain country. low asset salvage value due to over-specialization or obsolescence. 3 MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION: Consist of many competitors able to differentiated their offers in whole or part (restaurants. 2 Industry competitors: Occurs when a company sees its competitors as all companies making the same product or class of products. 2 OLIGOPOLY: An industry structure in which a small number of (usually) large firms produce product that range from highly differentiated to standardized. features. strong. Most common barriers are lager moral obligations to customers. 3 Form competition: Occurs when a company sees its competitors as all companies manufacturing products that supply the same service. scarce locations. No competitor will advertise unless advertising can create psychological differentiation (cigarettes) in which case it would be more proper to describe the industry and monopolistically competitive. styling. The most attractive segment is one in which entry barriers are high and exit barriers are low i. raw materials. substitutes. and employees. patents and licensing requirements. 2 Threats of new entrants: A segment's attractiveness varies with the high of its entry and exit barriers. Number of Sellers and Degree of Differentiation: The starting point for describing an industry is to specify whether there are one. A segment is unattractive when there are actual or potential substitutes for the product are available. and reputational requirements. and if both barriers are low it means more firms can enter in the segment. competitors price will be the same. Many of the competitors focus on market segments where they can meet customer needs in a superior way and command a price premium. lack of alternative opportunities high vertical integration and emotional barriers. beauty shops). scale economics or other factors. Entry and Mobility Barriers: Industry differ greatly in their ease of entry. steel). IDENTIFYING COMPETITORS: Competitors may be at four levels: 1 Brand competitors: A company offering similar product and services to the same customers at similar prices. The five threats they poses are as follows: 1 Threat of intense segment revelry: A segment is unattractive if it already contains numerous. and suppliers. Few new firms can enter the industry. 4 PURE COMPETITION: Consists of many competitors offering the same product and service (stockmarket. But when the entry and exit both barriers are high it means that poor performing firms will also stay in the market. but they often face exit barriers. 23 . creditors. and demand more quality. 5 Threat of suppliers growing bargaining power. It is easy to open a new restaurant but difficult to enter the air craft industry. It may by due to a regulatory edict. government restrictions. or services. attract the consumers favoring that attribute and charge a price premium for that attribute. buyers. or aggressive competitors. commodity market). 4 Threat of buyers growing bargaining power: A segment is unattractive if the buyer have strong or growing bargaining power because he will force prices down. few. 3 Threats of Substitute Products. Since there is no basis for differentiation. or distributions. 4 Generic competition: Occurs when a company sees its competitors as all companies compete for the same consumer Rupee. Industry Concept of Competitors: An industry is a group of firms that offer a product or class of products that are close substitutes for each other. These are industry competitors.

financial situation. while toy manufacturing involve heavy distribution and marketing cost. Cost Structure: Each industry has a certain cost mix that drive much of its strategic conduct. history. and others by contrast fighting. a price cut. Finally a company must also monitor its competitors expansion plans. 4 THE STOCHASTIC COMPETITORS: A competitor that does not exhibit a predictable reaction pattern. For example steel making involves heavy manufacturing and raw-materials cost. market share growth cash flow. suppliers. IDENTIFYING COMPETITORS' STRATEGIES: A company's closest competitors are those pursuing the same target markets with the same strategy. If a competitor is part of a larger company. They can augment their knowledge by conducting primary marketing research with customers. Most competitors fall into one of following four categories. new investments and capacity utilization. Some industries are characterized by relative accord among the competitors. Firms will pay the greatest attention to their greatest costs and will strategies to reduce these costs. return on investment. 2 If a single major factor is the critical factor. including its size. technological leadership.g. slow in noticing the move. 24 . Companies normally learn about their competitors position through secondary data. In general every company should monitor three variables when analyzing its competitors: i) Share of market: The competitor's share of the target market. Assessing Competitors Strengths and Weaknesses: To identify the strengths and weaknesses of competitors a company should first gather recent information on each competitor's business. a certain internal culture. 2 THE SELECTIVE COMPETITORS: A competitor that react to only certain types of attacks and not to others. If the competitor is not critical to its parent company. history. The laid back competitors may feel their customer are loyal. ii) Share of mind: The percentage of customers who named the competitor in responding to the statement. it could be attacked more readily. and place in the large organization. and hearsay. A group of firms following the same strategy in a given target market is called a strategic group. DETERMINING COMPETITORS' OBJECTIVES: After identifying its main competitors and their strategies a company may ask itself: what is each competitor seeking in the marketplace? What drives each competitor's behavior? An initial assumption is that competitors strive to maximize their profits. Two of the most common shrinkage barriers are contract commitments and suborns management. Degree of Globalization: Some industries are highly local others are global. may face lack of funds to react. Moreover. 1 If competitors are nearly identical and make their living in the same way then their competitive equilibrium is unstable. 1 THE LAID BACK COMPETITORS: A competitor that doesn't react quickly or strongly to a rival's move. market shale. Name the first company that comes to mind in this industry. Degree of Vertical Integration: Some firms find it advantageous to integrate backward and forward which often causes lower in cost and give company more control over the value-added stream. a promotion step-up. The companies try to reduce the shrinkage barriers to help their ailing competitors get smaller gracefully. or a new-product introduction). and dealers. In addition. A company need to identify the strategic group in which it competes. Estimating Competitors Reaction Patterns: Identification of competitors strangest and weaknesses help managers to anticipate the competitors likely reactions to other companies' strategies (e. and alternative assumption is that they pursues a mix of objectives : current profitability. A company must continuously monitor its competitors' strategies and revise their strategies through time depending upon the competitors strategy.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Even if some firms do not want to exit the industry they might want to decrease their size. vertically integrated firms can manipulate their prices and costs in different segments of their business to earn profit where taxes are low. cash flow. profit margin. It might respond to price cuts but not to advertising expenditure increases. Here are some of the observations about the likely state of competitive relations. Companies in the global industries need to compete on a global basis if they are to achieve economies of scale and keep up with the latest advances in technology. it is important to know whether the parent company is running it for growth or milking it. Such competitor might or might not retaliate on a particular occasion: there is no way of predicting this decision on the basis of its economic situation. each competitor has a certain philosophy of doing business. The reasons may vary. and certain guidelines beliefs. 3 THE TIGER COMPETITOR: A competitor that react swiftly and strongly to any assault on its terrain. All these sources help a company decide whom to attack in the programmable-controls market. or any thing else. service leadership and son on. Name the company from whom you would prefer to buy the product. A competitors objectives are shaped by many things. current management. iii) Share of heart: The percentage of customers who named the competitor in responding to the statement. then competitive equilibrium is unstable. personal experience. including data on sales.

At the same time. offers. managers will find it easier to formulate their competitive strategies. serve and satisfy the customer but also be given an incentive to spot competitive information and pass it on to the relevant parties in the company. 2 Collecting the Data: the data are collected on a continuous basis form the field. Everyone in the company must be only sense. circuits. Sometimes cross-disciplinary teams are formed specifically for this purpose. The aim of a customer value analysis is to determine the benefits that customers in a target market segment want and how they perceive the relative value of competing suppliers. A company benefits in several ways from good competitors. 3 Assess the company's and competitors' performances on the different customer values against their rated importance. and good versus bad competitors. then it is possible for each competitor to have some advantage and be differently attractive to some consumers. the share the cost of market development and legitimatize a new technology. they invest in over capacity. they increase total demand. They will have a better sense of whom they can effective compete with in the market. from people who do business with competitors. the firm may achieve little in the way of improved capabilities. Furthermore. and they may service less attractive segments.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 3 If multiple factors may be critical factors. Strong Versus Weak Competitors: Most companies aim their shots at their weak competitors. The major steps in customer value analysis are: 1 Identifying the major attributes that customers value 2 Assess the quantitative importance of the different attributes. But in the process of attacking weak competitors. they improve bargaining power vis-à-vis labor unions or regulators. DESIGNING THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM: Each company should carefully design its competitive intelligence system to be cost effective. and organized. and competitors' employees. defined by the preference for the factor trade-offs that they offer. the company should avoid trying to destroy the close competitor. There are four main steps involved in designing a competitive intelligence system: 1 Setting up the System: The first stem calls for identifying vital types of competitive information identifying the best sources of this information and assigning a person who will manage the system and its services. This strategy requires fewer resources and time per share point gained. they lead to more differentiation. 25 . and the firm may prove to be a worthy competitor. The firm should also compete with strong competitors to keep up worth the state of the art. even strong competitors have some weaknesses. Generally managers conduct a customer value analysis to reveal the company's strengths and weaknesses relative to various competitors. they favor healthy industry. Competitors all have their competitive segment. and in general. and the accept the general level of their share of profits. 4 Examine how customers in a specific segment rate the company's performance against a specific major competitor on an attribute-by-attribute basis. Good competitors have a number of characteristics: they play by the industry's rules: they make realistic assumptions about the industry's growth potentials. Good Versus Bad Competitors: Porter argues that every industry contains "good" and "Bad" competitors. the more competitors who can coexist. they motivate other to lower costs or improve differentiation's. they upset the industrial equilibrium. Bad competitors violate the rules: They try to buy share rather than earn it: they take large risks. Close versus Distant Competitors: Most companies compete with competitors who resemble them the most. After the company has done its customer value analysis. it can focus its attack on one of the following classes of competitors: strong versus weak competitors. 5 Monitor customer values over time. SELECTING COMPETITORS TO ATTACK AND AVOID: With good competitive intelligence. interpreted. Competitors confer several strategic benefits: They lower the antitrust risk. 4 disseminating information and Responding: Key information is sent to relevant decision maker and managers' inquires about competitors are answered. they limit themselves to a portion or segment of the industry. 3 Evaluating and Analyzing the Data: The data are checked for validity and reliability. they set prices in a reasonable relation to costs. The more factors that may provide a advantage. close versus distant competitors.

The first brand to enter the market is likely to position in the center to appeal to the most people. (D) basis for segmenting of consumer and business markets. key distinctive benefits in the market. 3) local areas. or localized marketing. The choice of distribution channels. Instead of looking at demographic or lifestyle segments. Or it could locate in a corner to attract a customer group that was not satisfied with the center brand. The traditional argument is that mass marketing creates the largest potential market.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-9 Identifying Market Segments and Selecting Target Markets A company that decide to operate in a broad market recognizes that it cannot serve all customers in that market because customer are too numerous and diverse in their buying requirements. purchasing power. iii) those who are seeing luxury. location. Levels of Segmentation: Market segmentation represents an effort to increase a company's targeting precision. and company have to face fewer competitors. Patterns of Market Segmentation: Market segments can be built up in many ways. It can be carried out at four levels. Markets can be segmented in a number of way. Three different patterns can emerge. It is usually identified by dividing a segment into sub-segments. 3 Market Positioning: Establish and communicate products. SEGMENT MARKETING: A segment consist of large identifiable group within a market. etc. For example in the segment of heavy smokers a sub-segment of heavy smokers with emphysema. we can distinguish preference segments. 2 Market Targeting: Select one or more market segments to enter. In target marketing the sellers distinguish the major market segment. and mass promotion of one product for all buyers. If several brands are in the market they are likely to position through out the space and show real differences to match consumer-preference differences. which leads to the lowest costs and ultimately results in lower prices or higher margins. an auto company identify four levels segments of car buyers. SELF MARKETING. Consumers belonging to one segment are considered quit similar in their wants and needs. ii) DEFUSED PREFERENCES: At the other extreme the customers preferences may be scattered and customers vary greatly in their preferences. NICHE MARKETING: A niche means a small market whose needs are not being well served. Target marketing involves three major steps: 1 Market Segmentation: Identifying distinct groups of buyers who might require separate products. target one or more of those segments and develop products and marketing programs for each segment. Some segment members wants additional features not included in the offer while others would gladly give-up what they do not want very much. ii) those who are seeking high performance. (C) market segmentation procedure. The market shows no natural segments. The segment marketing companies know that buyers differ in want. e. yet they are not identical. mass distribution. 2) niches. Segments being fairly large attract several competitors while niches are fairly small and normally attract only a few competitors. A second competitor would locate next to the first brand and fight for market share. A form of individual marketing in which individual customer takes more responsibility for determining which product and brands to buy. i) those who are seeking basic transportation. MARKET SEGMENTATION: Market consist of buyers who differ in many ways. 26 A 1 2 3 4 5 B . i) HOMOGENEOUS PREFERENCES: A market where all the customers roughly have the same preference. Instead of competing everywhere the company needs to identify the market segments that it can serve most effectively. and iv) those who are seeking safety. buying habits. 1) segments.g. In it market programs are tailored to the needs and wants of local customers groups. it means producing a thing on receipt of order from customer according to the specifications. and (E) requirements for effective segmentation. Before discussing these levels first we have to understand MASS MARKETING. and 4)individuals and 5) self marketing. Here will examine (A) level of segmentation. Segment marketing is the mid point between mass marketing and individual marketing. (trade areas neighbor hoods). and communication channels becomes much easier. but it is difficult to carry out. INDIVIDUAL MARKETING: It is the ultimate level of segmentation which lead to "one -to-one marketing". (B) patterns of segmentation. In mass marketing the seller engages in the mass production. like coca cola. LOCAL MARKETING: Also called regional marketing. The company tries to isolate some broad segments. The company can produce a more fine tuned product and price it appropriately for the target audience. Segment marketing offers several benefits over mass marketing.

occupation. demographic. regions countries. b Personality: Marketers also use personality variables to segment marketers. STEP ONE SURVEY STAGE: Researchers conduct exploratory interviews and focus on consumer's motivations. or response to a product. and then decide to operate in one or a few geographic areas. or family. behavior. demographics. competitors would enter and introduce brands in the other segments. 1 Occasions: Buyers can be distinguished according to the occasions they develop a need. d) Generation: Each generation is profoundly influenced by the milieu in which it grows up. The company's position in the market will also influence its focus. first-time users. Some marketers target baby bombers using communications and symbols that appeal to the optimism of that generation. Other researchers try to form segments by looking at consumer responses to benefits sought. rural. Generally applied in clothing hair-styling. It might develop several brands. An air line can specialize in serving people for whom one of these occasions dominates. c) Income: Another long-standing practice in such product and service categories as automobiles boats. 2 Benefit Segmentation: A powerful form of segmentation involves classifying buyers according to the benefits they seek from the product. home furnishing. Many companies designee products for specific social classes PSYCHO-GRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: In psycho-graphic segmentation. and psycho-graphic characteristics. air travel is triggered by occasions related to business. Marketers are increasingly segmenting their markets by consumer lifestyles. and regular users of a product. psycho-graphic and media-graphics of the respondents. demographic. cosmetics. It may position in the largest market segment. People product interests are influenced by their lifestyles. nationality. states. education religion. The major segmentation variables are: 1) geographic. DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: In it market is divided into groups on the basis of demographic variables such as age. They endow their products with brand personalities that correspond to consumer personalities. Product usage patterns. It might position in the center. race. cosmetics and travel. Basis of Segmenting Consumer Markets: Two broad groups are used to segment consumer markets. Demographics. buyers are divided into different groups on the basis of lifestyle and / or personality. while smaller firms will often focus on attracting current users away from the market leader. attitudes and behavior. climate etc. b) Gender. STEP TWO ANALYSIS STAGE: The researcher applies factor analysis to the data to remove highly correlated variables. or social class. potential users. called natural market segments. clothing. urban. They use occasions and brands. or use a product. income. STEP THREE PROFILING STAGE: Each cluster is profiled in terms of its distinguished attitudes. based on dominant distinguishing characteristic. In fact.Cycle Stage: Consumers wants and abilities change with age. geographic. These variables are the most popular because they are easier to measure than most other types of variables. First researchers form segments by looking at consumer characteristics. a) Age and Life . clothing.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) C D 1 2 3 4 CLUSTERED PREFERENCES: The market might reveal distinct preference clusters. If the first firm developed only one brand. which may include geographic. cities. then apply cluster analysis to create a specific number of (maximally different) segments. a) Lifestyle: People exhibit many more lifestyles than seven as are suggested by the social classes.g. Following are the types of behavioral segmentation. People within the same demographic group can exhibit very different psycho-graphic profiles. the goods they consume express their lifestyles. reading habits etc. ex users. and magazines. attitude toward. However it is a tricky variable and is mostly effected by the psychology. income does not always predict the best customers for a given product. hoping to appear to all groups. and media patterns. GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: Dividing the market into different geographical units such as nations. psycho-graphics. Each segment can be given a name. Occasionally other marketers notice an opportunity for gender segmentation. However. BEHAVIORAL SEGMENTATION: Buyers are divided into groups on the basis of their knowledge of . Marketshare leaders will focus on attracting potential users. From these findings researchers prepare a formal questioner to collect data about their: Attitudes and their importance rating Brand awareness and brand ratings. The first firm in this market has three options. vacation. each positioned in a different segment. family size. e) Social Class: It has a strong influence on a person's preference in cars. purchase a product. 27 . family life cycle gender. use of. Attitudes towards the product category. psycho-graphics and behavioral segmentation. e. generation. Market Segmentation Procedure: Marketing research firms uses a three-step approach to identify the segments in the market. 3 User Status: Markets can be segmented into groups of nonusers.

