Notes on Marketing Management Notes Prepared By Name of Book Written By Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Marketing Management Philip Kotler

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

CHAPTER-1 Assessing Marketing’s Critical Roll in Organizational Performance
GLOBAL ECONOMY: Rapid changes can easily render yesterday’s winning businesses obsolete. After the end of cold war countries and companies are wrestling with increased global competition. A good news is that by global market we means a much larger market for goods and services and the bad news is that now these companies have to face a greater competition for a great number of competitors. Income Gap: A large part of world have grown poorer in the last few decades. Although the wages has risen but the purchasing power has declined especially for the less skilled work force. The gap between rich and poor nations is growing. Poor nations pressure the richer nations to open their markets but richer nations maintain tariffs and quotas to protect their local industry and employment. There are two solutions to this problem; 1 Counter Trade: {poorer nations should pay in goods for other goods and services. 2 Providing More for Less: The poorer nations should sell their goods for less than of the richer nations. Environmental Restrictions: Since 1970’s environmental lows are being implemented which requires to install pollution control equipment. All these laws raised cost of manufacturing for the companies of richer countries. Technical Points: Companies must avoid jumping in too soon (before the market is ready) or too late (after the market has been concurred. WHAT IS MARKETING? THE CORE CONCEPTS: Marketing has been defined in various ways. One scholar has defined it as: - “Creation and Delivery of standard of living.” The definition which serves out purpose is as follows: “A social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering or exchanging products of value with others.” This definition have following important points: A social and managerial process. 2. Individuals and groups 3. Needs and Wants, 4. Creating, offering and exchanging, 5. Products 6. Having value Let us consider them one by one. 1&2 A Social and Managerial Process: Marketing is not an individuals own working but the actions of individuals or groups with other individuals or groups. 3 Needs, Wants and Demands: Needs: Needs of every many are specific and few. They are Food, air, clothing, shelter and survival. Beyond this people have a strong desire for recreation. Need is a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction. They are not created by society they exist in the very texture of human biology. Wants: Wants are the desires for specific satisfiers of needs. Need is food but a desire to eat a chicken or burger are wants. Needs are few but wants are many which are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions like school, families, business, competitors. Demands: Wants for specific products that are backed by 1) ability to buy and 2) willingness to buy them. 4 Creating Offering and Exchanging: People can obtain products in 4 ways 1) Self Production. 2) By coercion, (3) By begging and 4) by exchanging. Marketing emerges when people decided to satisfy their needs and wants through exchange. What is Exchange: It is the act of obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in return. It have 5 conditions 1) At least two parties. 2 Each one have something of value. 3 Each one have a capability of communication and delivery 4 Each one is free to accept or reject the exchange offer. 5 Each one believes in the appropriateness of the exchange. 5 Product (Goods, Services, and Ideas) A product is any thing that can be offered to satisfy a need or want. A product can consist of as many as three components: 1- Goods, 2- Ideas, and 3- Services. 6 1

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

Value Cost and Satisfaction: A consumer chooses among many products to satisfy a need on the basis of value and cost of the article. Value: It is the consumer’s estimate about the overall capacity of the product to satisfy his need, and Cost includes the value he have to pay for the product and includes the opportunity cost (The cost of leaving the other products which he have not purchased.) 7 Markets: Market consists of all potential customers having a particular need or want (who are willing and able to engage in exchange) to satisfy that need or want. Thus market depends upon, 1) the no of persons who have need or want, 2) Have resources of other’s interest, and 3) willing and able to offer these resources in exchange for that they want. Traditionally a market is a place where buyer and sellers are gathered to exchange their goods. MARKETING MANAGEMENT Marketing management takes place when at least one part to a potential exchange thinks about the means of achieving desired responses from other parties. So, “Marketing Management is a process of planning and executing, (conception, pricing, promotion and distribution) ideas, goods and services to create exchange that satisfies individuals and organizational goals. Types of Demands: 1 Negative Demand When people are even ready to pay to avoid such product. i.e. major part of the market dislikes the product. 2 No Demand When customer are unaware of or uninterested in product. 3 Latent Demand A demand which cannot be satisfied by any existing product. 4 Declining Demand: When demand of product starts decline day-by-day. 5 Irregular Demand: Demand for such products which varies seasonally, daily or even on hourly basis and causing problems of idle or overworked capacity. 6 Full Demand: Organizations faces full demand when they produces up to their full capacity. The marketing function is to maintain the current level of demand by continuously improving its quality and by measuring customer’s satisfaction. 7 Overfull Demand When demand goes more than their capacity and want to handle. Marketing management work in such situation is to decrease demand temporarily or permanently. 8 Unwholesome Demand: An organized effort to discourage their utilization. Like unselling compains conducted against cigarettes, alcohol etc. The marketing task is to get people who like something to give it up using such tools as fear messages, price hikes, reduced availability. COMPANY ORIENTATIONS TOWARD THE MARKET PLACE THE SELLING CONCEPTS Companies while making marketing, make certain assumptions on the basis of ideas they have some of these ideas are as follows: 1 Production Concept: Consumers favor those products which are widely available at low cost. Production oriented managers concentrate on high production with wide distribution. 2 Product Concept: Consumer favor those products that offer most quality, performance on innovative features. Product oriented managers focuses on marketing the superior products and improving them over time. 3 Selling Concept/Sales Concept: If customer is left alone, will ordinarily not buy enough of the organization’s products. The organization must, therefore, undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort. THE MARKETING CONCEPTS: The marketing concept is to achieve organizational goals by being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities to wards determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets. Pillars Of Marketing Target Market: Determine a part of total market to be served. 2) Customer Needs: Customers needs are of five types Stated needs: (The customer wants an expensive care) · Real need: (Customer wants a car having low operation cast and not effected by its initial price) Unstated need, (The customer expects good service from the dealer) Delighted Needs, (Customer buys the care and receives a complimentary US. road atlas) · Secret Need. (Wants to be seen by friends as a value-oriented savvy consumer) Coordinated or Integrated Marketing. When all the company’s departments work together to serve the customer’s interests, the result is integrated marketing. It takes place on two levels: Various marketing functions____sales force, advertising, product management, marketing research, and so on____must work together. All these marketing functions must be coordinated from customer’s point of view. · Social marketing must be well coordinated with other company departments. 2

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

Profitability or organization. The ultimate purpose of the marketing is to help organizations to achieve their goals. In for profit organizations the key aim is not only profits but to achieve profit as a by-product of doing the job well. Points That forces organizations More towards the Marketing Concepts: 1 Sales Decline Look for the answer for decline in sales and movers to increase this sales by marketing. 2 Slow Growth: When sales growth rate is low and organization makes organized marketing movement to catch new markets. 3 Changing Buying Patterns: When customer wants changes rapidly. 4 Increased Competition... When companies are suddenly attacked by powerful marketing companies and forced to meet the change. 5 Increased Marketing expenditures: When expenditures of companies for advertising, sales promotion, marketing research, and customer, service getting out of hand. Management then decides it is time to undertake a marketing audit to improve its marketing. 5 Social Concept: In the social concept managers determine needs wants and interests of target markets and to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that preserves or enhances the consumer’s and the society’s well-being. THE RAPID ADOPTION OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Marketing management today is the subject of growing interest in all types of organizations, within and outside the business sector and in countries throughout the world.

CHAPTER-2 Building Customer Satisfaction Through Quality, Service, and Value
DEFINING CUSTOMER VALUE AND SATISFACTION: Customer Value: Customer Delivered Value is the difference between total customer value and total customer cost. Total Customer Value is the bundle of benefits customers expect from a given product or service. Total Customer Cost is the bundle of costs customers expect to incur in evaluating, obtaining and using the product or service. Customer Satisfaction: Satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived/actual performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. Tools for Tracking and Measuring Customer Satisfaction: Complaints & Suggestion System: Make it easy for customer to deliver suggestions and complaints. By way of suggestion boxes, supplying comments cards to customers or hiring a public relationing officer. Customer Satisfaction Survey: Responsive companies uses a direct measure of customer satisfaction by conducting periodic surveys. They send questioner or make a telephone call asking about their satisfaction with the product. Ghost Shopping: Companies hire persons top pose potential buyers to report their findings on strong and weak points they experienced in buying the products of company and of the competitors. These hired persons are called ghost shopper can even pose certain problems to test whether the company’s sells personnel handle the situation well. Lost Customer Analysis: Companies should contact customers who have stopped buying or switched to other suppliers to learn the reason. DELIVERING CUSTOMER VALUE AND SATISFACTION: Keeping in view the importance of customer value and satisfaction, what does the company produce and deliver the customer? To answer this question, we need to discuss the concepts of a value chain and value-delivery systems. Value Chain: is a tool for identifying ways to create more customer value. It is a collection of activities that are performed to design, produce, market, deliver and support product. Value chain identifies nine strategically relevant activities that create value and cost in a specific business. These nine activities consist of five primary and four support activities. The primary activities represent the sequence of bringing materials into the business, converting them in to final products, shipping out them, marketing them and servicing them. The support activities include procurement, technology development, human resources management and firm infrastructure Value Delivery System/Network: To be successful the firm needs to look beyond its own operations, into the value chains of its suppliers, distributors, and customers. Many companies today partnered with specific suppliers and distributors to create a superior value-delivery network Attracting and Retaining Customers: 3

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3. a) frequency marketing programs and b) club marketing programs. There are 5 different levels of company investment in customer relationship building. Adding structural Tiles: The company may supply customers with special equipment or computer linkages that help customers manage their orders. Disqualified Prospects: Disqualified prospects are those to whom the company rejects because. They may continue to buy from competitors as well. How it would cost to reduce the defection rate. payroll. Repeated Customer: The first time customers which are satisfied with the product and buys it again becomes repeated customers. Clients are those customers who buy only from the company the relevant product categories. Accountable Marketing: The sales person phones the customer a short time after the sale to check whether the product is meeting the customer’s expectations and also ask him for any product or service suggestions and any specific disappointments. The company have to spend for building greater customer loyalty. Frequency Marketing is an acknowledgment of the fact t that 20% of a company’s customer might account for 80% of its business. Advocates are those who praise the company products and encourage others to buy from it. The main steps in customer development process are as follows: Suspects: The company locates every one who might buy the product or services. 2. Prospects: Out of suspects the persons having strong potential interest in the product and ability to pay for it are separated and are called prospects. However. Basic Marketing: The sales person simply sells the product. Relationship Marketing The process of attracting and keeping customers is called relationship marketing.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 In addition to improving supply many companies are intent on developing stronger bonds and loyalty with their ultimate customers. dissatisfaction or adopting other companies products etc. (Use of sales rapes) Partnership Marketing: The company works continuously with customers to discover ways to effect customer servings or to help the customer to perform better. there are four steps to this process: Company must define and measure its retention rate. a company should not invest in customer relationship building so much as the cost may exceed the gains. Partners: It is an ultimate challenge to turn advocates into partners where the customer and company work together actively. Club membership may be offered automatically upon purchase of a certain amount. 2) adding social benefits 3) adding structural tiles. Pro-active Marketing: The sales person contacts the customer from time to time telling about improved products and products new uses. Distinguish the causes of customer attrition and identify those that can be managed better. Adding Financial Benefits: A company can offer two financial benefits. Reactive Marketing: the sales person sells the product and encourages the customers call if they have any question. It is often easier to re-attract ex-customers than to find new ones. Advocate: The next step is to convert clients into advocates. First-Time Customers: The company hopes to convert many of its qualified prospects into first-time customers. comments or complaints. Customers may be nameless to the institution: clients cannot be nameless. clients are served on an individual basis. The cost of attracting a new customer is estimated to be 5 times the cost of keeping a current customer happy. Developing the loyal customers increases the company’s revenue. Frequency Marketing Programs (FMPs) are designed to provide rewards to customers who buy frequently and/or in substantial amounts. During all above process some customers may become inactive or drop out due to moving other location. Customers are served by anyone who happens to be available. The Need for Customer Retention The cost of attracting a new customer is estimated to be five times the cost of keeping a current customer happy. they have poor credit standing or being unprofitable. or clubs of their customers to bond them closer to the company. A company can use three customer value-building approaches 1) Adding financial benefits. b) Many companies have created affinity groups. inventory. clients are served by the professional assigned to them. or by paying a fee. 4. Estimate how much profit it loses when it loses customers. Adding Social Benefits: Here company personnel work on increasing their social bonds with customers by individualizing and personalizing their customer relationships. 4 . Clients The next step is to convert repeated customers in to clients. COMPUTING THE COST OF LOST CUSTOMERS: Today companies must pay closer attention to their customer defection rate and take steps to reduce it. and so on. Customers are served as part of the mass or as part of large segments.

· they must make sure that the customers’ orders are filled correctly and on time. training.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan IMPLEMENTING TOTAL QUALITY MARKETING: Total Quality Marketing (TQM) is an organization-wide approach to continuously improving the quality of all the organization’s processes. products and services. Marketers play several roles in helping their company in defining and delivering high quality goods and services to target customers. Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service having ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. · They must stay in touch with customers after the sale to ensure that they are satisfied and remain satisfied. The marketer must complain like the customer complains when the product or the service is not right. They bear the responsibility for correctly identifying the customers’ needs and requirements. Marketing must be the customer’s watchdog or guardian. · They must check that customers have received proper instructions. · They must communicate customer expectations correctly to product designers. One implication of TQM is that marketing people must spend time and effort not only to improve external marketing but also to improve internal marketing. and technical assistance. 5 . · They are making their specific contributions to total quality management and customer satisfaction. and must constantly hold up the standard of giving the customer the best solution.

counties and groups in which a company will operate. which should be clear and specific. and corporate cultures. material. 4 Organization: Organization consist of its structures. In rapidly changing business environment organizational structures and policies can be changed (with difficulty) but its culture is hard to change. such companies divide them in to Strategic Business Units. II Establishing Strategic Business Unit: Large companies normally manage quite different business at one time. 3 Have its own competitors 4 Have its own executive group with profit responsibilities. e) What should our business be? 1 ELEMENTS THAT SHAPE THE COMPANY’S BUSINESS. (SBUs). f) Geographical Scope: The range of regions. each requiring its own strategy. b) Who is our customer? c) Value of the customer. I) Defining company mission. The aim may.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-3 Winning Markets Through Market Oriented Strategic Planning A) THE NATURE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE BUSINESS: There are four proposed characteristics of a high-performance business. The management should adopt the way which provide them best output at labor outlets. 2 Processes: A company can accomplish its goals only by managing and linking its processes. Each company’s business is shaped by 5 elements: a) History: of aims. III) assigning resources to each SBU. over time lose its relevance because of changed market conditions. Successful company renew their mission in the light of following questions: a) When is our business. suppliers and distributors. CHARACTERISTICS OF SBU: 1 Separately identifiable. II) Establishing Strategic Business Units. ii) Stress the major policies and values that the company want to honor. 2 GOOD MISSION STATE MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS: The major characteristics of a good mission are as follows: i) Focus on limited number of goals. But its changing is a key to implementing a new strategy successfully. d) Market Segment Scope: the type of customer the company will serve. which mission is possible. These resources can be owned. The business must strive to satisfy the expectations of each stakeholders group. The satisfaction of stakeholders lead to increase in profits and higher value of the organization. leased or rented. e) Vertical Scope: The number of channels and levels involved in process from raw material to making finished goods and then their distribution. policies and achievements. B) CARPORATE STRATEGIC PLANNING: All corporate headquarters must undertake planning activities: i. I Defining Corporate Mission: Organizations exists to accomplish something. 1) Stakeholders. It may be any of the following types: a) Industry Scope: The scope of the industry in which the organization operates. d) What will our business be. Stakeholders may be customers employees. 2 Have a distinct mission from others and the company. b) Product and Applications Scope: The range of products and application in which the company will participate. c) Competency Scope: The range of technical and other competencies which the company will master. 2) processes. 3 Resources: To carry-out processes a company needs resources like labor power. machines energy etc. c) The market environment: d) Resources Available determines. iii) Define the major competitive scopes within which the company will operate. 3) resources and 4) organization. 1 Stakeholders: The business must define its stakeholders and their needs. IV) Planning new business. III Assigning Resources to SBUs 6 . b) Current Preferences of management and owners. policies.e. They divide them according to their major products or markets. e) Distinctive Competencies: Mission should be based on what it does best.

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

The purpose of identifying SBUs is to develop separate strategies and assign appropriate funding. Each SBU sends its plan to headquarters, who approves them and sends back for revision or implementation. The purpose of sending plans to the headquarters is to check, which of its SBU is performing well and to decide, which SBU to be build, hold, maintained, harvest and divest. IV Planning New Business: Often the projected sales are less than corporate management wants them to be. If their is a strategic-planning gap between future desired and projected sales, company management will have to develop new business to fill this gape. There are three ways to fill this gap. 1) Intensive Growth 2) Integrative Growth, 3) Diversification Growth, and 4) Downsizing Older Business. 1 INTENSIVE GROWTH: Management first reviews for improving its existing business performance. It may be done by adopting following three strategies: Market Penetration Strategy: Finding the ways to increase the current products market share in the current market. b) Direct Market Development Strategy: A strategy to look for new markets whose needs might be met by its current products. c) Product Development Strategy: In addition to above tow management should also consider new-product possibilities. 2 INTEGRATIVE GROWTH: Sales and profits can often be increased by backward, forward and horizontal integration. Backward Integration: Mixing or engaging the business supplying to you, e.g. raw materials. b) Forward Integration: Integrating with an organization to whom you provide goods, like retailers and wholesalers. c) Horizontal Integration: Acquiring one or more competitors. 3 DIVERSIFICATION GROWTH: When good opportunities are found outside the present business. There are three types of diversified growth. Concentric Diversification Strategy: Seek new products having technological synergy’s with existing product lines even through the new products themselves may appeal to a different group of customers. b) Horizontal Diversification: Search new product that could appeal to current customers through the new product or technology, unrelated to its current product line. c) Conglomerate Diversification: Find new business having no relationship to the companies old business. 4 DOWNSIZING OLDER BUSINESS: Management should not only develop new businesses but also carefully divest / close tired old business in order to release needed resources and reduce costs. C BUSINESS STRATEGIC PLANNING: Individual business units managers prepares their own strategic plans in the light of the organization goals and strategies. It consist of six steps: 1) Business mission, 2) External environmental analysis, 3) Internal Environment Analysis, 4) Goal formulation, 5) Strategy Formulation, 6) Program Formulations, 7) Implementation, and 8)Feedback. 1 Business Mission: Each SBU define its mission within the broad company missions. 2 External Environmental Analysis: A SBU manager has to monitor key external macro-environment and significant micro environment actors e.g. customs, competitors, suppliers etc.) that effect its ability to earn profit. It should identify the associated opportunities and threats. Opportunities: Marketing opportunity is an area of buyers in which a company can perform profitably. Opportunities can be listed and classified according to their attractiveness and success probability. Threats: An environmental threat is a challenge posed by an unfavorable trend or development that would lead in the absence of defensive marketing action to deteriorate the sales and profit. 3 Internal Environment Analysis: Keeping in view the external environmental opportunities and threats they should consider the internal strengths and weaknesses. 4 Goal Formulation: After evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of organization management proceeds to develop specific goals for the planning period. This stage of business strategic planning process is called goal formulation. Every few businesses follow only one objective, rather most businesses pursue a mix of objectives including profitability, sales, growth market shares. The business units sets these objectives and then manages by objectives. Business objectives must meat four criteria's: They must be arranged hierarchically. b) Should be stated quantitatively c) Goals should be realistic. d) Objectives must be consistent. 5 Strategy Formulation: 7

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan



8 D

Goals indicate what a business unit wants to achieve. Strategy is a game plan for ____how to get their or how to get above goals. Three generic types of strategies are: Overall Cost Leader Ship: Business works hard to achieve the lowest cost of production and distribution so that it can set price lower than its competitors, and win a large market share. b) Differentiation: In it business concentrate on achieving superior performance in an important customer benefit area valued by a large part of the market. c) Focus: In it business focuses on one or more narrow markets rather than going after a large market. d) Alliances: Many firms make marketing alliances which fall in to 4 categories. Product / Service Alliance or Licensing. company licenses another to produce its product or two companies jointly market their complementary products or an new product. · Promotional Alliances One company agrees to carry a promotion for another company’s product or service. e.g. A ban may agree to display paintings from a local art gallery on its walls. · Logistics Alliances: One company offers logistical support services for another company’s product. For example Abbot Laboratories warehouses and delivers all 3Ms medical and surgical products across the USA. · Pricing Collaboration: One or more companies join in a special pricing collaboration. Program Formulation: After formulating strategies business works out detailed work programs. After formulating programs, marketing people must evaluate the program costs. These are the determination of ways as to, how the strategy will be implemented. Thus if a business decides to achieve technical leadership it must have to make program to develop its research and development department, etc. Implementation: Clear strategy and well-thought-out supporting programs are useless, if the firm fails to implement them carefully. Indeed strategy is one of the seven elements that the best managed companies exhibit. The seven elements are divided in to two groups. Hardware and Software. HARDWARES are Strategy, Structure, and System. SOFTWARES are style, staff, skills and shared value. Style means that employees share a common way of thinking and behaving. Staff: Means company have hired able people, trained them well and assigned them the right jobs. Skills: Means that employees have the skills needed to carry out the company’s strategy. Shared Values: Means employees share the same guiding values. Feed-Back & Control: At the end the firm need to track the results and monitor new developments in the internal and external environments. THE MARKETING PROCESS: To fully understand the marketing process, we must first look at how a company defines its business. The task of any business is to deliver value to the market at a profit. There are at least two views of the value-delivery process. First is the traditional view is that firms makes something and then sells it. In this view marketing takes place in the second half and it assumes that the company knows what to make and that the market will buy enough units to produce profits for the company. Second one is the new view of business process. It places marketing at the beginning of the business planning process. Instead of emphasizing marketing and selling, companies see them-selves as part of a value creation and delivery sequence. This sequence consist of three parts. Choosing the value, represents the “homework” that marketing must do before any product exists. The formula ____ segmentation, targeting, positioning (STP)_____ is the essence of strategic marketing. b) When the value has been chosen, business unit is ready to provide the value. The tangible product’s specifications and services must be detailed, and a target price must be established. Developing specific product features, prices, and distribution occurs at this stage and are part of tactical marketing. c) In the third phase the value is communicated. Here further tactical marketing occurs in utilizing the sales force, sales promotion, advertising, and other promotional tasks to inform the market about the product. The Japanese have further developed this view by promulgating the following concepts: Zero Customer feedback time: Customer feedback should be continuously collected, to learn, how to improve the product and its marketing. 2) Zero product-improvement time: Improvement ideas of customers and employees should be evaluated and the most valued and feasible ideas should be introduced as soon as possible. 3) Zero Purchasing Time: Company should receive required parts continuously through just-in-time arrangements with suppliers. 4) Zero Setup Time: The company should be able to manufacture any of its products as soon as they are ordered. 5) Zero defects: The product should be of high quality and free of flaws. The Marketing Process consist of 1)analyzing marketing opportunities, 2) developing marketing strategies, 3) planning marketing programs, and 4) managing the marketing effort. 8

Notes on Marketing Management

Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan

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Analyzing Marketing Opportunities: The first task of marketing managers is to analyze the long-run opportunities in this market for improving the unit’s performance. The purpose of market research is to gather significant information about the marketing environment. Developing Marketing Strategies: It consist of two parts 1) Differentiating, and 2) positioning strategy for the target market. After launching the products the product strategy will have to be modified at the different stages in the product life cycle, consisting of four phases, introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. Planning Marketing Programs: To transform market strategy into marketing programs marketing managers must make basic decisions on i) marketing expenditures, ii) marketing mix, and iii)marketing allocation. i) MARKETING EXPENDITURE: The management have to decide as to what level of marketing expenditure is necessary to achieve its marketing objectives. ii) MARKETING MIX: Marketing mix is the set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market. There are literally dozens of marketing-mix tools. A four factor classification of these tools is very popular, called as four Ps: product, price, place and promotion. Marketing mix decision must be made for both distribution channels and final consumers. All the marketing-mix variables cannot be adjusted in the short run.

Marketing Mix


Product Price Promotion Place Variety List Price Sales promotion Channels Quality Discounts Advertising Coverage Design Allowances Sales Force Assortments Brand Name Payment - Public relations Locations Packing period Direct Marketing Inventory Sizes Credit Transport Services terms Warranties Returns. Managing the Marketing Effort. The final step in marketing process is managing the marketing effort. The company must build a marketing organization that is capable of implementing the marketing plan. There are three types of marketing control: Annual Plan control: The task of company is achieving its sales, profits, and other goals. First management state well-defined goals for each month or quarter. · Second, management must measure its ongoing performance in the market place. · Third, management must determine the underlying causes of any serious performance gaps. · Fourth, management must choose corrective actions to close gaps between goals and performance. Profitability Control Measuring the actual profitability of products, customer groups, trade channels, and other sizes. Marketing profitability analysis measures the profitability of different marketing activities. Marketing efficiency studies try to determine how various marketing activities could be carried out more efficiently. c) Strategic Control: Evaluating whether the company’s marketing strategy is appropriate to market conditions. Because of rapid changes in the marketing environment, each company needs to re-assess periodically its marketing effectiveness through a control instrument known as the marketing audit.


