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BASIC ABSTRACT ALGEBRA
Second edition

Basic abstract algebra
Second edition

R B. BHATTACHARYA
Formerly. Urdverslty of Delhi

tK.JAIN
Ohio University
&

P. NAGPAUL

Si. Siephens College. Delhi

CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY PRESS

Published by thc Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge The Pitt Building. Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211. USA 10 Stamfurd Road, Oaklcigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia © Cambridge University Press 1986, 1994 Firsi edition publIshed 1986 Second edition publIshed 1994 Reprinted 1995

Ubrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Is available.

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 0-521-46081-6 hardback ISBN 0-521-46629-6 paperback

Transferred to digital printing 1999

For PARVESH JAIN To whom we owe more than we can possibly express

Contents

Preface to the second edition Preface to the first edition Glossary of symbols

page xiii
XjV

xviii

Part I
Chapter I Sets and mappings
I. 2.
3. 4.
5.

Preliminaries
3 3

Sets

Relations Mappings Binary operations Cardinality of a set

9
14
21

25

Chapter 2

Integers, real numbers, and complex numbers
I. 2. 3.

30
30 35 36

Integers

Rational, real, and complex numbers
Fields

Chapter 3

Matrices and determinants I. Matrices 2. Operations on matrices Partitions of a matrix 3. 4. The determinant function Properties of the determinant function 5. Expansion of det A 6.

39 39
41

46 47 49
53

vi'

viii

Contents

Part 11

Groups
61 61

Chapter 4

Groups I. Semigroups and groups 2. Homomorphisms 3. Subgroups and cosets
4.

69 72

5. 6.

Cyclic groups Permutation groups Generators and relations

82 84

90
91 91

Chapter 5 Normal subgroups 1. Normal subgroups and quotient groups 2. Isomorphism theorems 3. Automorphisms 4. Conjugacy and G-sets Chapter 6 Normal series 1. Normal series Solvable groups 2. 3. Nilpotent groups Chapter 7

97 104 107
120 120 124
126

Permutation groups 1. Cyclic decomposition 2. Alternating group Simplicity of 3.
Structure theorems of groups 1. Direct products 2. Finitely generated abelian groups 3. Invariants of a finite abelian group 4. Sylow theorems 5. Groups of orders p2. pq
Part 111

129 129
132 135

Chapter 8

138 138
141 143

146 152

Rings and modules
159 159
161 163 168

Chapter 9

Rings
1.

2. 3.

4.
5.

Definition and examples Elementary properties of rings Types of rings Subrings and characteristic of a ring Additional examples of rings

176

Contents

ix

Chapter 10

Ideals and homomorphisms
1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Ideals Homomorphisms

Sum and direct sum of ideals Maximal and prime ideals Nilpotent and nil ideals Zorn's lemma

179 179 187 196

203 209 210

Chapter II

Unique factorization domains and euclidean domains 1. Unique factorization domains Principal ideal domains 2. 3. Euclidean domains 4. Polynomial rings over UFD
Rings of fractions 1. Rings of fractions 2. Rings with Ore condition
Integers 1, Peano's axioms Integers 2.

212 212 216 217 219

Chapter 12

224 224 228
233 233

Chapter 13

240 246 246 248
253 260 263 268 273

Chapter 14

Modules and vector spaces 1. Definition and examples 2. Submodules and direct sums 3. R-homomorphisms and quotient modules 4. Completely reducible modules 5. Free modules 6. Representation of linear mappings 7. Rank of a linear mapping

Part IV
Chapter 15

Field theory
281

Algebraic extensions of fields 1. Irreducible polynomials and Eisenstein criterion 2. Adjunction of roots 3. Algebraic extensions 4. Algebraically closed fields

281

285 289 295

HomR 2. Preliminaries 2. Smith normal form Chapter 21 Finitely generated modules over a PID Decomposition theorem 1. 2. column module. Generalized Jordan form over any field 402 402 404 408 409 418 . 4. 2. 4. Fundamental theorem of Galois theory 3. 3. Noetherian and artinian modules Wedderburn—Artin theorem Uniform modules. 5. primary modules. Symmetric functions Ruler and compass constructions 5. Splitting fields Normal extensions Multiple roots Finite fields Separable extensions 300 300 304 307 310 316 Chapter 17 Galois theory Automorphism groups and fixed fields 1. Uniqueness of the decomposition 3. Application to finitely generated abelian groups 4. 2. Additional topics 322 322 330 338 Chapter 18 340 340 344 348 355 358 Part V Chapter 19 Noetherian and artinian modules and rings 1. Rational canonical form 5. Cyclic extensions Polynomials solvable by radicals 3. 2. and Noether—Lasker theorem 367 367 368 382 388 392 392 393 394 Chapter 20 Smith normal form over a PID and rank 1.x Contents Chapter 16 Normal and separable extensions 1. Row module. and rank 3. Fundamental theorem of algebra Applications of Galois theory to classical problems Roots of unity and cyclotomic polynomials 1. 3. 4.

Tensor product of algebras 426 426 428 431 433 436 438 476 477 Solutions to odd-numbered problems Selected bibliography Index . Tensor products 2.Contents xl Chapter 22 Tensor products Categories and functors 1. Tensor product of homomorphisms 5. Module structure of tensor product 3. 4.

.

Preface to the second edition The following are the main features of the second edition. R. we would like to thank Sergio R. Nagpaul xli' . In particular. A proof for the constructibility of a regular n-gon has been included in Chapter 18. Finally. Among others. We have included a recent elegant and elementary proof. In particular. of the celebrated Noether—Lasker theorem. the division algorithm and greatest common divisors in a given euclidean domain. due to Osofsky. Jam S. Bhattacharya S. B. More than 150 new problems and examples have been added. Lopez-Permouth for his help during the time when the revised edition was being prepared. K. P. The new problems include several that relate abstract concepts to concrete situations. This chapter provides basic results on tensor products that are useful and important in present-day mathematics. We are pleased to thank all of the professors and students in the many universities who used this textbook during the past seven years and contributed their useful feedback. Chapter 22 on tensor products with an introduction to categories and functors is a new addition to Part IV. we present applications of G-sets. we should mention the combinatorial applications of the Burnside theorem to real. life problems. we would like to acknowledge the staff of Cambridge University Press for their help in bringing out this second edition so efficiently.