Targeting Multiple Segments: Very often. some are formed. they don’t constitute separate segments. system's purchases or sealed bidding.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 5 E 4 Usage rate: Market can also be segmented into light. and hostile. Heavy users are often a small percentage of the market but account for the high percentage of total consumption. some desire the product. light or nonuser? 3 Customer Capabilities: Should we serve customers needing many or few goods or services? Purchasing Approach: 1 Purchasing Function Organization: Should we serve highly centralized or decentralized purchasing organizations? 2 Power Structure Should we serve Co. 2 Company size: What size companies should we serve. Consumers can have varying degrees of loyalty to brands. medium. then expand into other segments. some are interested. or go after the most desirable. positive. The relative numbers make a big difference in designing the marketing program. MULTY ATTRIBUTE SEGMENTATION Marketers no longer talk about the average consumers. Some are unaware of the product. Yet business markets can also use several other variable given bellow: Demographic: It may include: 1 Industry: Which industries should we serve. all segmentation are not effective. 4 ACTIONABLE : Effective programs can be formulated for attracting and serving the segments. 3 Location: Which geographical areas should we serve. 3 ACCESSIBLE: The segment can be effectively reached and served. such as geography. Now we will examine the process of evaluating and selecting marketing segments: Evaluating the Market Segments: While evaluating the market segments the firm must look at two factors given bellow: I) The overall attractiveness of the segment and 28 . and heavy product users. benefit sought and usage rate. how many and which ones to target. To be useful market segments must be: 1 MEASURABLE: The purchasing power and characteristics of the segment can be measured. some are aware. stores. medium. indifferent. service contracts. and some intend to buy. 6 Buyers-Readiness Stage: A market consist of people in different stages of readiness to buy a product. companies may begin their marketing with one targeted segment. Marketers usually prefer to attract one heavy user to their product or service rather than several light users. TARGET MARKETING 1 After identifying market-segments the enterprise has to evaluate them and decide. better defined target groups. iv) Switchers: Consumers who show no loyalty to any brand. iii) Shifting Loyals: Those shift from favoring one brand to another. i) Hard-core loyals: Who buy one brand all the time. financially dominants or so forth? 3 Nature of Existing Relationships: Serve companies having strong relations with us. Rather they are increasingly crossing several variables in an effort to identify smaller. negative. or even limit their analysis to only a few market segments. 4 General Purchase Policy: Serve them who prefer leasing. 4 DIFFERENTIABLE: The segment are conceptually distinguishable and respond differently to different marketing -mix elements and programs. Operating Variables: 1 Technology: What customer technologies should we focus on? 2 User /Nonuser status: Should we serve heavy users. BASIS FOR SEGMENTING BUSINESS MARKETS: Business market s can be segmented with many of the same variables employed in consumer market segmentation. 2 SUBSTANTIAL: Segment should be large and profitable enough to serve. 7 Attitude: Five attitude groups can be found in a market enthusiastic. If married and un-married woman respond similarly to a sale on perfume. 5 Purchasing Criteria Serve those companies seeking quality? Service? or price? Situational Factors: 1 Urgency: Should we serve companies that need quick and sudden delivery or service? 2 Specific application: Should we focus on certain application of our product rather that all applications? 3 Size of Order: Should we focus on larger or small orders? Personal Characteristics: 1 Buyer Seller Similarity Should we serve companies whose people and values are similar to ours? 2 Attitudes toward risk: Should we serve risk-taking or risk-avoiding customers? 3 Loyalty: Should we serve companies that show high loyalty to their suppliers? Requirements for Effective Segmentation: There are many ways of segmenting a market. Buyers can be divided into four groups according to their brand-loyalty. and other entities. 5 Locality Status: A market can be segmented by consumer-locality patterns. engineering dominants. ii) Split Loyals: Who are loyal to two or three brands. however.

differentiated market creates more total sales than undifferentiated It also increase the cost of business the following are the costs: Product modification cost: Modifying a product to meet different market segment requirements usually involves more research and development. the result is increased promotion-planning costs and media costs. Even if one segment becomes unattractive the firm can continue to earn more in other one. Manufacturing cost: It is usually more expensive to produce 10 units of 10 different products than 100 units of one product. After evaluating the firm decide to which and how many segments to serve. engineering and special tooling costs. there may be little or no synergy among the segments. Selecting the Market Segment. Intersegment Cooperation: The best way to manage segments is to appoint segment managers with sufficient authority and responsibility for building their segment's business. Administrative cost: for separate marketing plan for each market segment. each objectively attractive and appropriate. In market targeting the issue is not who is targeted but rather how and for what. 3) segment-by-segment evasion plans. The competitors must not know to what segment(s) the firm will move next. Companies should also identify and try to operate in super segments rather than in isolated segments. Only very large firms can undertake a full market coverage strategy. ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATION IN EVALUATING AND SELECTING SEGMENTS: Following four more considerations must be taken into account in evaluating and selecting segments: 1) Ethical choice of market targets. This requires extra marketing reach. and 4) intersegment cooperation. performance and technology side. 2) segment interrelationships and super segments. Large firms can cover a whole market in two broad ways through undifferentiated marketing or differentiated marketing. Promotion costs: The company has to reach different markets segments with different promotion programs. sales analysis. but each segment promises to be a money maker. 29 . a) Undifferentiated Marketing: In it the firm ignores market-segment differences and goes after the whole market with one market offer. It relies on mass distribution and mass advertising. It design a product and a marketing program that will appeal to the broadest number of buyers. A super segment is a set of segments sharing some exploitable similarity. V) FULL MARKET COVERAGE: When the firm attempts to serve all customer groups with all the products that they might need. This multi-segment coverage strategy has the advantage of diversifying the firm's risk. it is wise to enter one segment at a time and conceal its grand plan. planning and channel management. II) SELECTIVE SPECIALIZATION: Here the firm selects a number of segments.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 1 2 3 4 II) The companies objectives and resources. Inventory Costs: It is usually more to manage inventories containing many products than inventories containing few products. Selection can be made in any of the following five patterns I) SINGLE SEGMENT CONCENTRATION: The most simplest case in which company selects only one segment and concentrates on it. segment managers should not be so segment-focused as to resist cooperation with other company personnel to improve overall company performance. IV) MARKET SPECIALIZATION: Here the firm concentrates on serving many needs of a particular custom group. forecasting. Segment By Segment Invasion Plans: Even if the firm plans to target super segment. Socially responsible marketing calls for segmentation and targeting that serve not just the interests of the company but also the interests of those targeted. At the same time. Ethical Choice of Market Targets: Market targeting sometimes generates controversy like cigarette markets have generate much controversy. The downside risk is that the product may be supplanted by an entirely new technology. Segment Interrelationships and Super segments: In selecting more than one segment. b) Differentiated Marketing: In it firms operate in several market segments and designs different programs for each segment. It focuses on buyers needs rather than differences among buyers. promotion. the company should pay close attention to segment interrelationships on the cost. III) PRODUCT SPECIALIZATION: When the firm concentrates on making a certain product that it sells to several segments. given the firm's objectives and are resources. In it a company can build strong reputation in the specific product area.

accuracy and care attending the delivery process. how a product looks and functions in terms of customer requirements. e. FEATURES: Features are characteristics that supplement the product's basic function. At one extreme the products are highly standardized and allow little variation. 4) customer training. Companies that differentiate their offering solely by cutting their costs and price may be making a mistake. Product Differentiation: Differentiating the physical products. INSTALLATION: Installation is the work done to make a product operational in its planned location. DURABILITY: Durability is the measure of the product's expected operating life under natural and / or stressful conditions. entertain more lavishly.g. new conveniences and enjoyments. and furniture. CONFORMANCE QUALITY: Is the degree to which all the produced units are identical and meet the promised target specifications. Companies therefore. companies making special machinery for selected market segments. In it a company can strive for low cast position or the highly differentiated position. 2) performance. RELIABILITY: It is the measure of the probability that a product will not malfunction or fail within a specified time period. constantly about new feature and benefits to win the attention and interests of customers. it will be soundly beaten by the competitor. 5) customer consulting. for several reasons. steel industry. buildings. STYLE: Buyers are normally willing to pay a premium for products that are attractively styled. Buyers of heavy equipment expect good installation service from the vendor. genuine variation is possible. and 7) design. Service Differentiation: In addition to differentiating its physical product a firm can also differentiate its services. Style describes the product's looks and feel to the buyer. construction. e. Third a competitor will usually find a lower-cost production method and offer an even cheaper version. and so on. 3 FRAGMENTED INDUSTRY: Where company faces many opportunities for differentiation. Buyers normally will pay a premium for product with more reliability. When the physical product cannot easily be differentiated. e. Industries are of four types: 1 VOLUME INDUSTRY: A Industry in which companies can gain only a few but large competitive advantages. 3) installation. At the other extreme are products capable of high differentiation. The main product differentiation’s are 1) features. B)Service. If the firm did not distinguish its offering in any other way than price. the dye to competitive success often lies in adding more value-adding services and improving their quality. DESIGN: A most patent way to differentiate and position a company's products and services. e. PERFORMANCE: Refers the level at which the product's primary characteristics operate. Companies are constantly trying to differentiate their market offering or value package from competitors. chicken. 3)durability. 6) style.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-10 Differentiating and Positioning the Market Offering In an industry know for intense competition. TOOLS FOR COMPETITIVE DIFFERENTIATION: DIFFERENTIATION is the act of designing a set of meaningful differences to distinguish the company's offering from competitors' offering. How exactly can a company differentiate its product form competitors. There are five dimensions A) Product. Yet even here.g.g. Here it is difficult to differentiate its product or decrease its cost Companies try to higher better salespeople. but these are small advantages. C) Personnel. such as automobiles. or E)Image. D)Channel. DELIVERY: Refers to how well the product or service is delivered to the customer. and 7) few others. Even when they succeed their competitors adopt such their value package and thus competitive advantages lasts only for a short time. 30 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B 1 2 3 4 .g. 4)reliability. 2)delivery." The number of differentiation’s varies with the type of industry. Here profitability is correlated with company size and market share. CUSTOMER TRAINING: It refers to training the customers' employees to use the vendor's equipment properly and efficiently. 4 SPECIALIZED INDUSTRY: An industry in which companies faces more opportunities for differentiation and each differentiation can have a high payoff. It is the totality of features that affect. The main service differentiation’s are 1) ordering ease. 2 SEGMENTED INDUSTRY: An industry in which there are only few competitive advantages and each is small. special rewards for loyal users. second the firm may cut services to keep the price down which may alienate buyers. who can a small company can compete against industry leaders? One answer is by differentiating its product and avoiding direct competition. First cheaper products are often viewed as inferior in quality. steel aspirin. They provide new guarantees. need to think. 5)reparability. 6) maintenance and repair. It includes the speed. ORDERING EASE: It refers to how easy it is for the customer to place an order with the company. but each opportunity for competitive advantage is small. REPARABILITY: Buyers prefer products that are easy to repair.

information system and advising service that the seller offers free or for a price to buyer. respectful and considerate. Third. Expertise: means its dealers are typically better trained and perform more reliably. The company brands and logos should be designed to instant recognition. They can offer a better product warranty or maintenance contract than their competitors.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 5 6 7 C D 1 2 3 E 1 2 3 4 CUSTOMER CONSULTING: It refers to data. Positioning is the act of designing the company's offering and image so that they occupy a meaningful and distinct competitive position in the target customers' minds. Performance: refers to developing and managing direct marketing channels of high quality. SYMBOLS: A strong image consists of one or more symbols that trigger company or brand recognition. safest. Virtually there are unlimited number of specific services and benefits that companies can offer to differentiate themselves from their competitors. best value. fastest. Courtesy: The employees are friendly." Not everyone agrees that single-benefit positioning is always best. In general. How Many Differences to Promote: Many marketers advocate promoting only one benefit to the target market. best service. ATMOSPHERE: Distinctive physical condition in which the origination produces or delivers its products and services is another powerful image generator. They can establish patronage awards. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR: It describes the company's service program for helping customers keep their purchased products in good working order. • Preemptive: The difference cannot be easily copied by the competitors. As companies increase the number of claims for their brand. Image is the way the public perceives the company or its products. • Superior: The difference is superior to other ways of obtaining the same benefit. Better trained personnel’s exhibit six characteristics Competence: The employee possess the required skill and knowledge. 31 . Second. 2)expertise. and 3) performance. Credibility The employees are trustworthy. most convenient and most advanced technology. • Affordable: The buyer can afford to pay for the difference. Identity Versus Image: It is important to distinguish between identity and image. Reliability The employees perform the service consistently and accurately. a company must avoid four major positioning errors. Double-benefit positioning may be necessary if two or more firms are claiming to be best on the same attribute. buyers may respond differently to the company or brand image. Each brand should back an attribute and tout itself a s number one on that attribute. Responsiveness The employees respond quickly to customers' requests and problems. WRITTEN AND AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA: The chosen symbols must be worked into advertisements that convey the company or brand personality. • Profitable: The company will fine it profitable to introduce the difference. it conveys a message in a distinctive way so that it is not confused with similar messages from competitors. Identity comprises the ways that a company aims to identify itself or position its product. DEVELOPING A POSITIONING STRATEGY: A company must carefully select the ways in which it will distinguish itself from competitors a difference is worth establishing to the extent that it satisfies the following criteria: • Important: The difference delivers a high valued benefit to a sufficient number of buyers. MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES: Companies find many other ways to add value by differentiating their customer services. • Communicable: The difference is communicable and visible to buyers. Coverage means its dealers are found in more locations than competitors' dealers. particularly these channels are 1)coverage. The most commonly promoted number-one positioning are "best quality. lowest price. most customized. they risk disbelief and a sole of clear positioning. it delivers emotional power so that it stirs the hearts as well as the minds of buyers. first it conveys a singular message that establishes the product's character and value positions. • Distinctive: The difference either is not offered by other or is offered in a more distinctive way by the company. An effective image does three things for a product. PERSONNEL DIFFERENTIATION: Companies can gain a strong competitive advantage through hiring and training better people than their competitors. EVENTS: A company can build an identity through the type of events it sponsors. Image Differentiation: Even when the offers of two competitors look same. Communication: The employees make an effort to understand the customer and communicate clearly Channel Differentiation: Companies can achieve differentiation through the way they shape their distribution channels.

Competitors Positioning: Here the product positions itself as better in some way than a named or implied competitor. User positioning This involves positioning the product as best for some user group. number or years in existence. Confused Positioning: Buyers might have a confused image of the brand resulting to many claims or changing the brand's positioning too frequently. Overpositioning: Buyers may have too narrow an image of the brand. Quality / Price positioning: Here the product is positioned as offering the best value for the price. Use / application positioning: This involve positioning the product as best for some use or application. Buyers don't really sense anything special about it. or manufacturer. The different positioning strategies that a company can adopt are given bellow: Attribute positioning: This occurs when a company positions itself on an attribute. Product category positioning: Here the product is positioned as the leader in a certain product category. The brand is seen just as just an other entry in a crowded marketplace. such as size.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Underpositioning: Some companies discover that buyers have only a vague idea of the brand. Benefit positioning: Here the product is positioned as the leader in a certain benefit. Doubtful Positioning: Buyer may found it hard to believe the brand claims in view of the product's features. 32 . That he deems it as high standard than his capabilities. price.

iv) Coastlines of the new product development process: A company has to develop many new product ideas to find just one worthy of development. A company can add new product through acquisition and/ or new-product development. iii) Additions to Existing product lines: New product that supplement a company’s established product lines (Package. Companies handle the organizational aspects of new product development in several ways. iii) The actual product is not well designed. New product development requires management to define the business domains and product categories that the company wants to emphasize. 2 it can acquire patents from other companies. ii) New product lines: New product that allow a company to enter an established market for the first time. which is ultimately responsible for the success of the new product. iv) New product is either incorrectly positioned in the market. etc.e. At the same time the development of a new product is also risky due to the chances of failure. company have to face high research and development costs. sizes. Thus top management must establish specific criteria for acceptance of new-product ideas. CHALLENGES IN NEW-PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: New technologies has shortened the product life cycle. hoping to achieve a few winners. i) New-to-the-world products: New product that create an entirely new market. especially in large multidivisional companies. 1 The company can buy other companies.) iv) Improvements and revisions of existing products: New products that provide improved performance or greater perceived value and replace existing products. EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: Successful new product development requires the company to establish an effective origination for managing the new-product-development process. v) Repositioning: Exhibiting products that are targeted to new markets or market segments. There are six categories of new products in terms of their newness to the company and to the marketplace. A new product may fail due to any one or more of the following reasons. Still other companies decide how-many successful new products they need and work backward to estimate the required R&D budget investments. flavors. cannot raise the funds needed to research and produce them. The companies which fail to develop new products are putting themselves at great risk. vi) Faster Development Time: Many competitors are likely to get the same idea at the same time and victory often goes to the swiftest. The acquisition route can take three forms. or 3 it can buy a license or franchise from another company. An effective organization begins with its top management. Replacement products must be created to maintain or build sales. not advertised effectively. iii) Social and governmental Constraints: New product have to satisfy such criteria as to consumer safety. A major decision facing top management is how much to budget for new-product development. Moreover. v) Development costs are higher than expected. In addition several other factors hinder new-product development. or 2 it can contract with independent researchers or new-product-development firms to develop specific products for the company. vii) Shorter Product Life Cycle: When a new product is successful rivals are quick to copy it. vi) Competitors fight back harder than expected. which are given bellow: i) Shortage of new production ideas in certain areas i. v) Capital shortages: Some companies with good ideas. Some companies solve this problem by encouraging and financing as many projects as possible. Research and development out comes are so uncertain that it is difficult to use normal investment criteria for budgeting. The new product development route can take two forms. their may be few ways left to improve the products ii) Fundamental Markets: Keen competition leads to market fragmentation. ii) The idea is good but market size is over estimated. archeological compatibility. The most common of these are: 33 . i) Putting an new idea (favorite to high level executive) inspite of negative market research findings. vi) Cost reductions: New product that provide similar performance at lower cost.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-11 Developing New Product Every company must carry on new product development. or overpriced. Other companies set their R&D budget by applying a conventional percentage of sales figures or by spending what the competitors spends. 1 The company can develop new products in its own laboratories.