If the marketing intelligence system is too casual.g. such as given bellow: Engaging students or Professors to design and carry-out marketing research projects. prepare an abstract of relevant news and provide it to marketing manager. shipping goods back ordering of out-of-stock items and receiving payment against shipped items. The needed information is developed through sub-systems of Marketing Information System. b reading newspapers. sales managers. evaluate. A well run company take following 4 steps to improve quantity and quality of marketing intelligence system: THROUGH TRAINING THE SALES FORCE: By training the sales force to spot and report new developments. b) Using on line information services such as America on Line. payable and so on. 3 Marketing Research and 4 Marketing Decision Support System. sort. Many companies are now using electronic data interchange (EDI) software to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the order to payment cycle. 2 Marketing Intelligence Activities. In this regard marketing executives ____like product managers. Yet being very busy they may fail to pass on the significant information. It includes procedure and time involved in receiving order. c) trade publications d) talking to customers. Computer technology may be used to design fast and comprehensive sales reporting system Marketing Information System represents a cross between what a manager think they need. and h) talking to other managers & personnel within the company. and distribute needed informations timely and accurately to marketing decision makers. They should know that what type of information to be provided to which manager. collecting. e. and sell this information to the parties having concern. c) Many small companies routinely visit their competitors to bring new ideas. 10 . inventory levels. sales representatives_____ to discover their information needs. 3 Marketing Research System: Marketing research system is a systematic way of designing. By analyzing these information marketing managers can spot light important opportunities and problems. what manager’s really need. It is done by: a) reading books. The staff scans major publications. While small companies may not have such departments and can conduct research in creative and affordable manner. Large companies can adopt any of the following ways of marketing research. c) PURCHASE INFORMATION FROM OUTSIDE: Company may purchase information from outside suppliers. I) SUPPLIERS OF MARKETING RESEARCH: There are a number of ways to do marketing research. analyze. I) ORDER-TO-PAYMENT CYCLE It is the heart of the internal record system. valuable information could be lost or arrive too late. These research firms gather and store data at a much lover cost than the company could do on its own basis. Large companies generally have their own marketing research departments. 1 Internal Record System: It includes reports on orders. sales prices. faced to the company. they are in excellent position to pick-up information missed by other means. analyzing and reporting data and findings which are relevant to a specific marketing situation. e) talking to suppliers f) talking to distributors. II) SALES REPORTING: Marketing manager need up-to-date reports of their current sales. b) THROUGH DISTRIBUTORS: Company may motivate distributors. It collect and files relevant information to assist manager in evaluating new information. and other intermediaries to pass along important intelligence. research firms. Sub-systems of MIS 1 Internal Company Records. receivable. Today companies need to do these steps quickly and accurately as the customer favor those firms who deliver goods on time. d) ESTABLISHING AN INTERNAL MARKETING INFORMATION CENTER to collect and circulate the marketing intelligence information. g) talking to other outsiders. retailers. and what is economically feasible. 2 Marketing Intelligence System It is a set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain their everyday information about pertinent development in the marketing environment.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-4 Managing Marketing Information System and Measuring Market Demand A WHAT IS MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM: A marketing information system consist of people equipment and procedure to gather.

The researcher should not overwhelm management with lots of numbers and fancy statistical techniques. ii Mechanical Instruments: Used less frequently. Galvanometers measure the subject’s interest or emotions aroused by exposure to a specific ad or picture. ii) Sample Size: How many people should be surveyed. The use of modern instruments like Computers. c) COLLECT THE INFORMATION. It is necessary for the organization to take care while collecting information and to edit it properly. d) ANALYZE THE INFORMATION: The next-to-last step is to extract pertinent findings from the collected data. or iii)personal interviews. i) Mail Questionnaire is the best way to reach people who would not give personal interviews or whose responses might be biased by the interviewers. It is the most expensive method requires more administrative planning and supervision than other method.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Syndicated-service Research Firms: These firms gather information about consumers and trade which they sell for fee. controlling extraneous variables and checking whether observed responses differences are statistically significant. iii) Sampling Procedure: How should the respondents be chosen? To obtain a representative sample a probability sample of the population should be drawn. They participate along with company in designing the way of study and thus report results which becomes the property of the company. It calls for three decisions i) Sampling Unit: Who is to be surveyed. and optical scanners has helped organizations in gathering informations before and after an advertising compain. II) THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS: Marketing research process is consist of five steps given bellow: Define the problem and research objectives. Researchers tabulates the data and develops frequency distributions. Large sample give more reliable results. cash registers. It involves planning for gathering the needed information. Open end questions allow respondents to answer in their own words. Sampling Plans: After deciding the research approach and instruments. and language. ii) Telephone Interviewing a best method for gathering information quickly. b) Developing the Research Plans depends on the defined problem. Questions may be close end or open end closed end questions specify all the possible answers that are easier to interpret and tabulate. ii) telephone. iii) Personal Interviewing is the most versatile of the three methods. The interviewer is able to clarify questions if the respondents do not under stand them. body. Research instruments: Two main research instruments for collecting data are Questionnaires and Mechanical Instruments. But in it response is very low and slow. surveys are under taken to learn about peoples knowledge. Averages and measures of dispersion are computed for the major variables. the researcher must design a sampling plan. subjecting them to different treatments. But causes more difficulties and more expenses. ii) Focus Group Research: 6 to 8 people are invited to spend few hour with a skilled researcher and discuss product or issue. It consist of a set of questions presented to respondents for their answers. c) Specialty Line Marketing Research Firms: They provide specialized research services to others. satisfaction et. Generally a sample of 1% of population give the reliable results. The interviewer can ask more questions and can record additional observations about the respondent such as dress. e) PRESENT THE FINDINGS: The last step of marketing research is presenting the findings to the relevant parties. The target population to be sampled. the choices are i) mail. b) Custom Marketing Research Firms: These firms are hired to carry-out certain research projects. A well defined problem is half solved. It is the most expensive and prone to error stage of research process. but rather should present major findings that are pertinent to the major marketing decisions facing management. It calls for selecting matched groups of subjects. Contact methods: When the sampling plan has been determined the researcher must decide how the subject should be contacted. The research plan involves decision about: Data sources: i) Secondary Data: Already gathered data for some purpose and can also be used for this purpose and ii) Primary Data: Data gathered only for the specific purpose. and measure its magnitude in the general population iv) Experimental Research It is the most significally valid research. 11 . iii) Survey Research: Survey research best suit for descriptive research. beliefs. i) Questionnaires: A most commonly used instrument for collecting primary data. · Research approaches Research data may be gathered in four ways i) Observational research: Data gathered by observing the relevant actors and settings.

Marketing is responsible to prove sales forecasts which are based on demand. Companies Sales Potential It is the sales limit approached by company demand as company marketing effort increases relative to competitors. Market demand for a product is the total volume that would be bought by a defined customer group in a given geographical at a specified time period in a defined marketing environment under a defined market program. After completing research company evaluate each opportunity before choosing target market. Managers need to define carefully what they mean by market demand. The absolute limit of company demand is. of course. AN OVERVIEW OF FORECASTING AND DEMAND MEASUREMENT Companies undertake marketing research to identify market opportunities. Market Forecast The market demand corresponding to the level of expenditure actually occurred is called the market forecast. Sales Budget: is a conservative estimate of the expected volume of sales and is used primarily for making current purchasing.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan III Characteristics Of A Good Marketing Research: A good marketing research should have seven characteristics. prediction and testing. b) Available Market the set of consumer who have interest. 1 All sales. To assess market potential we have to visualize the market demand for a “very high” level of industry marketing expenditure. d) Target Market also called served market is the part of qualified available market the company decide to pursue. Companies sales Forecast expected level of company sales based on a chosen marketing plan and on assumed marketing environment. Keeping in view this definition a market may be sub-divided in to following ways. Company Demand: is the companies estimated share of the market demand at alternative levels of company marketing effort. where further increase in marketing effort would have little effect in stimulating further demand. 2 Industry Sales 3 company sales. b) Research Creativity: Marketing research should also develop innovative ways to solve a problem c) Multiple Methods: Good Market researchers prefer to use multiple sources to avoid over-reliance on anyone method. A Vocabulary for Demand Measurement. division or sales representative. d) Interdependence of Models and Data: e) Value and Cost of Information: f) Healthy Skepticism: g) Ethical Marketing. Market demand can be measured for six different product levels. formulation of hypotheses. Definition of Market: A market is a set of all actual and potential buyers of a product. MEASURES OF MARKET DEMAND: As a part of their planning companies prepare many estimates of market size. e) Penetrated Market the set of customers who have already bought the product of the company. tools and techniques with supporting software and hardware by which an organization gathers and interprets relevant information from business and environment and turns it into a basis for marketing action. 12 . The two would be equal if the company achieved 100% of the market. Market Potential The market forecast shows expected market demand not maximum market demand. Potential Market is the set of consumers who has shown a sufficient level of interest in a defined market offer. c) Qualified available Market: the set of consumers who have qualifications of available market and also qualification for the particular market offer. 4 Marketing Decision Support System:(MDSS) MDSS is a coordinated collection of data. Scientific Method: is careful observation. income and access to a particular market offer. Five different space levels 1 world 2 Country wide 3 Region 4 Territory 5 Customer and three time levels 1 Short run 2 Medium run 3 Long run. It is primarily a managerial device for defining and stimulating sales effort. Sales Quota the sales goal set for a product line. the market potential. and cash-flow decisions. 4 Product line sales 5 Product Form sales 6 Product item sales. production.

A trend is a direction or sequence of events that have some momentum and durability. and 6) Social/Cultural environment. Each group has its own preferences and consumer characteristics. Each population group has certain specific wants and buying habits. ANALYZING NEEDS AND TRENDS IN THE MACRO ENVIRONMENT: Successful companies recognize and respond (profitably) to un-met needs and trends in the macro environment. savings. and credit availability. its suppliers. REGIONAL / GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Geographical characteristics also effects the environment. It depends on current income. d) Young adults age 25-40 e) Middle-aged adults age 40-65 f) Old adults above 65 ETHNIC MARKETS: Ethnic means national or tribal groups that has a common culture tradition. AGE MIX: can be divided in to six age groups a) Pre-school b) School-age children c) Teens. Megatrends are large. The people are shifting from rural areas to cities and population of cities is increasing in multiples. and without social. economic. EDUCATIONAL GROUP: Population of any society falls into five educational groups a) Illiterate. between 7 to 10 years or longer. b) High school drop-outs c) High school degrees d) College degrees. 3) Natural environment 4) Technological environment 5) political/legal environment. Many opportunities are found by identifying trends. They ignore or resist change until it is too late. and less on import of finished products. 4 educational level 5 household patterns and 6 regional characteristics. Marketers keenly interested 1 growth rate of population in different cities. They recognize that the marketing environment is constantly spinning new opportunities and threats and the understand the importance of continuously monitoring and adopting to the changing environment. 1) Demographic environment. e) Professional degrees. tools and supplies and material handling trucks. Depending on number of foreign residing and wealthy native rulers and landholders. competitors all operate in macro environment of forces and trends that shape opportunities and threats. Industrialization creates a new rich class and a small growing middle class. HOUSE HOLD PATTERNS: The traditional house hold pattern quit differs from a modern house hold pattern now all the peoples of house either do job or go to school and use redeemed foods. geography and so on.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-5 Scanning the Marketing Environment Successful companies take an outside-inside view of their business. Much of their revenue comes from exporting these resources. prices. It is a major determinant in the nations industrial structure. CURRENT INCOME: Nations vary greatly in their level and distribution of income. both demanding new types of goods. some of which can be satisfied only by imports. 13 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 B 1 . Such countries are good markets for extractive equipment. Changing a mass Market in to Micro Markets: All the above changes causes a mass market to be changed / converted in to numerous micro markets. social.e. They are more predictable and durable than fads. Many companies fail to see change as opportunity. Economic Environment: Economic environment denotes the available purchasing power of the economy. The education level also effect the environment of the market. GROWTH RATE: is watched to make the future and present needs planning. they are also a market for western-style commodities and luxury goods. but poor in other respects. lifestyle. 2) economic environment. IDENTIFYING AND RESPONDING TO THE MAJOR MACRO-ENVIRONMENT FORCES: Companies. Within rapidly changing global picture the firms must monitor six major forces effecting the environment. short lived. customers. and once the come they influence us for some time. There economies offer few opportunities for marketers b) Raw Material Exporting Economies: These economies are rich in one or more natural resources. debt. c) Industrializing Economies: Economies in which 10 to 20% of the country’s gross domestic products are manufactured. A Fad is an unpredictable. 3 ethnic mix. political and technical changes (that are slow to form). There are four types of industrial structures Subsistence Economies: In it wast majority is engaged in simple agriculture and consume most of their products. economic and political significance. They are non-controllable and must have to be monitored and responded. Demographic Environment: Means the population forces which effect the environment. i. education. As manufacturing increases countries relies more on imports of raw materials & heavy machinery. 2 ages distribution.

zinc. SAVINGS: The economy making more savings will prosper fastly because banks can give loan at lesser interest rate. Scientists today are working on a startling range of new technologies that will revolutionize products and production process. Shortage of raw material The earth’s raw materials consist of the infinite. coal.Governments vary in their concern and efforts to promote a clean environment. c) People’s Views About Society. 2) the supplier. electrical appliances. EXTERNAL MICRO ENVIRONMENT: They are part of companies marketing system 1) the market. Keeping in view the above situations it is necessary to increase the research and development budgets. As products become more complex the public needs to be assumed of their safety. Every new technology has a force creative force and distructs the previous inventions. Such as pollution and the action of “greens” against it. will pose serious problems as their time of depletion approaches. Technological Environment: Technology is dramatically changing lives of the people. GROWTH OF SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS: Power of special groups have increased over the last few decades. Marketers need to be aware of threats and opportunities associated with four trends in the natural environment. industrialization in the country. Government agencies are now investigating to ban potentially unsafe products. CREDIT AVAILABILITY INTEREST RATE STAGE OF ECONOMY IN THE BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE INFLATION Natural Environment: Natural environment also effects the environment trends. Social /Cultural Environment: Societies are shaped with their beliefs. Protect interests of society from un-bridled business behavior. b) Increased Energy Cost: Nonrenewable finite resources has created serious problems for the world economy. d) People’s Views About Nature. PRICES: Depends upon various things like inflationary rate. d) Changing roles of Governments: . the quantity of DDT and other chemical pollution’s in the soil etc. c) Varying Research and Development Budgets. Marketers should be aware of these regulations when proposing developing and launching new products. e. b) People’s Views About Others. 3) market intermediaries 14 . Many of the today's common products were not available 30 years ago. clothing. transistors hurt the vacuum-tube etc. c) Increased Level of Pollution: Some industrial activities inevitable damage the natural environment. The major hopes are that companies around the world will accept more social responsibility and that less expensive devices will be invented to controlled and reduce pollution. People’s Views About Themselves. such as forests. People have different views and at the same time from different points of views. DEBT: Debts depend upon the savings of the economy. such as air and water poses no immediate problem. values and norms.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan d) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C D E F Industrial Economies: the major exporters of manufactured goods and investments funds. They try to save their interests and thus effect the environments. The time lag between new ideas and their successful implementation is decreasing rapidly. and construction. They buy manufactured goods from each other and also export them to other types of economies in exchange for raw materials and semi-finished goods. economic stability etc. It includes following: LEGISLATION REGULATING BUSINESS: Business legislation has three main purposes: Protect companies from unfair competition Protect consumers from unfair business practice. platinum. because as they are deteriorating their prices are increasing. Government agencies and pressure groups that influence organizations as well as markets. b) Unlimited Opportunities for Inventions. the marketers should watch the following trends in technology: Accelerating Pace of Technological Change. though in long run their are many problems.g. Like dangerous mercury levels in the ocean. and the finite nonrenewable. This environment is composed of. silver. automobiles. the finite renewable. Laws. Finite renewable resources. Political / Legal Environment: Marketing decision are strongly affected by change in political and legal requirements. and food must be used wisely. and Finite nonrenewable resources like oil. d) Increased Regulations of Technological Change. Infinite resources. Safety and health regulations have been increased in the areas of food. e) People’s Views of the Universe.

e. Market Intermediaries: They are independent business organizations that directly aid in the flow of goods and services between a marketing organization and its markets. and 2)Various facilitating organizations which provide services i. 15 . There are two types of market intermediaries 1) The firms middle-man (the whole seller and retailer appointed by the organization). transportation. b) Their purchasing power. The Supplier: Organizations need cooperative relationship with supplier. warehousing. financing etc. c) Their buying behavior. They are needed to complete exchange between buyers and sellers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 Market: Market have three factors People or organizations with wants.

A lifestyle is the person’s pattern of living in the world as expressed in the person’s activities. and trade-union groups which require less interaction.g. defensiveness. Objectives Why does the market buy? 4. parents and other i. autonomy. in family. Model of consumer Behavior In the beginning marketers could understand consumers through the daily experience of selling them. and geographical regions. professional. Operations How does the market buy? 6. deference. and occupation may lead quite different lifestyles. friends. social class. Psychological Factors: Psychological factors are four: 1 Motivation. d) Lifestyle: People coming from the same subculture. Reference groups: A persons reference groups consist of all the groups that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect influence on the person’s attitudes or behavior. education. can also be subdivided in two groups. Objects What does the market buy? 3. It includes broad culture/atmosphere of country. spouse and children c) Roles and Status's: Role is the activities that a person is expected to perform due to his status e. CULTURE: A fundamental determinant of a persons wants and behavior. debts. a worker will purchase necessities with low price. It include culture. a consumer’s behavior is influenced by such social factors as reference groups. with friends. Groups having a direct influence on a person are called membership groups. They are of two types. and behaviors. dominance. religions.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-6 Analyzing Consumer Markets and Buyer Behavior The aim of marketing is to satisfy the target customers needs and wants. c) SOCIAL CLASS: It is relatively homogeneous divisions of society which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values. neighbors and co-workers etc. and adaptability. Primary groups include family. Outlets Where does the market buy? MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING BEHAVIOR: These factors can be sub-divided in to following four categories. Which include their spend able income. and roles and status's. preferences. while the president of company will buy expensive things. It do not reflect income alone but also other indicators like occupation. in the company where he works. 1 Occupants Who constitute the market? 2. b) Occupation: Occupation also effect the consumption pattern. and opinions. Now managers had to rely on 7 O’s given bellow. Cultural Factors: Culture influences the consumer behavior most effectively than any others. performance. 3 Learning 4 Beliefs and Attitudes. c) Economic Circumstances: Product choice is also greatly effected by one’s economic circumstances. 16 1 2 3 4 . perceptions. But with the growth of companies direct contact with the consumer has become impossible. thirst. e. savings and assets. we mean a person’s distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to his or her environment. Every economy have its own values. b) Family: Most influential primary group. It is a useful variable in analyzing a persons behavior. By personality. patterns. sociability. with whom the person interact fairly and continuously. family. nationalities. Social Factors: In addition to cultural factors. It differs in their dress. area of residence. e) Personality and Self Concept: Each person has a distinct personality that influences his or her buying behavior. 2 Perception. sub-culture and social class. Biogenic: The need which arise from physiological states of tension such as hunger. Personal Factors: Following are the personal factors which effect the consumer behavior: Age and stage in life cycle: People buy different goods and services over their lifetime. borrowing power and attitude toward spending versus saving. Organizations Who participates in buying? 5.e. Occasions When does the market buy? 7. They include. and socialization for its members. discomfort etc. Secondary groups include religious. I) MOTIVATION: A man have many needs at any one time . interests. 1 Cultural Factors 2 Social Factors 3 Personal Factors 4) psychological Factors. speech. Personality is usually described in terms of such traits as self-confidence. b) SUB-CULTURE: Each culture consists of small sub-cultures providing more specific identification.g. Membership groups may be subdivided in to primary and secondary.

Perception is the process by which an individual selects. what. But marketers must be careful in making their (targeting)decisions because buying roles change. 17 . DISSONANCE ____REDUCING BUYER BEHAVIOR: Reducing buying behavior is characterized by: consumer is highly involved in purchase. · product is expensive and risky. Buying Roles: It is easy to identify buyer for many products. they learn. Different people can perceive the same situation differently due the three perceptual processes: a) Selective Attention. THE BUYING PROCESS: To be successful marketers must go beyond the understanding as to how consumers actually make their buying decisions. · People likely to notice those adds whose deviations are large than normal size adds. but also on the stimuli’s relation to the surrounding field and on conditions within the individual. b) Selective Distortion: It is the tendency of people to twist information into personal meanings and interpret information in a way that will support their perceptions. reducing buyer behavior. A motive is a need sufficiently pressing to drive the person to act. 1) buyer develops beliefs about the product. be careful to take these perceptual processes into account in designing their marketing campaigns. b) Selective Distortion and Selective Retention. b) Influencer: A person whose view or advice influence the decision. Marketers must. c) Decider: A person who decides on any component of buying decision _____ whether to buy. Most psychogenic needs are not intense enough to motivate the person to act on them immediately. · typically does not know much about product category. A need becomes a motive when it is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity. therefore. Perception depends upon not only physical stimuli. IV) BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES Through doing and learning people acquire beliefs and attitudes. III) LEARNING When people act. 2) dissonance. develops attitudes about the product and third. To differentiate the brand’s features marketers should use print media to describe brand’s benefits. Buying Behavior: Behavior varies with the type of buying decision. organizes and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. esteem or belonging. It involve three step process. The types of buying decisions and steps in buying process are given bellow. how and whom to buy. · see litter difference in brands. d) Buyer: Who actually purchase. c) Selective Retention: People tends to retain those information that supports their attitudes and beliefs due to selective retention. there are four types of consumers buying behavior based on degree of buyer’s involvement and degree of differences among brands. 1) Complex buying behavior.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 b) Psychogenic They arise from psychological states of tension such as the need for recognition. Second. · aware of significant differences among brands. rather they must identify who makes the buying decision. he make thoughtful purchase choice. and · has much to learn. The marketers must know the consumers information gathering and evaluation process and develop strategies to assist the buyer in learning about the product’s attributes and call for his attention towards high standing of the company’s brand. It involves changes in the individual’s behavior arising from experience. As a result. and 4) variety seeing buying behavior. These in turn influence their buying behavior. There are five roles people can play in buying decisions Initiator: Who firs suggest the idea of buying product. people may not necessarily see or hear the message that marketers want to send. Selective Attention: Selective attention means the marketers have to work hard to attract consumer’s notice because to consumer pay selective attention to the advertisements. COMPLEX BUYING BEHAVIOR: Consumer are involved in complex buying behavior when they are highly involved in purchase. e) User: A person who consumes or uses the product or service. How the motivated person actually acts is influenced by his or perception of the situation. emotional feeling and action tendencies toward sum object or idea. A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. and An Attitude is a person’s (enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations). II) PERCEPTION: A motivated person is ready to act. 3) Habitual buying behavior. People notice those adds that relates to current needs · People notice those adds that they anticipate.

consumer-rating organizations. THE MILDER SEARCH: It may also be called as heightened attention. Some basic concepts will help us to understand consumer evaluation process: i) Consumer is trying to satisfy a need. coupons. The company must also identify the other brands in the consumer's choice set so that it can plan its competitive appeals. dealers. 3) Evaluation of Alternatives. like ads of the product. · Add an important product feature to a low involvement product. 5) Post purchase behavior. Generally a buyer while making buying decision passes through 5 different stages. Challenger firms will encourage variety seeking by offering lower prices. sex etc. THE STAGES OF THE BUYING DECISION PROCESS:` Smart companies keep an eye on the buying decision process involved in their product category. Marketers can convert low involvement products into one of high involvement by four ways given bellow: link product to some involving issue e.g. toothpaste etc. avoiding out-of-stock conditions. the value he gives to the additional information and the value of satisfaction he obtains from the search. phones friends. • Public sources Mass medial. 18 4 1 2 3 . In such a situation the market leader try to encourage habitual buying behavior by dominating the shelf space.g. • Experiential sources: Handling. VARIETY SEEING BUYING BEHAVIOR: This type of buying behavior is characterized by: Low consumer involvement. Consumer may can get information from the following four sources: • Personal sources: Family. salt. our coffee taken early in the morning shake of sleepiness. 4) Purchase Decision. perhaps responding primarily to a good price or to purchase convenience. for example a person passes a bakery and saw bread and biscuits that stimulates his hunger. 3 HABITUAL BUYING BEHAVIOR: Many products are bought under conditions of low consumer involvement and the absence of significant brand differences. e. salespersons. and advertising that presents reasons for trying something new. These five stages are 1) Problem recognition. In this case the buyer will shop around to learn what is available but will buy fairly quickly. then they develop the marketing strategies that trigger consumer interest. The extent of search depends upon the strength of the drive. examining. At this stage the consumer simply pays more attention to information's about the desired product. He should also identify the consumers information sources and evaluate their relative importance. packaging. The Milder search and the active information search. the amount of information he already has. and choice set. A need may arise either internally or externally. · significant brand differences · consumers can do a lot of brand switching. · advertise to trigger strong emotions related to personal values or defence. neighbors. Problem Recognition: Buying process begins when buyer recognizes the problem or need. friends.g. Information Search: An aroused consumer will be inclined to search for more information. acquaintances. The consumer will be alert to the information to justify his decision of purchase. infrequent and risky. After the purchase the consumer might experience dissonance that stems from noticing certain disquieting features of the product or hearing favorable things about other product. arise to a thresh hold level and becomes a drive. ii) He is looking for certain benefits from the product solution. Internal needs are like hunger. Through gathering information. see friends who have purchased that product etc.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan · purchase is expensive . toothpaste resisting cavity. The selling company must strategies to get its product into the awareness set. • Commercial sources: Advertising. and engages in other activities to learn about the product. and the ease of obtaining additional information. consideration set. Evaluation of Alternatives: There is no single and simple valuation process used by all consumers in all situations. using the product. free samples. e. the consumer learns about competing sets of brands and their features. displays. tea. and sponsoring frequent reminder advertising. We may distinguish between two levels of arousal. thirst. The external need aroused by an external source. · link product to some involving personal situation. deals. It is not necessary that consumer pass through them sequentially especially in the case of low involvement purchase in such a case consumer may shift or reverse some stages. 2) Information Search. Marketers need to identify the circumstances that trigger a particular need. THE ACTIVE INFORMATION SEARCH: At this stage he actually looks for reading material.