It is self-contained and covers the topics usually taught at this level. including prime ideals. and the nonsolvability of S. UFD. and the Jordan—Holder theorem are given in Chapter 6. It contains an informal introduc(ion to sets. q are primes. Chapter 8 contains the theorem on the decomposition of a finitely generated abelian group as a direct sum of cyclic groups. Part I (Chapters 1. The invariants of a finite abelian group and the structure of groups of orders p2. are proved in Chapter 7. Chapter 3 deals with matrices and determinants.3) is a prerequisite for the rest of the book. where p. In Chapter 2. number systems. skipped altogether. matrices. Chapters 4 and 5 provide a foundation in the basic concepts in groups. PID. Chapter 13 contains a systematic development of xiv . Chapters 9— II cover the basic concepts of rings. Part II (Chapters 4—8) deals with groups. including G-sets and their applications. or simply referred to as necessary. The simplicity of the alternating group A. Results proved in Chapter I include the Schröder-Bernstein theorem and the cardinality of the set of real numbers.Preface to the first edition This book is intended for seniors and beginning graduate students. Normal series. solvable groups. are given as applications. maximal ideals. it can be completed rapidly. pq. illustrated by numerous examples. Chapter 12 deals with the ring of fractions of a commutative ring with respect to a multiplicative set. n > 4. starting from the well-ordering principle of natural numbers.. and so forth. and the Sylow theorems. some important algebraic properties of integers have been proved. Part III (Chapters 9— 14) deals with rings and modules. It is expected that students would already be familiar with most of the material in Part I before reaching their senior year. The book is divided into live parts (see diagram). Therefore. and determinants..

'U L) U- 0 LU Q z z 'U LU 'U U- C LU I- I .

xvi Preface to the first edition integers. The material presented here is in fact somewhat more than most instructors would normally teach. The book has evolved from our experience in teaching algebra for many years at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Part IV (Chapters 15-18) is concerned with field theory. Parts II and Ill arc almost independent and may be studied in any order. lemmas. rings. and rank. Topics discussed include completely reducible modules. . III. Chapter 14 is an introduction to modules and vector spaces. and normal and separable extensions. A two-semester course in abstract algebra can cover all of the material in Parts II. The material has been class tested through mimeographed notes distributed to the students.field theory — Chapters 15. Part IV requires a knowledge of portions to Parts 11 and Ill. Therefore. Chapter 19 deals with modules with chain conditions leading to the Wedderburn—Artin theorem for semisimple artinian rings. 16. Numbering of theorems. If reference is made to a result occurring in a previous chapter. The precise dependence of Part IV on the rest of the book can be found from the table of interdependence of chapters. Numerous examples have been worked out throughout the book to illustrate the concepts and to show the techniques of solving problems. Chapter 21 gives the structure of a finitely generated module over a ND and its applications to linear algebra. starting from Peano's axioms. It can be studied after acquiring a basic knowledge of groups. ll. 5. and examples is done afresh in each chapter by section. free modules. We have also provided solutions to the odd-numbered problems at the end of the book. and IV.and 18 (Section 5). rings — Chapters9.and 14(Sections I—3). Part V (Chapters 19—21) covers sOme additional topics not usually taught at the undergraduate level. including existence and uniqueness of algebraic closure. 10. Chapter 17 gives the fundamental theorem of Galois theory and its application to the fundamental theorem of algebra. We hope these will be used by students mostly for comparison with their own solutions. Chapters 15 and 16 contain the usual material on algebraic extensions. There are also many challenging problems for the talented student. Chapter 18 gives applications of Galois theory to some classical problems in algebra and geometry. Chapter 20 deals with the rank of a matrix over a PID through Smith normal form. In all cases the additional information needed to identify a reference is provided. The book can be used for a one-year course on abstract algerba. A two-quarter course in abstract algebra may cover the following: groups — Chapters 4. and vector spaces. and 7 (Section 1) and 8. then only the chapter number is mentioned alongside. it provides flexibility in selection of the topics to be taught.

P. John Wiley. whose encouragement and unstinted support enabled us o complete our project. Bhattacharya S. Jam S. It is our pleasant duty to express our gratitude to Professor Donald 0. 1965. B. In particular. Addison-Wesley. we mention P. Chairman. Vols. Reading. We also thank Mrs. Norris. Stephanie Goldsbcrry for the splendid job of typing.Preface to the first edition xvii We acknowledge our indebtedness to numerous authors whose books have influenced our writing. Lang's Algebra. Nagpaul . Department of Mathematics. MA. 1977. and S. Ohio University. M. 1974. R. We express our gratitude to all of them. Cohn's Algebra. 2. New York. I. During the preparation of this book we received valuable help from several colleagues and graduate students. K. We also express our gratefulness to Ohio University for providing us the facilities to work together in the congenial environment of its beautiful campus.