The chain starts each discussion by saying. problems and ideas. this position professionalise the new-product function. new-product managers tend to think in terms of product modification and line extensions limited to their product market. vi) Synectics: William J. the greater will be the chances of an idea worth pursuing. Combining and Improving ideas is encouraged: Participants should suggest how other people's ideas can be joined into more ideas. New product ideas can come from many sources. channel members. take them apart. They have first hand exposure to costumers needs and complaints. Scientists / Employees: Companies also rely on their scientists. Freewheeling is welcomed: The wilder the idea. v) Brainstorming: Group creativity can be stimulated by brain storming technique. They can buy their competitors products. c) Use of Common Place: Take advantage of the familiar as a signboard to the strange. 6) product development. Top managers should define the products the available markets and state the new products objectives. ii) Forced Relationships: In it several aspects are considered in relation to one an other to create a new product. working with R&D department. Idea Generation techniques: There are a number of techniques of idea generation some are given bellow: i) Attribute Listing: Listing the attributes of an existing product and then modifying each attribute in the search for an improved product. Quantity is encouraged: The greater the number of ideas generated. and within an hour over a hundred or more new ideas may find their way into the tape recorder. Thus he has exposed a very different technique named as synectics method.J Gorder felt the brainstorming sessions tent to produce solutions too quickly. MANAGING THE NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: There are eight stages involved in the new-product development process. They can lean from suppliers. In practice this system have many faults. and remember.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 1 Product Managers: Many companies assign responsibility for new-product ideas to their product managers.g. distributors. and build better ones. designers. scientists. 1) idea generation. what competitors are doing. iii) Morphological Analysis: It consist of identifying the structural dimensions. 7) market testing. The product managers are so busy in managing their existing products that they can thought litter about new products. They can find out what customers like and dislike in their competitor's products. 5 New-Product Venture Teams: A venture team is a group brought together from various operating departments and charged with developing a specific product or business. The usual brainstorming group consist of 6 to 10 peoples discussing the specific problem. telephone. and other employer for new-product ideas. and sales representatives. To be maximally effective their four guidelines Criticism is ruled out: negative comments on ideas must be withheld until later. The hope is to find some novel combinations. Competitors: Companies can also find good ideas by examining their competitor's products and services. the better. Channel Members: Companies sales representatives and intermediaries are a particularly good source of new product ideas. 34 . like customers. of a problem and examining the relationships among them. d) Involvement / detachment: Alternate between entering into the particulars of the problem and standardizing back from them. Successful companies have established a culture that encourages every employee to seek new ways for improving the company's production. However. iv) Need / Problem Identification: In it idea generation starts from reviewing consumer needs / problems. Top management: can be another manor source of development of new ideas. a combine machine containing fax. 2)idea screening. It have five principles: a) Deferment: Look first for viewpoint rather than solutions. and 8) commercialization. 4 New-Product Departments Large companies often establish a new-product department headed by a manager who has substantial authority and access to top management. and copy machine into one unit. and top management. Customers . In it the consumers are asked about needs. e. like production managers. and carrying out field testing and commercialization. 2 New Product Managers: Some companies have appointed new-produce managers who report to group product managers. IDEA GENERATION: The new product development process with the search. before a sufficient number of perspective have been developed. engineers. 5) business analysis. competitors. 3)concept development and testing 4) marketing strategy development. no evaluation. Consumers needs and wants are logical place to start the search for new-product ideas. it is easier to tame down than to think up. b) Autonomy of Object: Let the problem take on a life of its own. employees." The ideas start flowing. one idea sparks another. "Remember. we want as many ideas as possible. The departments major responsibilities include generating an screening new ideas. 3 New product Committees: Many companies have a high-level management committee charged with reviewing and approving new-product proposals.

4 Trail: Consumer try the product to improve his estimate of its value. The company should offer payment or recognition to the employees submitting the best ideas. building. each being a category concept. MARKETING STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT: After testing the new-product manage must develop a preliminary marketing strategy plan for introducing the new product in to the market. A product Image: is the particular picture that consumer acquire of an actual or potential product. MARKET TESTING: If the management is satisfied with the products functional and psychological performance. manufacturing facilities. 35 . The concept can be presented symbolically or physically. There may be two types of errors while idea screening. at breakfast etc. and iii) rejects. The marketing strategy will undergo further refinement in subsequent stages. A product Idea is a possible product idea. distribution strategy and marketing budget for the first year. Second: Planned price. Stages in the Adoption Process: Adopters of the new product have been observed to move through the following five stages: 1 Awareness: The consumer becomes aware of the innovation but lacks information about it. In doing test marketing managers faces several questions like:i) How many test cities. When it can be used e. However. We can distinguish among a product ides. A plan to market the product is consist of three parts: First: Target Market size. then getting those consumers' reactions. iv) What information to be collected. v) What action is to be taken on the completion of test. At this stage it jumps in investments evaluation and evaluation of costs to be incurred in the earlier stages. i) Promising Ideas. The company determines whether the product idea can be translated into a technically and commercially feasible product. The goals are to test the new product in more authentic consumer setting and to learn how target the mark to and how consumers and dealers react to handling using and repurchasing the actual product. The sales forecast etc. structure and behavior. By answering these questions a company can for many concepts. BUSINESS ANALYSIS: After developing strategy the company evaluate the product's business attractiveness. Concept Development: A product idea can be turned into several product concepts. in winter. It is better. ii) Marginal ideas. all companies don’t conduct market testing. Concept Testing: Concept testing calls for testing product concepts with an appropriate group of target consumers. Following are the three questions on which the concepts are based.g. that the company might offer to the market A product concept is an elaborated version of the idea expressed in meaningful consumer terms. the more dependable concept testing is. ii) Which cities. accidental things suggest analogies that are sources of new viewpoints. What primary benefits should it provide. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING: Attractive ideas must be refined into testable product concepts. The consumer adoption process is followed by the consumer loyalty process which the concern of the established producer. that where the more risk is involved the product must be market tested. Third: The long run sales and profit goals and marketing mix strategy. If they do the product concept can move to the product development stage PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: Until now the idea exists only as a word description. and adopt or reject them? Management must under stand this consumer-adoption process to build an effective strategy for early market penetration. a drawing or a prototype. in hunger. a product concept and a product image. 3 Evaluation: Consume consider in the light of information whether to try it or not. Management prepares estimates of sales cost and profit and determine whether they satisfy the companies objectives or not. However the more the tested concepts resemble the final product or experience. i) A Drop-error: When dismissed a good idea. If it cannot do so the companies accumulated project cost will be lost. iii) Length of test. The product is ready to be dressed up with a brand name packing and preliminary marketing program. IDEA SCREENING: The new developed ideas should be written down and review each week by an idea committee and sot it into 3 groups. Who will use it. and ii) A Go-error: When a company permits a poor idea to move into development and commercialization. COMMERCIALIZATION: If the test is cleared and company has decided to market the product the company have to make heavy expenditure on plant. 2 Interests: The consumer is stimulated to seek information about the innovation. CONSUMER ADOPTION PROCESS: How do potential customer learn about new product. try them.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 e) Use of Metaphor: Let apparently irrelevant. the planned product positioning and the sales mark. At this stage a word or picture description can suffice.

PERSONAL INFLUENCE PLAYS A LARGE ROLE IN THE ADOPTION OF A PRODUCT: Personal influence is the effect. scientific credibility. Other characteristics that influence the rate of adoption are cost. the more quickly it will be adopted. iii) The innovation's Complexity: The degree to which it is relatively difficult to understand or use.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 5 Adoption: The consumer decides to make full and regular use of the innovation. iv) Skeptical: They adopt a product after a majority of people have tried it. Its significance is greater in some situations and for some individuals than for others. v) The innovation's Communicability: The degree to which its beneficial results are observable or describable to others. It is more important in the evaluation stage of the adoption process than in the other stages. iv) The innovation's Divisibility: The degree to which it can be tried on a limited basis. risk and uncertainty. LIKE PEOPLE ORGANIZATIONS VARY IN THEIR READINESS TO ADOPT AN INNOVATION: 36 . They rarely are leaders. and social approval. v) Laggards: They are suspicious of changes and adopt the innovation only when it takes on a measure for tradition itself. They can be classified according to following five groups: i) Innovators: Willing to try new ideas at some risk ii) Early Adopters: Those who adopt new ideas early but carefully. one person have. Five characteristics are especially important in influencing the rate of adoption of an innovation. It is an important factor. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INNOVATION PRODUCT EFFECTS ITS RATE OF ADOPTION: Some products gain attention immediately while others take long time to gain acceptance. ii) The innovation's compatibility: The degree to which it is relatively difficult to understand or use. However. It have more influence on late adopters than early adopters and it is more important in risky situation than is safe situation. marketers recognize a few basic truths about the adoption process: PEOPLE DIFFER GREATLY IN THEIR READINESS TO TRY NEW PRODUCTS: Different people exhibit different behaviors in respect of adopting new ideas. i) Innovations relative advantages: The degree it appears superior to the existing products. Factors Influencing Adoption Process: It is sometimes harder to generalize about consumers. The new-product marketer has to research all these factors and give the key ones maximum attention in designing the new-product and marketing program. on others attitudes. iii) Deliberates: They adopt new ideas before the average persons.

The length of fashion cycle is hard to predict. A fashion tent to grow slowly. Product requires different marketing strategies at different stages of their life cycle. Each of them can have different life cycle. we will firs describe its present concept the demand/technology life cycle. uses or users e. For example jeans are a fashion in today's clothing. 37 .g. Once the need is identified. The petrified level is sustained by the late adopters buying the product for the first time and early adopters replacing the product. sales start declining and the company gives the other promotion push. Fashion. some brand names have a very long PLC. Although many new brands die an early death. and decline very fast. fashions and fads. 3 Scalloped Pattern: Her sales passes through a succession of cycles based on the discovery of the new product characteristics. and they tend to attract only a limited following. Demand /Technology Life Cycle: Remember that most products exist as one solution among many to meet a need. 1 Product Category have the longest life cycle. product and brand-lifecycle. Stages in the Product Life Cycle: To understand the product life cycle one should understand positively that: Product have a limited life. 2 Cycle-Recycle Pattern: In it the company aggressively promotes its new product and this produces the firs cycle. Fads are fashions that come quickly into the public eye. newspapers etc. Profit are nonexistent in this stage because of the heavy expenses incurred with product introduction. It is difficult to predict whether something will be only a fad or how long a fad will last. The changing need level is described by a demand life-cycle curve. it is satisfied by some technology. And Fad Life Cycles: There are three special categories of product life cycles that should be distinguished  those pertaining to styles. 4 Branded Products: can have a short or long product life cycle.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-12 Managing Life-Cycle Strategies PRODUCTS LIFE CYCLE:(PLC) The product life cycle is an important concept that provides insight into a product's competitive dynamics. more faithfully than product categories. going in and out of vogue. cigarettes. 1 Growth-slump-Maturity Patterns: In it sales grow rapidly when product first introduced and then fell to "petrified" level. and are used to name and launch new products. AND BRAND LIFE CYCLES: The product life-cycle concept can be used to analyze product-category. adopted with great zeal. Other Shapes of the Product Life Cycle: Not all products exhibit the bell-shaped life cycle. PRODUCT-FORM. sales passes through distinct stages. Three common alternate patterns are. A fashion is a currently accepted or popular style in a given field. Their acceptance cycle is short. 3 Product follows either the standard product-life-cycle or one of several variant shapes. and decline slowly. It is difficult to designate where each stage begins and ends. If we draw a curve of past sales history of products it will take bell shape and can be divided in to four stages: 1) Introduction. 2) cycle-recycle patterns and 3) scalloped pattern. along with other factors. Each new technology satisfies demand in a better way than the previous technology. profit rise and fall at different stages of the life cycle of the product. and 4) Decline. Once a style is invented. 2 GROWTH: A period of rapid market acceptance and substantial profit improvements 3 MATURITY: A period of slowdown in sales growth because the product has achieved acceptance by most potential buyers. Profit stabilize or decline because of increasing marketing outlays to defend the product against competition. influence the duration of the fad's. Fads do not survive because they do not normally satisfy a strong need or do not satisfy well. 2 Product Form: follows the standard life-cycle. A Style is a basic and distinctive mode of expression appearing in a field of human endeavor. Usually the stages are marked where the rates of sales growth or decline becomes pronounced. Many product categories stays at maturity stage indefinitely e. remains popular for a while. Fads appears to people who are searching for excitement or who want to distinguish themselves from others. which produces a second cycle. product-form. PRODUCT. Later. 2) Growth. Researchers have fond six to seventeen different life cycle patterns. 1) growth-slump-maturity patterns. each early. The amount of media attention. 4 DECLINE: The period when sales show downward drift and profits erode. Style. 3) Maturity. PRODUCT-CATEGORY. To fully explain the PLC. nylon's sales shows a scalloped pattern because of the many new uses.g.. 1 INTRODUCTION: A period of slow sales growth and substantial profit improvement. it can last for generations. Marketer should check the normal sequence of stages in their industry and the average duration of each stage.

iv) Increase its distribution coverage and enters new distribution channels. Because it takes time to roll out the product in several markets and to fill the dealer pipelines. sales growth is slow at this stage. Seeing the attractive market opportunities competitors enter in the market. and it poses formidable challenges to marketing management. and iii) customer reluctance to change established behaviors. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE INTRODUCTION STAGE. This strategy make sense under the following assumptions: . High price helps to recover much profit per-unit and low promotion keeps the marketing expenses down.most buyers are price sensitive Strong potential competition.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 The real winner in the fad war are those who recognize them early and can leverage those fads into products with staying power. Introduction Stage: The introduction stage starts when the new product is launched. marketing management can set a high or a low level for each marketing variable (price. MARKET STRATEGIES IN THE GROWTH STAGE: To sustain rapid market growth as long as possible following are the strategies: i) improve product quality and adds new product features and improved styling. or brand strength. there are no new distribution channels to fill. III) Declining Maturity: The absolute level of sales starts to decline. and . I) Growth maturity: The sales growth rate starts to decline. The early adopters like to adopt the product and additional costumers start to buy the product. Firms have to watch for the on set of the decelerating rate in order to prepare new strategies. .e.Market is of limited size. Its characteristics are: Prices remain the same or slightly changes due to change in demand. Profits increase during growth stage as 1) promotion costs are spread over the large volume and 2) unit manufacturing cost fall faster than price decline. ii) Add new models and flanker products iii) Enters new market segments. product quality).the firm faces potential competition and wants to build brand preference. Considering the price and promotion management can pursue one of the four strategies given bellow: i) A Rapid-Skimming Strategy: Launching product at high price and high promotion level. Maturity Stage: Here the product's rate of sales growth will slow down. Market is unaware of the product. II) Stable Maturity: Sales flatten on a per capital basis because of market saturation. retail outlets. The high promotion acts to accelerate the rate of market penetration.those who become aware of the product are eager to have it and pay the asking price. ii) A Slow Skimming Strategy: Launching a product at high price and low promotion.manufacturing cost falls with scale of production and accumulated manufacturing expenses. quality. MARKETING STRATEGIES THROUGHOUT THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE: Each stage of the product life cycle have an appropriate marketing strategy. The introduce the new product features and expand the distribution chain. Marketers should systematically consider strategies of market product and marketing-mix modification. Most of the market is aware of the product. This strategy promises to bring about fastest market penetration and the largest market share. 38 . and expensive. The reasons for slow growth may be i) delay in the expansion of production capacity. Maturity stage can be subdivided in to three phases. In launching a new product. This strategy makes sense when . This stage normally lasts longer than the previous stages. iv) A Slow penetration strategy: Launch a product at low price with low promotional expenses THE MARKET PIONEERS: Companies while entering in the market must decide either to be first in the market which is highly rewarding but risky. This combination is expected to skim lot of profit from the market. ii) delay in obtaining adequate distribution i.buyers are willing to pay high price potential competition is not eminent. . MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE MATURITY STAGE: Some company abandon their weak products. The rate of growth eventually changes from an accelerating rate to decelerating rate.a large part of the potential market is unaware of the product . v) Shifting from product awareness advertising to product preference advertising. distribution. Assumptions are: Market is large. or to come in later which would make sense that the firm can bring superior technology. vi) Low down the price to attract the next layer of price-sensitive buyers. iii) A Rapid Penetration Strategy: Launching a product at low price and spend heavily on promotion. The Growth Stage: Marked by rapid climb in sales. and customers start switching to other products. . promotion. Companies maintain their promotional expenses. and the product will enter a stage of relative maturity.

c) Marketing-Mix Modification: Product managers might also try to stimulate sales by modifying other marketingmix elements. The demand / technology life cycle requires to take a broader look at the whole market. freight cost absorption. i) Quality Improvement: Aims at increasing the products functional performance its durability. This attitude yields the product-oriented picture rather than a market-oriented picture. it must decide whether to liquidate the brand quickly or slowly. speed. b) Determining Marketing Strategies: Some firms will abandon declining markets earlier than others. manufacturing. technical assistance. All lead to overcapacity. adds message be changed or timing. frequency or size of add be changed? iv) Sales Promotion: Making trade deals. reliability. Firms may appoint a product-review committee with representatives from marketing . STAGES IN MARKET EVOLUTION: Like product market evolve through four stages: emergence. 2 Volume can also be increased by convincing current brand users to increase annual usage of the brand. MARKET EVOLUTION: Firms while viewing product life cycle pay particular attention to product or brand rather than to the overall market. it faces further decisions. and decline. weight. c) The Drop Decision: When a company decides to drop a product. size. safety or convenience. or rapid. The manager responsible for the dubious products fill out the ratting forms showing where they thin sales and profits will go. introduce product into new distribution channel. iii) Advertising: Increase the advertising expenditure. As sales decline. The committee develops the system for identify weak products. with and without any changes in marketing strategy. and finance. ii) Feature Improvement: aims at adding new features e. Those remaining may reduce the number of products they offer. cents-off-coupons. and profit erosion. v) Personal Selling: Increase the quality or number of sales-people. ii) Enter new market segments: Try to enter new segments that use the product but not the brand. a company faces a number of tasks and decisions. maturity. that expand the products versatility. they should ask the following questions: i) Prices: Includes a price cut to attract new tries and users. It must also decide on how much parts inventory and service to maintain for past customers. volume or early purchase discounts. growth. or easier credit terms? Or the raise the price to signal higher quality? ii) Distribution: Obtain more product support and display in the existing outlets. vi) Services: Like speeding up delivery. iii) Style improvement: increasing to product's aesthetic appeal. shifts in consumer tastes. iii) Win competitors' Customers: Try to attract the competitors' customers or adopt the brand. b) Product Modification: Managers also try to stimulate sales by modifying the product's characteristics through quality improvement. Increase the sales force incentives. The product-review committee examines this information and makes a recommendation for each dubious product leave it alone. Much depends on the exit barriers in the industry. or drop it. R&D. Here are also three strategies: i) More frequent use: The company can try to get customers to use the product more frequently. 4 Decline Stage: The sales of most product forms and brands eventually decline. 39 . more outlets be penetrated. If so should the list price be lowed or lowered through price specials. iii) New and more varied uses: The company can try to discover new product uses and convince people to use the product in more varied ways.g. modify its marketing strategy. gifts and contests. re-division of sales territories. some firms withdraw from the market. ii) More usage per occasion: try to interest users in using more of the product on each occasion. The remaining firms will enjoy increased sales and profits. Sales may polunge to zero or they may petrify at a low level. or style improvement. and credit facility. They may withdraw from smaller market segments and weaker trade channels. warranties. MARKETING STRATEGIES DURING THE DECLINE STAGE: In handling its aging products. which products are dubious. It might be slow. additives etc. increased price outing. There are many reasons for sales decline including technological advances. and they may cut their promotion budget and reduce their prices further. taste etc. a) Identifying the Weak Products: The first task is to establish a system for identifying weak products. the company can probably sell it to another firm. and increased domestic and foreign competition. rebates. If the fir can't find any buyers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan a) Market Modification: The company might try to expand the market for its mature brand by working with the two factors that make up sales volume. a computer program analyzes this and helps manager to decide. feature improvement. The controllers office supplies data. If the product has strong distribution and residual goodwill. 1 The company can try to expand the number of brand users in three ways: i) Convert Nonusers: The company can try to attract nonusers to the product.