1) Attitudes of others. Purchase Decision: In the evaluation stage the consumer forms preferences among brands in the choice set. called competitive repositioning. The attributes of interest to buyers vary by product: • camera: picture. first. price. tread life. It is also called real repositioning. Marketers can do a number of things to influence buyers decision: i) Modify Product: They may redesign the brand so that it offers more characteristics that the buyer desires. It is often accomplished by running a comparison ad. A try to alter the buyers beliefs about where competitive brands stand on different attributes. or avoid a purchase decision is heavily influenced by perceived risk. size. 19 . v) Call attention to neglected attributes: In such a case the marketer draws the buyer's attention to neglected attributes. the intensity of the other person's negative attitude toward the consumer's preferred alternative and. which are not very clear in the mind of the buyer. second. price. makes sense when buyer mistakenly believe a competitor's brand has more quality that it actually has. • hotel: location. It is not recommended if buyers are accurately evaluating brand exaggerated claims would lead to buyer dissatisfaction and bad word or mouth. Post Purchase Behavior: After purchasing the product the consumer will experience some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction The marketer's job does not end when the product is bought but continues into the post purchase period Marketer must monitor post purchase satisfaction. atmosphere. speed. i) Attitudes of Others The extent to which others attitudes reduces one's preferred alternatives depends on two things. ride quality. the more the consumer will adjust his purchase intention. However. iv) Alter the importance weights: The marketer could try to persuade buyers to attach more importance to the attributes in which the brand excels.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 4 5 iii) He looks at every product as a bundle of attributes. It is useful where the buyer underestimate the brand qualities. price. post purchase actions. postpone. cleanliness. The consumer may for an intention to buy the most preferred brand. and 2) Unanticipated situational factors. The amount of perceived risk varies with the amount of money at stake. This strategy. two factors may intervene between the purchase intention and purchase decision. the consumer's motivation to comply with the other person's wishes. and post purchase product use and dispose. • tyers: safety. and the amount of consumer self-confidence. vi) Shift the buyers ideas: The marketers could try to persuade buyers to change their ideal levels for one or more attributes. iii) Alter the beliefs about the competitors brands. sharpness. the amount of attribute uncertainty. The more intense the other person's negativism and the closer the other person is to the consumer. ii) Alter beliefs about the brand: A try to alter the buyers' beliefs about where the brand stands on key attributes. and life. ii) Unanticipated situational Factors: A consumer's decision to modify. with varying abilities of providing benefits sought to satisfy need.

10 DIRECT PURCHASING: Business buyers often buy directly from the manufacturers rather than through intermediaries. It is called system buying Participants in the Business Buying Process: It is also called buying center and includes all persons involved in purchasing which are given bellow: i) Initiators: Those who request that something be purchased. and a 10% fall in consumer demand may cause a complete collapse in business demand. 2 LARGER QUANTITY BUYERS: Buy in bulk items for reproduction. sales promotion and publicity plays important role but personal selling usually serves as a main marketing tool. System Buying and Selling: Many business buyers prefer to buy a total solution of their problem from one seller.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-7 Analyzing Business Markets and Business Buyer Behavior WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BUYING: Organizational buying is the decision-making process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased products and services and identify. are more cost effective. Professional buyers spend their lives in learning how to buy better. the users initiate the buying proposal. 20 . Although ad. manufacturing. Sometimes a rise of 10% in consumer demand can cause as much as 200% rise in business demand for the product in the next period. especially in the short run. who must follow the organizational policies. necessary to produce the additional output. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BUSINESS MARKET AND CONSUMER MARKET: Business Market: consist of all the organizations that acquire goods and services. banking. Consequently business marketers have to send well trained representatives and often uses teams to deal with the well-trained buyers. used in the production of other products or services. there are close relationships between customers and suppliers. forestry. distribution and services. Out supplier try to get a small order and then enlarge their share over time. 5 DERIVED DEMAND: Demand of business goods is ultimately dependent on demand of consumer goods. A few large buyers do most of the purchases. 1 STRAIGHT REBUY: Purchases are ordered on routine basis from a previous supplier called in-supplier. The major industries making up the business market are agriculture. and choose among alternative brands and suppliers. Buying Situations: Business buyers faces many decisions in making a purchase. evaluate. Business markets have several characteristics that contrast sharply with consumer markets some of them are given bellow: 1 FEWER BUYERS: Business marketers normally deals with far fewer buyers than the consumer marketers does. Buying committees consisting of technical experts and senior managers are common in the purchase of major goods. It involves additional discussion between buyer and seller representative who tries to defend his position and becomes nervous. that are sold. rented. delivery requirements or other terms. therefore requires more time and analysis of suppliers. 8 PROFESSIONAL PURCHASING: Business good are purchased by trained purchasing agents. There are three types of buying situations the straight re-buy the modified re-buy and the new task. The out-supplier offer something new or exploit dissatisfaction with the supplier. or supplied to others. In many cases. 2 MODIFIED REBUY: A situation in which the buyer wants some modification in price. 11 RECIPROCITY: Business buyers often select suppliers who also buy from them. This means the business marketers have to provide greater technical data about their product and its advantages over competitors' products. ii) Users: Those who will use the product or service. transportation. 9 SEVERAL BUYING INFLUENCES: More people can influence a business buying decision than a consumer buying decision. Therefore. The number of decisions depends on the type of buying situation. 4 GEOGRAPHICALLY CONCENTRATED BUYERS: Generally one type of organizations exist in one locality. This sales volatility has led many business marketers to diversify their products and markets to achieve more balanced sales over the business cycle. 7 FLUCTUATING DEMAND: A small percentage increase in consumer demands can lead to a much larger percentage increase in demand for planed and equipment. and requirements. communication. 3 NEW TASK: Purchasing for the first time. especially those items that are technically complex and expensive. construction. The out supplier see an opportunity and offer better facilities to gain some business. and insurance. 6 INELASTIC DEMAND: The demand of such goods is not much effected by the change in price. constraints. because producers cannot make quick changes in their production methods. finance. 3 CLOSER SUPPLIER-CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP: Because of the smaller number of customer base and the importance and power of the large customers. buyers are concentrated in few localities. and fisheries mining. 12 LEASING: Many industrial buyers lease their equipment instead of buying it. public utilities.

receptionists. although whatever information he can discover about the personalities and interpersonal factors would be useful. Following are the organizational trends in the organizational area: i) Purchasing department upgrading: Purchasing department commonly occupy a low position in the management hierarchy They are now being up graded. What is the product value analysis: PVA is an approach to cost reduction in which components are carefully studied to determine if they can be redesigned or standardized or made by cheaper methods. empathy. 3) interpersonal factors. INTERPERSONAL FACTORS: The buying center usually includes several participants with differing interests. interest rate technological developments. ii) Centralized Purchasing: In multi-divisional companies most purchasing is carried out by separate divisions because of their differing needs. education. the business marketer is not likely to know what kind of group dynamics take place during the buying process. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: Business buyers are heavily effected by factors in the current and expected economic environment. For it a product value analysis is conducted. procedures. organizational structure. iii) Decentralized Purchasing of small ticket items: iv) Long-term Contracts: Business buyers are increasingly accepting long term contracts with suppliers. authority. SUPPLIER SEARCH: Then the company searches the most appropriate suppliers. Events leading to problem recognition are the following: i) Company decides to produce a new product and needs new equipment and materials to produce it. iii) Purchased material turns out to be unsatisfactory. ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS: Each buying organization has specific objectives. PROPOSAL SOLICITATION: The buyer invite the qualified suppliers to submit proposals with detailed specifications.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 Influences: People who influence the buying decision by defining specifications and providing information for evaluating alternatives. 2) organizational factors. and system. iv) Decider: People who decide on product requirements and or on satisfy a legal or social obligation. purchasing agents. and preference. PRODUCT SPECIFICATION: After identifying the general needs the buying organization proceeds to develop the items technical specifications. and persuasiveness. The company evaluate proposals and eliminate some suppliers and invite the remaining ones to make a formal reduce operating cost. Then it will rate suppliers on these attributes and identify the most attractive suppliers. or . before selecting a supplier. perceptions. job position. vii) Gatekeepers: People who have the power to prevent sellers or information from reaching to members of the buying center. status. vi) Buyers: People who have formal authority to select the supplier and arrange the purchase terms. v) Approvers: People who authorize the proposed actions of deciders or buyers. and political regulatory. income. For buying goods business buyers have to go through buying or procurement process having eight steps called buy phases. THE PURCHASING PROCESS: Business buyers purchase goods and services . They may be classified in to four groups 1) environmental factors. Technical personnel are particularly important influences. and telephone operators may prevent sales persons from contacting user or deciders.g. ii) A machine breaks down and requires replacement or new parts. influenced by the participants age. and supplier 21 . The attributes may include the delivery reliability. PROBLEM RECOGNITION: Some one in the organization recognizes the problem that can be met by acquiring a good or service. level of demand for their product Economic outlook. GENERAL NEED DESCRIPTION: On recognition the buyer proceeds to determine the needed items general characteristics and quality needed. Recently some of the companies have started the centralized purchasing. attitudes toward risk. Major Influences on Business Buyers: Business buyers are subject to many influences when they make their buying make money . For this they often use a supplier-evaluation model. personality. INDIVIDUAL FACTORS: Each participant in the business buying process has his own motivations. Business marketers should be particularly aware of these. policies. v) Purchasing Performance Evaluation and buyers professional development: Many companies have installed the incentive systems to reward purchasing managers for goods buying performance. SUPPLIERS SELECTION: The buying center. price. specify the desired attributes of the suppliers. and the company searches for another supplier. and culture. iv) A purchasing manager senses an opportunity to obtain lower prices or better quality. computer search or make phone to other companies for recommendations. e. and 4) Individual factors. For this purpose organizations uses trade directories.

iii) expected time of delivery. Then the buying center attempt to negotiate with its preferred suppliers for better prices and terms before making the final selection. A blanket contract establishes a long term relationship in which the supplier promises to re-supply at an agreed price over a specified period of time.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 7 8 reputation are highly important. their certain special feature found in these markets. Three methods are commonly used. v) warrantees. In modified-re-buy or straight-re-buy situations. They also often require the chosen suppliers to achieve continuous quality and performance improvement while at the same time lowering the supply price each year by a given percentage. Furthermore these companies want each chosen supplier to be responsible for a larger component system. some of these stages would be compressed or bypassed. Writing a new purchase order each time is expensive and time consuming. 2) Rate the supplier on several criteria using a weighted score method or 3) aggregate the cost of poor supplier performance to come up with adjusted cost of purchase including price. The buying center also decide as to how many suppliers to use. 22 . 1) the buyer may contact the end user and ask for evaluation. INSTITUTIONAL AND GOVERNMENT MARKETS: So far our discussion is about the profit seeking organizations. ORDER-ROUTINE SPECIFICATION: After selection of supplier the buyer negotiate final order listing the i) Technical specifications. iv) return policies. ii) Quantity needed. because it means to carry more inventory. The purchaser also do not wants to make a large purchase order ( and thus decreasing number of orders). etc. However. PERFORMANCE REVIEW: When all is done the buyer reviews the performance of the chosen supplier. Above given stages are for the new task buying situation. Much of it also applies to the buying practices of institutional and government organizations.

there are two forms of oligopoly pure and differentiated. But when the entry and exit both barriers are high it means that poor performing firms will also stay in the market.e. and demand more quality. potential entrants. Few new firms can enter the industry. and reputational requirements. economies of scale. or services.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-8 Analyzing the Industries and Competitors There are five forces that determine the intrinsic long-run profit attractiveness of a market or market segment. The five threats they poses are as follows: 1 Threat of intense segment revelry: A segment is unattractive if it already contains numerous. 23 . These are industry competitors. license. styling. i) Differentiated Oligopoly: consist of a few companies producing partially differentiated products (cameras. and if both barriers are low it means more firms can enter in the segment. It may by due to a regulatory edict. buyers. Since there is no basis for differentiation. 4 PURE COMPETITION: Consists of many competitors offering the same product and service (stockmarket. Sellers will enjoy different profit rates only to the extent that they achieve lower costs of production or distribution. Number of Sellers and Degree of Differentiation: The starting point for describing an industry is to specify whether there are one. Each competitors may seek leadership in one of these major attributes. and poor-performing firms can easily exit. substitutes. strong. or distributions. 5 Threat of suppliers growing bargaining power. lack of alternative opportunities high vertical integration and emotional barriers. autos) The differentiation can occur along lines of quality. competitors price will be the same. No competitor will advertise unless advertising can create psychological differentiation (cigarettes) in which case it would be more proper to describe the industry and monopolistically competitive. 3 MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION: Consist of many competitors able to differentiated their offers in whole or part (restaurants. A company in a pure oligopolistic industry would find it hard to charge anything more than the going price unless it can differentiate its services. but they often face exit barriers. government restrictions. or aggressive competitors. commodity market). or many sellers of the product and whether the product is homogeneous or highly structure type: 1 PURE MONOPOLY: Exist when only one firm provides a certain product or service in a certain country. It is even more unattractive if the segment is stable or declining. Industry Concept of Competitors: An industry is a group of firms that offer a product or class of products that are close substitutes for each other. attract the consumers favoring that attribute and charge a price premium for that attribute. and suppliers. 3 Threats of Substitute Products. Most common barriers are lager moral obligations to customers. 2 Threats of new entrants: A segment's attractiveness varies with the high of its entry and exit barriers. It is easy to open a new restaurant but difficult to enter the air craft industry. Many of the competitors focus on market segments where they can meet customer needs in a superior way and command a price premium. IDENTIFYING COMPETITORS: Competitors may be at four levels: 1 Brand competitors: A company offering similar product and services to the same customers at similar prices. features. beauty shops). 2 OLIGOPOLY: An industry structure in which a small number of (usually) large firms produce product that range from highly differentiated to standardized. scarce locations. The most attractive segment is one in which entry barriers are high and exit barriers are low i. scale economics or other factors. patent. steel). patents and licensing requirements. 2 Industry competitors: Occurs when a company sees its competitors as all companies making the same product or class of products. raw materials. A segment is unattractive when there are actual or potential substitutes for the product are available. creditors. low asset salvage value due to over-specialization or obsolescence. few. The major barriers include high capital requirements. 3 Form competition: Occurs when a company sees its competitors as all companies manufacturing products that supply the same service. i) Pure oligopoly: consist of a few companies producing essentially the same commodity (oil. Entry and Mobility Barriers: Industry differ greatly in their ease of entry. and employees. Exit and Shrinkage Barriers: Ideally firms should be free to leave industries in which profit are unattractive. 4 Threat of buyers growing bargaining power: A segment is unattractive if the buyer have strong or growing bargaining power because he will force prices down. 4 Generic competition: Occurs when a company sees its competitors as all companies compete for the same consumer Rupee.

A company must continuously monitor its competitors' strategies and revise their strategies through time depending upon the competitors strategy. a promotion step-up. Companies normally learn about their competitors position through secondary data. Name the first company that comes to mind in this industry. Moreover. and certain guidelines beliefs. new investments and capacity utilization. All these sources help a company decide whom to attack in the programmable-controls market. return on investment. service leadership and son on. and others by contrast fighting. IDENTIFYING COMPETITORS' STRATEGIES: A company's closest competitors are those pursuing the same target markets with the same strategy. Finally a company must also monitor its competitors expansion plans. Degree of Globalization: Some industries are highly local others are global. cash flow. It might respond to price cuts but not to advertising expenditure increases. current management. Estimating Competitors Reaction Patterns: Identification of competitors strangest and weaknesses help managers to anticipate the competitors likely reactions to other companies' strategies (e. a price cut. slow in noticing the move. personal experience. Some industries are characterized by relative accord among the competitors. and alternative assumption is that they pursues a mix of objectives : current profitability. The reasons may vary. vertically integrated firms can manipulate their prices and costs in different segments of their business to earn profit where taxes are low. suppliers. including data on sales. A group of firms following the same strategy in a given target market is called a strategic group. A competitors objectives are shaped by many things. then competitive equilibrium is unstable. The laid back competitors may feel their customer are loyal. Firms will pay the greatest attention to their greatest costs and will strategies to reduce these costs. Assessing Competitors Strengths and Weaknesses: To identify the strengths and weaknesses of competitors a company should first gather recent information on each competitor's business. history. Here are some of the observations about the likely state of competitive relations. or any thing else. Two of the most common shrinkage barriers are contract commitments and suborns management. DETERMINING COMPETITORS' OBJECTIVES: After identifying its main competitors and their strategies a company may ask itself: what is each competitor seeking in the marketplace? What drives each competitor's behavior? An initial assumption is that competitors strive to maximize their profits. 1 If competitors are nearly identical and make their living in the same way then their competitive equilibrium is unstable. iii) Share of heart: The percentage of customers who named the competitor in responding to the statement. 3 THE TIGER COMPETITOR: A competitor that react swiftly and strongly to any assault on its terrain. a certain internal culture. If the competitor is not critical to its parent company. ii) Share of mind: The percentage of customers who named the competitor in responding to the statement.g. In general every company should monitor three variables when analyzing its competitors: i) Share of market: The competitor's share of the target market. and dealers. and place in the large organization. history. it could be attacked more readily. each competitor has a certain philosophy of doing business. Companies in the global industries need to compete on a global basis if they are to achieve economies of scale and keep up with the latest advances in technology. Such competitor might or might not retaliate on a particular occasion: there is no way of predicting this decision on the basis of its economic situation. market shale. including its size. A company need to identify the strategic group in which it competes. In addition.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Even if some firms do not want to exit the industry they might want to decrease their size. Name the company from whom you would prefer to buy the product. 4 THE STOCHASTIC COMPETITORS: A competitor that does not exhibit a predictable reaction pattern. 24 . Degree of Vertical Integration: Some firms find it advantageous to integrate backward and forward which often causes lower in cost and give company more control over the value-added stream. 2 If a single major factor is the critical factor. They can augment their knowledge by conducting primary marketing research with customers. technological leadership. and hearsay. If a competitor is part of a larger company. The companies try to reduce the shrinkage barriers to help their ailing competitors get smaller gracefully. 1 THE LAID BACK COMPETITORS: A competitor that doesn't react quickly or strongly to a rival's move. profit margin. or a new-product introduction). market share growth cash flow. it is important to know whether the parent company is running it for growth or milking it. may face lack of funds to react. 2 THE SELECTIVE COMPETITORS: A competitor that react to only certain types of attacks and not to others. Cost Structure: Each industry has a certain cost mix that drive much of its strategic conduct. financial situation. Most competitors fall into one of following four categories. while toy manufacturing involve heavy distribution and marketing cost. For example steel making involves heavy manufacturing and raw-materials cost.

2 Collecting the Data: the data are collected on a continuous basis form the field. even strong competitors have some weaknesses. After the company has done its customer value analysis. serve and satisfy the customer but also be given an incentive to spot competitive information and pass it on to the relevant parties in the company. the firm may achieve little in the way of improved capabilities. The firm should also compete with strong competitors to keep up worth the state of the art. and organized. they upset the industrial equilibrium. Generally managers conduct a customer value analysis to reveal the company's strengths and weaknesses relative to various competitors. and competitors' employees. the company should avoid trying to destroy the close competitor. This strategy requires fewer resources and time per share point gained. 4 Examine how customers in a specific segment rate the company's performance against a specific major competitor on an attribute-by-attribute basis. But in the process of attacking weak competitors. DESIGNING THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM: Each company should carefully design its competitive intelligence system to be cost effective. they limit themselves to a portion or segment of the industry. managers will find it easier to formulate their competitive strategies. they motivate other to lower costs or improve differentiation's. Competitors all have their competitive segment. it can focus its attack on one of the following classes of competitors: strong versus weak competitors. 25 . Close versus Distant Competitors: Most companies compete with competitors who resemble them the most. At the same time. There are four main steps involved in designing a competitive intelligence system: 1 Setting up the System: The first stem calls for identifying vital types of competitive information identifying the best sources of this information and assigning a person who will manage the system and its services. they invest in over capacity. they set prices in a reasonable relation to costs. 3 Assess the company's and competitors' performances on the different customer values against their rated importance. the share the cost of market development and legitimatize a new technology. Sometimes cross-disciplinary teams are formed specifically for this purpose. offers. and the accept the general level of their share of profits. and good versus bad competitors. the more competitors who can coexist. Good competitors have a number of characteristics: they play by the industry's rules: they make realistic assumptions about the industry's growth potentials. and in general.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 3 If multiple factors may be critical factors. 5 Monitor customer values over time. Everyone in the company must be only sense. and they may service less attractive segments. close versus distant competitors. Bad competitors violate the rules: They try to buy share rather than earn it: they take large risks. Furthermore. The aim of a customer value analysis is to determine the benefits that customers in a target market segment want and how they perceive the relative value of competing suppliers. 4 disseminating information and Responding: Key information is sent to relevant decision maker and managers' inquires about competitors are answered. circuits. SELECTING COMPETITORS TO ATTACK AND AVOID: With good competitive intelligence. Competitors confer several strategic benefits: They lower the antitrust risk. The more factors that may provide a advantage. Strong Versus Weak Competitors: Most companies aim their shots at their weak competitors. they increase total demand. A company benefits in several ways from good competitors. 3 Evaluating and Analyzing the Data: The data are checked for validity and reliability. then it is possible for each competitor to have some advantage and be differently attractive to some consumers. defined by the preference for the factor trade-offs that they offer. from people who do business with competitors. they lead to more differentiation. interpreted. They will have a better sense of whom they can effective compete with in the market. they favor healthy industry. they improve bargaining power vis-à-vis labor unions or regulators. and the firm may prove to be a worthy competitor. The major steps in customer value analysis are: 1 Identifying the major attributes that customers value 2 Assess the quantitative importance of the different attributes. Good Versus Bad Competitors: Porter argues that every industry contains "good" and "Bad" competitors.

The traditional argument is that mass marketing creates the largest potential market. (D) basis for segmenting of consumer and business markets. For example in the segment of heavy smokers a sub-segment of heavy smokers with emphysema. Before discussing these levels first we have to understand MASS MARKETING. Instead of competing everywhere the company needs to identify the market segments that it can serve most effectively. location. Segment marketing is the mid point between mass marketing and individual marketing. i) HOMOGENEOUS PREFERENCES: A market where all the customers roughly have the same preference.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-9 Identifying Market Segments and Selecting Target Markets A company that decide to operate in a broad market recognizes that it cannot serve all customers in that market because customer are too numerous and diverse in their buying requirements. The company tries to isolate some broad segments. Segment marketing offers several benefits over mass marketing. Instead of looking at demographic or lifestyle segments. INDIVIDUAL MARKETING: It is the ultimate level of segmentation which lead to "one -to-one marketing". The choice of distribution channels. SELF MARKETING. target one or more of those segments and develop products and marketing programs for each segment. iii) those who are seeing luxury. which leads to the lowest costs and ultimately results in lower prices or higher margins. (B) patterns of segmentation. It is usually identified by dividing a segment into sub-segments. ii) DEFUSED PREFERENCES: At the other extreme the customers preferences may be scattered and customers vary greatly in their preferences. key distinctive benefits in the market. it means producing a thing on receipt of order from customer according to the specifications. Patterns of Market Segmentation: Market segments can be built up in many ways. i) those who are seeking basic transportation. 3 Market Positioning: Establish and communicate products. buying habits. Levels of Segmentation: Market segmentation represents an effort to increase a company's targeting precision. but it is difficult to carry out. Target marketing involves three major steps: 1 Market Segmentation: Identifying distinct groups of buyers who might require separate products. yet they are not identical. Here will examine (A) level of segmentation. MARKET SEGMENTATION: Market consist of buyers who differ in many ways. an auto company identify four levels segments of car buyers. Markets can be segmented in a number of way. Some segment members wants additional features not included in the offer while others would gladly give-up what they do not want very much. 2 Market Targeting: Select one or more market segments to enter. mass distribution. purchasing power. NICHE MARKETING: A niche means a small market whose needs are not being well served. SEGMENT MARKETING: A segment consist of large identifiable group within a market. and (E) requirements for effective segmentation. Three different patterns can emerge. Segments being fairly large attract several competitors while niches are fairly small and normally attract only a few competitors. Or it could locate in a corner to attract a customer group that was not satisfied with the center brand. e. In target marketing the sellers distinguish the major market segment. In mass marketing the seller engages in the mass production. A form of individual marketing in which individual customer takes more responsibility for determining which product and brands to buy. or localized marketing. A second competitor would locate next to the first brand and fight for market share. The market shows no natural segments. The segment marketing companies know that buyers differ in want. like coca cola. and company have to face fewer competitors. (trade areas neighbor hoods). Consumers belonging to one segment are considered quit similar in their wants and needs. LOCAL MARKETING: Also called regional marketing. In it market programs are tailored to the needs and wants of local customers groups. ii) those who are seeking high performance.g. 2) niches. etc. and mass promotion of one product for all buyers. and iv) those who are seeking safety. The first brand to enter the market is likely to position in the center to appeal to the most people. The company can produce a more fine tuned product and price it appropriately for the target audience. It can be carried out at four levels. 3) local areas. 1) segments. and communication channels becomes much easier. we can distinguish preference segments. If several brands are in the market they are likely to position through out the space and show real differences to match consumer-preference differences. and 4)individuals and 5) self marketing. (C) market segmentation procedure. 26 A 1 2 3 4 5 B .