)IEA LEA U X1 lEA fl XXY 0 corç ç J or Cartesian product of X and Y empty set isasubsetof is a proper subset of contains properly contains implies if and only if if and only if image f:X—'Y f(x) if fisamapofXintoY Y y=f(x)wheref:X—'Y.)jEA intersection of (Xjj€A 3 (x E A IP(x)) 9(x) (X.x€X.yEY composition Euler's function xviii .Glossary of symbols V forall there exists is an element of is not an element of set of all x E A satisfying condition P(x) power set of x family indexed by set A union of (X.

the symmetric group of degree n. F) Z(G) <1 A/B [L:K] N(S) (NH(S)) C(S) (CM(S)) ISA fl direct sum of(Xt)IEA Im Ken f C image of homomorphism f kernel of homomorphismf is isomorphic into (embeddable) is isomorphic onto .n) set of all natural numbers set of all integers set of all rational numbers set of all real numbers set of all complex numbers the cardinal of the continuum (cardinality of the reals) integers modulo n cardinality of X order of groupG subgroup generated by S cyclic group of order n as a group.. the ring of n X n matrices over S alternating group of degree n dihedral group of degree n group of invertible m X m matrices over F center of G is a normal subgroup of quotient group (ring. the greatest common divisor of a and b.j) position. the index of a subgroup K in a group L. the ideal or submodule generated by a and b alb a%b adividesb a does not divide b Kronecker delta determinant ± I..1 n N Z Q R C Z/(n) or lxi or card X IGI (SI A.b) in number theory. GL(m. the degree of extension of L over K normalizer of S (in H) conjugate class of S(with respect to I!) product of (A's) ISA X1 1€ A det sgnc e.. in vector spaces.. the dimension of a vector space Lover K. 0 elsewhere the set of positive integers (I .. in rings and modules.Glossary of symbols xix (a. module) of A modulo B in groups. according as the permutation is even or odd square matrix with I in (i.3. as a ring. in fields.2.

.0 A polynomial ring over R in one indeterminate x polynomial ring over R in n indeterminates. G(E/F) M®RN 0 end of the proof . under the binary operation "addition modulo 1" set of all R-homomorphisms of R-module I to Rmodule Y set of all homomorphisms of I to V endomorphisms of X Hom(X. R([xJj R<x> HomR(X. mn> 0.xx Glossary to Symbols (S) (S)1 lEA opposite ring of R ideal (submodule) generated by S right ideal generated by S left ideal generated by S sum of right or left ideals (submodules) (X1).Y) End(X) Aut(X) R5 F(a) F(SJ F(S) automorphisms of I localization of a ring R at S subfield generated by F and a subring generated by F and S subfield generated by F and S Galois field (finite field) with q elements algebraic closure of F fixed field of H Galois group of automorphisms of E over F cyclotomic polynomial of degree n tensor product of MR and RN F E41. Y) rationals between 0 and I of the form rn/ps.. x1 formal power series ring ring of formal Laurent series RtxJ R[x1 .

PART I .

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When the context is clear." Informally speaking. Let A and B be sets.3) denote the same set. It is not our purpose to present here an axiomatic account of set theory. An element ofa set Sis also called a member ofS. (1.2. The order in which the elements are written makes no difference. we write B = (x E A IP(x)). written A = B.") A set is thus determined by its elements. there is a unique set B whose elements are precisely those elements x of A for which P(x) is true. (The symbol stands for "if and only if.2. we sometimes also write B = (xlP(x)). we write x S. There are standard symbols for several sets that we frequently deal 3 . IfS is a set and xis an element of the set S. we say x belongs toS.3) denotes the set whose elements are 1.CHAPTER 1 Sets and mappings I Sets The concept of set is fundamental in mathematics. that is. repetition of an element has no effect. Thus. Thus. (1. we say that a set is a collection of objects (or elements).2. and we write x E S. if they consist of the same elements. For example.3). We say that A and B are equal. Also.3. (1. XE A XE B.2.2) is the same set as (1. Ifx does not belong to S.2. Instead we shall assume an intuitive understanding of the terms "set" and "belongs to. A set with a finite number of elements can be exhibited by writing all of its elements between braces and inserting commas between elements.3) and (2. and 3. Given a set A and a statement P(x). In symbols.1.

IfS CA. we write A C B.2. . labeled) by natural numbers 1. then S is a proper subset of A written as Sc A.2. The number n is called the cardinality of S. Thus.. (The symbol stands for "implies. we also say that B contains (or includes) A.n for any n whatsoever is called an infinite set.3 Z is the set of all integers O. A set S is said to be empty ifS has no elements. say n. A is called a subset of B if every element of A is an element of B.. fractions a/b.. N denotes the set of all natural numbers 1. Others will be introduced subsequently as the occasion arises. written the set A U B. Some of these are given below.. A set whose elements cannot be listed by the natural numwrite IS1 bers I .±2 Q is the set of all rational numbers — that is.. or if its elements can be listed (counted.n) is denoted by n. and the process of listing stops at a certain number. if A is a subset of B.) Further. the empty set 0 is a subset of every set because the condition x E 0 xEA is satisfied vacuously. For any positive integer n. Definition. then S = since the condition x E S x E Tis satisfied because there is no element x in either Sor Tto which the condition may be applied. The empty set is also called the null set or the void set. is AUB(xE UIxEA orxEB).") If A is a subset of B. every set is a subset of itself. the statement xE S is not true for any x.3. C is the set of all complex numbers x + iy. It follows immediately from the definition that A and Bare equal ifand only ifA C B and B C A. that is. IfS and Tare both empty sets..4 Sets and mappings with. Moreover.. and we n. but S '# A. where a.± 1. which is denoted by 0... A set S is calledflnite if it has no elements. Let A and B be sets. and we write B A (or B A). there is just one empty set. (Some authors write A C B. R is the set of all real numbers. that is. the set (I . if aEA a E B.y are real numbers and i2 = — 1. The union ofA and B. (In such a case we say that the condition is satisfied vacuously.) Because any two empty sets are equal. Let A andB be subsets ofa set U..2.b are integers and b # 0.. Definition. where x.2.