5 Weak: have unsatisfactory performance but an opportunity exists for improvement. In mobile defense. like waging guerrilla action against the market by hitting one competitor here. These are summarized bellow: i) POSITION DEFENCE: The most basic idea is to build an impregnable fortification around one's territory. It is not market abandonment but rather giving up the weaker territories. the leader stretches its domain over new territories that can serve as future centers for defense and offense. Challengers. Defending the Strategic Objectives and Opponent(s) First of all a market challenger have to define his strategic objectives. an effective counterattack is to invade the attacker's main territory so that it will have to pull back some of its troops to defend its territory. 3 Expanding Market Share: Market leaders can improve their profitability by increasing their market share. i) New Users: Finding new users for the product and exploring the new markets. 2 Defend its current market share through good defensive and offensive actions.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-13 Designing Marketing Strategies for Market Leaders. and competitors are nibbling away on several fronts. but first it have to decide as to whom to attack. more usage. another there and keep everyone off balance. 40 1 2 . The best fours of action then appears to be planned contraction (called strategic withdrawal). There are six defense strategies that dominant firm can use. and reassigning resources to stronger territories. Their forces are spread too thin. iv) COUNTEROFFENSIVE DEFENSE: Most market leaders. The leader has the strategic choice of meeting the attacker frontly. vi) CONTRACTION DEFENSE: Large companies sometimes recognize that they can no longer defend all of their territory. maneuvering against the attacker's flank. Planned contraction is a move to consolidate one's competitive strength in the market and concentrate mass at pivotal positions. v) MOBILE DEFENCE: It involves more than the leader aggressively defending its territory. and lower ranked firms are often called runner up or trailing they can adopt one of the two postures: 1) Attack the leader and other competitors in an aggressive bid for further market share (called market challengers). the dominant firm must continuously defend it s current business against rival attacks The leader is like a large elephant being attacked by a swarm of bees. 4 Tenable: Performing at a sufficiently satisfactory level to continue business but exist in the sufferance of another dominant company and has a less than average opportunity to improve its position. MARKET CHALLENGER STRATEGIES: Second. one share point is worth tens of millions of rupees. MARKET LEADER STRATEGIES: If a dominant firm want to remain number one it have to take three actions: 1 Find way to expand total market demand. new uses. iii) PREEMPTIVE DEFENCE: A more aggressive defense maneuver is to launch an attach on the enemy before the enemy starts its offense against the leader. Followers. 3 Try to increase its market share further even if market size remains constant. promotion blitz. ii) New Uses: Expanding market by discovering and promoting new uses for the product iii) More Usage: Convincing people to use more of the product per use occasion. or launching a pricer movement to cut off the attacking formations from their base of operation. In many markets. when attacked. 3 Favorable: Have a exploitable strength and a better-than-average opportunity to improve its position. It requires a decision to attack. will respond with a counterattack. Sustained. A company can launch a preemptive defence in several ways. Expanding the total Market: Expansion can be made by way of new users. 2) They can play ball and not rock the boat (market followers). When a market leader's territory is attacked. third. 6 Nonviable: Unsatisfactory performance and no opportunity to improvement. Or it could try to achieve a grand market envelopment. 2 Strong: Can take action (without putting in danger its long-term position) regardless competitors action. Defending the Market Share: While trying to expand total market size. and Nichers A firm can occupy any of the following six competitive positions in the target market. Or it could begin sustained price attacks. or sales-territory invasion. The leader cannot remain passive in the face of a competitor's price cut. product improvement. 1 Dominant: Control the behavior of other competitors and has a wide choice of strategic option. Most market challengers strategic objective is top increase their market share. The firm must change or els exit. ii) FLANK DEFENCE: The market leader should not only guard its territory but also erect outposts to protect a weak front or possibly serve as an invasion base for counterattacking. high-pressure strategies and at retaining the initiative at all times and keeping the competition always on the defensive.

iii) Attack small and regional firms which are not doing the job well. Follower ship is usually not the same as being passive or a carbon copy of the leader. Four broad followership strategies can be distinguished: i) Counterfeiter. Each follower tries to bring distinctive advantages to its target market. The aggressor may attack the strong side to tie up the defender's troops but will launch the real attack at the side or rear. 2 FLANK ATTACK: When the company attacks the others weak points. thus giving buyer more choice. ii) Cheaper-goods strategy: The challenger can offer an average or low-quality product at a much lower price. therefore. The major principle of modern offensive warfare is concentration of strength against weakness. The adapter may choose to sell to different markets to avoid direct confrontation with the leader. iv) Adapter. Follower duplicates the leader's product and package and sells it on the black market or through disputable leaders. 5 GUERRILLA ATTACK: Consist of small intermittent attacks on the opponent's different territories. so that the offer is unrefusable. and occasional legal actions. The strategy offers three lines of approaches diversifying into unrelated products. viii) Manufacturing-cost-reduction strategy: Pursuing lower manufacturing costs than the competitors through more efficient purchasing. Its success depends on combining several principles to improve its position over time. and use lower costs to price more aggressively to gain market share. Enrichment makes sense where the aggressor commands superior resources and believes that a swift enrichment will break the opponent's will. The cloner emulates the leader's products. and so on. iv) Product-proliferation Strategy: Challenger attack the leader by launching a larger product variety. v) Product-innovation strategy: The challenger might pursue product innovation to attack the leader's position. 3 ENRICHMENT ATTACK: An attempt to capture a wide slice of the enemy's territory through a comprehensive blitz attack. lower labor costs. A market follower must know how to hold current customers and win a fair share of new customers. and so on. vii) Distribution-innovation strategy: Discovering or developing new channels of distribution. These include selective price cuts. The out come depends on who has the more strength. It involves launching a grand offensive or several fronts. sides. Market challengers can choose from several specific attack strategies: i) Price-discount Strategy: Selling a comparable product at a lower price. In such a case a substantial segment that is unnerved or poorly served provide an excellent strategic target. The challenger must put together a total strategy consisting of several specific strategies. A challenger can rarely improve its market share by relying only one strategy. 4 BYPASS ATTACK: Consist of most indirect strategies. It must also enter new markets as they open up. improved service or additional product features. This is not to say that market followers lack strategies. but one that does not ignite competitive relation. Take the leader's products and adapt or improve them. Choosing a General Attack Strategy: Given clear opponents an objective. The aggressor may offer the market everything the opponent offers and more. The follower has to define a growth path. vi) Improved-Services Strategy: Offering new or better services to customers. It means by passing the enemy and attacking easier markets to broaden one's resource base. But leaders never take lightly any effort to draw away their customers. pricing. ii) Cloner. MARKET-NICHER STRATEGIES: 41 . Choosing a Specific Attack Strategy: The above five strategies are very broad. intense promotional blitzes. distribution advertising. so that the enemy must protect its front. and rear simultaneously.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan i) Attack the Market Leader: This is a high risk but potentially high-payoff strategy and makes good sense if the leader is "falls leader" who is not serving the market. ii) Attack firms of Its own size: That are not doing the sob and are under-financed. the leader can quickly match these to diffuse the attack. diversifying into new geographical markets and leapfrogging into new technologies to supplant existing products. But often the adopter grows into the future challenger. The aim is to harass and demoralize the opponent and eventually secure permanent footholds. A follower is often a major target of attach by challengers. MARKET FOLLOWER STRATEGIES: Many runner-up / followers companies prefer to follow rather than challenge the market leader. or modern production equipment. iii) Prestige-goods Strategy: Launch a higher-quality product and charge a higher price than the leader. iii) Imitator: copies some thing from the leader but maintain differentiation in terms of packaging advertising. and endurance. it must keep its manufacturing costs low and its product quality and services high. what options are available in attacking an enemy? We can make progress by imaging at opponent who occupies a certain market territory. and are under financed. If the runner-up's take any action like lower prices. ix) Intensive advertising promotion: Some challengers attack the leader by increasing their expenditure on advertising and promotion. We distinguish among five attack strategies: 1 FRONTAL ATTACK: When a company attacks the opponents strengths rather than its weaknesses. The guerrilla aggressor uses both conventional and unconventional means to attack the opponent.

vii) Product-feature specialist: The firm specials in producing a certain type of product feature. Many nichers specialize in serving small customers who are neglected by the majors. vi) Product or product-line specialists: The firm carries or produces only one product or product line. of being a follower in a large market. iii) Customer-size Specialist: The firm concentrates on selling to either small. is to be a leader in a small market. Niching carries a major risk in that the market niche might dry up or be attacked. xi) Channel Specialists: The firm specializes in serving only one channel of distribution. Niche Specialization: The key idea in nichemanship is specialization. ix) Quality / price specialists: the firm operates at the low-or high-quality ends of the market. or large customers. iv) Specific-customer specialists. The firm limits its selling to one or a few major customers. 42 . x) Service specialist: The firm offers one ore more services not available from other firms. medium-size. The company is then stuck with highly specialized resources that may not have high-value alternative uses. viii) Job-shop Specialist: The firm customize its products for individual customers. Small firms commonly avoid competing with larger firms by targeting small markets of littler or no interest to the larger firms. The following specialists roles are open to nichers: i) End-user Specialist: The firm specializes in serving one type of end-use customer. v) Geographic Specialists: The firms sells only in a certain locality. region or area of the world.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan An alternative. ii) Vertical-level Specialists: The firm specials at some vertical level of the production-distribution value chain.

Licensing: In it the licenser licenses a foreign company to use a manufacturing process. IV FOREIGN BASED DISTRIBUTORS OR AGENTS: Highiring foreign based distribution and sales agents. transportation and financial flaws. negotiate with them and receives commission it includes trading companies. A GLOBAL INDUSTRY: means an industry in which the position of competitors ( in geographic or national markets) are fundamentally affected by their overall global position. Generally speaking. The company must decide whether to market in a few countries or many countries. What proportion of foreign to total sales will it seek? Most companies start small when the venture abroad. A company should enter fewer countries when Market entry and control costs are high. Before going abroad the company must weigh several risks given bellow: 1 The company might not understand the foreign customers preferences an fail to offer competitively attractive products. direct exporting. costs and reputation that are not available to purely domestic competitors.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-14 Designing and Managing Global Marketing Strategies The world is rapidly shrinking with the advent of faster communication. A GLOBAL FIRM: is a firm that operates in more than one country and captures (production. a company which decides to operate in fewer countries can do so with deeper commitment and penetration in each. II OVERSEAS SALES BRANCH OR SUBSIDIARY: which handles the sales and distribution and might handle warehousing and promotion as well. III TRAVELING EXPORT SALES REPRESENTATIVE: The company can send home-based sales representatives abroad to finds business. 5 The foreign country might change its commercial laws. I DOMESTIC-BASED EXPORT MERCHANT: Who buyers the manufacturer's products and then sells them abroad. II DOMESTIC-BASED EXPORT AGENT: Who seeks foreign purchasers. 2 Higher profit opportunities in foreign market than domestic market. 3 When firm needs a larger customer base to achieve economics of scale. trade secrete or other items of value for a fee or royalty. DECIDING WHICH MARKET TO ENTER: The company has to define its international marketing objectives and policies. IV EXPORT MANAGEMENT COMPANY: A company who agrees to manage a company's export activities for a fee. 4 To reduce firms dependence on any one market. Product and communication adoption costs are high. 4 Company may lacks in managers with international experience. devalue its currency. joint ventures. Its broad choices are indirect exporting. They might be given exclusive rights to represent the manufactures in that country or only limited rights. DECIDING WHETHER TO GO ABROAD: Most companies prefer to remain domestic if their domestic market were large enough. Various methods of licensing are: I MANAGEMENT CONTRACT: When the company exports management services by appointing a manager to help the management of foreign country. Some plan to stay small. viewing foreign operations as a small part of their business. In it the investment and the risk are somewhat greater but so is the potential return. and direct investment. Indirect Export: It is exporting through independent intermediaries. It often serves as a display center and customer-service center. it has to determine the best mode of entry. DECIDING HOW TO ENTER: After deciding the target countries. There are four types of intermediaries. III CORPORATIVE ORGANIZATION: The export goods on behalf of several producers and are partly under the control of those producers. population and income size and growth are high in the initial countries chosen and Dominant foreign firms can establish high barriers to entry. or undergo a political revolution and expropriate foreign property. Yet there are several factors that might draw a company into international arena: 1 Global firms attach the company's domestic market and the company wants to counterattack these competitors in their home markets to tie up their resources. The ways of direct export are given bellow: I DOMESTIC BASED EXPORT DEPARTMENT OR DIVISION: and an export sales manager carries on the actual selling. trademark. themselves. patent. 3 Might underestimate foreign regulations and incur unexpected costs. 2 Might not understand the foreign country’s business culture or know how to deal effectively with foreign nationals. Direct Export: Companies may deiced to handle their exports. licensing. 5 Customer going abroad requires international services. 43 B C 1 2 3 .

companies may arrange their marketing activities in three ways Export Department: Begins simply by shipping out its goods. or b) Country Version: iii) PRODUCT INNOVATION: It consists of creating something new. ii) PRODUCT ADOPTION: Involves altering the product to meet local conditions or preferences. ii) Product Adoption. 44 . THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS In the internationalization process a firm moves through four stages given bellow: 1 No regular export activity. The process is called communication adoption. locally in the country in which they are to be soled. A company can produce a a) Regional version: naming it on the basis of the region northern version etc. They must had to deal with Price escalation. It may be of two types a) Backward Invention: re introducing earlier product. Place: Deciding as how the product will reach to the final users. iii) Product Innovation i) STRAIGHT EXTENSION: Introducing the product in the foreign market without any change. DECIDING ON THE MARKETING PROGRAM International companies must have to decide. Price: Multinationals face several problems in pricing. 3 Establishing one or more subsidiaries. The potential adoptions that firms might make (in respect of their product. V DIRECT INVESTMENT: Also called direct owner ship of foreign based assembly or manufacturing facilities.) as they enters foreign markets. Global Origination: When it becomes impossible to control through international division then they become global organization. They creates an international division to handle international activities. promotion. Export to one. The franchiser offers a franchisee a complete brand concept and operating system In return the franchisee invests in the business and pays certain fee to the franchiser. price etc. International Division: Involving in several markets by different way.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan II D 1 2 3 4 E 1 2 3 CONTRACT MANUFACTURING: The manufacturer engages a local manufacturer to product the product on behalf of the company. iii Setting a cost based price in each country. DECISION OF MARKETING ORIGINATION: Depending upon the level of involvement in the international arena. III FRANCHISING: A complete form of licensing. How many intermediaries will be involved in the distribution process. 4 Establishing of production facilitates abroad. licenses to other still make joint venture in the third. It can take two forms that are well adapted to a foreign country's needs. Promotion: Either adopting some advertising campaigns used in the home market or change them for the local market. 2 Export via independent representative. When international sales expand the company organizes an export department consisting of sales manager and a few assistants. Product: There are five different product strategies that companies can adopt are i) Straight Extension. and b) Forward Invention: Creating a new product to meet the needs of an other country. Let us consider them one by one. ii Setting a market based price in each country. as to how much adopt the marketing strategy mix to local conditions. There are several levels of adaptation. They have three choices i Setting a uniform price everywhere in local as well as foreign countries. transfer prices dumping charges and gray markets. IV JOINT VENTURES: Foreign and local investors join together by investing and sharing ownership and control.