It may position in the largest market segment. People within the same demographic group can exhibit very different psycho-graphic profiles. STEP THREE PROFILING STAGE: Each cluster is profiled in terms of its distinguished attitudes. Basis of Segmenting Consumer Markets: Two broad groups are used to segment consumer markets. First researchers form segments by looking at consumer characteristics. Occasionally other marketers notice an opportunity for gender segmentation. race. competitors would enter and introduce brands in the other segments. e. called natural market segments. nationality. then apply cluster analysis to create a specific number of (maximally different) segments. and regular users of a product. regions countries. potential users. psycho-graphic and media-graphics of the respondents. urban. a) Lifestyle: People exhibit many more lifestyles than seven as are suggested by the social classes. Some marketers target baby bombers using communications and symbols that appeal to the optimism of that generation. while smaller firms will often focus on attracting current users away from the market leader. income does not always predict the best customers for a given product.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) C D 1 2 3 4 CLUSTERED PREFERENCES: The market might reveal distinct preference clusters. STEP ONE SURVEY STAGE: Researchers conduct exploratory interviews and focus on consumer's motivations. In fact. Many companies designee products for specific social classes PSYCHO-GRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: In psycho-graphic segmentation. which may include geographic. based on dominant distinguishing characteristic. cities. Market Segmentation Procedure: Marketing research firms uses a three-step approach to identify the segments in the market. and media patterns. 2 Benefit Segmentation: A powerful form of segmentation involves classifying buyers according to the benefits they seek from the product. family life cycle gender. first-time users. each positioned in a different segment. Marketers are increasingly segmenting their markets by consumer lifestyles. occupation. They use occasions and brands. behavior. If the first firm developed only one brand. the goods they consume express their lifestyles. GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: Dividing the market into different geographical units such as nations. These variables are the most popular because they are easier to measure than most other types of variables. attitudes and behavior. rural. geographic. home furnishing. or family. People product interests are influenced by their lifestyles. psycho-graphics. 1 Occasions: Buyers can be distinguished according to the occasions they develop a need. It might position in the center. An air line can specialize in serving people for whom one of these occasions dominates.g. income. family size. Each segment can be given a name. use of. buyers are divided into different groups on the basis of lifestyle and / or personality. Following are the types of behavioral segmentation. or response to a product. However. b Personality: Marketers also use personality variables to segment marketers. attitude toward. reading habits etc. The company's position in the market will also influence its focus. generation. The first firm in this market has three options. STEP TWO ANALYSIS STAGE: The researcher applies factor analysis to the data to remove highly correlated variables. and then decide to operate in one or a few geographic areas. Product usage patterns. clothing. 3 User Status: Markets can be segmented into groups of nonusers. Other researchers try to form segments by looking at consumer responses to benefits sought. Generally applied in clothing hair-styling. ex users. climate etc.Cycle Stage: Consumers wants and abilities change with age. and magazines. and psycho-graphic characteristics. education religion. e) Social Class: It has a strong influence on a person's preference in cars. BEHAVIORAL SEGMENTATION: Buyers are divided into groups on the basis of their knowledge of . psycho-graphics and behavioral segmentation. demographics. d) Generation: Each generation is profoundly influenced by the milieu in which it grows up. From these findings researchers prepare a formal questioner to collect data about their: Attitudes and their importance rating Brand awareness and brand ratings. DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION: In it market is divided into groups on the basis of demographic variables such as age. demographic. b) Gender. air travel is triggered by occasions related to business. The major segmentation variables are: 1) geographic. states. Demographics. 27 . Attitudes towards the product category. vacation. Marketshare leaders will focus on attracting potential users. It might develop several brands. cosmetics. clothing. demographic. cosmetics and travel. or use a product. or social class. They endow their products with brand personalities that correspond to consumer personalities. However it is a tricky variable and is mostly effected by the psychology. a) Age and Life . hoping to appear to all groups. c) Income: Another long-standing practice in such product and service categories as automobiles boats. purchase a product.

and heavy product users. Operating Variables: 1 Technology: What customer technologies should we focus on? 2 User /Nonuser status: Should we serve heavy users. some desire the product. MULTY ATTRIBUTE SEGMENTATION Marketers no longer talk about the average consumers. 4 General Purchase Policy: Serve them who prefer leasing. BASIS FOR SEGMENTING BUSINESS MARKETS: Business market s can be segmented with many of the same variables employed in consumer market segmentation. 5 Locality Status: A market can be segmented by consumer-locality patterns. 6 Buyers-Readiness Stage: A market consist of people in different stages of readiness to buy a product. then expand into other segments. Buyers can be divided into four groups according to their brand-loyalty. they don’t constitute separate segments. iii) Shifting Loyals: Those shift from favoring one brand to another. financially dominants or so forth? 3 Nature of Existing Relationships: Serve companies having strong relations with us. medium. benefit sought and usage rate. all segmentation are not effective. Targeting Multiple Segments: Very often. service contracts. 3 Location: Which geographical areas should we serve. and hostile. some are interested. engineering dominants. such as geography. Heavy users are often a small percentage of the market but account for the high percentage of total consumption. TARGET MARKETING 1 After identifying market-segments the enterprise has to evaluate them and decide. 4 DIFFERENTIABLE: The segment are conceptually distinguishable and respond differently to different marketing -mix elements and programs. however. or go after the most desirable. some are aware. Consumers can have varying degrees of loyalty to brands. If married and un-married woman respond similarly to a sale on perfume. Marketers usually prefer to attract one heavy user to their product or service rather than several light users. i) Hard-core loyals: Who buy one brand all the time. and other entities. The relative numbers make a big difference in designing the marketing program. Rather they are increasingly crossing several variables in an effort to identify smaller. Some are unaware of the product.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 5 E 4 Usage rate: Market can also be segmented into light. how many and which ones to target. positive. 4 ACTIONABLE : Effective programs can be formulated for attracting and serving the segments. 5 Purchasing Criteria Serve those companies seeking quality? Service? or price? Situational Factors: 1 Urgency: Should we serve companies that need quick and sudden delivery or service? 2 Specific application: Should we focus on certain application of our product rather that all applications? 3 Size of Order: Should we focus on larger or small orders? Personal Characteristics: 1 Buyer Seller Similarity Should we serve companies whose people and values are similar to ours? 2 Attitudes toward risk: Should we serve risk-taking or risk-avoiding customers? 3 Loyalty: Should we serve companies that show high loyalty to their suppliers? Requirements for Effective Segmentation: There are many ways of segmenting a market. Now we will examine the process of evaluating and selecting marketing segments: Evaluating the Market Segments: While evaluating the market segments the firm must look at two factors given bellow: I) The overall attractiveness of the segment and 28 . system's purchases or sealed bidding. Yet business markets can also use several other variable given bellow: Demographic: It may include: 1 Industry: Which industries should we serve. or even limit their analysis to only a few market segments. 2 Company size: What size companies should we serve. better defined target groups. 3 ACCESSIBLE: The segment can be effectively reached and served. indifferent. stores. To be useful market segments must be: 1 MEASURABLE: The purchasing power and characteristics of the segment can be measured. light or nonuser? 3 Customer Capabilities: Should we serve customers needing many or few goods or services? Purchasing Approach: 1 Purchasing Function Organization: Should we serve highly centralized or decentralized purchasing organizations? 2 Power Structure Should we serve Co. some are formed. iv) Switchers: Consumers who show no loyalty to any brand. negative. 7 Attitude: Five attitude groups can be found in a market enthusiastic. and some intend to buy. 2 SUBSTANTIAL: Segment should be large and profitable enough to serve. ii) Split Loyals: Who are loyal to two or three brands. companies may begin their marketing with one targeted segment. medium.

IV) MARKET SPECIALIZATION: Here the firm concentrates on serving many needs of a particular custom group.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 1 2 3 4 II) The companies objectives and resources. Intersegment Cooperation: The best way to manage segments is to appoint segment managers with sufficient authority and responsibility for building their segment's business. differentiated market creates more total sales than undifferentiated It also increase the cost of business the following are the costs: Product modification cost: Modifying a product to meet different market segment requirements usually involves more research and development. After evaluating the firm decide to which and how many segments to serve. but each segment promises to be a money maker. Administrative cost: for separate marketing plan for each market segment. and 4) intersegment cooperation. each objectively attractive and appropriate. Companies should also identify and try to operate in super segments rather than in isolated segments. II) SELECTIVE SPECIALIZATION: Here the firm selects a number of segments. V) FULL MARKET COVERAGE: When the firm attempts to serve all customer groups with all the products that they might need. Manufacturing cost: It is usually more expensive to produce 10 units of 10 different products than 100 units of one product. Promotion costs: The company has to reach different markets segments with different promotion programs. 2) segment interrelationships and super segments. Socially responsible marketing calls for segmentation and targeting that serve not just the interests of the company but also the interests of those targeted. III) PRODUCT SPECIALIZATION: When the firm concentrates on making a certain product that it sells to several segments. 3) segment-by-segment evasion plans. It relies on mass distribution and mass advertising. Selection can be made in any of the following five patterns I) SINGLE SEGMENT CONCENTRATION: The most simplest case in which company selects only one segment and concentrates on it. In market targeting the issue is not who is targeted but rather how and for what. This multi-segment coverage strategy has the advantage of diversifying the firm's risk. 29 . It focuses on buyers needs rather than differences among buyers. Selecting the Market Segment. the result is increased promotion-planning costs and media costs. given the firm's objectives and are resources. b) Differentiated Marketing: In it firms operate in several market segments and designs different programs for each segment. performance and technology side. segment managers should not be so segment-focused as to resist cooperation with other company personnel to improve overall company performance. there may be little or no synergy among the segments. Ethical Choice of Market Targets: Market targeting sometimes generates controversy like cigarette markets have generate much controversy. Only very large firms can undertake a full market coverage strategy. the company should pay close attention to segment interrelationships on the cost. In it a company can build strong reputation in the specific product area. ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATION IN EVALUATING AND SELECTING SEGMENTS: Following four more considerations must be taken into account in evaluating and selecting segments: 1) Ethical choice of market targets. Even if one segment becomes unattractive the firm can continue to earn more in other one. At the same time. Segment Interrelationships and Super segments: In selecting more than one segment. The competitors must not know to what segment(s) the firm will move next. This requires extra marketing reach. A super segment is a set of segments sharing some exploitable similarity. it is wise to enter one segment at a time and conceal its grand plan. Segment By Segment Invasion Plans: Even if the firm plans to target super segment. promotion. Large firms can cover a whole market in two broad ways through undifferentiated marketing or differentiated marketing. a) Undifferentiated Marketing: In it the firm ignores market-segment differences and goes after the whole market with one market offer. It design a product and a marketing program that will appeal to the broadest number of buyers. sales analysis. engineering and special tooling costs. forecasting. The downside risk is that the product may be supplanted by an entirely new technology. planning and channel management. Inventory Costs: It is usually more to manage inventories containing many products than inventories containing few products.

30 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B 1 2 3 4 . RELIABILITY: It is the measure of the probability that a product will not malfunction or fail within a specified time period. and so on.g. DELIVERY: Refers to how well the product or service is delivered to the customer. special rewards for loyal users. it will be soundly beaten by the competitor." The number of differentiation’s varies with the type of industry. CUSTOMER TRAINING: It refers to training the customers' employees to use the vendor's equipment properly and efficiently. 5) customer consulting. accuracy and care attending the delivery process.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-10 Differentiating and Positioning the Market Offering In an industry know for intense competition. DURABILITY: Durability is the measure of the product's expected operating life under natural and / or stressful conditions. At the other extreme are products capable of high differentiation. D)Channel. e. for several reasons. 2) performance. the dye to competitive success often lies in adding more value-adding services and improving their quality. 6) style. REPARABILITY: Buyers prefer products that are easy to repair. 2 SEGMENTED INDUSTRY: An industry in which there are only few competitive advantages and each is small. Third a competitor will usually find a lower-cost production method and offer an even cheaper version. How exactly can a company differentiate its product form competitors. entertain more lavishly. and 7) few others. PERFORMANCE: Refers the level at which the product's primary characteristics operate.g. constantly about new feature and benefits to win the attention and interests of customers. FEATURES: Features are characteristics that supplement the product's basic function. how a product looks and functions in terms of customer requirements. Here it is difficult to differentiate its product or decrease its cost Companies try to higher better salespeople. Here profitability is correlated with company size and market share. Product Differentiation: Differentiating the physical products.g. 4 SPECIALIZED INDUSTRY: An industry in which companies faces more opportunities for differentiation and each differentiation can have a high payoff. e. TOOLS FOR COMPETITIVE DIFFERENTIATION: DIFFERENTIATION is the act of designing a set of meaningful differences to distinguish the company's offering from competitors' offering. Style describes the product's looks and feel to the buyer. but each opportunity for competitive advantage is small. second the firm may cut services to keep the price down which may alienate buyers. e. Even when they succeed their competitors adopt such their value package and thus competitive advantages lasts only for a short time. who can a small company can compete against industry leaders? One answer is by differentiating its product and avoiding direct competition. There are five dimensions A) Product. It includes the speed.g. C) Personnel. Industries are of four types: 1 VOLUME INDUSTRY: A Industry in which companies can gain only a few but large competitive advantages. steel industry. companies making special machinery for selected market segments. When the physical product cannot easily be differentiated. The main product differentiation’s are 1) features. INSTALLATION: Installation is the work done to make a product operational in its planned location. If the firm did not distinguish its offering in any other way than price. STYLE: Buyers are normally willing to pay a premium for products that are attractively styled. At one extreme the products are highly standardized and allow little variation. and 7) design. Yet even here. Buyers of heavy equipment expect good installation service from the vendor. ORDERING EASE: It refers to how easy it is for the customer to place an order with the company. Buyers normally will pay a premium for product with more reliability. In it a company can strive for low cast position or the highly differentiated position. such as automobiles. or E)Image. Companies that differentiate their offering solely by cutting their costs and price may be making a mistake. 4) customer training. The main service differentiation’s are 1) ordering ease. but these are small advantages. genuine variation is possible. Companies are constantly trying to differentiate their market offering or value package from competitors. e. steel aspirin. 4)reliability. and furniture. CONFORMANCE QUALITY: Is the degree to which all the produced units are identical and meet the promised target specifications. Companies therefore. 3 FRAGMENTED INDUSTRY: Where company faces many opportunities for differentiation. They provide new guarantees. 5)reparability. 6) maintenance and repair. 3) installation. It is the totality of features that affect. chicken. DESIGN: A most patent way to differentiate and position a company's products and services. Service Differentiation: In addition to differentiating its physical product a firm can also differentiate its services. new conveniences and enjoyments. 2)delivery. buildings. First cheaper products are often viewed as inferior in quality. 3)durability. need to think. B)Service. construction.

safest. Communication: The employees make an effort to understand the customer and communicate clearly Channel Differentiation: Companies can achieve differentiation through the way they shape their distribution channels. Better trained personnel’s exhibit six characteristics Competence: The employee possess the required skill and knowledge. lowest price. Identity comprises the ways that a company aims to identify itself or position its product. • Communicable: The difference is communicable and visible to buyers. Credibility The employees are trustworthy." Not everyone agrees that single-benefit positioning is always best. Double-benefit positioning may be necessary if two or more firms are claiming to be best on the same attribute. information system and advising service that the seller offers free or for a price to buyer. fastest. they risk disbelief and a sole of clear positioning. a company must avoid four major positioning errors. respectful and considerate. SYMBOLS: A strong image consists of one or more symbols that trigger company or brand recognition. Each brand should back an attribute and tout itself a s number one on that attribute. In general. Expertise: means its dealers are typically better trained and perform more reliably. • Preemptive: The difference cannot be easily copied by the competitors. EVENTS: A company can build an identity through the type of events it sponsors. How Many Differences to Promote: Many marketers advocate promoting only one benefit to the target market. it delivers emotional power so that it stirs the hearts as well as the minds of buyers. Image is the way the public perceives the company or its products. Virtually there are unlimited number of specific services and benefits that companies can offer to differentiate themselves from their competitors. They can offer a better product warranty or maintenance contract than their competitors. particularly these channels are 1)coverage. ATMOSPHERE: Distinctive physical condition in which the origination produces or delivers its products and services is another powerful image generator. Coverage means its dealers are found in more locations than competitors' dealers. best service. • Profitable: The company will fine it profitable to introduce the difference. • Distinctive: The difference either is not offered by other or is offered in a more distinctive way by the company. As companies increase the number of claims for their brand. Identity Versus Image: It is important to distinguish between identity and image. The company brands and logos should be designed to instant recognition. Image Differentiation: Even when the offers of two competitors look same. Positioning is the act of designing the company's offering and image so that they occupy a meaningful and distinct competitive position in the target customers' minds. PERSONNEL DIFFERENTIATION: Companies can gain a strong competitive advantage through hiring and training better people than their competitors. An effective image does three things for a product. buyers may respond differently to the company or brand image. MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES: Companies find many other ways to add value by differentiating their customer services. The most commonly promoted number-one positioning are "best quality. Courtesy: The employees are friendly. Reliability The employees perform the service consistently and accurately. first it conveys a singular message that establishes the product's character and value positions. 2)expertise. best value. most customized. • Superior: The difference is superior to other ways of obtaining the same benefit. DEVELOPING A POSITIONING STRATEGY: A company must carefully select the ways in which it will distinguish itself from competitors a difference is worth establishing to the extent that it satisfies the following criteria: • Important: The difference delivers a high valued benefit to a sufficient number of buyers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 5 6 7 C D 1 2 3 E 1 2 3 4 CUSTOMER CONSULTING: It refers to data. Performance: refers to developing and managing direct marketing channels of high quality. most convenient and most advanced technology. • Affordable: The buyer can afford to pay for the difference. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR: It describes the company's service program for helping customers keep their purchased products in good working order. Responsiveness The employees respond quickly to customers' requests and problems. They can establish patronage awards. it conveys a message in a distinctive way so that it is not confused with similar messages from competitors. Third. 31 . WRITTEN AND AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA: The chosen symbols must be worked into advertisements that convey the company or brand personality. Second. and 3) performance.

such as size. Competitors Positioning: Here the product positions itself as better in some way than a named or implied competitor. Benefit positioning: Here the product is positioned as the leader in a certain benefit. Quality / Price positioning: Here the product is positioned as offering the best value for the price. number or years in existence. The brand is seen just as just an other entry in a crowded marketplace. Overpositioning: Buyers may have too narrow an image of the brand. price.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Underpositioning: Some companies discover that buyers have only a vague idea of the brand. User positioning This involves positioning the product as best for some user group. That he deems it as high standard than his capabilities. Buyers don't really sense anything special about it. Use / application positioning: This involve positioning the product as best for some use or application. Doubtful Positioning: Buyer may found it hard to believe the brand claims in view of the product's features. Product category positioning: Here the product is positioned as the leader in a certain product category. 32 . The different positioning strategies that a company can adopt are given bellow: Attribute positioning: This occurs when a company positions itself on an attribute. Confused Positioning: Buyers might have a confused image of the brand resulting to many claims or changing the brand's positioning too frequently. or manufacturer.

sizes. iv) New product is either incorrectly positioned in the market. company have to face high research and development costs. which are given bellow: i) Shortage of new production ideas in certain areas i. especially in large multidivisional companies. v) Development costs are higher than expected. hoping to achieve a few winners. Thus top management must establish specific criteria for acceptance of new-product ideas. A new product may fail due to any one or more of the following reasons. their may be few ways left to improve the products ii) Fundamental Markets: Keen competition leads to market fragmentation. In addition several other factors hinder new-product development. v) Repositioning: Exhibiting products that are targeted to new markets or market segments. or 2 it can contract with independent researchers or new-product-development firms to develop specific products for the company. New product development requires management to define the business domains and product categories that the company wants to emphasize. i) New-to-the-world products: New product that create an entirely new market. The companies which fail to develop new products are putting themselves at great risk. iii) Social and governmental Constraints: New product have to satisfy such criteria as to consumer safety. iii) Additions to Existing product lines: New product that supplement a company’s established product lines (Package. 2 it can acquire patents from other companies. At the same time the development of a new product is also risky due to the chances of failure. There are six categories of new products in terms of their newness to the company and to the marketplace. A major decision facing top management is how much to budget for new-product development. 1 The company can buy other companies. The most common of these are: 33 . not advertised effectively. Research and development out comes are so uncertain that it is difficult to use normal investment criteria for budgeting. Still other companies decide how-many successful new products they need and work backward to estimate the required R&D budget investments. or 3 it can buy a license or franchise from another company.e. ii) The idea is good but market size is over estimated.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-11 Developing New Product Every company must carry on new product development. Other companies set their R&D budget by applying a conventional percentage of sales figures or by spending what the competitors spends.) iv) Improvements and revisions of existing products: New products that provide improved performance or greater perceived value and replace existing products. etc. archeological compatibility. vi) Competitors fight back harder than expected. A company can add new product through acquisition and/ or new-product development. vii) Shorter Product Life Cycle: When a new product is successful rivals are quick to copy it. i) Putting an new idea (favorite to high level executive) inspite of negative market research findings. An effective organization begins with its top management. EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS: Successful new product development requires the company to establish an effective origination for managing the new-product-development process. cannot raise the funds needed to research and produce them. The new product development route can take two forms. CHALLENGES IN NEW-PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: New technologies has shortened the product life cycle. Some companies solve this problem by encouraging and financing as many projects as possible. The acquisition route can take three forms. 1 The company can develop new products in its own laboratories. ii) New product lines: New product that allow a company to enter an established market for the first time. which is ultimately responsible for the success of the new product. Companies handle the organizational aspects of new product development in several ways. flavors. v) Capital shortages: Some companies with good ideas. vi) Cost reductions: New product that provide similar performance at lower cost. iv) Coastlines of the new product development process: A company has to develop many new product ideas to find just one worthy of development. vi) Faster Development Time: Many competitors are likely to get the same idea at the same time and victory often goes to the swiftest. Replacement products must be created to maintain or build sales. iii) The actual product is not well designed. Moreover. or overpriced.

34 . and copy machine into one unit. and remember. vi) Synectics: William J. New product ideas can come from many sources. e. MANAGING THE NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: There are eight stages involved in the new-product development process. we want as many ideas as possible. no evaluation.g. Top management: can be another manor source of development of new ideas. what competitors are doing. and 8) commercialization. Thus he has exposed a very different technique named as synectics method. like customers. and carrying out field testing and commercialization. 2)idea screening. and top management. 1) idea generation. 5) business analysis. The usual brainstorming group consist of 6 to 10 peoples discussing the specific problem. In it the consumers are asked about needs. a combine machine containing fax. ii) Forced Relationships: In it several aspects are considered in relation to one an other to create a new product. telephone. scientists. designers. working with R&D department. problems and ideas. employees. engineers. 7) market testing. Combining and Improving ideas is encouraged: Participants should suggest how other people's ideas can be joined into more ideas. Top managers should define the products the available markets and state the new products objectives. Scientists / Employees: Companies also rely on their scientists. Successful companies have established a culture that encourages every employee to seek new ways for improving the company's production. Consumers needs and wants are logical place to start the search for new-product ideas. it is easier to tame down than to think up. It have five principles: a) Deferment: Look first for viewpoint rather than solutions. v) Brainstorming: Group creativity can be stimulated by brain storming technique. channel members. c) Use of Common Place: Take advantage of the familiar as a signboard to the strange. The hope is to find some novel combinations. 6) product development. The chain starts each discussion by saying. Idea Generation techniques: There are a number of techniques of idea generation some are given bellow: i) Attribute Listing: Listing the attributes of an existing product and then modifying each attribute in the search for an improved product. They can lean from suppliers. 4 New-Product Departments Large companies often establish a new-product department headed by a manager who has substantial authority and access to top management. new-product managers tend to think in terms of product modification and line extensions limited to their product market. iii) Morphological Analysis: It consist of identifying the structural dimensions. the better. 2 New Product Managers: Some companies have appointed new-produce managers who report to group product managers. d) Involvement / detachment: Alternate between entering into the particulars of the problem and standardizing back from them. and within an hour over a hundred or more new ideas may find their way into the tape recorder. 3 New product Committees: Many companies have a high-level management committee charged with reviewing and approving new-product proposals.J Gorder felt the brainstorming sessions tent to produce solutions too quickly. "Remember. iv) Need / Problem Identification: In it idea generation starts from reviewing consumer needs / problems. competitors." The ideas start flowing. However. IDEA GENERATION: The new product development process with the search. Channel Members: Companies sales representatives and intermediaries are a particularly good source of new product ideas. before a sufficient number of perspective have been developed. the greater will be the chances of an idea worth pursuing. They can find out what customers like and dislike in their competitor's products. like production managers. Freewheeling is welcomed: The wilder the idea. this position professionalise the new-product function. one idea sparks another. The departments major responsibilities include generating an screening new ideas. and sales representatives. of a problem and examining the relationships among them. They can buy their competitors products. b) Autonomy of Object: Let the problem take on a life of its own. and other employer for new-product ideas. The product managers are so busy in managing their existing products that they can thought litter about new products. 3)concept development and testing 4) marketing strategy development. and build better ones.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 1 Product Managers: Many companies assign responsibility for new-product ideas to their product managers. take them apart. In practice this system have many faults. Quantity is encouraged: The greater the number of ideas generated. They have first hand exposure to costumers needs and complaints. 5 New-Product Venture Teams: A venture team is a group brought together from various operating departments and charged with developing a specific product or business. Competitors: Companies can also find good ideas by examining their competitor's products and services. To be maximally effective their four guidelines Criticism is ruled out: negative comments on ideas must be withheld until later. distributors. Customers .