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AU(AflB)=A=Afl(AUB).6 Sets and mappings (iii) (AUB)uC=Au(BuC). B. Hence.X—(X—A)=XflA. 0 1. is the set of those elements that belong to each of the sets A. Moreover. B. This suggests the following definition for the union and intersection of an arbitrary number of sets. 0 Proof of (ii) Xand xEA xE X — A and x B x E (X — A) fl (X — B). X — (A U B) = (X — A) fl (X — B). Definition. Hence. The union of all sets in S is defined to be the set {xlxeXforsomeXinS) . (iii) Proof of(i): XnA. the intersection of A. (iv) (v) AU(BflC)=(AUB)fl(AuC). Likewise. (ii) X—(AuB)=(X—A)n(X—B). Let A. and C. and C. and C. A fl B fl C.2 Theorem (DeMorgan's rules).we can do away with the parentheses and simply write A U B U C to denote unambiguously the union of the sets A. A fl(BUC)=(AflB)u(A flC). B. B. it is clear that the set A U B U C consists of all those elements that belong to at least one of the sets A. B. The last part is proved similarly. and X be sets. LetS be a Set whose elements are themselves sets. Then (i) X—(X—A)=XnA. and C. 0 Inviewoftheequality(A UB)UC=A U(BUC)(Theorem l. as Proof Left an exercise.l).(AnhJ)nC=An(BnC).

X).1 X be a set. where 0 r n. IfXis the empty set 0. Let X be afinite set having n elements. Hence. That is. the total number of subsets ofXis On putting a = I in the binomial expansion (I we get + .(2}.. then {a) E 1. ('onsequently. = (0. andX.. If a E X...2).3 2 Theorem. orX1 U U their union is and their intersection is written fl7. IfS contains only a finite number of sets. The set of all subsets ofX is called the power set ofX and is denoted by X). Recall that the empty set 0 and the set X itself are subsets ofX and are therefore elements For example. then has just one element: 0. has Proof Let us first consider those subsets of X that have r elements each.{t). It is shown in high school algebra that the number of ways in which r elements can be selected out of n elements is (n\ n! r!(n—r)!' which is therefore the number of subsets of X having r elements each. Hence. Then )t = subsets. It should be noted that a and (a) are not the same.( 1 ). (2). let X = (1.Sets 7 and is denoted by the set The intersection of all sets in S is defined to be S) and is denoted by flXESX. Then the subsets ofXareO. say X1 written LJ7.

and 10 were taking all three subjects. . Prove Theorem I . (a) Show that 54 were enrolled in only one of the three subjects. 6 were taking both English and physics but not French. (b) Show that 35 were enrolled in at least two of them. 30 sets had a defective picture tube and a defective sound system.8 Sets and mappinp This proves that I has exactly 2" subsets. Note that if X is empty. lithe elements ofit are pairwise elements of it are called blocks of the partition it. Proof Exercise. 0 0. 15 were taking physics and French. If a set A has m elements and a set B has n elements. During quality control checking of a sample of 1000 TV sets.1. 5. the set it = ((l. Hence. Let it be a set whose elements are nonempty andø it. 15 sets had a defective sound system and a defec1. 30 were taking French. it was found that 100 sets had a defective picture tube. it C Definition. then it is called a partition of I. Let X be a set. = 21X1 explains why the set of all sub- sets of Xis called the power set of X. subsets ofX. and the The next theorem follows immediately from the definition. 1. that is. 20 sets had a defective picture tube and a defective remote control. 44 were taking physics. Then it is a partition ofl of I belongs to exactly one element of it. 4. 2. find the number of elements in A U B. the following statistics were revealed: 60 were taking English. 80 sets had a defective remote control system.5)) isa partition of the set X (1 disjoint and their union is I. the equality has 2" elements.2(iii).(3).4 Theorem. = 21X1 0 we get Since n = Incidentally. After the registration of 100 freshmen. 3.(4. For example. Assume that A fl B has k elements. 75 sets had a defective sound system. Let it be a set whose elements are only ([each element nonempty subsets ofX.2). it has only the partition it Problems Prove Theorem 1. Let I be a set. 24 were taking English and French.

d). Definition. Conversely.( if A = (1. a is called the first component (or coordinate).b)) = ((c). on the other hand.(2. and 5 sets had all three defects. (a) = (c. E R.b). which implies a = c = h = d.b) = (c).c) then AXB= The term "cartesian" is borrowed from coordinate geometry.a). Let A.d) if and only if a = c and b = d.d). then xis said to he in relation R toy.Relations tive remote control system.b) = (c. The set of all ordered pairs (x.b). and let R he a subset of A X B.b be elements of a se( S.b)) is called an ordered pair and is denoted by (a. Let A and B he sets.b). written x R y.(a.yE B). Let a. If. Then ((a).d). and b is the second component (or coordinate). then we must have (a. In symbols. let (a.{c.y) called its cartesian coordinates. AX B((x. For example. where x C A andy B. If a = c and b = d. Definition. in that order.c)).(2. then we must have (a.d).b) = (c.b) = (c.( I . 50 sets had a defective remote control only. ((1 . where a point in the plane is represented by an ordered pair of real numbers (x.h. A relation from A to A is called a relation on A (or in 4). 805 sets had no defects.B be sets. Then R is called a relationfrom A to B. b = d. The cartesian product R X R is then the set of cartesian coordinates of all points in the plane.(2. This yields a = c. Use (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Venn diagrams to show that 195 sets had at least one defect.a).(a. 55 sets had a defective picture tube only. then trivially (a. By definition of equality of sets. and B (a.d)).2) I .y). Then the set ((a). is called the cartesian product ofA and B.d). If (a) = (c).c). We now show that (a.b) = (c.y)Ix€A. and is denoted by A X B. Relations 2 Definition. this implies (a) = (c) or (a) = (c. So a = c = d and a = b = c. 35 sets had a defective sound system only. .