Product Class: A group of products within the product family. are marketed through the same channels.e. PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION: Marketers traditionally classified product on the basis of the varying product characteristic i. etc.e. consumed by one or few uses. etc. in the process of selection and purchase. Tangible. 45 1 2 3 . and supplies & business services. or fall within given price ranges. Consumption System: The way the purchaser performs trying to accomplish the benefits by using the product. and style e. by adding new product lines. furniture. size. price. PRODUCT MIX DECISIONS A product Mid is the set of all products and items that a particular seller offers for sale to buyers. The Depth: refers to how many variants are offered of each product in the line. A product line is a group of products that are closely related because they perform a similar function. Consumer Goods Classification: Consumer buy a vast array of goods we can classify them among convenience. fancy goods like cars. The Width refers of product mix refers to how many different product lines the company caries.g.g. variable and perishable. bathroom. Capital Items: Long lasting goods facilitates developing and managing finished products including two groups 1) Installations. characteristically compares on such bases as suitability. There are seven levels of product hierarchy. and 3 Use. Services: Intangible. Material and Parts: goods that enter the manufacturer's product completely. Item: A distinct unit in a brand or product line distinguishable by price. sociality. Basic Benefit: Marketers converts the core benefit into basic product the core benefit in getting a hotel room is the buyer rest & sleep while core benefits include a bed. immediately.g. Product Type: A group in product line that share one of several possible forms of a product. men’s suits. They fall into two classes. Convenience Goods are those goods that the customer usually purchases frequently. distribution channels. Unsought Goods: Consumer does not know about and not normally think to buy. 2) equipment. Industrial Goods Classification: Industrial goods can be classified in terms of how they enter the production process and their relative coastlines. A companies product mix has a certain width. etc. desk etc. Shopping Goods: That the consumer. or some other way.. soap. Expected Product: A set of characteristics a buyer normally expects while purchasing a product. adding more product variants and deepen its product mix or pursue more product-line consistency or less. production requirements. Durability and Tangibility: According to durability and tangibility there are three groups Nondurable Goods. Supplies and Business Services: Short lasting goods and services helps in developing and managing the finished products. These four dimensions of the product mix provide the handles for defining the company's product strategy. The can expand its business in four ways i. soap. quality. Augmented Product: That meets the customer's desires beyond their expectations. shopping. salt etc.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-15 Product Lines Brands & Packing 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 FIVE LEVELS OF THE PRODUCT: These five levels constitute consumer value hierarchy: Core Benefit: Is the fundamental benefit that customer really buying. raw materials and manufactured materials and parts. inseparable. Each product type has an appropriate marketing-mix strategy. PRODUCT HIERARCHY: It stretches from basic needs to particular items that satisfy needs. A consumer buying drill is actually buying a hole. clothing used cars etc. Brand: The name associated with one or more products in the product line. Product Family: All the product classes that can satisfy the core need. like. towels. Need Family: The core need that under lies the existence of a product family. They can be classified in three coups materials and parts. and with a minimum of-effort. PRODUCT-LINE DECISIONS: A product line consist of various product lines. 1 Durability. newspapers. e. are soled to the same customer groups. and consistency. The Consistency of the product mix refers to how closely related the various product lines are in end use. lengths. Durable Goods: They are tangible and normally survive many uses. e. capital items. Product Line: A group in product class performing some functions.g. Specialty Goods: Goods with unique characteristics and for which the buyer habitually willing to make a special purchasing effort e. The Length of product mix refers to the total number of items in its product mix. 2 Tangibility. refrigerator. depending upon whether it wants to acquire a strong reputation in a single field or participate in several fields. clothing machine etc. and unsought goods. depth.

or design. Branding Decision: The Brand or Not To Brand: While branding the products the management have to review two things the costspackaging. Intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. Few customers are brand-loyal. the seller has to confront the branding decision. they are buying benefits. BRAND DECISIONS: In developing a marketing strategy for individual products. In essence. advertising. the seller is granted exclusive rights to the use of the brand name in perpetuity. 3 Value: The brand also conveys something about the producers values. 4 The company can more easily launch brand extensions since the brand name carries high credibility. Under the trademark law. The brand marketer must figure out the specific groups of buyers who are seeking these values. Line Stretching: When a company lengthen its product line beyond its current range. term. which have expiration dates. 6 User: The brand suggest the kind to consumer who buyouts or uses the product.. benefits. A product line is too short if the manager can increase profits by adding times. sign. 2 Customer is satisfied. WHAT IS A BRAND: A brand is a name. or a combination of them. 4 Culture: The brand may represent a certain culture . since customers expect them to carry the brand. Product Line Analysis: The product line manager needs to know the percentage of total sales and profits contributed by each item in the line. A brand is a seller's promise to consistently deliver a specific set of features. The concept and measurement of Brand Equity: Brands vary in the amount of power and value they have in the marketplace. Product Line Length: The product line manager should have to maintain a the optimal product-line length. The other occasion for product pruning is when the company is short of production capacity. 5 Customer is devoted to the brand. legal protection and the risk that the product may prove unsatisfying to the user? On the other hand branding gives the user several advantages: 1 Brand name makes it easier for the seller to process orders and track down problems. A brand can convey up to six levels of meanings. trademark. 2 The company will have more trade leverage in bargaining with distributors and retailers. 3 Customer is satisfied and would incur costs by changing brand. stoves. washing machines. or other symbol. The company uses one ore more of these attributes to advertise the product. Or may feature a high-end item to lend prestige to the product line. It may be an overhaul by piecemeal or all at once. Thus it differs from other assets like patents and copyrights. 2 Benefits: A brand is more that a set of attributes. 4 Customer values the brand and sees it as a friend. 5 Personality: The brand can also project certain personality. or both ways. upward. Product-Line Market Profile: The product line manager must also review how the product line is positioned against competitors' product lines. The key decisions are discussed in the following section. The best brand convey a warranty of quality. the line is too long if the manager can increase profit by dropping items. the line might need to be modernized. The manager should concentrate on producing the higher-margin items. 5 The brand offers the company some defense against fierce price competition. Branding is a major issue in product strategy. The company can stretch its line downward. symbol. One is when the product line includes deadwood that is depressing profit. Line Modernization: Even when product-line length is adequate. Examples or product line are a company manufacturing Consumer Appliances like refrigerators. There are two occasions for pruning. labeling. No reason the change the brand. Five levels of customer attitude towers their brand from lowest to highest: 1 Customer will change brands. It can be a name. Line Featuring: The product line manager typically selects one or a few items in the line to feature. High brand equity provides a number of competitive advantages: 1 The company will enjoy reduced marketing costs because of the high level of consumer brand awareness and loyalty. 46 . and services to the buyers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Each product line is usually managed by a different executive. CHALLENGES IN BRANDING: Banding poses several challenges to the marketer. in mind of the buyer. Customers are not buying attributes . Managers might feature low-end promotional models to service as traffic builders. and other appliance. The weak items can be identified through sales and cost analysis. especially for price reasons No brand loyalty. a brand identifies the seller or maker. logo. 3 The company can charge a higher price that its competitors because the brand has higher perceived quality. 1 Attributes: A brand first bring some characteristics of the product. Line Pruning: Product-line managers must periodically review items for pruning.

New brands: When a company launches products in a new category. usually with new features. each brand hopes it might be reaching a new audience by associating with the other brand. dependability. colors. appearance. A competitor may launch a brand next to the company's brand and cut into its market share. and make a favorable overall impression. companies are better off creating new brand names. 2 Consumer Affluence: Rising consumer affluence means consumers are willing to pay a little more for the convenience. Various tools have contributed to the growing use of packaging as a marketing tool: 1 Self-service: An increasing number of products are sold on a self-service basis in super markets and discount houses. multi brands. 4 Innovation opportunity: Innovative packaging can bring large benefits to consumers and profits to producers. it may find that non of its current brand names are appropriate. In recent times packaging has become a potent marketing tool. 5 Strong brands help build the corporate image. lawnmowers. and some treat it as an element of product strategy. protection. the company may have to reposition it later. Well-designed packages can create convenience value for the consumer and promotional value for the producer. (boxes. It may be a box. house or private brand) or a licensed brand name Brand Name Decision Manufacturer who decide to band their products must choose which brand names to use. to establish different features or appeal to different buying motives. leaving the company's brand with less demand. cartons crates. forms. PACKING: refers to the providing overall container. such as new flavors. The package must perform many of the sales tasks. a bottle. Brand loyalty gives sellers some protection from competition and greater control in planning their marketing program. When the present brand image is not likely to help the new product. In the case of co-packaged products. etc. making it easier to launch new brands and gain acceptance by distributors and consumers. For example Honda uses its company name to cover such different products as its automobiles. large commercial users or industrial consumers. 3 Branding gives the seller the opportunity to attract a loyal and profitable set of customers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 The sellers brand name and trademark provide legal protection of unique product features. etc. marine engines. Multi brands: A company will often introduce additional brands in the same product category. PACKAGING: PACKAGING includes the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. The company can introduce line extensions. 3 Company and Brand Image: Companies are recognizing the power of well-designed packages to contribute to instant recognition of the company or brand. Four strategies are available here: 1 Individual Brand names 2 Blanket family name for all products 3 Separately family names for all products 4 Company trade name combined with individual product names Brand Strategy Decision: A company have five choices when it comes to brand strategy. Brand-Sponsor Decision: A manufacturer has several options with respect to brand sponsorship The product may be launched as a manufacturer's brand (sometimes called nationals brand) a distributor's brand (also called retailer. store. new brands and co-brands. meant for the members of distribution channels. a can or and container which goes alongwith the product into the hands of the ultimate users. product place and promotion. and so on. 47 .e. packaging also includes the label and inserts. motorcycles. In broader sense. distribution and identification of products in commercial quantities. Line Extensions: When the company introduces additional items in the same product category under the same brand name. However these two terms are being used interchangeably. added ingredients. It is the immediate wrapping or covering provided alongwith the product to facilitate handling. 4 Branding helps the seller segment markets. which competitors would otherwise be likely to copy. Or customer preferences may shift. Brand-Repositioning Decision: However well a brand is positioned in a market. and snowmobiles. Co-brands: A rising phenomenon is the appearance of co-branding (also called dual branding). package sizes. It must attract attention. create consumer confidence.) for handling. protection and identification of the product. PACKAGING AND LABELING DECISIONS: Many marketers have called packaging a fifth P alongwith price. Brand Extensions: Using existing brand name to launch a product in a new category. and prestige of better packages. snow-bowers. Various motives are there for it i. is which two or more will-know brands are combined in an offer. describe the product's features. brand extensions. if any. Each brand sponsor expects that the other brand name will strengthen band preference or purchase intention.

quality. materials . shape. Sellers must label their products. 48 . color. the law may require additional information. color. handling. suggest certain qualities about the product or the company. characteristics. Once a packaging concept has be determined. It is a piece of written communication informing the user of the product about its name. type. origin. text and brand mark. or something else. The label might carry only the brand name or a great deal of information. size.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Developing an effective package for a new product requires several decisions. introduce a novel dispensing method. Packaging concept defines what the package should be or do for the particular product. Secondary Package (Cardboard box) or shipping package( containing dozens of packages of packed product) Labeling: It is a subset of packaging. size. Even if the seller prefers a simple label. Should the package's main function be to offer superior product protection. Package might include up to three levels of material Primary package (like bottle). maintaining or servicing the product. The label may be a simple tag attached to the product or an elaborately designed graphic that is part of the package. Not many labels are to carry all this information at one place. specifications. model or the method of using.e. The first task is to establish packaging concept. decisions must be made on additional packaging elements i.

iii) MAXIMUM CURRENT REVENUE: Revenues maximization requires estimating only the demand function.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-17 Designing Pricing Strategies and Programs SETTING PRICE: A firm must have to set its price on three occasion. vii) Sunk Investment Effect: Buyer is less price sensitive when the product its to be used in connection with asset previously bought. the companies stay in business. ii) Substitute Awareness Effect: Buyer is less sensitive if he knows less about substitutes. 4) analyzing competitors' costs. quantities sold. They cut prices to keep the plant running and the inventories turnover. v) MAXIMUM MARKET SKIMMING: Means setting high prices to "skim" the market. or product-quality leadership. iv) MAXIMUM SALES GROWTH: Some companies want to maximize unit sales they believe that a higher sales volume will lead to lower unit costs and higher long-run profit. vi) PRODUCT QUALITY LEADERSHIP: A company might aim to be the product quality leader in the market. maximum market skimming. maximum current profit. or in intense competition or changing consumer wants. The firm has to consider many factors in setting its pricing policy. It is also called market penetration pricing. Then its major objective shall be to survive. They examine the estimated demand under different price levels and set that price at which the profit or cash inflow is maximum. and 6) selecting the final price. and 3) when it enters or bids on new contract work. 5)selecting a pricing method. Many managers believe that revenue maximization will lead to long-run profit maximization and market share growth. A nonprofit hospital may aim for full cost recovery in its pricing. 2) When it introduces its regular product in a new distribution channel or geographical area. 49 1 2 . Selecting the Pricing Objective: The company first has to decide what it wants to accomplish with particular product offer. Factors affecting price Sensitivity : The demand curve shows the market’s purchase rate at alternative prices. assuming the market is price sensitive. The first step in estimating demand is thus understanding the factors that affect the buyers price sensitivity: i) Unique Value Effect: Buyers is less price sensitive if the product is more distinctive. viii) Price Quality Effect: Buyers are less price sensitive when the product is assumed to have more quality. In a normal case they are inversely related. vi) Shared-Cost Effect: Buyer is less price sensitive when part of the cost is born by other parties. In the following paragraphs. we will describe a six step procedure for price setting: 1) selecting the pricing objective. iii) Difficult Comparison Effect: Buyer is less sensitive if they cannot compare the quality of product with other product. c) The high initial price does not attract more competitors to the market d) the high price communicates the image of a superior product. If the objectives of the organization are clear it will be easy to set price. maximum sales growth. v) End-benefit effect: Buyers are less price sensitive if the expenditure is smaller as compare to the total end benefit of the product. 2) determining demand. It makes sense under the following conditions a) a sufficient number of buyers have a high current demand: b) the unit cost of producing a small volume are not so high that they cancel the advantage of charging what the traffic will bear. ii) MAXIMUM CURRENT PROFIT: Many companies set the price that will maximize current profit. As long as prices covers the variable cost and some portion of fixed cost. and other factors to estimate their relationship. prestige or exclusiveness. Profits are less important than survival. However it is only a short run objective the firm must have to lean as how to add value. knowing that it must rely on private gifts and public grants to cover the remaining costs. iv) Total Expenditure Effect: Buyer is less sensitive for price if the amount of expenditure is less as a part of their total income. i) SURVIVAL: If the company is working with over capacity. maximum current revenue. they can use several methods. To do so. They set the lowest price. ix) Inventory Effect: Buyers are less price sensitive when they cannot store the product. There are six types of objectives a company can pursue survival. prices. Determining Demand: Each price will lead to different level of demand. 3) estimating costs. i) Statistically analyzing the existing data on past prices. vii) OTHER PRICING OBJECTIVES: Non profit and public organizations may adopt a number of other pricing objectives. 1) First time when it develops new product. and offers. A university aims for partial cost recovery. Is sums the reactions of many individuals who have different price sensitivities. Methods of Estimating Demand Curves: Most companies make some attempt to measure their demand curves.

If the firm’s offer is inferior the firm is not able to charge more than the competitors. There are three major considerations in price setting 1) cost 2) competitors prices and 3) prices of substitutes. distributing. Price Elasticity of Demand: Marketers need to know how responsive. 50 . then the firm will have to price close to the competitor or lose sales. Once the company is aware of competitors' prices and offers. Target costing: Costs change with production scale and experience. Selecting a Pricing Method: Now the organization will be ready to select a price. VALUE PRICING: Charge a fairly how price for a high quality offering. Following are the price setting methods.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 3 4 5 i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) 6 ii Conduct price experiments. It will be some where between one that is too low to produce profit and that is too high to produce enough demand. Then they set the competitive price of the product from this they deduct profit margin and this leaves the target cost they must have to achieve. buy competitors' product and take it apart. Conversely brands with low quality and low advertising charred the lowest prices. c) The positive relationship between high prices and high advertising held most strongly in the later stages of the product life cycle. TYPES OF COSTS: A company's costs take two forms. Company may select any pricing method that includes one or more of these three considerations. iii) Asking buyers to state how many units they would buy at different proposed prices. They also change as a result of a concentrated effort by the company's designers. It say that the price should represent the high value offered to consumers. and demand-inelastic items. PERCEIVED VALUE PRICING: In it marketer see the buyers perception of value not the sellers cost as a key to pricing. acquire competitors' price lists. TARGET RETURN PRICING: A price which yields organization target rate of return on investment. and ask buyers how they perceive the price and quality of each competitor's offer. slower moving items. Selecting the Final Price: Pricing methods arrows the pricing range. Analyzing competitors Costs Prices and Offers: Within the range of possible prices determined by the market demand and costs competitors' costs. and alternative approach is to charge different prices in similar territories to see how sales are affected. Target Costing is a Japanese technique. The firm which is making more production can charge low costs because of the expertness of the workers. The pricing method will then lead to a specific price. ii) The influence of Other Marketing Mix Elements on Price: The final price must take into account the brands quality and advertising relative to competition. a) Brands with average quality but high relative advertising budgets were able to charge premium prices.. fixed and variable. Markups vary considerably amend different goods. COST BEHAVIORS: At different product ion Levels: Management should know how cost vary with different levels of production. and purchasing agents to reduce them. it can use them a s an orienting point for its own pricing. In considering the final price following additional factors should be considered. As a Function of Accumulated Production: Change of costs due to different levels of production. or elastic. Systematically carry the prices of several products sold and observed the results. Markups are generally higher on seasonal items ( to cover the risk of not selling). specialty items. MARK UP PRICING: A most elementary pricing method is to add a standard markup to the product's cost. the firm can charge more than the competitor. engineers. The company wants to charge a price that covers its costs of producing. prices and possible price reactions help the firms establishing where to set its prices. for market leaders and for low-cost product. Some wants daily delivery some wants weakly and some wants monthly with the consideration of saving which results the company in different costs. Therefore a company have to make activity-based cost accounting instead of standard cost accounting. If the firm’s offer is similar to a manor competitor's one . Estimating Costs: Demand sets a ceiling of the price while costs sets the floor. and selling the product. The company can send out comparison shoppers to price and assess competitors' offers. items with high storage and handling costs. With research they determine product desired functions. demand would be to a change in price. i) Psychological Pricing: Many consumers use price as an indicator of quality. GOING RATE PRICING: Basing price on competitors price. As a Function of Differentiated Marketing Offers: Different buyers want different terms. Companies also charge when hidden or highly variable costs are involved. They are collectively called as total cost and when they are divided in to units are called average cost. SEALED-BID PRICING: In it the firm basis its price on expectations of how competitors will price their products. including a fair return for its effort and risk. b) Brand with high relative quality and high relative advertising obtained the highest prices. If the firm's offer is superior.