BUSINESS ANALYSIS: After developing strategy the company evaluate the product's business attractiveness. The product is ready to be dressed up with a brand name packing and preliminary marketing program. iv) What information to be collected. and adopt or reject them? Management must under stand this consumer-adoption process to build an effective strategy for early market penetration. 4 Trail: Consumer try the product to improve his estimate of its value. IDEA SCREENING: The new developed ideas should be written down and review each week by an idea committee and sot it into 3 groups. If it cannot do so the companies accumulated project cost will be lost. i) A Drop-error: When dismissed a good idea. that where the more risk is involved the product must be market tested. When it can be used e. accidental things suggest analogies that are sources of new viewpoints. If they do the product concept can move to the product development stage PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: Until now the idea exists only as a word description. that the company might offer to the market A product concept is an elaborated version of the idea expressed in meaningful consumer terms. There may be two types of errors while idea screening. the planned product positioning and the sales mark. in hunger. It is better. manufacturing facilities. the more dependable concept testing is. in winter. Third: The long run sales and profit goals and marketing mix strategy. Concept Testing: Concept testing calls for testing product concepts with an appropriate group of target consumers. ii) Marginal ideas. COMMERCIALIZATION: If the test is cleared and company has decided to market the product the company have to make heavy expenditure on plant. Stages in the Adoption Process: Adopters of the new product have been observed to move through the following five stages: 1 Awareness: The consumer becomes aware of the innovation but lacks information about it. structure and behavior. What primary benefits should it provide. 3 Evaluation: Consume consider in the light of information whether to try it or not. The consumer adoption process is followed by the consumer loyalty process which the concern of the established producer. a product concept and a product image. The concept can be presented symbolically or physically. The sales forecast etc. 35 .Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 e) Use of Metaphor: Let apparently irrelevant. a drawing or a prototype. Who will use it. A product Idea is a possible product idea. iii) Length of test. MARKET TESTING: If the management is satisfied with the products functional and psychological performance. distribution strategy and marketing budget for the first year. Management prepares estimates of sales cost and profit and determine whether they satisfy the companies objectives or not. The marketing strategy will undergo further refinement in subsequent stages. We can distinguish among a product ides. At this stage a word or picture description can suffice. CONSUMER ADOPTION PROCESS: How do potential customer learn about new product. then getting those consumers' reactions. 2 Interests: The consumer is stimulated to seek information about the innovation. The company determines whether the product idea can be translated into a technically and commercially feasible product. By answering these questions a company can for many concepts. However the more the tested concepts resemble the final product or experience. v) What action is to be taken on the completion of test. ii) Which cities. The company should offer payment or recognition to the employees submitting the best ideas. Second: Planned price. The goals are to test the new product in more authentic consumer setting and to learn how target the mark to and how consumers and dealers react to handling using and repurchasing the actual product. each being a category concept. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING: Attractive ideas must be refined into testable product concepts. building. at breakfast etc. At this stage it jumps in investments evaluation and evaluation of costs to be incurred in the earlier stages. In doing test marketing managers faces several questions like:i) How many test cities. and ii) A Go-error: When a company permits a poor idea to move into development and commercialization. MARKETING STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT: After testing the new-product manage must develop a preliminary marketing strategy plan for introducing the new product in to the market. i) Promising Ideas.g. try them. all companies don’t conduct market testing. Following are the three questions on which the concepts are based. A product Image: is the particular picture that consumer acquire of an actual or potential product. A plan to market the product is consist of three parts: First: Target Market size. Concept Development: A product idea can be turned into several product concepts. However. and iii) rejects.

iv) Skeptical: They adopt a product after a majority of people have tried it. However. scientific credibility. iii) The innovation's Complexity: The degree to which it is relatively difficult to understand or use. iv) The innovation's Divisibility: The degree to which it can be tried on a limited basis. It is more important in the evaluation stage of the adoption process than in the other stages. and social approval. The new-product marketer has to research all these factors and give the key ones maximum attention in designing the new-product and marketing program. v) Laggards: They are suspicious of changes and adopt the innovation only when it takes on a measure for tradition itself. Its significance is greater in some situations and for some individuals than for others.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 5 Adoption: The consumer decides to make full and regular use of the innovation. PERSONAL INFLUENCE PLAYS A LARGE ROLE IN THE ADOPTION OF A PRODUCT: Personal influence is the effect. risk and uncertainty. i) Innovations relative advantages: The degree it appears superior to the existing products. v) The innovation's Communicability: The degree to which its beneficial results are observable or describable to others. ii) The innovation's compatibility: The degree to which it is relatively difficult to understand or use. LIKE PEOPLE ORGANIZATIONS VARY IN THEIR READINESS TO ADOPT AN INNOVATION: 36 . It have more influence on late adopters than early adopters and it is more important in risky situation than is safe situation. They rarely are leaders. Other characteristics that influence the rate of adoption are cost. Five characteristics are especially important in influencing the rate of adoption of an innovation. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INNOVATION PRODUCT EFFECTS ITS RATE OF ADOPTION: Some products gain attention immediately while others take long time to gain acceptance. one person have. Factors Influencing Adoption Process: It is sometimes harder to generalize about consumers. on others attitudes. iii) Deliberates: They adopt new ideas before the average persons. the more quickly it will be adopted. They can be classified according to following five groups: i) Innovators: Willing to try new ideas at some risk ii) Early Adopters: Those who adopt new ideas early but carefully. marketers recognize a few basic truths about the adoption process: PEOPLE DIFFER GREATLY IN THEIR READINESS TO TRY NEW PRODUCTS: Different people exhibit different behaviors in respect of adopting new ideas. It is an important factor.

along with other factors. and they tend to attract only a limited following. Product requires different marketing strategies at different stages of their life cycle. It is difficult to predict whether something will be only a fad or how long a fad will last. 2 Product Form: follows the standard life-cycle. Many product categories stays at maturity stage indefinitely e. it can last for generations. Fashion. 4 Branded Products: can have a short or long product life cycle. Stages in the Product Life Cycle: To understand the product life cycle one should understand positively that: Product have a limited life. we will firs describe its present concept the demand/technology life cycle. Fads appears to people who are searching for excitement or who want to distinguish themselves from others. AND BRAND LIFE CYCLES: The product life-cycle concept can be used to analyze product-category. Fads do not survive because they do not normally satisfy a strong need or do not satisfy well. For example jeans are a fashion in today's clothing. 37 . The petrified level is sustained by the late adopters buying the product for the first time and early adopters replacing the product. 1 INTRODUCTION: A period of slow sales growth and substantial profit improvement. The length of fashion cycle is hard to predict. 3 Scalloped Pattern: Her sales passes through a succession of cycles based on the discovery of the new product characteristics. Fads are fashions that come quickly into the public eye. Each of them can have different life cycle. 1 Growth-slump-Maturity Patterns: In it sales grow rapidly when product first introduced and then fell to "petrified" level. PRODUCT-FORM. To fully explain the PLC. Profit stabilize or decline because of increasing marketing outlays to defend the product against competition. remains popular for a while. each early. adopted with great zeal.. The changing need level is described by a demand life-cycle curve. which produces a second cycle. Style. Profit are nonexistent in this stage because of the heavy expenses incurred with product introduction. A Style is a basic and distinctive mode of expression appearing in a field of human endeavor. cigarettes. profit rise and fall at different stages of the life cycle of the product. newspapers etc. 1) growth-slump-maturity patterns. Once a style is invented. more faithfully than product categories. sales passes through distinct stages. Each new technology satisfies demand in a better way than the previous technology. and decline slowly. product and brand-lifecycle. Demand /Technology Life Cycle: Remember that most products exist as one solution among many to meet a need. Their acceptance cycle is short. some brand names have a very long PLC. 2) Growth. Other Shapes of the Product Life Cycle: Not all products exhibit the bell-shaped life cycle. 2) cycle-recycle patterns and 3) scalloped pattern. If we draw a curve of past sales history of products it will take bell shape and can be divided in to four stages: 1) Introduction. nylon's sales shows a scalloped pattern because of the many new uses. going in and out of vogue. it is satisfied by some technology. 4 DECLINE: The period when sales show downward drift and profits erode. Researchers have fond six to seventeen different life cycle patterns. uses or users e.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-12 Managing Life-Cycle Strategies PRODUCTS LIFE CYCLE:(PLC) The product life cycle is an important concept that provides insight into a product's competitive dynamics. Usually the stages are marked where the rates of sales growth or decline becomes pronounced. fashions and fads. A fashion is a currently accepted or popular style in a given field. 2 Cycle-Recycle Pattern: In it the company aggressively promotes its new product and this produces the firs cycle. Three common alternate patterns are. 3 Product follows either the standard product-life-cycle or one of several variant shapes. Later. 1 Product Category have the longest life cycle. sales start declining and the company gives the other promotion push. and decline very fast. product-form. influence the duration of the fad's. The amount of media attention. PRODUCT. Marketer should check the normal sequence of stages in their industry and the average duration of each stage.g. PRODUCT-CATEGORY. and 4) Decline. 3) Maturity. and are used to name and launch new products. 2 GROWTH: A period of rapid market acceptance and substantial profit improvements 3 MATURITY: A period of slowdown in sales growth because the product has achieved acceptance by most potential buyers. It is difficult to designate where each stage begins and ends.g. Once the need is identified. Although many new brands die an early death. And Fad Life Cycles: There are three special categories of product life cycles that should be distinguished  those pertaining to styles. A fashion tent to grow slowly.

retail outlets. and customers start switching to other products. . Its characteristics are: Prices remain the same or slightly changes due to change in demand. distribution. I) Growth maturity: The sales growth rate starts to decline. . MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE MATURITY STAGE: Some company abandon their weak products. Assumptions are: Market is large. In launching a new product. . marketing management can set a high or a low level for each marketing variable (price. iv) A Slow penetration strategy: Launch a product at low price with low promotional expenses THE MARKET PIONEERS: Companies while entering in the market must decide either to be first in the market which is highly rewarding but risky. Seeing the attractive market opportunities competitors enter in the market. or brand strength. Profits increase during growth stage as 1) promotion costs are spread over the large volume and 2) unit manufacturing cost fall faster than price decline. quality. promotion. High price helps to recover much profit per-unit and low promotion keeps the marketing expenses down. The introduce the new product features and expand the distribution chain.a large part of the potential market is unaware of the product . ii) Add new models and flanker products iii) Enters new market segments. and iii) customer reluctance to change established behaviors. there are no new distribution channels to fill. Maturity stage can be subdivided in to three phases. This strategy makes sense when . ii) A Slow Skimming Strategy: Launching a product at high price and low promotion. Market is unaware of the product. Marketers should systematically consider strategies of market product and marketing-mix modification.manufacturing cost falls with scale of production and accumulated manufacturing expenses.the firm faces potential competition and wants to build brand preference. The reasons for slow growth may be i) delay in the expansion of production capacity. Considering the price and promotion management can pursue one of the four strategies given bellow: i) A Rapid-Skimming Strategy: Launching product at high price and high promotion level. This stage normally lasts longer than the previous stages. III) Declining Maturity: The absolute level of sales starts to decline. product quality). vi) Low down the price to attract the next layer of price-sensitive buyers. and the product will enter a stage of relative maturity. The rate of growth eventually changes from an accelerating rate to decelerating rate. Introduction Stage: The introduction stage starts when the new product is launched. v) Shifting from product awareness advertising to product preference advertising. iii) A Rapid Penetration Strategy: Launching a product at low price and spend heavily on promotion. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE INTRODUCTION STAGE.those who become aware of the product are eager to have it and pay the asking price. MARKET STRATEGIES IN THE GROWTH STAGE: To sustain rapid market growth as long as possible following are the strategies: i) improve product quality and adds new product features and improved styling. and it poses formidable challenges to marketing management. The Growth Stage: Marked by rapid climb in sales. This strategy make sense under the following assumptions: . The early adopters like to adopt the product and additional costumers start to buy the product. This combination is expected to skim lot of profit from the market. ii) delay in obtaining adequate distribution i. MARKETING STRATEGIES THROUGHOUT THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE: Each stage of the product life cycle have an appropriate marketing strategy. II) Stable Maturity: Sales flatten on a per capital basis because of market saturation. The high promotion acts to accelerate the rate of market penetration. sales growth is slow at this stage. Firms have to watch for the on set of the decelerating rate in order to prepare new strategies. Maturity Stage: Here the product's rate of sales growth will slow down.e. Because it takes time to roll out the product in several markets and to fill the dealer pipelines. 38 . and expensive. or to come in later which would make sense that the firm can bring superior technology.Market is of limited size. iv) Increase its distribution coverage and enters new distribution channels.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 The real winner in the fad war are those who recognize them early and can leverage those fads into products with staying power. and . This strategy promises to bring about fastest market penetration and the largest market share.buyers are willing to pay high price potential competition is not eminent.most buyers are price sensitive Strong potential competition. Companies maintain their promotional expenses. Most of the market is aware of the product.

c) The Drop Decision: When a company decides to drop a product. 39 . v) Personal Selling: Increase the quality or number of sales-people. they should ask the following questions: i) Prices: Includes a price cut to attract new tries and users. a computer program analyzes this and helps manager to decide. If the product has strong distribution and residual goodwill. It might be slow. There are many reasons for sales decline including technological advances. reliability. frequency or size of add be changed? iv) Sales Promotion: Making trade deals. The demand / technology life cycle requires to take a broader look at the whole market. with and without any changes in marketing strategy. it must decide whether to liquidate the brand quickly or slowly. freight cost absorption. R&D. cents-off-coupons. i) Quality Improvement: Aims at increasing the products functional performance its durability. increased price outing. more outlets be penetrated. ii) Enter new market segments: Try to enter new segments that use the product but not the brand. the company can probably sell it to another firm. and they may cut their promotion budget and reduce their prices further. Increase the sales force incentives. feature improvement. MARKET EVOLUTION: Firms while viewing product life cycle pay particular attention to product or brand rather than to the overall market. speed. which products are dubious. that expand the products versatility. vi) Services: Like speeding up delivery. and profit erosion. The product-review committee examines this information and makes a recommendation for each dubious product leave it alone. weight. Firms may appoint a product-review committee with representatives from marketing . The controllers office supplies data. gifts and contests. All lead to overcapacity. a) Identifying the Weak Products: The first task is to establish a system for identifying weak products. Sales may polunge to zero or they may petrify at a low level. manufacturing. warranties. additives etc. ii) Feature Improvement: aims at adding new features e. or drop it. shifts in consumer tastes. or easier credit terms? Or the raise the price to signal higher quality? ii) Distribution: Obtain more product support and display in the existing outlets. adds message be changed or timing. iii) Style improvement: increasing to product's aesthetic appeal. and increased domestic and foreign competition. maturity. and credit facility. iii) Advertising: Increase the advertising expenditure. They may withdraw from smaller market segments and weaker trade channels. modify its marketing strategy. some firms withdraw from the market. This attitude yields the product-oriented picture rather than a market-oriented picture. If the fir can't find any buyers. technical assistance. The remaining firms will enjoy increased sales and profits. or rapid. It must also decide on how much parts inventory and service to maintain for past customers. 1 The company can try to expand the number of brand users in three ways: i) Convert Nonusers: The company can try to attract nonusers to the product. ii) More usage per occasion: try to interest users in using more of the product on each occasion. volume or early purchase discounts. MARKETING STRATEGIES DURING THE DECLINE STAGE: In handling its aging products. b) Determining Marketing Strategies: Some firms will abandon declining markets earlier than others. Those remaining may reduce the number of products they offer. Here are also three strategies: i) More frequent use: The company can try to get customers to use the product more frequently. re-division of sales territories. introduce product into new distribution channel. safety or convenience. it faces further decisions.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan a) Market Modification: The company might try to expand the market for its mature brand by working with the two factors that make up sales volume. b) Product Modification: Managers also try to stimulate sales by modifying the product's characteristics through quality improvement. c) Marketing-Mix Modification: Product managers might also try to stimulate sales by modifying other marketingmix elements. and decline. If so should the list price be lowed or lowered through price specials. taste etc. and finance. iii) Win competitors' Customers: Try to attract the competitors' customers or adopt the brand. As sales decline. 2 Volume can also be increased by convincing current brand users to increase annual usage of the brand. STAGES IN MARKET EVOLUTION: Like product market evolve through four stages: emergence. a company faces a number of tasks and decisions. iii) New and more varied uses: The company can try to discover new product uses and convince people to use the product in more varied ways. growth. Much depends on the exit barriers in the industry.g. The manager responsible for the dubious products fill out the ratting forms showing where they thin sales and profits will go. The committee develops the system for identify weak products. size. 4 Decline Stage: The sales of most product forms and brands eventually decline. rebates. or style improvement.

2) They can play ball and not rock the boat (market followers). 2 Strong: Can take action (without putting in danger its long-term position) regardless competitors action. ii) New Uses: Expanding market by discovering and promoting new uses for the product iii) More Usage: Convincing people to use more of the product per use occasion. and lower ranked firms are often called runner up or trailing they can adopt one of the two postures: 1) Attack the leader and other competitors in an aggressive bid for further market share (called market challengers). and Nichers A firm can occupy any of the following six competitive positions in the target market. v) MOBILE DEFENCE: It involves more than the leader aggressively defending its territory. 2 Defend its current market share through good defensive and offensive actions. MARKET LEADER STRATEGIES: If a dominant firm want to remain number one it have to take three actions: 1 Find way to expand total market demand. MARKET CHALLENGER STRATEGIES: Second. i) New Users: Finding new users for the product and exploring the new markets. 3 Try to increase its market share further even if market size remains constant. In mobile defense. ii) FLANK DEFENCE: The market leader should not only guard its territory but also erect outposts to protect a weak front or possibly serve as an invasion base for counterattacking. will respond with a counterattack. iv) COUNTEROFFENSIVE DEFENSE: Most market leaders. iii) PREEMPTIVE DEFENCE: A more aggressive defense maneuver is to launch an attach on the enemy before the enemy starts its offense against the leader. It requires a decision to attack. and reassigning resources to stronger territories. In many markets. but first it have to decide as to whom to attack. an effective counterattack is to invade the attacker's main territory so that it will have to pull back some of its troops to defend its territory. Defending the Market Share: While trying to expand total market size. Expanding the total Market: Expansion can be made by way of new users. or sales-territory invasion. high-pressure strategies and at retaining the initiative at all times and keeping the competition always on the defensive. The leader cannot remain passive in the face of a competitor's price cut. 6 Nonviable: Unsatisfactory performance and no opportunity to improvement. product improvement. There are six defense strategies that dominant firm can use. 40 1 2 . one share point is worth tens of millions of rupees. Followers. like waging guerrilla action against the market by hitting one competitor here. and competitors are nibbling away on several fronts. promotion blitz. when attacked. Their forces are spread too thin. 1 Dominant: Control the behavior of other competitors and has a wide choice of strategic option. 5 Weak: have unsatisfactory performance but an opportunity exists for improvement. third. vi) CONTRACTION DEFENSE: Large companies sometimes recognize that they can no longer defend all of their territory. When a market leader's territory is attacked. Sustained. Planned contraction is a move to consolidate one's competitive strength in the market and concentrate mass at pivotal positions. maneuvering against the attacker's flank. more usage. 3 Expanding Market Share: Market leaders can improve their profitability by increasing their market share. The leader has the strategic choice of meeting the attacker frontly. new uses. These are summarized bellow: i) POSITION DEFENCE: The most basic idea is to build an impregnable fortification around one's territory. 4 Tenable: Performing at a sufficiently satisfactory level to continue business but exist in the sufferance of another dominant company and has a less than average opportunity to improve its position. Challengers. Defending the Strategic Objectives and Opponent(s) First of all a market challenger have to define his strategic objectives. Most market challengers strategic objective is top increase their market share. It is not market abandonment but rather giving up the weaker territories. The firm must change or els exit. or launching a pricer movement to cut off the attacking formations from their base of operation. The best fours of action then appears to be planned contraction (called strategic withdrawal). Or it could try to achieve a grand market envelopment. A company can launch a preemptive defence in several ways. Or it could begin sustained price attacks. the dominant firm must continuously defend it s current business against rival attacks The leader is like a large elephant being attacked by a swarm of bees. another there and keep everyone off balance. 3 Favorable: Have a exploitable strength and a better-than-average opportunity to improve its position.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-13 Designing Marketing Strategies for Market Leaders. the leader stretches its domain over new territories that can serve as future centers for defense and offense.

iii) Imitator: copies some thing from the leader but maintain differentiation in terms of packaging advertising. We distinguish among five attack strategies: 1 FRONTAL ATTACK: When a company attacks the opponents strengths rather than its weaknesses. iii) Prestige-goods Strategy: Launch a higher-quality product and charge a higher price than the leader. The major principle of modern offensive warfare is concentration of strength against weakness. These include selective price cuts. Follower ship is usually not the same as being passive or a carbon copy of the leader. The aggressor may attack the strong side to tie up the defender's troops but will launch the real attack at the side or rear. The strategy offers three lines of approaches diversifying into unrelated products. But leaders never take lightly any effort to draw away their customers. Market challengers can choose from several specific attack strategies: i) Price-discount Strategy: Selling a comparable product at a lower price. Four broad followership strategies can be distinguished: i) Counterfeiter. It means by passing the enemy and attacking easier markets to broaden one's resource base. The adapter may choose to sell to different markets to avoid direct confrontation with the leader. and occasional legal actions. 2 FLANK ATTACK: When the company attacks the others weak points. MARKET-NICHER STRATEGIES: 41 . pricing. But often the adopter grows into the future challenger. v) Product-innovation strategy: The challenger might pursue product innovation to attack the leader's position. A challenger can rarely improve its market share by relying only one strategy. the leader can quickly match these to diffuse the attack. and are under financed. and so on. The aggressor may offer the market everything the opponent offers and more. diversifying into new geographical markets and leapfrogging into new technologies to supplant existing products. It involves launching a grand offensive or several fronts. and endurance. what options are available in attacking an enemy? We can make progress by imaging at opponent who occupies a certain market territory. vii) Distribution-innovation strategy: Discovering or developing new channels of distribution. but one that does not ignite competitive relation.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan i) Attack the Market Leader: This is a high risk but potentially high-payoff strategy and makes good sense if the leader is "falls leader" who is not serving the market. Its success depends on combining several principles to improve its position over time. viii) Manufacturing-cost-reduction strategy: Pursuing lower manufacturing costs than the competitors through more efficient purchasing. This is not to say that market followers lack strategies. A follower is often a major target of attach by challengers. In such a case a substantial segment that is unnerved or poorly served provide an excellent strategic target. The aim is to harass and demoralize the opponent and eventually secure permanent footholds. and rear simultaneously. It must also enter new markets as they open up. Choosing a Specific Attack Strategy: The above five strategies are very broad. intense promotional blitzes. Each follower tries to bring distinctive advantages to its target market. The follower has to define a growth path. ii) Cheaper-goods strategy: The challenger can offer an average or low-quality product at a much lower price. If the runner-up's take any action like lower prices. and use lower costs to price more aggressively to gain market share. iv) Adapter. iii) Attack small and regional firms which are not doing the job well. Follower duplicates the leader's product and package and sells it on the black market or through disputable leaders. ix) Intensive advertising promotion: Some challengers attack the leader by increasing their expenditure on advertising and promotion. so that the offer is unrefusable. ii) Cloner. thus giving buyer more choice. distribution advertising. so that the enemy must protect its front. Choosing a General Attack Strategy: Given clear opponents an objective. 4 BYPASS ATTACK: Consist of most indirect strategies. The cloner emulates the leader's products. MARKET FOLLOWER STRATEGIES: Many runner-up / followers companies prefer to follow rather than challenge the market leader. 5 GUERRILLA ATTACK: Consist of small intermittent attacks on the opponent's different territories. or modern production equipment. Take the leader's products and adapt or improve them. it must keep its manufacturing costs low and its product quality and services high. A market follower must know how to hold current customers and win a fair share of new customers. ii) Attack firms of Its own size: That are not doing the sob and are under-financed. iv) Product-proliferation Strategy: Challenger attack the leader by launching a larger product variety. lower labor costs. vi) Improved-Services Strategy: Offering new or better services to customers. The challenger must put together a total strategy consisting of several specific strategies. sides. and so on. Enrichment makes sense where the aggressor commands superior resources and believes that a swift enrichment will break the opponent's will. The out come depends on who has the more strength. improved service or additional product features. The guerrilla aggressor uses both conventional and unconventional means to attack the opponent. 3 ENRICHMENT ATTACK: An attempt to capture a wide slice of the enemy's territory through a comprehensive blitz attack. therefore.

vi) Product or product-line specialists: The firm carries or produces only one product or product line. medium-size. Small firms commonly avoid competing with larger firms by targeting small markets of littler or no interest to the larger firms. is to be a leader in a small market. of being a follower in a large market. vii) Product-feature specialist: The firm specials in producing a certain type of product feature. region or area of the world. iv) Specific-customer specialists. The following specialists roles are open to nichers: i) End-user Specialist: The firm specializes in serving one type of end-use customer. Niche Specialization: The key idea in nichemanship is specialization. The firm limits its selling to one or a few major customers. or large customers. viii) Job-shop Specialist: The firm customize its products for individual customers. xi) Channel Specialists: The firm specializes in serving only one channel of distribution. Many nichers specialize in serving small customers who are neglected by the majors. x) Service specialist: The firm offers one ore more services not available from other firms.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan An alternative. ii) Vertical-level Specialists: The firm specials at some vertical level of the production-distribution value chain. 42 . ix) Quality / price specialists: the firm operates at the low-or high-quality ends of the market. The company is then stuck with highly specialized resources that may not have high-value alternative uses. Niching carries a major risk in that the market niche might dry up or be attacked. iii) Customer-size Specialist: The firm concentrates on selling to either small. v) Geographic Specialists: The firms sells only in a certain locality.