(d) The relation congruence modulo n on Z is defined as follows.z E X. Let R be a relation in the set X. Consider the relation C determined by "set inclusion. congruence of triangles and similarity of triangles are equivalence relations. if n divides x — y. . (b) Let X be a set whose elements are themselves sets. hence. (c) The relation ("less than or equal to") on the set R of real numbers is reflexive.1 Examples (a) Let Xbe the set of all lines in a plane. set inclusion is reflexive. B"=D.z in Z. then R is called a partial order on X. x is said to be congruent to y (modulo n). Then II is an equivalence relation on X. and transitive. written x (i) (ii) (iii) y (mod n). symmetric. (d) transitive if x R y andy R z imply x R zfor all x. x = x (mod n). antisymmetric. therefore. antisymmetric.y E Xlet xIIy mean that xis parallel toy. and S is a relation from C to D. (ii) (iii) if A C B and B C A. If R is reflexive. and transitive. it is a partial order on R. ifACBandBCC. R is said to be reflexive tfx R xfor all x E X. if n divides x — y and also y — z. if n divides x — y. (a) (b) If R is reflexive.C E Xwe see that (i) ACA. then R and S are equal ifA =C. then n divides y — x. Definition. therefore it is a partial order on X.y.y E X.B and a subset R of A X B. Hence.y. Let us further agree that every line is parallel to itself. symmetric if x R y implies y R xfor all x. and transitive. Similarly. For any x. then R is called an equivalence relation on X.B. A.and. For x. then A B.10 Sets mid Strictly speaking. for any x. antisymmetric. If R is a relation from A to B. although we call it simply the relation R. Now. it is true that n divides x — x = 0. 2. and transitive. then n divides x — z.y E X. (c) antisymmetric (Ix R y andy R x imply x = yfor all x. a relation is determined by three sets.thenAcC." For any sets A.y E Z. Let n be a fixed positive integer.

(g.Lb.b. ordered by set inclusion. Ifx y and x # y.yE X. A finite poset X can be represented by a diagram in the following manner. (1.2. As an illustration. (c) (a) (1.4. (The symbol here denotes an arbitrary partial order and does not necessarily have its usual meaning of less than or equal to" in real numbers.u. if it exists. then y is higber than x in the diagram. join x andy by a straight segment whenever y covers x.) are defined analogously. Further. briefly. Let be a poset. If x < y and there is no element a in X such that x < a <y. a poset.b.2.3.) (1.3. then xis said to be contained in y.4.u. . then xis said to be properlycontainedin y.3) (I 3> 34 2t (a) 0 (b) (c) Let (I. and let be a partial order on X. ) be a partially ordered set.5.6) ordered by the usual relation of "less than or equal to".2.Relations II This proves that congruence modulo n is an equivalence relation on Z.) or simply the poset X. Let S be a subset of X. It can be easily shown that a l. A lower bound and a greatest lower bound (g. and let x.6) ordered by divisibility.) of S.) The set X together with the partial order is called a partially ordered set or. written x < y.) of S is an element rneX such that(i)x <rn for all xeS and (ii) if x <rn' for all then m rn'. then y is said to cover x. Let X be a set.5.3) (1 (2. A least upper bound (l. we give below the diagrams for the following three posets: (1. Represent each element in I by a small circle (or a point) in such a way that whenever x < y.I. is unique.b. We refer to it as the poset (X. An upper bound of S is an element beX such that x b for all XES.

The least upper bound and the greatest lower bound of {x. n divides x — y. that integers a. there is a unique equivalence relation E such that X/E = it. Then is an equivalence relation on Z [Example 2. A subset C of X is called an equivalence class of E (or an E-class) in X if C = E(a) for some a in X. y€X. E(a)=(xEXIxEa). Thai is. and any two equivalence classes are either the same or disjoint.. For example.b belong to the same equivalence class if and only if they differ by a multiple of n... A partially ordered set L is called a lattice if every pair of elements in L has a least upper bound and a greatest lower bound. That is. is the set denoted by — 1)). that is. either x y or y x is called a chain or a totally ordered set. Definition. The set of all elements in X that are in relation E to a is called the equivalence class of a under E and is denoted by E(a).2.12 Sets and mappings Definition. Let x. and so on. y} are written x v y and x A y. for all A. .. The set of equivalence classes or Z/(n)..n+2. Conversely. X/E=(CC X]C= E(a)forsomea€X). respectively (called join and meet of x.). Let E be an equivalence relation on a set X. Every chain is a lattice.. The following theorem shows that this property holds for every equivalence relation.2 Theorem. The set of all equivalence classes of E in X is called the quotient set of X by E and is writien X/E.e. in this example. l(d)J.. y. The equivalence classes Ii.--n+2. Let E be an equivalence relation on a set X.—2n+2. given a partition it of X. the elements Of residue classes of integers mod n. For any set S. ) in which for all x. and let n be a fixed positive integer. and let a E I.2n+ 2. or Z/(n)J are called the We observe. the power set Here A vB=AuB and A A ordered by set inclusion. A poset (X. where 0= 2=(.y E Z. Suppose x y means x y (mod n). 2. is a lattice. The diagrams (a) and (c) above represent lattices. respectively). let X = Z. Then X/E is a partition of X.

3.) U {.—4. 7. E(b) C E(a).. Foreveryx. E(a) = E(b).. X/E = it.—3. x E E(b). E(a)..8.. This proves that each a in X belongs to exactly one equivalence class. a E a. Suppose the following properties hold: (i) (ii) ForeveryxES. Hence.. E is an equivalence relation on X. Define the relation E as follows. Hence. Suppose E' is also an equivalence relation on X such that X/E' = it. we have X X V C A X B. By symmetry. For any x.7. Draw the graph of A X B in the xyplane...A. for every x E E(a).5.xRx. and. If for given sets X. let it be a given partition of I.—8. namely. a E E(a). by Theorem 1. x E y ifand only ifx. and let R be a relation on S.Relations 13 Proof For any a E X.4. x E a.2. a E b.—-2.— 1. Show that XX YCAXB. Then for all x. Therefore. Y.6.. Let Sbe a nonempty set. 6. hence.yare in the same block of it. Suppose a E E(b).0... Conversely.) U (... Is A X B = B X A? IfeitherA orB = 0.—6.B.1). is a roommate of is a friend of Describe the equivalence relation corresponding to the following partition of Z: (b) (c) (.3.y X. Clearly. what isA X B?lfA X B = 0. Show that the relation defined on N X N by (a.. Let Ube the set of all people. Hence. xEy x. b E a. Which of the following relations on U are equivalence relations? (a) is an uncle of 5.5). X/E is a partition of X.y E X.y are in the same block of it xE' y. 3.. E = E'.r. B = (0....d) ill a+d=b+c is an equivalence relation.) U (. hence.—7. Hence. hence.. what can you say aboutA and B? Suppose XcA and YCB.l. 2.z€S.. ..4.xRyandyRzimplyzRx. does it necessarily followthatXCAand YCB? 4. Then a E b. Let A = [0... therefore..b)—(c.y.). E(a) C E(b). 0 Problems 1.—5. and the equivalence classes of E are the blocks of it.. Therefore E is the unique equivalence relation on X such thatX/E=.