Moreover whether the price will be revived in hard cash or in other items in payment which cause counter trade.g. b) Special-event pricing: Like Eid and Christmas c) Cash Rebates: for a special time period. iii) PROMOTIONAL PRICING: Companies uses several pricing techniques to stimulate early purchase. a) Cash discounts: For early payment. f) Warranties and service contracts: The company can promote sales by adding a free warranty offer or service contract. customer evaluations of different features. COUNTERTRADE FORMS: 1 Barter: Direct exchange of goods. d) Seasonal Discount: For out of season products. 4)two-part pricing. day. iv) DISCRIMINATORY PRICING: When company sells one product at two or more prices that do not reflect a proportional difference in costs. rather than single product. or hour. 3 Buyback Arrangement: The seller sells the plant and technology and agrees to accept partial in cash and partial payment in the products manufactured with that equipment. lower admission fee for children and higher for the senior citizens. In such a case the firm searches for a set of prices that maximize the profits on the total product mix. in any of the following ways. 3) captive-product pricing. V) PRODUCT PRICING MIX: The pricing logic must be modified when the product is a part of productmix.. d) Location Pricing: When same product is priced differently at different locations even though the cost of offering at each location is the same. How will the distributors and deals feel about it? will the company sales force be silting to sell at that price or complain that the price is too high? How will competitors react to Adopting the Price: Companies usually not set a single price but sets a pricing structure reflecting i) GEOGRAPHICAL PRICING: Pricing in different location. b) Optional-feature pricing: Many companies offer optional products or features alongwith their main product. They charge a fixed fee plus a variable usage fee. Thus telephone users pay a minimum monthly fee plus charges for calls beyond a certain limit. The price steps should take into account cost differences between different lines. and competitors’ prices. Pricing these options is sticky problem. ii) PRICE DISCOUNT ALLOWANCE: Most companies reward customers for 1) early payment 2) volume purchased and 3) off season buying. 51 . c) Functional Discount: For performing certain functions such as storing. Management must decide on pricing steps to establish from one line to the next. and 6) product-bundling pricing. b) Product Form Pricing: Different versions of the product are priced differently. c) Captive product pricing: Some products require the use of ancillary or captive product. The techniques are : a) Loss Leader Pricing: Selling at less than cost to increase sales. e. c) Image pricing: Pricing same product at two different levels based on image differences. g) Psychological Discounting: Putting an artificially high price on product and then offering it at substantial savings. e) Time pricing: Prices are varied by season.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) 7 Companies Pricing Policy: The contemplated price must be consistent with company pricing policies. e) Allowances: Are other types of reductions from price such as at the time of launching new product. 2 Compensation Deal: Some percentage is received in cash and remaining in goods. d) Two-part pricing: Service firms often engage in this type of pricing. 2) optional-feature pricing. e. razor and blades camera and camera films etc. a) Product line Pricing: Companies normally develop product lines. because companies must have to decide which item is to include in the sticker price and which to offer as options. We can distinguish six situations involving product-mix pricing: 1) product line pricing. It can take several forms: a) Customer Segment pricing: Different customer groups are charged different prices for the same product. Either to charge high price to distant customers or low price to increase the volume of sales. e) Longer Payment Terms: Sellers stretch their loans over longer periods and thus lower monthly payments. 4 Offset: Seller received full amount in cash but agrees to spend a substantial amount of that in that country. Many companies set up a pricing department to develop pricing policies and establish approve pricing decisions. cities and countries. Manufacturers of main product often price them low and set high markups on the supplies. b) Quantity Discount: Discount allowed for large purchases. 5) byproduct pricing. iv) Impact of Price on Other parties: Management should also consider the reaction of parties to the contemplated price. selling and record keeping. d) Low Interest Financing: Instead of decreasing price the company offer customers low-interest financing.g.

free delivery. Companies often raise prices by more than the cost increase in anticipation of further inflation or government price controls. iv) Reduction of discounts: The company instructs its sales force not to offer its normal cash and quantity discounts. On the other hand an increase in price may seem them that the item is hot and might be unobtainable if it is not bought soon. Initiating Price Increases: Successful price increase can increase profits considerably if the sales volume is unaffected. distributors. Since customers may not have planned to buy all of the components. In over demand situation price can be increased in several ways: i) Adoption of delayed quotation pricing: When company does not fix the price of its product until it is finished or delivered. and suppliers and may provoke government reaction as well. Other ways of Responding High Costs: There are some ways that a company can respond to high costs or demand without raising prices. b) Over Demand: When a company cannot supply all of its customers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan By-product pricing: The production of certain products often results in the development of by-products. ii) Substituting less-expensive materials or ingredients. it can raise its prices. this practice is called anticipatory pricing. or may do both. A company might also have to decide whether to raise the price sharply on a one-time basis or to raise it by small amounts several times. ii) Use of escalator clauses: When company requires the customers to pay today’s price and all or any part of inflation increase that takes place before delivery. CUSTOMERS’ REACTIONS: Customers often question about the motive behind the reduction or increase in price. then they should be priced on their value. The possibilities include the following: I) Shrinking the amount of product instead of raising the price. INITIATING AND RESPONDING TO PRICE CHANGES: After developing price strategies. iii) Reducing or removing product features to reduce cost. v) Using less expensive packaging material or promoting larger package size to keep down packaging cost. competitors. iv) Removing or deducing product service. While passing on price increases to the customers. because customer will turn against the price gougers when the market softens. b) Declining Market Share: When companies found that they are loosing their market share. Any income earned on the byproducts will make it easier for the company to charge a lower price on its main product. Customers are most price sensitive to products that cost a lot and are bought frequently. or ration supplies to customers. vii) Creating new economy brands. Competitors are most likely to react where the number of firms in the industry is small the 52 e) . Reactions to Price Changes: Any price change can effect the customers. If the by-products have value to the customer group. This strategy also involves high risks: i) Low quality trap: Consumers will assume that the quality is below that of the higher priced competitors. Initiating Price Cuts: There are many circumstances which lead a firm to cut its prices: a) Excess Plant capacity: and additional revenues cannot be generated without price reduction. A seller can charge more than competitors and still get the business if the customer can be convinced that the products total lifetime costs are lower. The circumstances provoking price increases are: a) Cost Inflation: Rising costs unmatched by productive gains squeeze profit margins and lead companies to regular round to increase prices. e) Try to Dominate the Market through Lower Cost: and to increase their market share. companies will face situations where they need to cut or raise prices. or long warranties. f) Product-building Pricing: When the sellers bundle their products at a set price with some saving. They may treat it as a decrease in quality or strength of the company. iii) Shallow-pockets trap: High priced competitors may also cuts their price and may have longer staying power because of deeper cash reserves. such as free delivery or installation. ii) Fragile-market-share trap: A low price buys market share but not market loyalty. vi) Reducing the number of models offered. while they hardly notice higher prices on low-cost items that they buy infrequently. if competitors forces it to do so. such as installation. to restore their market they have to decries their price. Customers will shift to another lower-price firm that comes along. COMPETITORS REACTIONS: A firm changing its price had to be worried about competitors’ as well as customers’ reactions. the company needs to avoid the image of a price gouge. the savings on the price bundle must be substantial enough to induce them to buy the bundle. iii) Unbundling of goods and services: The company maintains its price but removes or prices separately one or more elements that were par of the former offer.

services.. Responding to Competitors’ Price Changes: How should a firm respond to a price change initiated by a competitor? In markets characterized by high product homogeneity. • its importance in the company’s product portfolio. 53 . When it believes a) its cost fall with volume. and • the company’s alternative opportunities. Raise perceived quality: The leader could maintain price but strengthen the value of its offer. • the competitor’s intentions and resources. It could stress the relative quality of its product over that of the low-price competitors. When there are several competitors the company must estimate each close competitor’s likely reaction. 2. It could improve its product. believing that: a) It would lose too much profit if it reduced its price b) it would not loose to much market share. When the attacking firms product is comparable to the leaders. the firm has little choice but top meet a competitor’s price cut. 4. The leader at this point has several options: 1. The company under attack has to consider • the product’s stage in the life cycle. Reduce Price: The leader might drop its price to the competitor’s price. This is necessary if the particular market segment being lost is price sensitive. If it cannot find any way it have to meet the price reduction. and c) it would be hard to rebuild market share one it is lost. The problem is complicated because the competitor can put different interpretations on a company price cut and take such action which may surprises the company. • the market price and quality sensitivity. b) it would lose market share because the market is price sensitive. Increase price and improve quality: The leader might raise. Before reacting the firm need to consider the following issues: 1) Why did the competitors change the price? 2) Does the competitor plan to make the price change temporary or permanent? 3) What will happen to the company’s market share and profits if it does not respond? 4) What are the other competitors and other firms’ responses likely to be to each possible reaction? Market leaders often face aggressive price cutting by smaller firms trying to build market share. and the buyers are highly informed. its price and introduce new brands to market the attacking brand. 3. 5. The best response varies with situation. and c) it could regain market share when necessary. its lower price will cut into the leader’s share. • the behavior of costs with volume. and communications. Maintain price: The leader maintain its price and profit margin . The firm should search for ways to enhance its augmented product.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan product is homogeneous. Launch low-price fighter line: One of the best responses is to add lower-price items to the line or to create a separate lower-price brand.

telemarketing. iv) PRODUCT VARIETY: The assortment breadth provided by the marketing channel.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-18 Selecting and Managing Marketing Channels Between the producer and the final user stands the marketing channel. Obviously different channels are set up for household buyers and the resale purpose buyers. One can also talk about backward channels. They must also understand the service output levels desired by the customers the types and levels of services that people want and expect when they purchase a product. 8 Title: The actual transfer of ownership from one organization or person to another. such as retailer. 1 Analyzing Customers’ Desired Service Output Levels: Understanding (what. In consumer markets they are typically a wholesaler and a retailer. CHANNEL-DESIGN DECISIONS: In designing marketing channels. what is feasible. Since the produce and the final customer both perform work. and possession gaps that separate goods and services from those who need or want them. A one-level channel One selling intermediary. 4 Financing: The acquisition and allocation of funds required to finance inventories at different levels of the marketing channel. 54 . 2)establishing channel objectives. Channel normally describe a forward movement of products. ii) WAITING TIME: The average time that customers of that channel wait for receipt of the goods. WHAT ARE THE MARKETING CHANNELS: Marketing channels are the sets of interdependent organizations involved in process of making a product or service available for use. the greater the service output level that the channel must provide. 1 They have lack of financial resources to carry out direct marketing. The market intermediaries make up a marketing channel. when and how target customers buy) is the first step in designing the marketing channel. 2 If direct marketing is not feasible 3 The producers who establish their own channels can often earn a greater return by increasing their investment in their main business (Production of the goods). and what is available. selling and manufacturer-owned stores. iii) SPECIAL CONVENIENCE: The degree to which the marketing channel makes it easy for customers to purchase the product. consist of a manufacturer selling directly to the final customer. where. A three-level channel involving three levels of intermediaries. A two-level channel contains two intermediaries. 6 Physical possession: The successive storage and movement of physical products from raw materials to the final customers. recycling centers. Channels produce five channel out puts: I) LOT SIZE: It is the number of units that the marketing channel permits a typical customer to purchase on a occasion.g. competitors and other actors. Channel Levels: Each intermediary that performs work in bringing the product and its title closer to the final buyer constitutes a channel level. By using the number of intermediary levels we designate the length of a channel. trash collection specialists. place. Several intermediaries play a role in backward channels e. 2 Promotion The development and dissemination of persuasive communications designed to attract customers to the offer. Channel Functions and Flows: A marketing channel performs the work of moving goods from producers to consumers. A zero-level channel (Also called direct marketing). TV. and 3) identifying and evaluating the major channel activities. 5 Risk taking: The assumption of risks connected with carrying out the channel work. The smaller the size. mail order. They are also called trade channel or distribution channel. 3 Negotiation: The attempt to reach final agreement on price and other terms so that transfer of ownership or possession can be effected. Members of the marketing channel perform a number of dye functions: 1 Information: The collection and distribution of marketing research information about potential and current customers. trash-recycling brokers etc. manufactures have to decide what is ideal. It is the recycling of solid wastes. Designing of a channel system calls for: 1)analyzing customer needs. softdrink intermediaries. they are part of every channel. Why Intermediaries Used: Producers gain several advantages you the use of intermediaries. Its major types are door-to door sales. It overcomes the time. why. 7 Payment: Buyers’ payment of their bills to the sellers through banks and other financial institutions.

delivery. A channel alternative is described by three elements i)the types of available intermediaries. b) Manufacturers’ Agency: Higher manufacturers’ agents in different regions or en-use industries to sell the new test equipment. individual intermediaries must be selected. 2 Establishing the Channel Objectives and Constraints: Channels objectives should be stated in terms of targeted service output levels. c) Industrial Distribution: Find distributors in different regions and end-use industries. b) Distributors’ territorial Rights: Distributors want to know where and under what terms the producer will enfranchise other distributors. Under competitive conditions. When the consumer requires a great deal of location convenience. conditions of sale territorial rights. making sure that each channel member is treated respectfully and given the opportunity to be profitable. 4 Evaluating the Major Channel Alternatives: The producer may identify several channel alternatives and have to determine the one best suited to its needs. The first step is to determine whether a company sales force or sales agency will produce more sales. c) Mutual services and responsibilities: must be carefully spelled out. Three strategies are available a) exclusive distribution. not necessarily of the manufacturer’s goods. ii) CONTROL CRITERIA: The produce must take into account control issues. Assign sales representatives to territories to contact all prospects in the areas. iii) ADAPTIVE CRITERIA: To develop a channel. product training and promotional support. adequate margins. credit. channel institutions should arrange their functional tasks so as to minimize total channel costs with respect to desired levels of service outputs. Channel arrangements must also be modified over time. ii) the number of intermediaries needed. the producer needs to seek channel structures and policies that maximize control and ability to change marketing strategy swiftly. In rapidly changing or uncertain product markets. the channel members must make some degree of commitment to each other for a specified period of time. 1 Selecting Channel Members: 55 . and c) intensive distribution. repairs. Give them exclusive distribution. who will buy and audio device. who are willing to carry a particular product. b) Selective Distribution: It involves the use of more than a few but less than all of the intermediaries. or services. Most marketing managers believe that company sales force will sell more and some believes that sales agency could conceivably sell more than a company sales force. CHANNEL-MANAGEMENT DECISIONS: After choosing a channel alternative. a) Price Policy: the producer establish a price list and schedule of discounts that the intermediaries see as equitable and sufficient. installation. ii) NUMBER OF INTERMEDIARIES: Companies have to decide the number of intermediaries to use at each channel level. and specific services to be performed by each party. The agents may concentrate on the customers who buy the most. motivated and evaluated. Used by the old and new companies seeking to obtain distributors. They are of following three types: a) Company Sales Force: Expand the companies direct sales force. i) ECONOMIC CRITERIA: Each channel can produce different level of sales and costs. especially in franchised and exclusive-agency channels. Several market segments desire differing service outputs. The main elements in the trade relations mix are price policies. These commitments invariably lead to a decrease in the producer’s ability to respond to a changing marketplace. the greater the work provided by the channel. provided by the channel. The greater the service backup. or to develop the different sales force for different industries. iii) the terms and responsibilities of each channel participant. b) selective distribution. ii) TERMS AND RESPONSIBILITY OF CHANNEL MEMBERS: The producer must determine the rights and responsibilities of the participating channel members. because it is an independent business firm seeking to maximize its profit.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan v) SERVICE BACKUP: The added services like. 3 Identifying the major channel Alternatives: After defining the target market and desired positioning it should identify its channel alternatives. c) Intensive Distribution: The manufacturer places the goods or services in as many outlets as possible. Effective channel planning requires determining which market segments to serve and the best channels to use in each case. It is used to maintain a great deal of control over the service level and service outputs offered by the revelers. This strategy is generally used for convenience items. Using a sales agency poses a control problem. Each alternative needs to be evaluated against economic. control and adaptive criteria. i)TYPES OF INTERMEDIARIES: The firm needs to identify the types of intermediaries available to carry on its channel work. a) Exclusive Distribution: Severely limiting the number of intermediaries handling the company’s goods.