A company should enter fewer countries when Market entry and control costs are high. direct exporting. 3 When firm needs a larger customer base to achieve economics of scale. III TRAVELING EXPORT SALES REPRESENTATIVE: The company can send home-based sales representatives abroad to finds business. The company must decide whether to market in a few countries or many countries. it has to determine the best mode of entry. or undergo a political revolution and expropriate foreign property. DECIDING HOW TO ENTER: After deciding the target countries. viewing foreign operations as a small part of their business. 3 Might underestimate foreign regulations and incur unexpected costs. A GLOBAL FIRM: is a firm that operates in more than one country and captures (production. II OVERSEAS SALES BRANCH OR SUBSIDIARY: which handles the sales and distribution and might handle warehousing and promotion as well. trade secrete or other items of value for a fee or royalty. 5 Customer going abroad requires international services. DECIDING WHICH MARKET TO ENTER: The company has to define its international marketing objectives and policies. negotiate with them and receives commission it includes trading companies. 2 Higher profit opportunities in foreign market than domestic market. transportation and financial flaws. 4 Company may lacks in managers with international experience. They might be given exclusive rights to represent the manufactures in that country or only limited rights. In it the investment and the risk are somewhat greater but so is the potential return. III CORPORATIVE ORGANIZATION: The export goods on behalf of several producers and are partly under the control of those producers. The ways of direct export are given bellow: I DOMESTIC BASED EXPORT DEPARTMENT OR DIVISION: and an export sales manager carries on the actual selling. costs and reputation that are not available to purely domestic competitors. population and income size and growth are high in the initial countries chosen and Dominant foreign firms can establish high barriers to entry. I DOMESTIC-BASED EXPORT MERCHANT: Who buyers the manufacturer's products and then sells them abroad. Product and communication adoption costs are high. II DOMESTIC-BASED EXPORT AGENT: Who seeks foreign purchasers. and direct investment. Indirect Export: It is exporting through independent intermediaries. patent. 5 The foreign country might change its commercial laws. licensing. 4 To reduce firms dependence on any one market. Various methods of licensing are: I MANAGEMENT CONTRACT: When the company exports management services by appointing a manager to help the management of foreign country. Yet there are several factors that might draw a company into international arena: 1 Global firms attach the company's domestic market and the company wants to counterattack these competitors in their home markets to tie up their resources. It often serves as a display center and customer-service center. Before going abroad the company must weigh several risks given bellow: 1 The company might not understand the foreign customers preferences an fail to offer competitively attractive products. devalue its currency. There are four types of intermediaries. IV FOREIGN BASED DISTRIBUTORS OR AGENTS: Highiring foreign based distribution and sales agents. 43 B C 1 2 3 . A GLOBAL INDUSTRY: means an industry in which the position of competitors ( in geographic or national markets) are fundamentally affected by their overall global position. DECIDING WHETHER TO GO ABROAD: Most companies prefer to remain domestic if their domestic market were large enough. Direct Export: Companies may deiced to handle their exports. a company which decides to operate in fewer countries can do so with deeper commitment and penetration in each. Licensing: In it the licenser licenses a foreign company to use a manufacturing process. trademark. Generally speaking. themselves. IV EXPORT MANAGEMENT COMPANY: A company who agrees to manage a company's export activities for a fee. Its broad choices are indirect exporting. What proportion of foreign to total sales will it seek? Most companies start small when the venture abroad. 2 Might not understand the foreign country’s business culture or know how to deal effectively with foreign nationals. Some plan to stay small. joint ventures.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-14 Designing and Managing Global Marketing Strategies The world is rapidly shrinking with the advent of faster communication.

) as they enters foreign markets. A company can produce a a) Regional version: naming it on the basis of the region northern version etc. The potential adoptions that firms might make (in respect of their product. promotion. They have three choices i Setting a uniform price everywhere in local as well as foreign countries. International Division: Involving in several markets by different way. It may be of two types a) Backward Invention: re introducing earlier product. iii) Product Innovation i) STRAIGHT EXTENSION: Introducing the product in the foreign market without any change. transfer prices dumping charges and gray markets. How many intermediaries will be involved in the distribution process. Promotion: Either adopting some advertising campaigns used in the home market or change them for the local market. When international sales expand the company organizes an export department consisting of sales manager and a few assistants.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan II D 1 2 3 4 E 1 2 3 CONTRACT MANUFACTURING: The manufacturer engages a local manufacturer to product the product on behalf of the company. They creates an international division to handle international activities. Export to one. 44 . It can take two forms that are well adapted to a foreign country's needs. III FRANCHISING: A complete form of licensing. ii Setting a market based price in each country. or b) Country Version: iii) PRODUCT INNOVATION: It consists of creating something new. Price: Multinationals face several problems in pricing. price etc. companies may arrange their marketing activities in three ways Export Department: Begins simply by shipping out its goods. They must had to deal with Price escalation. as to how much adopt the marketing strategy mix to local conditions. ii) PRODUCT ADOPTION: Involves altering the product to meet local conditions or preferences. locally in the country in which they are to be soled. V DIRECT INVESTMENT: Also called direct owner ship of foreign based assembly or manufacturing facilities. licenses to other still make joint venture in the third. and b) Forward Invention: Creating a new product to meet the needs of an other country. DECIDING ON THE MARKETING PROGRAM International companies must have to decide. The franchiser offers a franchisee a complete brand concept and operating system In return the franchisee invests in the business and pays certain fee to the franchiser. 3 Establishing one or more subsidiaries. DECISION OF MARKETING ORIGINATION: Depending upon the level of involvement in the international arena. Place: Deciding as how the product will reach to the final users. Let us consider them one by one. Global Origination: When it becomes impossible to control through international division then they become global organization. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS In the internationalization process a firm moves through four stages given bellow: 1 No regular export activity. ii) Product Adoption. 4 Establishing of production facilitates abroad. IV JOINT VENTURES: Foreign and local investors join together by investing and sharing ownership and control. 2 Export via independent representative. The process is called communication adoption. iii Setting a cost based price in each country. There are several levels of adaptation. Product: There are five different product strategies that companies can adopt are i) Straight Extension.

They fall into two classes. capital items. consumed by one or few uses. men’s suits. 2 Tangibility. Product Line: A group in product class performing some functions. depth. Unsought Goods: Consumer does not know about and not normally think to buy. lengths. The Consistency of the product mix refers to how closely related the various product lines are in end use. These four dimensions of the product mix provide the handles for defining the company's product strategy. towels. Material and Parts: goods that enter the manufacturer's product completely. are soled to the same customer groups. Durability and Tangibility: According to durability and tangibility there are three groups Nondurable Goods.. Consumer Goods Classification: Consumer buy a vast array of goods we can classify them among convenience. or some other way. Item: A distinct unit in a brand or product line distinguishable by price. Specialty Goods: Goods with unique characteristics and for which the buyer habitually willing to make a special purchasing effort e. quality. Capital Items: Long lasting goods facilitates developing and managing finished products including two groups 1) Installations. Services: Intangible. 1 Durability. by adding new product lines. characteristically compares on such bases as suitability. A consumer buying drill is actually buying a hole. and 3 Use. immediately. The Depth: refers to how many variants are offered of each product in the line. There are seven levels of product hierarchy. 2) equipment. etc. e.g. sociality.g. newspapers. Tangible. refrigerator. raw materials and manufactured materials and parts. Basic Benefit: Marketers converts the core benefit into basic product the core benefit in getting a hotel room is the buyer rest & sleep while core benefits include a bed. desk etc. Consumption System: The way the purchaser performs trying to accomplish the benefits by using the product. clothing used cars etc. Durable Goods: They are tangible and normally survive many uses. variable and perishable.g.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-15 Product Lines Brands & Packing 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 FIVE LEVELS OF THE PRODUCT: These five levels constitute consumer value hierarchy: Core Benefit: Is the fundamental benefit that customer really buying. soap. production requirements. salt etc. Convenience Goods are those goods that the customer usually purchases frequently. The Width refers of product mix refers to how many different product lines the company caries. furniture. Product Class: A group of products within the product family. and with a minimum of-effort. The Length of product mix refers to the total number of items in its product mix. They can be classified in three coups materials and parts. PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION: Marketers traditionally classified product on the basis of the varying product characteristic i. Expected Product: A set of characteristics a buyer normally expects while purchasing a product. distribution channels. and style e. e. and consistency. PRODUCT-LINE DECISIONS: A product line consist of various product lines. soap. Industrial Goods Classification: Industrial goods can be classified in terms of how they enter the production process and their relative coastlines. Need Family: The core need that under lies the existence of a product family. A product line is a group of products that are closely related because they perform a similar function. adding more product variants and deepen its product mix or pursue more product-line consistency or less. PRODUCT MIX DECISIONS A product Mid is the set of all products and items that a particular seller offers for sale to buyers. shopping. in the process of selection and purchase. depending upon whether it wants to acquire a strong reputation in a single field or participate in several fields. and supplies & business services. are marketed through the same channels. Product Family: All the product classes that can satisfy the core need. etc.e. size. etc. bathroom. Product Type: A group in product line that share one of several possible forms of a product. like.e. price. fancy goods like cars. 45 1 2 3 . inseparable. and unsought goods.g. or fall within given price ranges. Shopping Goods: That the consumer. Brand: The name associated with one or more products in the product line. A companies product mix has a certain width. Augmented Product: That meets the customer's desires beyond their expectations. The can expand its business in four ways i. PRODUCT HIERARCHY: It stretches from basic needs to particular items that satisfy needs. clothing machine etc. Each product type has an appropriate marketing-mix strategy. Supplies and Business Services: Short lasting goods and services helps in developing and managing the finished products.

5 Personality: The brand can also project certain personality. 3 Value: The brand also conveys something about the producers values. and services to the buyers. 2 Benefits: A brand is more that a set of attributes. The weak items can be identified through sales and cost analysis. The company uses one ore more of these attributes to advertise the product. the seller is granted exclusive rights to the use of the brand name in perpetuity. The manager should concentrate on producing the higher-margin items. logo. 46 . 2 The company will have more trade leverage in bargaining with distributors and retailers. In essence. It may be an overhaul by piecemeal or all at once. labeling. 1 Attributes: A brand first bring some characteristics of the product. The brand marketer must figure out the specific groups of buyers who are seeking these values. and other appliance. The concept and measurement of Brand Equity: Brands vary in the amount of power and value they have in the marketplace.. Branding Decision: The Brand or Not To Brand: While branding the products the management have to review two things the costspackaging. The company can stretch its line downward.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Each product line is usually managed by a different executive. Examples or product line are a company manufacturing Consumer Appliances like refrigerators. they are buying benefits. a brand identifies the seller or maker. 6 User: The brand suggest the kind to consumer who buyouts or uses the product. Branding is a major issue in product strategy. benefits. 4 Customer values the brand and sees it as a friend. CHALLENGES IN BRANDING: Banding poses several challenges to the marketer. legal protection and the risk that the product may prove unsatisfying to the user? On the other hand branding gives the user several advantages: 1 Brand name makes it easier for the seller to process orders and track down problems. One is when the product line includes deadwood that is depressing profit. There are two occasions for pruning. Product-Line Market Profile: The product line manager must also review how the product line is positioned against competitors' product lines. which have expiration dates. Five levels of customer attitude towers their brand from lowest to highest: 1 Customer will change brands. It can be a name. 5 The brand offers the company some defense against fierce price competition. 3 Customer is satisfied and would incur costs by changing brand. Line Featuring: The product line manager typically selects one or a few items in the line to feature. 5 Customer is devoted to the brand. 3 The company can charge a higher price that its competitors because the brand has higher perceived quality. the line might need to be modernized. Product Line Length: The product line manager should have to maintain a the optimal product-line length. Line Pruning: Product-line managers must periodically review items for pruning. Customers are not buying attributes . or a combination of them. or design. washing machines. Under the trademark law. advertising. sign. Or may feature a high-end item to lend prestige to the product line. since customers expect them to carry the brand. in mind of the buyer. Product Line Analysis: The product line manager needs to know the percentage of total sales and profits contributed by each item in the line. 4 The company can more easily launch brand extensions since the brand name carries high credibility. The other occasion for product pruning is when the company is short of production capacity. Managers might feature low-end promotional models to service as traffic builders. Intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. A brand can convey up to six levels of meanings. A product line is too short if the manager can increase profits by adding times. term. Few customers are brand-loyal. The best brand convey a warranty of quality. stoves. BRAND DECISIONS: In developing a marketing strategy for individual products. Line Modernization: Even when product-line length is adequate. The key decisions are discussed in the following section. 4 Culture: The brand may represent a certain culture . Line Stretching: When a company lengthen its product line beyond its current range. Thus it differs from other assets like patents and copyrights. WHAT IS A BRAND: A brand is a name. especially for price reasons No brand loyalty. or both ways. A brand is a seller's promise to consistently deliver a specific set of features. upward. symbol. or other symbol. the seller has to confront the branding decision. 2 Customer is satisfied. the line is too long if the manager can increase profit by dropping items. trademark. High brand equity provides a number of competitive advantages: 1 The company will enjoy reduced marketing costs because of the high level of consumer brand awareness and loyalty. No reason the change the brand.

4 Branding helps the seller segment markets. In broader sense. A competitor may launch a brand next to the company's brand and cut into its market share. 47 . In the case of co-packaged products. Line Extensions: When the company introduces additional items in the same product category under the same brand name. which competitors would otherwise be likely to copy. and some treat it as an element of product strategy. describe the product's features. The company can introduce line extensions. multi brands. lawnmowers. It may be a box. (boxes. It is the immediate wrapping or covering provided alongwith the product to facilitate handling. Brand Extensions: Using existing brand name to launch a product in a new category. added ingredients. cartons crates. usually with new features. Various motives are there for it i. PACKAGING: PACKAGING includes the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. if any. companies are better off creating new brand names. motorcycles. Well-designed packages can create convenience value for the consumer and promotional value for the producer. Each brand sponsor expects that the other brand name will strengthen band preference or purchase intention. PACKAGING AND LABELING DECISIONS: Many marketers have called packaging a fifth P alongwith price. product place and promotion. For example Honda uses its company name to cover such different products as its automobiles. snow-bowers. protection. it may find that non of its current brand names are appropriate. In recent times packaging has become a potent marketing tool. new brands and co-brands. The package must perform many of the sales tasks. Brand-Repositioning Decision: However well a brand is positioned in a market. appearance. Or customer preferences may shift. a can or and container which goes alongwith the product into the hands of the ultimate users.e. meant for the members of distribution channels. Various tools have contributed to the growing use of packaging as a marketing tool: 1 Self-service: An increasing number of products are sold on a self-service basis in super markets and discount houses. forms. marine engines.) for handling. colors. packaging also includes the label and inserts. etc. Brand-Sponsor Decision: A manufacturer has several options with respect to brand sponsorship The product may be launched as a manufacturer's brand (sometimes called nationals brand) a distributor's brand (also called retailer. and so on. the company may have to reposition it later. large commercial users or industrial consumers. brand extensions. 3 Branding gives the seller the opportunity to attract a loyal and profitable set of customers. to establish different features or appeal to different buying motives. Multi brands: A company will often introduce additional brands in the same product category. making it easier to launch new brands and gain acceptance by distributors and consumers. and snowmobiles. Four strategies are available here: 1 Individual Brand names 2 Blanket family name for all products 3 Separately family names for all products 4 Company trade name combined with individual product names Brand Strategy Decision: A company have five choices when it comes to brand strategy. PACKING: refers to the providing overall container. New brands: When a company launches products in a new category. store. When the present brand image is not likely to help the new product. a bottle. such as new flavors. Co-brands: A rising phenomenon is the appearance of co-branding (also called dual branding). and prestige of better packages. 2 Consumer Affluence: Rising consumer affluence means consumers are willing to pay a little more for the convenience. leaving the company's brand with less demand. However these two terms are being used interchangeably. 4 Innovation opportunity: Innovative packaging can bring large benefits to consumers and profits to producers. and make a favorable overall impression.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 The sellers brand name and trademark provide legal protection of unique product features. Brand loyalty gives sellers some protection from competition and greater control in planning their marketing program. is which two or more will-know brands are combined in an offer. protection and identification of the product. 5 Strong brands help build the corporate image. 3 Company and Brand Image: Companies are recognizing the power of well-designed packages to contribute to instant recognition of the company or brand. It must attract attention. etc. create consumer confidence. distribution and identification of products in commercial quantities. dependability. each brand hopes it might be reaching a new audience by associating with the other brand. house or private brand) or a licensed brand name Brand Name Decision Manufacturer who decide to band their products must choose which brand names to use. package sizes.

color. The label may be a simple tag attached to the product or an elaborately designed graphic that is part of the package. It is a piece of written communication informing the user of the product about its name. specifications. Once a packaging concept has be determined. materials . text and brand mark. The first task is to establish packaging concept. Package might include up to three levels of material Primary package (like bottle). the law may require additional information. size. introduce a novel dispensing method. model or the method of using.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Developing an effective package for a new product requires several decisions. 48 . Not many labels are to carry all this information at one place. type.e. size. suggest certain qualities about the product or the company. quality. shape. color. handling. or something else. Secondary Package (Cardboard box) or shipping package( containing dozens of packages of packed product) Labeling: It is a subset of packaging. origin. characteristics. maintaining or servicing the product. decisions must be made on additional packaging elements i. Should the package's main function be to offer superior product protection. The label might carry only the brand name or a great deal of information. Sellers must label their products. Packaging concept defines what the package should be or do for the particular product. Even if the seller prefers a simple label.

Determining Demand: Each price will lead to different level of demand. v) End-benefit effect: Buyers are less price sensitive if the expenditure is smaller as compare to the total end benefit of the product. Many managers believe that revenue maximization will lead to long-run profit maximization and market share growth. and offers. they can use several methods. To do so. vi) PRODUCT QUALITY LEADERSHIP: A company might aim to be the product quality leader in the market. prestige or exclusiveness. and other factors to estimate their relationship. As long as prices covers the variable cost and some portion of fixed cost. ii) Substitute Awareness Effect: Buyer is less sensitive if he knows less about substitutes. The first step in estimating demand is thus understanding the factors that affect the buyers price sensitivity: i) Unique Value Effect: Buyers is less price sensitive if the product is more distinctive. Selecting the Pricing Objective: The company first has to decide what it wants to accomplish with particular product offer. ix) Inventory Effect: Buyers are less price sensitive when they cannot store the product. c) The high initial price does not attract more competitors to the market d) the high price communicates the image of a superior product. iv) Total Expenditure Effect: Buyer is less sensitive for price if the amount of expenditure is less as a part of their total income. A university aims for partial cost recovery. 3) estimating costs. 5)selecting a pricing method. If the objectives of the organization are clear it will be easy to set price. or product-quality leadership. assuming the market is price sensitive. Factors affecting price Sensitivity : The demand curve shows the market’s purchase rate at alternative prices. The firm has to consider many factors in setting its pricing policy. Is sums the reactions of many individuals who have different price sensitivities. A nonprofit hospital may aim for full cost recovery in its pricing. maximum current revenue. or in intense competition or changing consumer wants. 2) determining demand. They cut prices to keep the plant running and the inventories turnover. Then its major objective shall be to survive. It is also called market penetration pricing. v) MAXIMUM MARKET SKIMMING: Means setting high prices to "skim" the market. Profits are less important than survival. vi) Shared-Cost Effect: Buyer is less price sensitive when part of the cost is born by other parties. vii) OTHER PRICING OBJECTIVES: Non profit and public organizations may adopt a number of other pricing objectives. vii) Sunk Investment Effect: Buyer is less price sensitive when the product its to be used in connection with asset previously bought. prices. i) SURVIVAL: If the company is working with over capacity.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-17 Designing Pricing Strategies and Programs SETTING PRICE: A firm must have to set its price on three occasion. In a normal case they are inversely related. iii) MAXIMUM CURRENT REVENUE: Revenues maximization requires estimating only the demand function. ii) MAXIMUM CURRENT PROFIT: Many companies set the price that will maximize current profit. There are six types of objectives a company can pursue survival. iv) MAXIMUM SALES GROWTH: Some companies want to maximize unit sales they believe that a higher sales volume will lead to lower unit costs and higher long-run profit. the companies stay in business. maximum market skimming. maximum sales growth. i) Statistically analyzing the existing data on past prices. and 3) when it enters or bids on new contract work. However it is only a short run objective the firm must have to lean as how to add value. iii) Difficult Comparison Effect: Buyer is less sensitive if they cannot compare the quality of product with other product. quantities sold. 49 1 2 . 4) analyzing competitors' costs. They examine the estimated demand under different price levels and set that price at which the profit or cash inflow is maximum. we will describe a six step procedure for price setting: 1) selecting the pricing objective. maximum current profit. and 6) selecting the final price. knowing that it must rely on private gifts and public grants to cover the remaining costs. viii) Price Quality Effect: Buyers are less price sensitive when the product is assumed to have more quality. 1) First time when it develops new product. In the following paragraphs. 2) When it introduces its regular product in a new distribution channel or geographical area. Methods of Estimating Demand Curves: Most companies make some attempt to measure their demand curves. They set the lowest price. It makes sense under the following conditions a) a sufficient number of buyers have a high current demand: b) the unit cost of producing a small volume are not so high that they cancel the advantage of charging what the traffic will bear.

COST BEHAVIORS: At different product ion Levels: Management should know how cost vary with different levels of production.. With research they determine product desired functions. Companies also charge when hidden or highly variable costs are involved. It will be some where between one that is too low to produce profit and that is too high to produce enough demand. then the firm will have to price close to the competitor or lose sales. They are collectively called as total cost and when they are divided in to units are called average cost. It say that the price should represent the high value offered to consumers. TYPES OF COSTS: A company's costs take two forms. a) Brands with average quality but high relative advertising budgets were able to charge premium prices. As a Function of Accumulated Production: Change of costs due to different levels of production. MARK UP PRICING: A most elementary pricing method is to add a standard markup to the product's cost. Price Elasticity of Demand: Marketers need to know how responsive. the firm can charge more than the competitor. Markups are generally higher on seasonal items ( to cover the risk of not selling). Once the company is aware of competitors' prices and offers. including a fair return for its effort and risk. for market leaders and for low-cost product. buy competitors' product and take it apart. slower moving items. Estimating Costs: Demand sets a ceiling of the price while costs sets the floor. As a Function of Differentiated Marketing Offers: Different buyers want different terms. 50 . They also change as a result of a concentrated effort by the company's designers. and purchasing agents to reduce them. Company may select any pricing method that includes one or more of these three considerations. In considering the final price following additional factors should be considered. Conversely brands with low quality and low advertising charred the lowest prices. Target costing: Costs change with production scale and experience. Analyzing competitors Costs Prices and Offers: Within the range of possible prices determined by the market demand and costs competitors' costs. and alternative approach is to charge different prices in similar territories to see how sales are affected. TARGET RETURN PRICING: A price which yields organization target rate of return on investment. and demand-inelastic items. items with high storage and handling costs. Therefore a company have to make activity-based cost accounting instead of standard cost accounting. PERCEIVED VALUE PRICING: In it marketer see the buyers perception of value not the sellers cost as a key to pricing. Markups vary considerably amend different goods. If the firm's offer is superior. demand would be to a change in price. ii) The influence of Other Marketing Mix Elements on Price: The final price must take into account the brands quality and advertising relative to competition. Systematically carry the prices of several products sold and observed the results. iii) Asking buyers to state how many units they would buy at different proposed prices. The pricing method will then lead to a specific price. VALUE PRICING: Charge a fairly how price for a high quality offering. The company wants to charge a price that covers its costs of producing. The company can send out comparison shoppers to price and assess competitors' offers. engineers.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 3 4 5 i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) 6 ii Conduct price experiments. Selecting the Final Price: Pricing methods arrows the pricing range. Some wants daily delivery some wants weakly and some wants monthly with the consideration of saving which results the company in different costs. specialty items. Selecting a Pricing Method: Now the organization will be ready to select a price. If the firm’s offer is inferior the firm is not able to charge more than the competitors. GOING RATE PRICING: Basing price on competitors price. Then they set the competitive price of the product from this they deduct profit margin and this leaves the target cost they must have to achieve. There are three major considerations in price setting 1) cost 2) competitors prices and 3) prices of substitutes. acquire competitors' price lists. Following are the price setting methods. If the firm’s offer is similar to a manor competitor's one . and selling the product. The firm which is making more production can charge low costs because of the expertness of the workers. or elastic. i) Psychological Pricing: Many consumers use price as an indicator of quality. SEALED-BID PRICING: In it the firm basis its price on expectations of how competitors will price their products. fixed and variable. it can use them a s an orienting point for its own pricing. Target Costing is a Japanese technique. c) The positive relationship between high prices and high advertising held most strongly in the later stages of the product life cycle. distributing. and ask buyers how they perceive the price and quality of each competitor's offer. prices and possible price reactions help the firms establishing where to set its prices. b) Brand with high relative quality and high relative advertising obtained the highest prices.