respectively. then x is called a preimage of y. (b) symmetric.y) E A X BIf(x) = y}. Also. then R is symmetric and transitive but not reflexive. G is (the relation)f itself interpreted as a subset ofA X B. iff(x) = y. Letf A B. We emphasize that if the mappingsf and g have different codomains. The graph of a mappingf A —' B is defined to be the set G = ((x. Let A and B be sets. they are not equal even iftheir domains are equal andf(x) g(x) for every x in the domain. As a matter of fact. 3 Mappings Delinti ion." [Hint: A relation R is a subset of XX X. The sets A and B are called. written f= g.14 Sets and mappIngs Prove that R 8. Xsuch thatf(a) = a for each a E A is called an inclusion (or insertion) map of A intoX. 1ff is a mapping from A to B.4LB. If R = 0. if (c) transitive? If so. in symbols. which attempts 9. Then the mappingf A —. . Determine the fallacy in the following argument. andf(x) = g(x) for all x E A. by transitivity x R y and y R x imply x R x. ifA = C.] Define a relation in the set of integers Z as follows: a b a + b is an even integer. B = D. X such that f(x) = x for all x E X is called the identity mapping on X and is denoted by (or Ii). Two mappingsf A —'Band g: C—' D are said to be equal. we write fA—'B or . prove that any equivalence relation satisfies (I) and (ii). to show that a symmetric and transitive relation R on a set X implies that the relation is also reflexive: "By symmetry x R y implies y R x. Is (a) reflexive. is an equivalence relation. Again. If V is the image of x underf we writef(x) = y and say that ftakes x to y. X'I-'y or simply x y. A relaiionf from A to B is called a mapping (or a map or a function) from A to B iffor each element x in A there is exactly one element y in B (called the image ofx underJ) such that x is in relation fto y. the domain and codomain of the mappingf Let XE A. A mapping f X —. Let A be a nonempty subset ofa set X. write down the quotient set Z/—.

l'—'O. S.X withO'—'O. with0'—. In go f. the empty mapping in which there is no element to which an image is to be assigned. let X = (0. lmf= (yE Be. On the contrary. there is just one mapping X namely. we have the result that For example.Mappings 15 Let fi A —' B. g of(x) = g(f(x)) for all x E A. This just means that assigned images in n X n X S there are exactly ntm distinct mappings from X to S. l—'l. S. We observe that if X is empty. them elements in Xcan be X n = nm ways. Thus. Let X and S be sets. Then the mapping h: A —' C given by h(x) = g(f(x)) for all x E A is called the composite off followed by g and is denoted by g a [(or more commonly by gf). ifS is empty but X is not empty.l. The set of all possible mappings from X to S is denoted by SX. The image ofany given element in Xcan be any one of then elements inS. That is.' =f(x) for some A). This might seem strange. facts first. Note that this is true even if S is also empty. The subset of B consisting of every element that is the image of some element in A is called the image (or range) of the mapping f and is denoted by lmf That is. A —' B and g: B —' C be mappings. but the definition of a mapping is satisfied vacuously. withO'—l. Therefore. withO'—O. then there can be no mapping from X to S. Thus.1). g: B C can be represented by . The mappings land g are called factors of the composite h g of Note that the notation for the composite mapping is such that the order in which the mappings act is from right to left. and fi X —. Then there are 22 = from X to X: 4 distinct mappings /:X—"X f4:X—. The composite g ofis defined whenever the domain of g contains the range off The composite of the diagram —° B. for finite sets X = and 5.

3. h(gf) and (hg)f have the same domain A and the same codomain D. h( gf Xx) = (gf)f(x) for every x in A. and I:: C D. B —. y =f(x) for some x E A. A bijective mapping . the image of any x E A is the same along either path — then we say that the diagram commutes. h(gfXx) = h(gf(x)) = and (hg)f(x) = hg(f(x)) = h(g(f(x))). equivalent/v. f(x1) =f(x2) x1 = x2. A mapping that is infective and surjeclive is said to be bijective. x1 x2 #f(x2) (b) or. Then. surjective (or onto) '1 for every y E B.16 Sets and mappings One can go from A to C directly. A mappingf A (a) 0 B is injective (or one-to-one or I .I) .ifor all x1 . Letf A B.1 Theorem. therefore. g.x2 E A. C. by definition of the composite. Then h(gf) = (hg)f Proof Clearly. we may writef A B. A —' B is a bijective mapping. Let x E A. It is clear that the diagram commutes if and only if h = g of In the sequel we denote the composite by gf(instead of g of). or along the path If the result is the same—that is. h(gf) = (hg)f Definition. Hence.