b) Retailer Cooperatives: Retailer might take the initiative and organize a new business entity to carry on wholesaling and possibly some production. comprises the producer.. The VMS can be dominated by the producer. Contractual VMSs are of three types: a) Wholesaler sponsored voluntary chains: Wholesales organize voluntary chains of independent retailers to help them compete with large chain organizations. There are three types of VMS: I) corporate. v) REFERENT POWER: occurs when the manufacturer is so highly respected that intermediaries are proud to be identified with it. Each is a separate business entity seeking to maximize its own profits. Modification becomes necessary when existing channel is not working as planned. iii) LEGITIMATE POWER: When the manufacturer requires a behavior that is warranted by the contract. this basis of power weakens The manufacturer must continue to develop new expertise so that the intermediaries will want to continue cooperating. Following are some ways to motivate them: I) COERCIVE POWER: When the manufacturer threatens to withdraw a resource or terminate a relationship if intermediaries fail to cooperate. customer delivery time. It produces better results than coercive power but can be overrated. by contrast. conflict. Vertical Marketing Systems: It is a challenge for the conventional marketing channels. and e) reputation. Motivating Channel Members: A manufacturer must have to motivate the intermediaries to do their best fob. average inventory levels. Recently the market channels have grown as 1) vertical. the market expands. ii) REWARD POWER: When the manufacturer offers intermediaries an extra benefit for performing specific acts or functions. if intermediaries would perform poorly without this help. A conventional marketing channel comprises an independent producer. new competitions arises. even if this goal reduces profit for the system as a whole. We will see how these systems cooperate. They will want to evaluate intermediaries on the basis of : a) Number of years in business. The system will require periodic modification to meet new conditions in the marketplace. It is favored by companies that desire a high level of control over their channels. and compete. A vertical marketing system (VMS). Once the expertise is palled on to the intermediaries. innovative distribution channel emerge and the product moves into later stages in the product life cycle. a promise of exclusive or selective distribution will draw a sufficient number of applicants and some producers have to work hard to get qualified intermediaries. The manufacturer feels it has this right and the intermediaries have this obligation. and 3) contractual. Modifying Channel Arrangements: A producer must do more than design a good channel system and set it into motion. c) Franchise Organizations: A channel member called a franchiser might link several successive stages in the production-distribution process. One channel member owns the others or franchises them or has so much power that they all cooperate. and retailer(s). d) cooperativeness. consumer buying patterns change. b) the other lines carried by them. This is an effective form of power. Manufacturers of a dominant brand are able to secure strong trade cooperation and support from revelers. d) solvency of the intermediary. wholesaler(s). and 3)multi-channel marketing systems. Evaluating Channel Members: The producer must periodically evaluate intermediaries’ performance against such standards as sales-quota attainment. whole seller(s) and retailer(s) acting as a unified system. It is a professionally managed and centrally programmed networks. The producer has to determine the required characteristics of better intermediaries. pre-engineered to achieve operating economies and maximum market impact. c) growth and profit records. the wholesaler. treatment of damaged and lost goods. and new channel systems evolve.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 3 4 1 Different producers attract qualified intermediaries differently within the chosen channel. CHANNEL DYNAMICS: Distribution channels do not stand still. iv) EXPERT POWER: Can be applied when the manufacturer has special knowledge that the intermediaries value. Some producers have no trouble in recruiting intermediaries. or the retailer. 56 . iii) CONTRACTUAL VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEM: It is consist of independent firms at different levels of production and distribution integrating their programs on a contractual basis to obtain more economise and sales impact than they could achieve alone. ii) administered. This power is quit effective if the intermediaries are highly dependent upon the manufacturer. 2)horizontal. New wholesaling and relating institutions emerge. and cooperation in promotional and training programs. ii) ADMINISTERED VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEM: Coordinate successive stages of production and distribution not through common ownership but through the size and power of one of the members. i) CORPORATE VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEM: Combining successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership.

and 3) is the more customized selling. 1) increased market coverage.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 3 Horizontal Marketing Systems: In it two or more unrelated companies put together resources or programs to exploit an emerging marketing opportunity. Each company lacks the capital. or it is afraid of the risk. The companies might work with each other on a temporary or permanent basis or create a separate company. production or marketing resources to venture alone. (See Lesson Notes for this chapter at page 24) 57 . By adding more channels companies can gain three important benefits. Multi-channel Marketing System: It occurs when a single firm uses two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments. 2) the channel cost will be lower. know-how.

runs special sales. PRICE DECISION: It is the key positioning factor and must be decided in relation to the target market. and wholesalers usually cover a large trade area than retailers. etc. and it excludes retailers. A retailer or Retail Store is any business enterprise whose sales volume comes primarily from retailing. PROMOTION DECISION Retailers use a vide range of promotion tools to generate traffic and purchases. off-price retailers. Buying and assortment building: Wholesalers are able t select items and build the assortments where customers need. and increasing number are falling under some form of corporate retailing. Transportation: They provide quicker delivery to buyers because they are closer to the buyers than the manufacturer. Market Information: Supply information to the manufacturer and the customers. 2) Self-selection retailing. RETAIL ORGANIZATIONS Although many retail stores are independently owned. New store types emerge to meet widely different consumer preferences for service levels and specific services. 21) product assortment and procurement.service retailing. wholesalers are used when they are more efficient in performing one or more of the following functions: Selling and promoting: They provide a sales force who helps the producer to reach many small business customers at a relatively low cost. Second: Wholesale transactions are usually larger than retail transactions. Third: the government deals with wholesalers and retailers differently in regard to legal regulations and taxes. or downscale shoppers? Do they want variety assortment depth. the product-and-service-assortment mix. 6) promotion and 7) place. Retailer Marketing Decisions: Retailers have to make marketing decisions about 1) target market.ASSORTMENT AND PROCUREMENT DECISION: The product assortment must match the target . department stores. Wholesaling excludes manufacturers and farmers because they are engaged primarily in production.. 3) services and store atmosphere. 3)Limited-service retailing and 4) Full. location and location. and Market logistics RETAILING: Retailing includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for their personal. All retailers would like to charge high markups and achieve high volumes. thereby reducing the inventory costs and risks to suppliers and customers. They may also help their supplier by providing training and technical services. Types of Retailers: Store retailing. training their employees and telling them about layouts and displays. convenience stores. and finance their supplier by ordering early and paying their bills on time. 2) direct marketing. Non-store retailing falls into four major categories: 1) direct selling. nonbusiness use. and 4)buying services. Non store retailing. and catalog showrooms. atmosphere. issue money-saving coupons. thus saving the customers considerable work. discount stores. 5) price. Wholesalers differ from retailers in a number of ways: First: Wholesalers pay less attention to promotion. STORE RETAILING: The most important retail-store types fall into eight categories specialty stores. SERVICE AND STORE ATMOSPHERE DECISION: Retailer must also decide on the services mix to offer customers. PLACE DECISION: There are three keys to the success are location. Retailers in most product categories can position themselves as offering one of four levels of services. midscale. Why are whole-salers used ? Manufacturers could by pass them and sell directly to retailers or final consumer. 58 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . and Retail Organizations. In general . Financing: They finance their customers by granting them credit. They place ads. Each retailer. Management Services and Consultancy They help retailers in improving their operations.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Chapter . must use promotion tools that support and reinforce its image positioning.19 Managing Retailing. It is a key tool for differentiating one store from another. Retail organizations achieve many economies of scale. and location because they are dealing with business customers rather than final consumers. but usually the two do not go together. NONSTORE RETAILING: It is growing much faster than store rtailing. and obsolescence. damage.arlet’s shopping expectations. spoilage. Warehousing: He hold inventories. supermarkets. WHOLESALING: Wholesaling includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services to those who buy for resale or business use. 3) automatic vending. Risk Bearing: Wholesaler absorb some risk by taking title and bearing the cost of theft. Wholesaling. Bulk Breaking: He achieve savings for their customers through buying in large carload lots and breaking the bulk into smaller units. and competition. super stores. TARGET MARKET DECISION: Should the store focus on upscale. 1) Selfservice retailing. or convenience? PRODUCT .

” Unfortunately. and the condition of the goods when they arrive. on-time delivery performance. The number of stocking locations must strike a balance between customer service levels and distribution cost. this objective provides little practical guidance. Market-Logistics Decisions: There are four major decisions that must be made with regard to market logistics 1) Ordering Process. The longer the cycle takes. ORDERING PROCESS: Market logistics begins with a customer order. all of which will affect customer satisfaction 59 . It is necessary to shorten the order-toremittance cycle. and controlling the physical flows of materials and final goods from points of origin to points of use to meet customer requirements at a profit. Market Logistics: involves planning. Physical distribution starts at the factory. A storage facility is necessary because production and consumption cycle rarely mach. the lower the customer’s satisfaction and the lower the company’s profits. WAREHOUSING: Every company has to store its finished goods until they are sold. Objectives of Market Logistics: Some companies state their market-logistics objectives as “getting the right goods to right places at the right time for the least cost. implementing. The company has to decide the number of stocking locations. The storage function helps to smooth discrepancies between desired quantities and timing to the market. 3) Inventory. 4) Transportation. 2) Warehousing. Managers try to choose a set of whorehouses and transportation carriers that will deliver produced goods to final destinations in the desired time and at the lowest total cost. INVENTORY: It is a major market logistics which effect the customers satisfaction.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 MARKET LOGISTICS: The process of getting goods to customers has traditionally been called physical distribution. TRANSPORTATION: Transportation choices will affect product pricing.

The communicator will promote the product’s quality. This amounts to formulating some kind of benefit. ideas and impressions that a person holds regarding an object. The audience could be individuals. some members of the target audience might have conviction but not quit get around to making the purchase. current users. Identifying the Target Audience: A marketing communicator must start with a clear target audience in mind. copy. 3) design the message. This task can be accomplished with simple messages repeating the product’s name. Presenters have to pay attention to 60 1 2 3 a) b) c) . The communicator must lead these consumers to take the final step. Conclusion drawing might cause negative reactions in the following situation: • If the communicator is untrustworthy. such as a cleaner environment. hold interest. where and to whom to say.. In this case the communicator must try to build consumer preference. MESSAGE FORMAT: The communicator must develop a strong format for the message. i) Rational Appeals: to the audience’s self interest.20 Designing and managing integrated marketing communications DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: There are eight steps in developing an effective total communication and promotion program. d) Preference: The target audience might like the product but not prefer it to others. Ideally. performance. 4) select the communication channels. emotional. equal right for women. or reason why the audience should think about or investigate the product. high satisfaction. iii) Moral Appeals: are directed to the audience’s sense of what is right and proper. that the product is their best choice. Formulating the message will require solving four problems: 1) what to say (message contents). knowledge. Designing the Message: Having defined the desired audience response. management search for an appeal. and who should say it (message source MESSAGE CONTENTS. ii) Emotional Appeals: Attempt to stir up negative or positive emotions that will motivate purchase. and favorable word-of-mouth. Some early experiments supported stating conclusions for the audience rather than allowing the audience to reach its own conclusions. and other features. • If the issue is simple or the audience is intelligent. The communicator can check on the compaign’s success by measuring audience preferences again after the compeign. 2) how to say it logically (message structure). In determining the best message content.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER . If the message is to be carried on television or in person. c) Linking: If the target members know the product. If the message is to be carried of the radio. IMAGE ANALYSIS: Image is the set of beliefs. the communicator has to choose words. the marketer may want its target audience to know about the organization and the product. voice qualities etc. MESSAGE STRUCTURE: The effectiveness of the message depends upon its structure as well as its contents. a) Awareness: When most of the audience is aware of the object. preference. 2) determine the communication objectives. particular publics or the general public. • if the issue is highly personal. They are often used to exhort people to support social causes. idea. There are three types of appeals rational. how they feel about it? If they look favorably it is necessary to find out why and then develop a communication compaign to shore up favorable feelings. value. then all of the above elements plus body language have to be planned. and color. and moral. the communicator move to developing an effective message. the communicator’s task is to build awareness. b) Knowledge: When the target audience might have product’s awareness but not much more. The communicator’s job is to build conviction among interested customers. when to say. better race relations. f) Purchase: Finally. how to say it. which may be potential buyers of the product. the message should gain attention. 5) establish the total promotion’s results. groups. Here we will discuss the marketers behavior in six buyer-readiness states  awareness. theme. or influencers. identification. They show that the product will produce the claimed benefits. conviction and purchase. e) Conviction: A target audience might prefer a particular product but not develop a conviction about buying it. Determining the Communication Objectives: The marketing communicator must decide on the desired audience response. The target audience will critically influence the communicator’s decisions on what to say. People’s attitude and actions toward an object are highly conditioned by that object’s image. If the message is written the communicator has to decide on the headline. c) how to say it symbolically (message format). The marketing communicator must 1) identify the target audience. which may be a purchase. They may weight for information or plan to act later. arouse desire and elicit action. and aid to the disadvantaged. motivation. and 8) manage and coordinate the integrated marketing communication process.. liking. or unique selling proposition.

• Communication: Gain attention and usually provide information that may lead the consumer to the product. electronic media and display media. determining the tasks that must be performed to achieve these objectives.” 61 . Most non personal messages come through paid media. iii) PUBLIC RELATIONS AND PUBLICITY: The appeal of public relations and publicity is based on their three distinctive qualities: • High credibility: News stories and features are more authentic and credible to readers than ads. ii)sales promotion. broadcast media. not a dialogue with the audience. dress. they all offer three distinctive benefits. If the message is carried by the product or its packaging. and heir style. b) PERCENTAGE-OF-SALES METHOD: any companies set their promotion expenditures at a specified percentage of sales or of the sales price. 1) personal and non personal Win each are found many sub channels: I) PERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS: It involves two or more persons communicating directly with each other. scent. c) Amplified expressiveness: Advertising provides opportunities for dramatizing the company and its product throughout the artful use of print. iv) PERSONAL SELLING: is the most cost-effective tool at later stages of the buying process. and events. It have three distinctive benefits: • Personal confrontation: It involve an interactive relationship between two or more persons. inducement. • Incentive: They incorporate some concession. 6 Deciding on the Promotion Mix: Companies face the task of distributing the total promotion budget over the five promotional tools  i)advertising. ranging from a matter-of-fact selling relationship to a deep personal friendship. Communication channels are of two broad types. Each party is able to observe the others’ needs and characteristics at close hand and make immediate adjustments. b)percentage-of-sales method. and v) direct marketing. • Invitation: They include a distinct invitation to engage in the transaction now. c)competitive-parity method. 5 Establishing the total Promotional Budget: A most difficult marketing decision. It also allows the buyer to receive and compare the message of various competitors. ii) SALES PROMOTION: Although the sales-promotion tools are highly diverse. even if the response is a polite “thank you. d) 4 MESSAGE SOURS: Message delivered by attractive or popular sources achieve higher attention and recall. public relations has the potential for dramatizing a company or product. and action. size and shape. • Ability to catch buyers off guard: Public relations can reach many prospects who prefer to avoid sales people and advertisements. person to audience. which makes long-range market communication planning difficult. or contribution that gives value to the consumer. The buyer has a greater need to attend and respond. d) Impersonality: Cannot be a compelling as a company sales representative. • Cultivation: Personal selling permits all kinds of relationship to spring up. Personal communication channels derive their effectiveness through the opportunities for individualizing the presentation and feedback.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan their facial expression. Media: Consist of print media. It leads to an uncertain annual promotion budget. atmospheres. or respond. Industries and companies vary considerably in how much they spend on promotion. a) AFFORDABLE METHOD: Setting promotion budget at what company think that it can afford. particularly in building up the customers preference. texture. gestures. and estimating the costs of performing these tasks. II) NONPERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS: They carry messages without personal contact or interaction. over the telephone or through the mails. c) COMPETITIVE-PARITY METHOD: Some companies set their promotion budget to achieve share-of voice parity with their competitors. and d)objective-and-task method. They might communicate face to face. The message gets to the buyers as news rather than as a sales-directed communication. Selecting the Communication Channel: The communicator must select efficient channels of communication to carry the message. d) OBJECTIVE-AND-TASK METHOD: In it the marketers develop their promotion budgets by defining their specific objectives. The sum of these costs is the proposed promotion budget. • Response: It makes the buyer feel under some obligation for having listened to the sales talk. • Dramatization: Like advertising. This method of setting budgets completely ignores the role of promotion as an investment and the immediate impact of promotion on sales volume. In many cases many different channels must be used. I) ADVERTISING: Qualities of advertising are a) Public presentation: A highly public mode of communication. conviction. The audience does not feel obligated to pay attention. iv) sales force. Advertising is able to carry on only a monologue in front of. They include media. and color. the communicator has to pay attention to color. b) Persuasiveness: It is a pervasive medium that permits the seller to repeat a message many times. sound. posture. iii)public relations and publicity. Their are four common methods used to set a promotion budget a) the affordable method.