How will the distributors and deals feel about it? will the company sales force be silting to sell at that price or complain that the price is too high? How will competitors react to Adopting the Price: Companies usually not set a single price but sets a pricing structure reflecting i) GEOGRAPHICAL PRICING: Pricing in different location. rather than single product. because companies must have to decide which item is to include in the sticker price and which to offer as options. It can take several forms: a) Customer Segment pricing: Different customer groups are charged different prices for the same product.g. g) Psychological Discounting: Putting an artificially high price on product and then offering it at substantial savings. They charge a fixed fee plus a variable usage fee. or hour. d) Low Interest Financing: Instead of decreasing price the company offer customers low-interest financing. 4 Offset: Seller received full amount in cash but agrees to spend a substantial amount of that in that country. f) Warranties and service contracts: The company can promote sales by adding a free warranty offer or service contract. in any of the following ways. Pricing these options is sticky problem. Moreover whether the price will be revived in hard cash or in other items in payment which cause counter trade. d) Seasonal Discount: For out of season products. 3) captive-product pricing. and competitors’ prices. 2 Compensation Deal: Some percentage is received in cash and remaining in goods. e. iv) DISCRIMINATORY PRICING: When company sells one product at two or more prices that do not reflect a proportional difference in costs. iii) PROMOTIONAL PRICING: Companies uses several pricing techniques to stimulate early purchase. d) Two-part pricing: Service firms often engage in this type of pricing.g. razor and blades camera and camera films etc. e) Allowances: Are other types of reductions from price such as at the time of launching new product. e. The techniques are : a) Loss Leader Pricing: Selling at less than cost to increase sales. The price steps should take into account cost differences between different lines. e) Longer Payment Terms: Sellers stretch their loans over longer periods and thus lower monthly payments. a) Cash discounts: For early payment. 51 . We can distinguish six situations involving product-mix pricing: 1) product line pricing. lower admission fee for children and higher for the senior citizens. ii) PRICE DISCOUNT ALLOWANCE: Most companies reward customers for 1) early payment 2) volume purchased and 3) off season buying. c) Captive product pricing: Some products require the use of ancillary or captive product. 2) optional-feature pricing. Either to charge high price to distant customers or low price to increase the volume of sales. e) Time pricing: Prices are varied by season. Management must decide on pricing steps to establish from one line to the next.. selling and record keeping. In such a case the firm searches for a set of prices that maximize the profits on the total product mix. 3 Buyback Arrangement: The seller sells the plant and technology and agrees to accept partial in cash and partial payment in the products manufactured with that equipment. customer evaluations of different features. d) Location Pricing: When same product is priced differently at different locations even though the cost of offering at each location is the same. 5) byproduct pricing. COUNTERTRADE FORMS: 1 Barter: Direct exchange of goods. cities and countries. 4)two-part pricing. Manufacturers of main product often price them low and set high markups on the supplies. day. a) Product line Pricing: Companies normally develop product lines. and 6) product-bundling pricing. b) Optional-feature pricing: Many companies offer optional products or features alongwith their main product.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) 7 Companies Pricing Policy: The contemplated price must be consistent with company pricing policies. Many companies set up a pricing department to develop pricing policies and establish approve pricing decisions. b) Quantity Discount: Discount allowed for large purchases. b) Special-event pricing: Like Eid and Christmas c) Cash Rebates: for a special time period. iv) Impact of Price on Other parties: Management should also consider the reaction of parties to the contemplated price. V) PRODUCT PRICING MIX: The pricing logic must be modified when the product is a part of productmix. b) Product Form Pricing: Different versions of the product are priced differently. c) Image pricing: Pricing same product at two different levels based on image differences. Thus telephone users pay a minimum monthly fee plus charges for calls beyond a certain limit. c) Functional Discount: For performing certain functions such as storing.

distributors. Since customers may not have planned to buy all of the components. Reactions to Price Changes: Any price change can effect the customers. A company might also have to decide whether to raise the price sharply on a one-time basis or to raise it by small amounts several times. vi) Reducing the number of models offered. Other ways of Responding High Costs: There are some ways that a company can respond to high costs or demand without raising prices. or may do both. free delivery. CUSTOMERS’ REACTIONS: Customers often question about the motive behind the reduction or increase in price. and suppliers and may provoke government reaction as well. this practice is called anticipatory pricing. While passing on price increases to the customers. ii) Substituting less-expensive materials or ingredients. iv) Removing or deducing product service. such as free delivery or installation. companies will face situations where they need to cut or raise prices. If the by-products have value to the customer group. iii) Shallow-pockets trap: High priced competitors may also cuts their price and may have longer staying power because of deeper cash reserves. it can raise its prices. On the other hand an increase in price may seem them that the item is hot and might be unobtainable if it is not bought soon. if competitors forces it to do so. such as installation. vii) Creating new economy brands. ii) Use of escalator clauses: When company requires the customers to pay today’s price and all or any part of inflation increase that takes place before delivery. or ration supplies to customers. iii) Reducing or removing product features to reduce cost. f) Product-building Pricing: When the sellers bundle their products at a set price with some saving.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan By-product pricing: The production of certain products often results in the development of by-products. Customers are most price sensitive to products that cost a lot and are bought frequently. competitors. iv) Reduction of discounts: The company instructs its sales force not to offer its normal cash and quantity discounts. Competitors are most likely to react where the number of firms in the industry is small the 52 e) . b) Over Demand: When a company cannot supply all of its customers. or long warranties. This strategy also involves high risks: i) Low quality trap: Consumers will assume that the quality is below that of the higher priced competitors. Customers will shift to another lower-price firm that comes along. Any income earned on the byproducts will make it easier for the company to charge a lower price on its main product. Initiating Price Increases: Successful price increase can increase profits considerably if the sales volume is unaffected. because customer will turn against the price gougers when the market softens. COMPETITORS REACTIONS: A firm changing its price had to be worried about competitors’ as well as customers’ reactions. In over demand situation price can be increased in several ways: i) Adoption of delayed quotation pricing: When company does not fix the price of its product until it is finished or delivered. INITIATING AND RESPONDING TO PRICE CHANGES: After developing price strategies. then they should be priced on their value. e) Try to Dominate the Market through Lower Cost: and to increase their market share. Companies often raise prices by more than the cost increase in anticipation of further inflation or government price controls. b) Declining Market Share: When companies found that they are loosing their market share. to restore their market they have to decries their price. They may treat it as a decrease in quality or strength of the company. the company needs to avoid the image of a price gouge. ii) Fragile-market-share trap: A low price buys market share but not market loyalty. Initiating Price Cuts: There are many circumstances which lead a firm to cut its prices: a) Excess Plant capacity: and additional revenues cannot be generated without price reduction. The circumstances provoking price increases are: a) Cost Inflation: Rising costs unmatched by productive gains squeeze profit margins and lead companies to regular round to increase prices. The possibilities include the following: I) Shrinking the amount of product instead of raising the price. the savings on the price bundle must be substantial enough to induce them to buy the bundle. v) Using less expensive packaging material or promoting larger package size to keep down packaging cost. iii) Unbundling of goods and services: The company maintains its price but removes or prices separately one or more elements that were par of the former offer. A seller can charge more than competitors and still get the business if the customer can be convinced that the products total lifetime costs are lower. while they hardly notice higher prices on low-cost items that they buy infrequently.

The problem is complicated because the competitor can put different interpretations on a company price cut and take such action which may surprises the company. • the behavior of costs with volume. 4. Before reacting the firm need to consider the following issues: 1) Why did the competitors change the price? 2) Does the competitor plan to make the price change temporary or permanent? 3) What will happen to the company’s market share and profits if it does not respond? 4) What are the other competitors and other firms’ responses likely to be to each possible reaction? Market leaders often face aggressive price cutting by smaller firms trying to build market share. and communications. This is necessary if the particular market segment being lost is price sensitive. b) it would lose market share because the market is price sensitive. the firm has little choice but top meet a competitor’s price cut. its lower price will cut into the leader’s share. and the buyers are highly informed. Launch low-price fighter line: One of the best responses is to add lower-price items to the line or to create a separate lower-price brand. Raise perceived quality: The leader could maintain price but strengthen the value of its offer. believing that: a) It would lose too much profit if it reduced its price b) it would not loose to much market share.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan product is homogeneous. It could stress the relative quality of its product over that of the low-price competitors. The firm should search for ways to enhance its augmented product. The best response varies with situation. and c) it would be hard to rebuild market share one it is lost. The leader at this point has several options: 1. Responding to Competitors’ Price Changes: How should a firm respond to a price change initiated by a competitor? In markets characterized by high product homogeneity. and c) it could regain market share when necessary. • the competitor’s intentions and resources. Reduce Price: The leader might drop its price to the competitor’s price. If it cannot find any way it have to meet the price reduction. When there are several competitors the company must estimate each close competitor’s likely reaction.. It could improve its product. its price and introduce new brands to market the attacking brand. 53 . When the attacking firms product is comparable to the leaders. Increase price and improve quality: The leader might raise. When it believes a) its cost fall with volume. 5. services. 3. Maintain price: The leader maintain its price and profit margin . • its importance in the company’s product portfolio. and • the company’s alternative opportunities. The company under attack has to consider • the product’s stage in the life cycle. • the market price and quality sensitivity. 2.

competitors and other actors. They are also called trade channel or distribution channel. 1 Analyzing Customers’ Desired Service Output Levels: Understanding (what.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER-18 Selecting and Managing Marketing Channels Between the producer and the final user stands the marketing channel. where. Why Intermediaries Used: Producers gain several advantages you the use of intermediaries. the greater the service output level that the channel must provide. Channel Functions and Flows: A marketing channel performs the work of moving goods from producers to consumers. 2 If direct marketing is not feasible 3 The producers who establish their own channels can often earn a greater return by increasing their investment in their main business (Production of the goods). It overcomes the time. 2 Promotion The development and dissemination of persuasive communications designed to attract customers to the offer. consist of a manufacturer selling directly to the final customer. trash-recycling brokers etc. By using the number of intermediary levels we designate the length of a channel. manufactures have to decide what is ideal. The smaller the size. such as retailer. why. telemarketing. iii) SPECIAL CONVENIENCE: The degree to which the marketing channel makes it easy for customers to purchase the product.g. ii) WAITING TIME: The average time that customers of that channel wait for receipt of the goods. A one-level channel One selling intermediary. The market intermediaries make up a marketing channel. Obviously different channels are set up for household buyers and the resale purpose buyers. 2)establishing channel objectives. CHANNEL-DESIGN DECISIONS: In designing marketing channels. TV. Several intermediaries play a role in backward channels e. 4 Financing: The acquisition and allocation of funds required to finance inventories at different levels of the marketing channel. Channels produce five channel out puts: I) LOT SIZE: It is the number of units that the marketing channel permits a typical customer to purchase on a occasion. Channel normally describe a forward movement of products. Its major types are door-to door sales. 3 Negotiation: The attempt to reach final agreement on price and other terms so that transfer of ownership or possession can be effected. 54 . Designing of a channel system calls for: 1)analyzing customer needs. what is feasible. when and how target customers buy) is the first step in designing the marketing channel. In consumer markets they are typically a wholesaler and a retailer. 5 Risk taking: The assumption of risks connected with carrying out the channel work. softdrink intermediaries. Since the produce and the final customer both perform work. iv) PRODUCT VARIETY: The assortment breadth provided by the marketing channel. they are part of every channel. A two-level channel contains two intermediaries. selling and manufacturer-owned stores. place. and what is available. 6 Physical possession: The successive storage and movement of physical products from raw materials to the final customers. and 3) identifying and evaluating the major channel activities. They must also understand the service output levels desired by the customers the types and levels of services that people want and expect when they purchase a product. Members of the marketing channel perform a number of dye functions: 1 Information: The collection and distribution of marketing research information about potential and current customers. 8 Title: The actual transfer of ownership from one organization or person to another. trash collection specialists. 7 Payment: Buyers’ payment of their bills to the sellers through banks and other financial institutions. A zero-level channel (Also called direct marketing). recycling centers. One can also talk about backward channels. and possession gaps that separate goods and services from those who need or want them. Channel Levels: Each intermediary that performs work in bringing the product and its title closer to the final buyer constitutes a channel level. mail order. A three-level channel involving three levels of intermediaries. 1 They have lack of financial resources to carry out direct marketing. It is the recycling of solid wastes. WHAT ARE THE MARKETING CHANNELS: Marketing channels are the sets of interdependent organizations involved in process of making a product or service available for use.

1 Selecting Channel Members: 55 . The greater the service backup. The main elements in the trade relations mix are price policies. The first step is to determine whether a company sales force or sales agency will produce more sales. ii) NUMBER OF INTERMEDIARIES: Companies have to decide the number of intermediaries to use at each channel level. because it is an independent business firm seeking to maximize its profit. A channel alternative is described by three elements i)the types of available intermediaries. Assign sales representatives to territories to contact all prospects in the areas. Each alternative needs to be evaluated against economic. credit. or to develop the different sales force for different industries. These commitments invariably lead to a decrease in the producer’s ability to respond to a changing marketplace. Three strategies are available a) exclusive distribution. repairs. especially in franchised and exclusive-agency channels. adequate margins. 4 Evaluating the Major Channel Alternatives: The producer may identify several channel alternatives and have to determine the one best suited to its needs. and specific services to be performed by each party. ii) CONTROL CRITERIA: The produce must take into account control issues. b) Distributors’ territorial Rights: Distributors want to know where and under what terms the producer will enfranchise other distributors. Using a sales agency poses a control problem. a) Exclusive Distribution: Severely limiting the number of intermediaries handling the company’s goods. When the consumer requires a great deal of location convenience. Effective channel planning requires determining which market segments to serve and the best channels to use in each case. iii) the terms and responsibilities of each channel participant. It is used to maintain a great deal of control over the service level and service outputs offered by the revelers. Several market segments desire differing service outputs. the channel members must make some degree of commitment to each other for a specified period of time. They are of following three types: a) Company Sales Force: Expand the companies direct sales force. making sure that each channel member is treated respectfully and given the opportunity to be profitable. control and adaptive criteria. c) Industrial Distribution: Find distributors in different regions and end-use industries. The agents may concentrate on the customers who buy the most. installation. ii) the number of intermediaries needed. b) selective distribution. Used by the old and new companies seeking to obtain distributors. the producer needs to seek channel structures and policies that maximize control and ability to change marketing strategy swiftly. the greater the work provided by the channel. This strategy is generally used for convenience items. conditions of sale territorial rights. b) Selective Distribution: It involves the use of more than a few but less than all of the intermediaries. CHANNEL-MANAGEMENT DECISIONS: After choosing a channel alternative. channel institutions should arrange their functional tasks so as to minimize total channel costs with respect to desired levels of service outputs. or services. Most marketing managers believe that company sales force will sell more and some believes that sales agency could conceivably sell more than a company sales force. iii) ADAPTIVE CRITERIA: To develop a channel. In rapidly changing or uncertain product markets. individual intermediaries must be selected. i) ECONOMIC CRITERIA: Each channel can produce different level of sales and costs. who are willing to carry a particular product. who will buy and audio device. c) Mutual services and responsibilities: must be carefully spelled out. 2 Establishing the Channel Objectives and Constraints: Channels objectives should be stated in terms of targeted service output levels. b) Manufacturers’ Agency: Higher manufacturers’ agents in different regions or en-use industries to sell the new test equipment. provided by the channel. and c) intensive distribution. product training and promotional support. c) Intensive Distribution: The manufacturer places the goods or services in as many outlets as possible. 3 Identifying the major channel Alternatives: After defining the target market and desired positioning it should identify its channel alternatives. delivery. i)TYPES OF INTERMEDIARIES: The firm needs to identify the types of intermediaries available to carry on its channel work. ii) TERMS AND RESPONSIBILITY OF CHANNEL MEMBERS: The producer must determine the rights and responsibilities of the participating channel members. not necessarily of the manufacturer’s goods.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan v) SERVICE BACKUP: The added services like. Give them exclusive distribution. Channel arrangements must also be modified over time. a) Price Policy: the producer establish a price list and schedule of discounts that the intermediaries see as equitable and sufficient. Under competitive conditions. motivated and evaluated.

and 3)multi-channel marketing systems. The VMS can be dominated by the producer. wholesaler(s). They will want to evaluate intermediaries on the basis of : a) Number of years in business. A vertical marketing system (VMS). d) solvency of the intermediary. treatment of damaged and lost goods. and compete. The manufacturer feels it has this right and the intermediaries have this obligation. ii) REWARD POWER: When the manufacturer offers intermediaries an extra benefit for performing specific acts or functions. There are three types of VMS: I) corporate. It produces better results than coercive power but can be overrated. Each is a separate business entity seeking to maximize its own profits. v) REFERENT POWER: occurs when the manufacturer is so highly respected that intermediaries are proud to be identified with it. Modification becomes necessary when existing channel is not working as planned. i) CORPORATE VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEM: Combining successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership. iii) LEGITIMATE POWER: When the manufacturer requires a behavior that is warranted by the contract. Some producers have no trouble in recruiting intermediaries. innovative distribution channel emerge and the product moves into later stages in the product life cycle. d) cooperativeness. Recently the market channels have grown as 1) vertical. It is favored by companies that desire a high level of control over their channels. the market expands. 56 . c) growth and profit records. and 3) contractual. Contractual VMSs are of three types: a) Wholesaler sponsored voluntary chains: Wholesales organize voluntary chains of independent retailers to help them compete with large chain organizations. Once the expertise is palled on to the intermediaries. Vertical Marketing Systems: It is a challenge for the conventional marketing channels. even if this goal reduces profit for the system as a whole. iii) CONTRACTUAL VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEM: It is consist of independent firms at different levels of production and distribution integrating their programs on a contractual basis to obtain more economise and sales impact than they could achieve alone. ii) ADMINISTERED VERTICAL MARKETING SYSTEM: Coordinate successive stages of production and distribution not through common ownership but through the size and power of one of the members. Modifying Channel Arrangements: A producer must do more than design a good channel system and set it into motion. New wholesaling and relating institutions emerge. by contrast. We will see how these systems cooperate. comprises the producer. It is a professionally managed and centrally programmed networks. the wholesaler. Manufacturers of a dominant brand are able to secure strong trade cooperation and support from revelers. and e) reputation. whole seller(s) and retailer(s) acting as a unified system. new competitions arises. This is an effective form of power. Motivating Channel Members: A manufacturer must have to motivate the intermediaries to do their best fob. c) Franchise Organizations: A channel member called a franchiser might link several successive stages in the production-distribution process. and new channel systems evolve. average inventory levels. a promise of exclusive or selective distribution will draw a sufficient number of applicants and some producers have to work hard to get qualified intermediaries.. and cooperation in promotional and training programs. b) Retailer Cooperatives: Retailer might take the initiative and organize a new business entity to carry on wholesaling and possibly some production. The system will require periodic modification to meet new conditions in the marketplace. iv) EXPERT POWER: Can be applied when the manufacturer has special knowledge that the intermediaries value. The producer has to determine the required characteristics of better intermediaries. Following are some ways to motivate them: I) COERCIVE POWER: When the manufacturer threatens to withdraw a resource or terminate a relationship if intermediaries fail to cooperate. Evaluating Channel Members: The producer must periodically evaluate intermediaries’ performance against such standards as sales-quota attainment. CHANNEL DYNAMICS: Distribution channels do not stand still. One channel member owns the others or franchises them or has so much power that they all cooperate. if intermediaries would perform poorly without this help. consumer buying patterns change. b) the other lines carried by them. ii) administered. pre-engineered to achieve operating economies and maximum market impact.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 3 4 1 Different producers attract qualified intermediaries differently within the chosen channel. This power is quit effective if the intermediaries are highly dependent upon the manufacturer. 2)horizontal. customer delivery time. or the retailer. conflict. and retailer(s). A conventional marketing channel comprises an independent producer. this basis of power weakens The manufacturer must continue to develop new expertise so that the intermediaries will want to continue cooperating.

or it is afraid of the risk. and 3) is the more customized selling. Multi-channel Marketing System: It occurs when a single firm uses two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments. 2) the channel cost will be lower. know-how. The companies might work with each other on a temporary or permanent basis or create a separate company. (See Lesson Notes for this chapter at page 24) 57 . By adding more channels companies can gain three important benefits.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 2 3 Horizontal Marketing Systems: In it two or more unrelated companies put together resources or programs to exploit an emerging marketing opportunity. production or marketing resources to venture alone. 1) increased market coverage. Each company lacks the capital.

spoilage. and increasing number are falling under some form of corporate retailing. 1) Selfservice retailing. super stores. Types of Retailers: Store retailing. 5) price. and finance their supplier by ordering early and paying their bills on time. Retailers in most product categories can position themselves as offering one of four levels of services. wholesalers are used when they are more efficient in performing one or more of the following functions: Selling and promoting: They provide a sales force who helps the producer to reach many small business customers at a relatively low cost. Why are whole-salers used ? Manufacturers could by pass them and sell directly to retailers or final consumer. Bulk Breaking: He achieve savings for their customers through buying in large carload lots and breaking the bulk into smaller units. 21) product assortment and procurement. Wholesaling excludes manufacturers and farmers because they are engaged primarily in production. thus saving the customers considerable work. They place ads. but usually the two do not go together. Wholesalers differ from retailers in a number of ways: First: Wholesalers pay less attention to promotion.arlet’s shopping expectations. New store types emerge to meet widely different consumer preferences for service levels and specific services. nonbusiness use. Buying and assortment building: Wholesalers are able t select items and build the assortments where customers need. TARGET MARKET DECISION: Should the store focus on upscale.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Chapter . issue money-saving coupons. discount stores. Wholesaling. Financing: They finance their customers by granting them credit. WHOLESALING: Wholesaling includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services to those who buy for resale or business use. Third: the government deals with wholesalers and retailers differently in regard to legal regulations and taxes. midscale. PROMOTION DECISION Retailers use a vide range of promotion tools to generate traffic and purchases. 2) Self-selection retailing. 2) direct marketing. must use promotion tools that support and reinforce its image positioning. and wholesalers usually cover a large trade area than retailers. and 4)buying services. Non store retailing. RETAIL ORGANIZATIONS Although many retail stores are independently owned. NONSTORE RETAILING: It is growing much faster than store rtailing. damage. and competition. department stores. location and location. etc. 3) automatic vending. They may also help their supplier by providing training and technical services. atmosphere. and location because they are dealing with business customers rather than final consumers. 3) services and store atmosphere. runs special sales. Warehousing: He hold inventories. and Retail Organizations. convenience stores. or convenience? PRODUCT . STORE RETAILING: The most important retail-store types fall into eight categories specialty stores. and it excludes retailers. Market Information: Supply information to the manufacturer and the customers. training their employees and telling them about layouts and displays. 3)Limited-service retailing and 4) Full. Second: Wholesale transactions are usually larger than retail transactions. A retailer or Retail Store is any business enterprise whose sales volume comes primarily from retailing. Each retailer. Transportation: They provide quicker delivery to buyers because they are closer to the buyers than the manufacturer. Retail organizations achieve many economies of scale. SERVICE AND STORE ATMOSPHERE DECISION: Retailer must also decide on the services mix to offer customers. and catalog showrooms. 6) promotion and 7) place.ASSORTMENT AND PROCUREMENT DECISION: The product assortment must match the target . or downscale shoppers? Do they want variety assortment depth. In general . off-price retailers. All retailers would like to charge high markups and achieve high volumes. PLACE DECISION: There are three keys to the success are location. Risk Bearing: Wholesaler absorb some risk by taking title and bearing the cost of theft. It is a key tool for differentiating one store from another. Non-store retailing falls into four major categories: 1) direct selling. thereby reducing the inventory costs and risks to suppliers and customers. and Market logistics RETAILING: Retailing includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for their personal. supermarkets.service retailing.. PRICE DECISION: It is the key positioning factor and must be decided in relation to the target market. the product-and-service-assortment mix. and obsolescence. Retailer Marketing Decisions: Retailers have to make marketing decisions about 1) target market. Management Services and Consultancy They help retailers in improving their operations.19 Managing Retailing. 58 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 .

and controlling the physical flows of materials and final goods from points of origin to points of use to meet customer requirements at a profit. Physical distribution starts at the factory. ORDERING PROCESS: Market logistics begins with a customer order. TRANSPORTATION: Transportation choices will affect product pricing. Objectives of Market Logistics: Some companies state their market-logistics objectives as “getting the right goods to right places at the right time for the least cost. implementing. The storage function helps to smooth discrepancies between desired quantities and timing to the market. Managers try to choose a set of whorehouses and transportation carriers that will deliver produced goods to final destinations in the desired time and at the lowest total cost. The number of stocking locations must strike a balance between customer service levels and distribution cost. INVENTORY: It is a major market logistics which effect the customers satisfaction. 2) Warehousing. The longer the cycle takes. It is necessary to shorten the order-toremittance cycle. the lower the customer’s satisfaction and the lower the company’s profits. and the condition of the goods when they arrive. Market Logistics: involves planning.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan 1 2 3 4 MARKET LOGISTICS: The process of getting goods to customers has traditionally been called physical distribution. WAREHOUSING: Every company has to store its finished goods until they are sold. A storage facility is necessary because production and consumption cycle rarely mach. on-time delivery performance. 3) Inventory. 4) Transportation.” Unfortunately. The company has to decide the number of stocking locations. this objective provides little practical guidance. all of which will affect customer satisfaction 59 . Market-Logistics Decisions: There are four major decisions that must be made with regard to market logistics 1) Ordering Process.

and 8) manage and coordinate the integrated marketing communication process. when to say. MESSAGE FORMAT: The communicator must develop a strong format for the message. The communicator must lead these consumers to take the final step. 3) design the message. b) Knowledge: When the target audience might have product’s awareness but not much more. that the product is their best choice. performance. arouse desire and elicit action. IMAGE ANALYSIS: Image is the set of beliefs. knowledge. Here we will discuss the marketers behavior in six buyer-readiness states  awareness. where and to whom to say. This task can be accomplished with simple messages repeating the product’s name. In determining the best message content. emotional. 2) determine the communication objectives. high satisfaction. and moral. then all of the above elements plus body language have to be planned. the communicator move to developing an effective message. If the message is written the communicator has to decide on the headline. The communicator can check on the compaign’s success by measuring audience preferences again after the compeign. Formulating the message will require solving four problems: 1) what to say (message contents). preference. how they feel about it? If they look favorably it is necessary to find out why and then develop a communication compaign to shore up favorable feelings. This amounts to formulating some kind of benefit. The marketing communicator must 1) identify the target audience. and who should say it (message source MESSAGE CONTENTS. Some early experiments supported stating conclusions for the audience rather than allowing the audience to reach its own conclusions. Designing the Message: Having defined the desired audience response. c) Linking: If the target members know the product. liking. i) Rational Appeals: to the audience’s self interest. People’s attitude and actions toward an object are highly conditioned by that object’s image.. idea. theme. 2) how to say it logically (message structure). voice qualities etc. ideas and impressions that a person holds regarding an object. They may weight for information or plan to act later. copy. Ideally. value. or unique selling proposition. the message should gain attention. f) Purchase: Finally. the marketer may want its target audience to know about the organization and the product. ii) Emotional Appeals: Attempt to stir up negative or positive emotions that will motivate purchase. conviction and purchase. If the message is to be carried on television or in person. They show that the product will produce the claimed benefits. and other features.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER . e) Conviction: A target audience might prefer a particular product but not develop a conviction about buying it. equal right for women. particular publics or the general public. groups. Determining the Communication Objectives: The marketing communicator must decide on the desired audience response. how to say it. The audience could be individuals. c) how to say it symbolically (message format). The communicator will promote the product’s quality. The target audience will critically influence the communicator’s decisions on what to say. • If the issue is simple or the audience is intelligent. and aid to the disadvantaged. There are three types of appeals rational. current users. 4) select the communication channels.20 Designing and managing integrated marketing communications DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: There are eight steps in developing an effective total communication and promotion program. the communicator’s task is to build awareness. They are often used to exhort people to support social causes. identification. Presenters have to pay attention to 60 1 2 3 a) b) c) . and color. or reason why the audience should think about or investigate the product. MESSAGE STRUCTURE: The effectiveness of the message depends upon its structure as well as its contents. 5) establish the total promotion’s results. hold interest. such as a cleaner environment. Conclusion drawing might cause negative reactions in the following situation: • If the communicator is untrustworthy. better race relations. iii) Moral Appeals: are directed to the audience’s sense of what is right and proper. the communicator has to choose words. • if the issue is highly personal. some members of the target audience might have conviction but not quit get around to making the purchase.. management search for an appeal. which may be potential buyers of the product. If the message is to be carried of the radio. or influencers. a) Awareness: When most of the audience is aware of the object. which may be a purchase. The communicator’s job is to build conviction among interested customers. Identifying the Target Audience: A marketing communicator must start with a clear target audience in mind. motivation. In this case the communicator must try to build consumer preference. d) Preference: The target audience might like the product but not prefer it to others. and favorable word-of-mouth.