Proof Letf A —. Ifs = 0 then choose b = f''(a). Otherwise. be a mapping from the set of natural numbers to itself. .. and bijective mappings. bijective) mapping is also called an injection (surjection. Let us write f2 for if (with n factors) as ffl. where r> s. Ietf N N.3 does not hold for infinite sets. A mapping g: B A is called an inverse off if and gf—i4.3 bijective. A be injective. surjective. So assume that f'(a) — f3(a). Then f is infective if and only if no element in B has more than one preimage. consider the effect of performing f repeatedly. there must be repetitions. (iii) f is bijective if and only if every element in B has exactly one preimage. 0 An infective mapping from a finite set to itself is Theorem. is unique. We shall find b C A such that f(b) = a. 1ff is invertible. Why? Recall that denotes the identity mapping on X. then its inverse. (ii) f is surf ective if and only if every element in B has a preimage.. Let a C A. are all in a finite set A.2 Theorem. The following theorem characterizes injective. bijective. Proof Obvious. which proves that f is surjective and. if f'(a) =fs(a) where b fr—s—I(a) 0 We wish to remark that Theorem 3. Leif A —' B. Then f is injective but not surjective. we sayfis invertible. because f is injective. Definition. A bifective mapping is also called a one-to-one correspondence. hence. in general. 1ff has an inverse. hence. 3. Now f°(a). bijection). The elements a = and. defined byf(x) = x + 1. 3. An infective (curjective.. f(a). say. f2(a).Mappings A 17 A is called a permutation of A. Leif? A — B. For example.

6 Examples of induced mappings (a)Letf A —. the inverse off if it exists. which implies that g(z) E A is a preimage of z underf This provesfis onto. A (a) (b) — B. Then finduces the mapping g: T given by g(x) =f(x) for all x E S. f is 1-1. Define g: B — A as follows: Let b E B and define g(b) = a. where a is the unique preimage of b B under f Obviously. Hence. A is a left inverse off (1 gf= a right inverse off zffg = i5.4 Theorem. A mapping g: B —. f is invertible if and only (if is bijective. In the next section we describe some of these induced mappings. letfi A —. Let ScA and TC Bsuch thatf(x)E TforallxES. gf(x) = gf(y) Conversely. Thenf(x) =f(y) Proof Letf: A x = y. Then Sdetermines the mapping f5: X A given by f5(x)=l The mapping =0 ifxES. if z B. Proof Exercise. as we say — by another mapping or by some inherent property of the domain or codomain. is called the characteristic function of S (as a subset of X). The mapping g is called a restriction off (b) There is an important mapping determined by a subset of a set. 3.18 Sets and mappings 3. Clearly. B be a bijection.B. A A —* B is infective if and only (if has a left inverse. Further. surf ective if and only iff/sas a right inverse.! is a bijection. Leif. then fg(z) = z. is a left inverse as well as a right inverse off 3. . g is the inverse off 0 Definition. 0 We shall frequently come across mappings that are determined in a natural way — induced.1).5 (i) (ii) Theorem. Therefore. B be invertible with gas its inverse. Let Sc X and let A = (0.

B. The mappings p and q are called the projections from S X Tonto Sand T. (e) Given mappingsf A —.y)ESX T.g(v)) A X B. (f) Letfi A —. let S=(xEXIf(x)= f Moreover.y) The mapping is called the cartesian product offand g and is denoted by fX g or (f. Ax. with forall(x. Thus. respectively. The context usually makes clear whetherfdenotes the mapping A —' B or The mappingf: A B also induces the induced mapping . f(S) = (yE Bly =f(x) for some x E S).v) '—p (f(x).g).y)'—'y and q: SX T— T with forall(x. where E(x) is the equivalence class ofx under E. Sand g: B —' T. The mappingp is called the canonical(or natural) mapping from X to the quotient set X/E. A. there are two natural mappings with domain there S X T— namely. given a mapping X —. in particular. Then it is clear that the characteristic function of S is the given mapping the unique subset of Xwithfas its characteristic function. the set is also written as (c) Let E be an equivalence relation on the set X. (x. that for every singleton (a) C = (f(a)). place ofA.2) in the mapping yi: is bijective.y)ESXT. Then E induces the suijective mapping p: X — X/E. with x '—' E(x). It is usual to drop the subscript * and to denote the induced mapping by I also. let us define AXB SXT with for all (x. Note. That is. Then f induces a mapping given by fe(S) = (yE Bly =f(x) for some xc S) 1mJf4(ø) = 0.Mappings 19 Conversely. and for every Sc A. (x. and 2X• Beis a one-to-one correspondence between the set cause of this. S is This proves that It 1). given by S is clear that we could have used the set 2 = (1. (d) Given sets S and T.

a list) of sets A1 . the induced mappingf is commonly '(T) = (x E A f(x) E T). f: given by f*(T)=(xEApf(x)E T) forevery TCB. One may visualize a set of pigeonholes or post office boxes.n). More generally.. each labeled with exactly one element ofX. as before... is written or A1 X A2 X . = A for each i E X. in general. Thus.. The cartesian is defined as product denoted by element in several IEX fi A1={f IEX UAjf(i)EAI for each iEX}.EXA. S is called a sequence of elements ofS and is written (J or . As usual. =f(i). are called members or elements of the list. always exists whetherfis invertible or not. there seems to be no difference between a family and a mapping. we think of the elements of X as labels for locating elements of S.). One may wonder why we introduced the new term "family. namely. that is. the cartesian product fl. A mappingf n elements of S. The element f(i) is usually written J... is not the inverse offas defined earlier. is in fact Ax.. the induced mappingf *: —. The difference lies in the point of view. A list of length n is also called an n-iuple. The cartesian product of a finite family (that is.f2. and the list f is exhibited as The positive integer n is called the length of the list. so that used f Once again." since. we see that the elements of the index set A' serve as addresses for the locations of the elements of S in the range of! Let be an arbitrary family of sets indexed by X. let n denote S is called a list (or an ordered set) of the set (1 .. Let S be a nonempty set and n a positive integer.. we may put the same being the clement in the box labeled i. Note that each element of is a family where a1 E A1..A2. But it should be carefully noted in this sense. In the particular case when A. When we refer to the mappingf X — S as a family. In each box we put exactly one element of S (with repetitions allowed... In fact.. andf . X .. a mapping!: X —p S is called afamily of elements of S and represented as The set Xis called the index set of the and fis said to be indexed by X or X-indexed.20 Sets and mappings a mapping in the reverse direction. A mapping N —.