and public relations in that order. Ad and publicity play the most important roles in the awareness stage. and so on they all share four distinctive characteristics Direct marketing is: • Nonpublic: The message is normally addressed to a specific person. • Interactive The message can be altered depending on the person’s response. advertising personal selling.. sales promotion continues strong. Consumergoods companies spend on sales promotion.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan v) DIRECT MARKETING: Although their are many forms of direct marketing direct mail.. much more important than the roles played by “cold calls” from sales representatives or by sales promotion. followed by personal selling to gain distribution coverage and sales promotion to induce trail. 2 PUSH VERSUS PULL STRATEGY: A push strategy involves manufacturers making activities (primarily sales force and trade promotion) directed at channel intermediaries. 4 PRODUCT-LIFE-CYCLE STAGE: Promotional tools also vary in their cost effectiveness at different stages of the product life cycle. how they felt about the message. The goal is to induce the intermediaries to order and carry the product and promote it to en users. Factors in setting the promotion Mix: Companies must consider several factors in developing their promotion mix. the communicator must measure its impact on the target audience. Business-goods companies spend on personal selling. expensive. how ready consumers are to make a purchase. whether to use a push or pull strategy. all the tools can be toned down because demand has its own momentum through word-ofmouth. The purpose is to induce them to ask intermediaries for the product and thus induce the intermediaries to order the product from the manufacturer. This involve asking the target audience whether they recognize or recall the message. the product’s stage in the product life cycle and the companies market rank. sales promotion. 62 . adverting and publicity are reduced and sales people give the product only minimal attention. Managing and Coordinating Integrated Marketing Communications: Many companies still rely primarily on one or two communication tools to achieve their communication aims This practice persists in spite of the disintegration of mass markets into a multitude of mini-markets. advertising and publicity have the highest cost effectiveness. In general personal selling is more heavily used with complex. 1 TYPE OF PRODUCT KARATE: Promotional tools vary between consumer and business markets. advertising and public relations in that order. 5 COMPANY MARKET RANK: Top ranking brands drive more benefits from advertising than sales promotions. electronic marketing. adv. and their previous and current attitudes toward the product and company. 3 BUYER-READINESS STAGE: Promotional tools vary in their cost effectiveness at different stages of buyer readiness. • Customized: The message can be customized to appeal to the addressed individual. and risky goods and in markets with fewer and larger sellers. • Up-to-date: A message can be prepared very quickly for delivery to an individual. • In decline stage. the type of product market in which they are selling. the proliferation of new types of media. sales promotion. A pull Strategy: involves marketing activities (primarily advertising and consumer promotion) directed at end users. and personal selling all grow more important in that order. how many times they says it. • In the growth stage. Different strategies are: • In the introduction stage. telemarketing. and the growing sophistication of consumers. • In the maturity stage. Measuring the Promotion’s Results: After implementing the promotional plan. each requiring its own communication approach. what points they recall.

the marketer might want to change the message without changing the product. cigarettes. 63 1 2 3 a) . MARKET SHARE AND CONSUMER BIAS: High-market-share brands usually requires less advertising expenditure as a percentage of sales to maintain their share. MESSAGE GENERATION: In principle the product’s message major benefits that the brand offers should the be decided as part of developing the product concept. A related form of advertising is reinforcement advertising which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice. soft drinks) require heavy advertising to establish a differential image. 4. Established brands usually are supported with lower advertising budgets as a ration to sales. The market positioning and marketing mix strategies define the job that advertising must do in the total marketing program.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER . Most advertising falls into this category. and d) message social responsibility review. goods. In small companies. a brand must advertise more heavily to be heard above the noise in the market. whose manager reports to the vice president of marketing. Advertising is also important when a brand can offer unique physical benefits or features.21 Managing Advertising. It may be defined as follows: → ADVERTISING is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideal. 3. is handled by someone in the sales or marketing department.g. and Public Relations DEVELOPING AND MANAGING AN ADVERTISING PROGRAM: It is the most common tool used by the organizations to direct persuasive communications to target buyers and publics. Even simple clutter from advertisements not directly competitive to the brand creates a need for heavier advertising. Advertising objectives can be classified according to whether their aim is to inform persuade. Advertising go through four steps to develop a creative strategy: a) message generation. market positioning and marketing mix are to be made. a company should make sure that it can prove its claim of superiority and that it cannot be counterattacked in an area where the other brand is stronger. The role of advertising is to increase the demand of the product. b) message evaluation and selection. b) PERSUASIVE ADVERTISING: It is important in the competitive stage. adv. 5. COMPETITION AND CLUTTER: In a market with a large number of competitors and high advertising spending. In using comparative advertising. Deciding on the Advertising Budget: After setting objectives the company can proceed to establish its advertising budget for each product. a) INFORMATIVE ADVERTISING: Carried out heavily in the pioneering stage of a product category. ADVERTISING FREQUENCY: The number of repetitions needed to put across the brand’s message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget. Setting the Objectives: Prior to setting objectives decisions on the target market. c) REMINDER ADVERTISING: is highly important with mature products. or remind. Sales Promotion. especially if consumers are seeking new or different benefits format the product. Then they can proceed to make the five major decisions in developing an advertising program. In developing and advertising program. The company wants to spend the amount required to achieve the sales goal. But how does a company know it is spending the right amount? There are five specific factors to consider when setting the advertising budget: 1. Organizations handle their advertising in different ways. Comparative advertising works best when it elicits cognitive and affective motivations simultaneously. Choosing the Advertising Message: Advertising compaigns differ in their creativity which is more important than the number of dollars spent Only after gaining attention can a commercial help to increase the brand’s sales. marketing managers must always start by identifying the target market and buyer motives. STAGE IN THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE: New product typically receive large advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumer trial. They builds share by increasing market size requires larger advertising expenditures. who works with and advertising agency. or services by an identified sponsor. A large company will often set up its own advertising department. c) message execution. 2. where a company’s objective is to build selective demand for a particular brand. Over time. PRODUCT SUBSTITUTABILITY: Brands in accommodate class (e. where the objective is to build primary demand. Choice of objectives should be based on a thorough analysis of the current marketing situation. know as the five Ms: • Mission: What are the advertising objectives? • Money: How much can be spent? • Message: What message should be sent? • Media: What media should be used? • Measurement: How should the results be evaluated? These decisions are further described in the following sections.

e. The message should be rated on desirability. Creative people must also find a style. The message must also say something exclusive or distinctive that does not apply to every brand in the product category. and illustration will make a difference in an ad’s impact as well as its cost. social or ego satisfaction. love or serenity. frequency. The following themes listed on the left would have had much less impact without the creative phrasing on the right. All of these elements must deliver a cohesive image and message. Style : A message can be presented in any of the following different styles. A good ad normally focuses on one core selling proposition. and competitors. Most marketers work hard to communicate openly and honestly with consumers. • Scientific Evidence: Presents survey or scientific evidence that the brand is preferred over or outperforms other brands. clean) or real (Marlboro man). In contrast. d) SOCIAL-RESPONSIBILITY REVIEW: Advertisers and their agencies must make sure that their “creative” advertising doesn’t overstep social and legal norms. • Life style: Emphasize how a product fits in with a lifestyle. Theme Creative Copy 7-up is not a cola “The Un-Cola” Let us drive you in our bus instead of driving your car. • Slice of Life: Shows one or more persons using the product in a normal setting. Words: Memorable and attention-getting works must be found. Some companies uses positive tone and almost always avoid humors so as not to take attention away from the message.” We don’t rent as many cars. “Take the bus an leave the driving to us. • Musical: Uses background music or shows one or more persons or cartoon characters singing a song involving the product. and impact. dealers. He might visualize (experience) these rewards after intended use. Media planner make their choice among these media categories by considering several variables. Buyers are expecting one of the four types of rewards form a product i. such as beauty.” more for our customers. color. so we have to do “We try harder. words. 4 Deciding on the Media: The next task is to choose advertising media to carry it. Other companies use emotions to set the tone. in the adds for staples office-supply. Crossing these four types of rewards with three types of experiences generates 12 types of advertising messages. sensory. Finally. • Fantasy: Creates a fantasy around the product or its use. CHOOSING AMONG MAJOR MEDIA TYPES: The media planner has to know the capacity of the major media types to deliver reach. abuses may occur. Still. radio and television are the most effective media for reaching teenagers. experience. likable. The advertisers can generate a theme for each of the 12 cells as possible messages for the product. The selection of media depends upon desired reach. rational. and deciding on geographical media allocation. focus on a hurorous situation rather than on the products themselves. choosing among major media types. Tone: The Communicator must also choose an appropriate tone for the ad. and format of executing message. Larger-size ads gain more attention. frequency and impact.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Creative people use several methods to generate possible advertising appeals. 64 . Some creative people user deductive framework for generating advertising message. Exposures mean the seeking a certain response from the target audience. FREQUENCY. experts. • Mood or image: Evokes a mood or image around the product. or expert source endorsing the product. Some proceed inductively by talking to the consumers. “Let your fingers do the walking. the most important of which are the following: • Target-audience media habits: for example. b) MESSAGE EVALUATION AND SELECTION: The advertisers needs to evaluate the alternative messages. and pride in making the product. No claim is made about the product except through suggestion. • Personality symbol: Creates a character that personifies the product. Some ads aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. tone. though not necessarily by as much as their difference in cost. and public policy makers have developed a substantial body of laws and regulations to govern advertising. exclusiveness.” Shop by turning the pages of the telephone directory. equally mundane products. super stores. or combinations of them. Format: The elements such as ad six. The message must first say something desirable or interesting about the product. the message must be believable or provable. c) MESSAGE EXECUTION: The message’s impact depends not only upon what is said but also on how it is said. selecting specific media vehicles. AND IMPACT: Media selection involves finding the most cost-effective media top deliver the desired number of exposures to the target audience. The character might be animated (Mr. deciding on media timing. and believability. DECIDING ON REACH. • Technical expertise: Shows the company’s expertise. A minor rearrangement of mechanical elements within the ad can improve its attention-getting power. while intended use or in incidental use. • Testimonial evidence: This features a highly credible.

it can be done before an ad is put into media and after it is printed or broadcast. SALES-EFFECT RESEARCH: Communication-effect advertising research helps advertisers assess advertising’s communication effects but reveals little about its sales impact. SALES PROMOTION: It is a key ingredient in marketing compaigns. features. mostly short term. These tests measure an ad’s attention-getting power but re reveal nothing about its impact on beliefs.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan • 5 1 2 3 Product: Women’s dresses are best shown in color magazines. cognitive. 2. i. the easier it is to measure advertising’s effect on sales. heavy amount during the famous programs and lesser amount at other times. For example. The company makes “national buys” when it places ads on national TV networks or in nationally circulated magazines. These ratings are used to evaluate an ad’s attention. Sales Promotion consist of a diverse collection of incentive tools. What counts is the cost-per-thousand exposures rather than the total cost. There are three major methods of advertising pretesting. and Polaroid cameras are best demonstrated on television. The direct rating method asks consumer to rate alternative ads. Advertising versus sales promotions: In a recent study a market-research firm studying the effects of advertising found that 70% of the ad compaigns boosted sales immediately. Most advertisers try to measure the communication effect of an ad that is. Yet both can be searched. and media cost. 3. DECIDING ON GEOGRAPHICAL MEDIA ALLOCATION: A company has to decide how to allocate its advertising budget over space as well as over time. Sales are influenced by many factors besides advertising. and behavior strengths. Impact of Ad on Brand Switching: Advertising appears effective in increasing the volume purchased by loyal buyers but less effective in winning new buyers. attitudes. Only 46% of the compaigns appeared to result in a long-term sales boost. yet the amount of fundamental research on ad effectiveness is appallingly small. Also called copy testing. read through. Audience size has several possible measures. and especially price have a stronger impact on response that dose advertising. The effect of surroundings: Ads may be more effective when their message is congruent with their surroundings. Portfolio test: ask consumers to view and listen to a portfolio of advertisements. DECIDING ON MEDIA TIMING: In deciding the types of media to use the advertiser faces macro scheduling problem and a micro scheduling problem. Advertising’s sales effect is generally harder to measure that its communication effect. or intentions. A message containing a great deal of technical data might require specialized magazines or mailings. such as the product’s features. consumers are then asked to recall all the ads and their content. designed to stimulate quicker and greater purchase of particular products/services by consumers or the trade. The media planner relies on media-measurement services that provide estimates of audience size. or preference. The effect of positive versus negative messages: Consumers may sometimes respond more to negative messages than to positive messages. displays. SELECTING SPECIFIC MEDIA VEHICLES: The media planner must next search for the most cost-effective media vehicles within each chosen media type. aided or unaided by the interviewer. affective. Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness: Good planning and control of advertising depends critically on measures of advertising effectiveness. Advertising Effectiveness: A summary of Current Research: Although companies need to do more research into ad effectiveness. The fewer or more controllable these others factors are. but that the effect was strong only in 30% of the cases. professional researchers have drawn some general conclusions that are useful to marketers. What sales are generated by an ad that increases brand awareness by 20% and brand preference by 10%. Macro scheduling Problem: It calls for deciding how to schedule the advertising in relation to seasonal and business-cycle trends. • Cost: Television is very expensive. Their recall level indicates and ad’s ability to stand out and to have its message understood and remembered. taking as much time as they need. Micro scheduling Problem: It calls for allocating advertising expenditures within a short period to obtain the maximum impact. the advertiser who decides to buy 30 seconds of advertising on network television can pay different amounts in relation to program timings. 4. COMMUNICATION-EFFECT RESEARCH: seeks to determine whether an ad is communicating effectively. knowledge. availability and competitors’ actions. while newspaper advertising is relatively inexpensive. They would also like to measure the Ad’s sales effect but often feel it is too difficult to measure. Advertising appears to be unlikely to have some cumulative effect that leads to loyalty. 65 .e. composition. 1. price. its potential effect on awareness. Laboratory Tests: use equipment to measure consumers’ physiological reactions to an ad. rather. • Message A message announcing a major sale tomorrow will require radio or newspaper.

The specific objectives set for sales promotion vary with the target market. trips. • offsetting competitive promotions. • encouraging purchase of larger-size units. then what they need to spend in consumer promotion Whatever is left they will budget for advertising.) Purpose of Sales Promotion: Sales promotion tools vary in their specific objectives a free sample stimulates consumer trial. vi) Prizes: offers of the chance to win cash.g. free trials. and each tool’s cost effectiveness. contests for sales reps. Major Decisions in Sales Promotion: In using sales promotion. select the tools. cross promotions. sales promotion objectives. or merchandise as a result of purchasing something. Loyal brand buyers tend not to change their buying patterns as a result of competitive promotion. while a free management-advisory service aims at cementing a long-term relationship with a retailer. For the sales force objectives include: • encouraging support of a new product or model • encouraging more prospecting. 66 . • building brand loyalty. Trade Promotion Tools: Persuading the retailer or wholesaler to carry the brand. competitive conditions. tie-in promotions. The promotion planner should take into account the type of market. samples. advertising and display allowances. • building trail among nonusers. coupons. patronage rewards. more than the normal amount. long-term buyers in mature markets because they attract mainly del-prone consumers who switch among brands as deal become available. vii) Patronage Aware: Values in cash or other form that are proportional to one’s patronage of a certain vendor or group of vendors. Its major tools are: I) Price off: A straight discount off the list price on each call purchased during a stated time period. For consumer. a company must establish its objectives. Consumer-Promotion Tools: The main consumer promotion tools are I) samples. Sales promotion includes tools for consumer promotion (e. For retailers objectives include • persuading retailers to carry new items and higher levels of inventory.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Advertising offers a reason to buy while sales promotion offers an incentive to buy. 1 ESTABLISHING THE SALES-PROMOTION OBJECTIVES: Sales promotion objectives are derived from broader promotion objectives. viii) Free Trails: Invite prospective purchasers to try the product without cost in the hope that they will buy the product ix) Product Warranties: Explicit or implicit promises by sellers that the product will prefer as specified or that the seller will fix it or refund the customer’s money during a specified period. and specialty advertising. Sales promotions do not tend to yield new. point-of-purchase displays and demonstrations etc. ii) Allowance: An amount offered in return for the retailer’s agreeing to feature the manufacturer’s products in some way. objects includes. many marketing managers firs estimate what they need to spend in trade promotion. xii) Point-of-Purchase Displays and Demonstrations. implement and control it and evaluate the results. iv) Price packs: Offering by jointing many units in one place at discounted price v) Premium: (Gift) Providing goods at reasonably low price as an incentive to purchase a particular product. There is a danger Sales promotions yield faster and more measurable responses in sales than advertising does. cash refund offers prices off. x) Tie-in Promotions: Two or more companies that team up or coupons. prizes.) trade promotion (prices off. and stimulating off-season sales. iii) Cash refund (by the manufacturer to consumer who proves that he has purchased the product). • encouraging off-season buying . and • gaining entry into new retail outlets. advertising appears to be capable of deepening brand loyalty. • encouraging stocking of related items. xi) Cross promotion: Involve using one hand to advertise another noncompeting brand. develop the program protest the program. and free goods) and business and sales force promotion (trade shows and conventions. refunds and contests to increase their pulling power. Today. ii) coupons(certificates to provide buyer some gift who fill and mail the coupon). which are derived from more basic marketing objectives developed for the product. warranties. • attracting Switchers away from competitors’ brands. 2 SELECTING THE SALES-PROMOTION TOOLS: Many sales-promotion tools are available.

Public relations departments perform the following five activities. Business and Sales Force Promotion Tools: These tools are used to gather business leads impress and reward customers and motivate the sales force to greater effort. Its major tools are I) Trade Shows and Conventions: Organize annual trade shows. 2. aimed at including them to increase their sales results over a stated period. Public Relations (PR) involves a variety of programs designed to promote and or protect a company’s image or its individual products. Press relations: Presenting news and information about organization in the most positive light. 67 . 1.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) Free goods: Offers of extra causes of merchandise to intermediaries who buy a certain quantity or who feature a certain flavor or size. Lobbying: Dealing with legislators and government officials to promote or defeat legislation and regulation. not all of which support marketing objectives. 4. ii) Sales Contests: a contest involving the sales force or dealer. Corporate Communication: Promoting understanding of the organization with internal and external communications. 3 PRESENTING THE SALES-PROMOTION PROGRAM: Al 4 IMPLEMENTING AND CONTROLLING THE SALES PROMOTION PROGRAM: 5 EVALUATING THE RESULTS: PUBLIC RELATIONS: A public is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on a company’s ability to achieve its objectives. 5. Sales people give these items to prospects. This includes advising in the event of a product mishap when the public confidence in a product is shaken. Product publicity: Sponsoring various efforts to publicize specific products. Counseling: Advising management about public issues and company positions and image. 3. iii) Specialty Advertising: consist of useful low-cost items bearing the combines name and address and sometimes advertising message.