• Ability to catch buyers off guard: Public relations can reach many prospects who prefer to avoid sales people and advertisements. 5 Establishing the total Promotional Budget: A most difficult marketing decision. • Response: It makes the buyer feel under some obligation for having listened to the sales talk. d) 4 MESSAGE SOURS: Message delivered by attractive or popular sources achieve higher attention and recall. c) COMPETITIVE-PARITY METHOD: Some companies set their promotion budget to achieve share-of voice parity with their competitors. b)percentage-of-sales method. dress. and color. ii)sales promotion. broadcast media. Media: Consist of print media. scent. • Dramatization: Like advertising. or contribution that gives value to the consumer.” 61 . d) Impersonality: Cannot be a compelling as a company sales representative. • Cultivation: Personal selling permits all kinds of relationship to spring up. not a dialogue with the audience. Selecting the Communication Channel: The communicator must select efficient channels of communication to carry the message. atmospheres. The sum of these costs is the proposed promotion budget. Personal communication channels derive their effectiveness through the opportunities for individualizing the presentation and feedback. and heir style. II) NONPERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS: They carry messages without personal contact or interaction. inducement. conviction. They might communicate face to face. and action. c)competitive-parity method. It have three distinctive benefits: • Personal confrontation: It involve an interactive relationship between two or more persons. Most non personal messages come through paid media. iv) PERSONAL SELLING: is the most cost-effective tool at later stages of the buying process. b) PERCENTAGE-OF-SALES METHOD: any companies set their promotion expenditures at a specified percentage of sales or of the sales price. they all offer three distinctive benefits. Their are four common methods used to set a promotion budget a) the affordable method. c) Amplified expressiveness: Advertising provides opportunities for dramatizing the company and its product throughout the artful use of print. They include media. a) AFFORDABLE METHOD: Setting promotion budget at what company think that it can afford.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan their facial expression. which makes long-range market communication planning difficult. or respond. determining the tasks that must be performed to achieve these objectives. • Incentive: They incorporate some concession. • Communication: Gain attention and usually provide information that may lead the consumer to the product. posture. b) Persuasiveness: It is a pervasive medium that permits the seller to repeat a message many times. The audience does not feel obligated to pay attention. • Invitation: They include a distinct invitation to engage in the transaction now. ii) SALES PROMOTION: Although the sales-promotion tools are highly diverse. sound. iii) PUBLIC RELATIONS AND PUBLICITY: The appeal of public relations and publicity is based on their three distinctive qualities: • High credibility: News stories and features are more authentic and credible to readers than ads. size and shape. Industries and companies vary considerably in how much they spend on promotion. The buyer has a greater need to attend and respond. d) OBJECTIVE-AND-TASK METHOD: In it the marketers develop their promotion budgets by defining their specific objectives. electronic media and display media. If the message is carried by the product or its packaging. Communication channels are of two broad types. the communicator has to pay attention to color. particularly in building up the customers preference. 6 Deciding on the Promotion Mix: Companies face the task of distributing the total promotion budget over the five promotional tools  i)advertising. Advertising is able to carry on only a monologue in front of. person to audience. and estimating the costs of performing these tasks. The message gets to the buyers as news rather than as a sales-directed communication. over the telephone or through the mails. and v) direct marketing. It also allows the buyer to receive and compare the message of various competitors. I) ADVERTISING: Qualities of advertising are a) Public presentation: A highly public mode of communication. 1) personal and non personal Win each are found many sub channels: I) PERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHANNELS: It involves two or more persons communicating directly with each other. iv) sales force. public relations has the potential for dramatizing a company or product. texture. ranging from a matter-of-fact selling relationship to a deep personal friendship. gestures. iii)public relations and publicity. and events. Each party is able to observe the others’ needs and characteristics at close hand and make immediate adjustments. It leads to an uncertain annual promotion budget. and d)objective-and-task method. even if the response is a polite “thank you. This method of setting budgets completely ignores the role of promotion as an investment and the immediate impact of promotion on sales volume. In many cases many different channels must be used.

advertising and publicity have the highest cost effectiveness. • Up-to-date: A message can be prepared very quickly for delivery to an individual. In general personal selling is more heavily used with complex. and their previous and current attitudes toward the product and company. each requiring its own communication approach. adv. Factors in setting the promotion Mix: Companies must consider several factors in developing their promotion mix. all the tools can be toned down because demand has its own momentum through word-ofmouth. and so on they all share four distinctive characteristics Direct marketing is: • Nonpublic: The message is normally addressed to a specific person.. The purpose is to induce them to ask intermediaries for the product and thus induce the intermediaries to order the product from the manufacturer. 62 . Different strategies are: • In the introduction stage. sales promotion. • In decline stage. advertising and public relations in that order. This involve asking the target audience whether they recognize or recall the message. 3 BUYER-READINESS STAGE: Promotional tools vary in their cost effectiveness at different stages of buyer readiness. • In the maturity stage. The goal is to induce the intermediaries to order and carry the product and promote it to en users. 1 TYPE OF PRODUCT KARATE: Promotional tools vary between consumer and business markets. telemarketing. the product’s stage in the product life cycle and the companies market rank. 2 PUSH VERSUS PULL STRATEGY: A push strategy involves manufacturers making activities (primarily sales force and trade promotion) directed at channel intermediaries. whether to use a push or pull strategy. 5 COMPANY MARKET RANK: Top ranking brands drive more benefits from advertising than sales promotions.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan v) DIRECT MARKETING: Although their are many forms of direct marketing direct mail. how ready consumers are to make a purchase. • Customized: The message can be customized to appeal to the addressed individual. Consumergoods companies spend on sales promotion. how they felt about the message. expensive. Measuring the Promotion’s Results: After implementing the promotional plan. • Interactive The message can be altered depending on the person’s response. sales promotion. adverting and publicity are reduced and sales people give the product only minimal attention. followed by personal selling to gain distribution coverage and sales promotion to induce trail. advertising personal selling. Managing and Coordinating Integrated Marketing Communications: Many companies still rely primarily on one or two communication tools to achieve their communication aims This practice persists in spite of the disintegration of mass markets into a multitude of mini-markets. the proliferation of new types of media. much more important than the roles played by “cold calls” from sales representatives or by sales promotion. Business-goods companies spend on personal selling. sales promotion continues strong. A pull Strategy: involves marketing activities (primarily advertising and consumer promotion) directed at end users. electronic marketing. and personal selling all grow more important in that order. and public relations in that order. how many times they says it. the type of product market in which they are selling.. what points they recall. 4 PRODUCT-LIFE-CYCLE STAGE: Promotional tools also vary in their cost effectiveness at different stages of the product life cycle. the communicator must measure its impact on the target audience. and the growing sophistication of consumers. and risky goods and in markets with fewer and larger sellers. Ad and publicity play the most important roles in the awareness stage. • In the growth stage.

whose manager reports to the vice president of marketing. where the objective is to build primary demand. Then they can proceed to make the five major decisions in developing an advertising program. the marketer might want to change the message without changing the product. MARKET SHARE AND CONSUMER BIAS: High-market-share brands usually requires less advertising expenditure as a percentage of sales to maintain their share. 3. especially if consumers are seeking new or different benefits format the product. adv. market positioning and marketing mix are to be made. who works with and advertising agency. In using comparative advertising. Advertising objectives can be classified according to whether their aim is to inform persuade. 63 1 2 3 a) . Over time. Choosing the Advertising Message: Advertising compaigns differ in their creativity which is more important than the number of dollars spent Only after gaining attention can a commercial help to increase the brand’s sales. goods. or remind. 5. a) INFORMATIVE ADVERTISING: Carried out heavily in the pioneering stage of a product category. marketing managers must always start by identifying the target market and buyer motives. c) REMINDER ADVERTISING: is highly important with mature products. Advertising is also important when a brand can offer unique physical benefits or features. In small companies. The market positioning and marketing mix strategies define the job that advertising must do in the total marketing program. Sales Promotion. know as the five Ms: • Mission: What are the advertising objectives? • Money: How much can be spent? • Message: What message should be sent? • Media: What media should be used? • Measurement: How should the results be evaluated? These decisions are further described in the following sections. The company wants to spend the amount required to achieve the sales goal. Most advertising falls into this category. Setting the Objectives: Prior to setting objectives decisions on the target market. Advertising go through four steps to develop a creative strategy: a) message generation. But how does a company know it is spending the right amount? There are five specific factors to consider when setting the advertising budget: 1. Deciding on the Advertising Budget: After setting objectives the company can proceed to establish its advertising budget for each product. a company should make sure that it can prove its claim of superiority and that it cannot be counterattacked in an area where the other brand is stronger. where a company’s objective is to build selective demand for a particular brand. ADVERTISING FREQUENCY: The number of repetitions needed to put across the brand’s message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget. PRODUCT SUBSTITUTABILITY: Brands in accommodate class (e. A related form of advertising is reinforcement advertising which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice. In developing and advertising program.21 Managing Advertising. cigarettes. c) message execution. Choice of objectives should be based on a thorough analysis of the current marketing situation. MESSAGE GENERATION: In principle the product’s message major benefits that the brand offers should the be decided as part of developing the product concept.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan CHAPTER . and Public Relations DEVELOPING AND MANAGING AN ADVERTISING PROGRAM: It is the most common tool used by the organizations to direct persuasive communications to target buyers and publics. and d) message social responsibility review. Comparative advertising works best when it elicits cognitive and affective motivations simultaneously. b) PERSUASIVE ADVERTISING: It is important in the competitive stage. is handled by someone in the sales or marketing department. It may be defined as follows: → ADVERTISING is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideal. They builds share by increasing market size requires larger advertising expenditures. Even simple clutter from advertisements not directly competitive to the brand creates a need for heavier advertising. a brand must advertise more heavily to be heard above the noise in the market.g. soft drinks) require heavy advertising to establish a differential image. A large company will often set up its own advertising department. STAGE IN THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE: New product typically receive large advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumer trial. or services by an identified sponsor. Organizations handle their advertising in different ways. b) message evaluation and selection. COMPETITION AND CLUTTER: In a market with a large number of competitors and high advertising spending. 4. The role of advertising is to increase the demand of the product. 2. Established brands usually are supported with lower advertising budgets as a ration to sales.

and deciding on geographical media allocation. No claim is made about the product except through suggestion. The message must first say something desirable or interesting about the product. color. and believability. • Musical: Uses background music or shows one or more persons or cartoon characters singing a song involving the product. A minor rearrangement of mechanical elements within the ad can improve its attention-getting power. d) SOCIAL-RESPONSIBILITY REVIEW: Advertisers and their agencies must make sure that their “creative” advertising doesn’t overstep social and legal norms. while intended use or in incidental use. • Scientific Evidence: Presents survey or scientific evidence that the brand is preferred over or outperforms other brands. CHOOSING AMONG MAJOR MEDIA TYPES: The media planner has to know the capacity of the major media types to deliver reach. and pride in making the product. The following themes listed on the left would have had much less impact without the creative phrasing on the right.” more for our customers. The message should be rated on desirability. social or ego satisfaction.e. All of these elements must deliver a cohesive image and message. choosing among major media types. Finally. selecting specific media vehicles. c) MESSAGE EXECUTION: The message’s impact depends not only upon what is said but also on how it is said.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Creative people use several methods to generate possible advertising appeals. Crossing these four types of rewards with three types of experiences generates 12 types of advertising messages. love or serenity. frequency and impact. though not necessarily by as much as their difference in cost. AND IMPACT: Media selection involves finding the most cost-effective media top deliver the desired number of exposures to the target audience. “Let your fingers do the walking. and impact. Still. sensory. The character might be animated (Mr. likable. • Fantasy: Creates a fantasy around the product or its use. frequency. The message must also say something exclusive or distinctive that does not apply to every brand in the product category. DECIDING ON REACH. Words: Memorable and attention-getting works must be found. so we have to do “We try harder. deciding on media timing. the most important of which are the following: • Target-audience media habits: for example. • Slice of Life: Shows one or more persons using the product in a normal setting. Format: The elements such as ad six. and public policy makers have developed a substantial body of laws and regulations to govern advertising. A good ad normally focuses on one core selling proposition. super stores. • Life style: Emphasize how a product fits in with a lifestyle. focus on a hurorous situation rather than on the products themselves. words.” We don’t rent as many cars. Some creative people user deductive framework for generating advertising message. Other companies use emotions to set the tone. and competitors. or expert source endorsing the product. Exposures mean the seeking a certain response from the target audience. “Take the bus an leave the driving to us. Some companies uses positive tone and almost always avoid humors so as not to take attention away from the message. Some ads aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. Theme Creative Copy 7-up is not a cola “The Un-Cola” Let us drive you in our bus instead of driving your car. such as beauty. 64 . • Technical expertise: Shows the company’s expertise. b) MESSAGE EVALUATION AND SELECTION: The advertisers needs to evaluate the alternative messages. • Personality symbol: Creates a character that personifies the product. in the adds for staples office-supply. FREQUENCY. and format of executing message.” Shop by turning the pages of the telephone directory. Buyers are expecting one of the four types of rewards form a product i. Style : A message can be presented in any of the following different styles. Larger-size ads gain more attention. clean) or real (Marlboro man). or combinations of them. experts. In contrast. Most marketers work hard to communicate openly and honestly with consumers. dealers. Creative people must also find a style. the message must be believable or provable. He might visualize (experience) these rewards after intended use. 4 Deciding on the Media: The next task is to choose advertising media to carry it. The advertisers can generate a theme for each of the 12 cells as possible messages for the product. radio and television are the most effective media for reaching teenagers. Some proceed inductively by talking to the consumers. • Mood or image: Evokes a mood or image around the product. Media planner make their choice among these media categories by considering several variables. tone. • Testimonial evidence: This features a highly credible. exclusiveness. and illustration will make a difference in an ad’s impact as well as its cost. Tone: The Communicator must also choose an appropriate tone for the ad. abuses may occur. equally mundane products. experience. rational. The selection of media depends upon desired reach.

or preference. but that the effect was strong only in 30% of the cases. Advertising Effectiveness: A summary of Current Research: Although companies need to do more research into ad effectiveness. There are three major methods of advertising pretesting. These tests measure an ad’s attention-getting power but re reveal nothing about its impact on beliefs. What counts is the cost-per-thousand exposures rather than the total cost. A message containing a great deal of technical data might require specialized magazines or mailings. Sales Promotion consist of a diverse collection of incentive tools. The direct rating method asks consumer to rate alternative ads. aided or unaided by the interviewer. They would also like to measure the Ad’s sales effect but often feel it is too difficult to measure. cognitive. it can be done before an ad is put into media and after it is printed or broadcast. read through. Their recall level indicates and ad’s ability to stand out and to have its message understood and remembered. and Polaroid cameras are best demonstrated on television. Yet both can be searched. Advertising versus sales promotions: In a recent study a market-research firm studying the effects of advertising found that 70% of the ad compaigns boosted sales immediately. Advertising’s sales effect is generally harder to measure that its communication effect. and especially price have a stronger impact on response that dose advertising. composition. mostly short term. Micro scheduling Problem: It calls for allocating advertising expenditures within a short period to obtain the maximum impact. 2. The effect of positive versus negative messages: Consumers may sometimes respond more to negative messages than to positive messages. displays. These ratings are used to evaluate an ad’s attention. Only 46% of the compaigns appeared to result in a long-term sales boost. Advertising appears to be unlikely to have some cumulative effect that leads to loyalty. designed to stimulate quicker and greater purchase of particular products/services by consumers or the trade. its potential effect on awareness. rather. heavy amount during the famous programs and lesser amount at other times. SALES PROMOTION: It is a key ingredient in marketing compaigns. 1. What sales are generated by an ad that increases brand awareness by 20% and brand preference by 10%. attitudes. • Cost: Television is very expensive. Portfolio test: ask consumers to view and listen to a portfolio of advertisements. such as the product’s features. Also called copy testing. affective. consumers are then asked to recall all the ads and their content. or intentions. Most advertisers try to measure the communication effect of an ad that is. while newspaper advertising is relatively inexpensive. Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness: Good planning and control of advertising depends critically on measures of advertising effectiveness. • Message A message announcing a major sale tomorrow will require radio or newspaper.e. Sales are influenced by many factors besides advertising. 3. availability and competitors’ actions. and media cost. SALES-EFFECT RESEARCH: Communication-effect advertising research helps advertisers assess advertising’s communication effects but reveals little about its sales impact. COMMUNICATION-EFFECT RESEARCH: seeks to determine whether an ad is communicating effectively. price. yet the amount of fundamental research on ad effectiveness is appallingly small. the advertiser who decides to buy 30 seconds of advertising on network television can pay different amounts in relation to program timings. SELECTING SPECIFIC MEDIA VEHICLES: The media planner must next search for the most cost-effective media vehicles within each chosen media type. and behavior strengths. Audience size has several possible measures. For example. taking as much time as they need. Laboratory Tests: use equipment to measure consumers’ physiological reactions to an ad. the easier it is to measure advertising’s effect on sales. 65 . The effect of surroundings: Ads may be more effective when their message is congruent with their surroundings. i. 4. The media planner relies on media-measurement services that provide estimates of audience size. professional researchers have drawn some general conclusions that are useful to marketers. The company makes “national buys” when it places ads on national TV networks or in nationally circulated magazines. DECIDING ON GEOGRAPHICAL MEDIA ALLOCATION: A company has to decide how to allocate its advertising budget over space as well as over time. Macro scheduling Problem: It calls for deciding how to schedule the advertising in relation to seasonal and business-cycle trends.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan • 5 1 2 3 Product: Women’s dresses are best shown in color magazines. Impact of Ad on Brand Switching: Advertising appears effective in increasing the volume purchased by loyal buyers but less effective in winning new buyers. The fewer or more controllable these others factors are. DECIDING ON MEDIA TIMING: In deciding the types of media to use the advertiser faces macro scheduling problem and a micro scheduling problem. knowledge. features.

For consumer. 2 SELECTING THE SALES-PROMOTION TOOLS: Many sales-promotion tools are available. and specialty advertising. Sales promotions do not tend to yield new. cross promotions. Sales promotion includes tools for consumer promotion (e. • offsetting competitive promotions. warranties. The specific objectives set for sales promotion vary with the target market. • encouraging purchase of larger-size units. and • gaining entry into new retail outlets. long-term buyers in mature markets because they attract mainly del-prone consumers who switch among brands as deal become available.) Purpose of Sales Promotion: Sales promotion tools vary in their specific objectives a free sample stimulates consumer trial. refunds and contests to increase their pulling power. ii) Allowance: An amount offered in return for the retailer’s agreeing to feature the manufacturer’s products in some way. iii) Cash refund (by the manufacturer to consumer who proves that he has purchased the product). many marketing managers firs estimate what they need to spend in trade promotion. There is a danger Sales promotions yield faster and more measurable responses in sales than advertising does.g. Its major tools are: I) Price off: A straight discount off the list price on each call purchased during a stated time period. and free goods) and business and sales force promotion (trade shows and conventions. • building brand loyalty. • encouraging off-season buying . prizes. implement and control it and evaluate the results. develop the program protest the program. contests for sales reps. Consumer-Promotion Tools: The main consumer promotion tools are I) samples. Loyal brand buyers tend not to change their buying patterns as a result of competitive promotion. • attracting Switchers away from competitors’ brands. For retailers objectives include • persuading retailers to carry new items and higher levels of inventory. competitive conditions. vii) Patronage Aware: Values in cash or other form that are proportional to one’s patronage of a certain vendor or group of vendors. coupons. objects includes. trips. x) Tie-in Promotions: Two or more companies that team up or coupons. xii) Point-of-Purchase Displays and Demonstrations.) trade promotion (prices off. patronage rewards. viii) Free Trails: Invite prospective purchasers to try the product without cost in the hope that they will buy the product ix) Product Warranties: Explicit or implicit promises by sellers that the product will prefer as specified or that the seller will fix it or refund the customer’s money during a specified period. more than the normal amount. then what they need to spend in consumer promotion Whatever is left they will budget for advertising. The promotion planner should take into account the type of market. ii) coupons(certificates to provide buyer some gift who fill and mail the coupon). • building trail among nonusers. while a free management-advisory service aims at cementing a long-term relationship with a retailer. and each tool’s cost effectiveness. and stimulating off-season sales. Major Decisions in Sales Promotion: In using sales promotion. Today. xi) Cross promotion: Involve using one hand to advertise another noncompeting brand. advertising appears to be capable of deepening brand loyalty. free trials. vi) Prizes: offers of the chance to win cash. which are derived from more basic marketing objectives developed for the product. select the tools. 1 ESTABLISHING THE SALES-PROMOTION OBJECTIVES: Sales promotion objectives are derived from broader promotion objectives. Trade Promotion Tools: Persuading the retailer or wholesaler to carry the brand. samples. advertising and display allowances. • encouraging stocking of related items. or merchandise as a result of purchasing something. sales promotion objectives. iv) Price packs: Offering by jointing many units in one place at discounted price v) Premium: (Gift) Providing goods at reasonably low price as an incentive to purchase a particular product. a company must establish its objectives. 66 . tie-in promotions. cash refund offers prices off.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan Advertising offers a reason to buy while sales promotion offers an incentive to buy. point-of-purchase displays and demonstrations etc. For the sales force objectives include: • encouraging support of a new product or model • encouraging more prospecting.

2. 1. Counseling: Advising management about public issues and company positions and image. not all of which support marketing objectives. Corporate Communication: Promoting understanding of the organization with internal and external communications. 67 . 3 PRESENTING THE SALES-PROMOTION PROGRAM: Al 4 IMPLEMENTING AND CONTROLLING THE SALES PROMOTION PROGRAM: 5 EVALUATING THE RESULTS: PUBLIC RELATIONS: A public is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on a company’s ability to achieve its objectives. 5. Business and Sales Force Promotion Tools: These tools are used to gather business leads impress and reward customers and motivate the sales force to greater effort. Sales people give these items to prospects. ii) Sales Contests: a contest involving the sales force or dealer. Public Relations (PR) involves a variety of programs designed to promote and or protect a company’s image or its individual products. 4. This includes advising in the event of a product mishap when the public confidence in a product is shaken.Notes on Marketing Management Prepared by Muhammad Akhlaq Khan iii) Free goods: Offers of extra causes of merchandise to intermediaries who buy a certain quantity or who feature a certain flavor or size. Product publicity: Sponsoring various efforts to publicize specific products. 3. Public relations departments perform the following five activities. iii) Specialty Advertising: consist of useful low-cost items bearing the combines name and address and sometimes advertising message. Its major tools are I) Trade Shows and Conventions: Organize annual trade shows. Lobbying: Dealing with legislators and government officials to promote or defeat legislation and regulation. Press relations: Presenting news and information about organization in the most positive light. aimed at including them to increase their sales results over a stated period.

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