11 to S. more generally. Show that the mapping is a hijection from ('(0. what can be said about f and g? Prove Theorem 3. B and g: B — C be mappings. We have come across a few others in this chapter. Again. 2.f is surjective if bothfand g are surjective.' instead of *(x. 3. (c) gf is bijective if both land g are bijective. Binary operations are usually represented by symbols like . Also show that f has infinitely many left inverses.2. lffis surjective org is injective.g. and so on. A mapping *: is called a binary operation on the set S. Find the number of injective mappings from a set with in elements to a set with n elements if(a) m = n. A binary operation on S thus assigns to each ordered pair of elements of S exactly one element of S. (c) in> n. in the set R of real numbers are the most familiar examples of binary operations.o.5. Prove Theorem 3. union. show that fand g are bijective. Let S be a set with n elements. 9. without having called them by that name. lffg is injective (or surjective). Letf A —. Find the number of distinct mappings from S to S. given and difference are all binary operations on the set . instead of lettersf. then A U B. (b) g. the image of(x. 8. Let C[0.1 ]to R.y) under a binary operation * is written x * . 4. How many are bijective? 7.lJ such thatf(0) = 0 andf' is continuous.Binary operations 21 Problems I. 4 Binary operations Definition.A fl B. Show that Letfi A (a) gf is injective if both fand g are injective. B and g: B — A be mappings such that gf— 14. and let S be the set of all differentiable func- tionsfE C[0.y). show that J'has a left inverse but no right inverse. (b) in < n.andA — BarealsosubsetsofX. 5.+.l) be the set of all continuous functions from the closed interval [0. Iffis a mapping from N to N defined by 1(x) = 2x + I. intersection. Hence. Then show thatfg = 6. Addition (+) and multiplication in the set Z of integers or. Moreover. IfA and 13 are subsets of X.

we first introduce some notation. (b) Union and intersection in the set are both commutative and associative. is distributive over + (but both corn the converse is not true).yES. for any positive integer n. (x * z) (d) for all x. Moreover. right-distributive over o (yez)*x=(y*x)o(z. we get a unary operation. Let us call . the composition (e) of mappings is a binary operation on the set S = X to X. Ifs is both left. To prove it formally.y. is called an n-ary operation on S. Definition.z ES. Hence.22 Sets and mappings mappingsf X X and g: X —' X. A binary operation *: S X S (a) S on the set S is commutative (f x*y=y*x (b) forallx. i/zen * is said to be Examples (a) Addition (+) and multiplication () in Z (or. then • is (c) left-distributive over o x * (ye z) = (x * y). When S S n = 1. One would intuitively expect that the result can be generalized to any finite number of elements.and riglzi-distributive over o. Let * be an associative binary operation on the set S. Moreover.b.x) distributive over o• 4.zES. This is indeed true.y. each is distributive over the other. (c) Composition (o) of mappings is an associative binary operation on X X has more than one element. in R) are and associative. Let * be a binary operation (not necessarily associative) on S.1 for all x. the set then o is not commutative. More generally. * y) * z associative if x * (y * If o is for all x. Then a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c for all a.c C S. we may omit the parentheses and simply write a * b * c without ambiguity.y.z e S. Hence. their composite gf is also a mapping X —' X. another binary operation on S. U: S S. a mappingf S (n factors). more generally.

. (a * (b * c)) * d. For n = I the result is trivially true. The standard product of elements a.ak) and selves meaningful products.. * a2) * a3) S a4) * a5.a4 ..(a1 are meanak) and ingful products of a.. For example.2 Theorem. Chapter 2) as follows: a6 = a1.a1... in several ways by inserting various parentheses and repeatedly applying the binary operaBut the parentheses must be suitably placed so as to get a meaningful product.. Given a list a. in that order. a * ((b * c) * d).a3 . For example. where I k n and are them.. (a * b) * (c * d). form a product of the elements a. = ai) for n> 1. hypothesis. the standard product of a. Then b(a.(a.. Given a list a.c in that order are (a * b) * c and a * (b * c).Binary operations 23 S.b. where I k n and 4. 4.a2 . a. the expression a * b c is ambiguous and.. we have k respectively.. is equal to the standard product fl7_ .(a. be any meaningful product of a. hence.c. in that order is defined inductively (see Theorem 1. in that order.ak) * some k. there are five meaningful products: ((a * b) * c) * d.. By the induction j—I fl . Let n> 1 and suppose the result holds for products of m elements for every m < n. every meaningful product of a.d. = for .ak) * cb2(ak+. ..ak and ak+. in that order. a * (b * (c * d)).a5 in that order is (((a. that is. we can a * b the product of a. In general. a. . denote any meaningful product of a. Let f.. Then. Proof We prove the theorem by induction on n.. not a meaningful product. in that order E 5.b. if * is not associative. The meaningful products of a. let /(a. Let * be an associative binary operation on the set S.7.. b(a. For four elements..b in that order.. clearly. 4. some k. one without ambiguity. .

then given a list a1 . C S there is a unique product of a1 in that order that is * written a1 * (without any parentheses). it is equal to fl7:a. = 1k I-I ae) \ in—k i-I !fk=n— 1.. Then (i) am * a" = Qm+n (atm)" = atm". As a result of the theorem.. (A Now aa) ak+J) * an) ((n ai) I k (ri ak÷J)) * an.2 is known as the generalized associative law. jf* is an associative binary operation on S. \ In—k—I H I elements.. therefore. once again 0 Theorem 4. Chapter 2). Let * be an associative binary operation on S. Let * be an associative binary operation on a set S. by the induction a hypothesis.. then ai) Ifk<n— I. We define inductively the power of an element a as follows: a'=a.. Let a S and n C N.24 Sets and mappings Hence. The validity of this definition follows from the Recursion Theorem (Theorem 1.3 Theorem.7. (ii) . Therefore. Let a C S. Definition..n be positive integers.a. 4. and let rn.

5 f Cardinality of a set Earlier in this chapter when we defined a finite set as having a finite number of elements. Show that the binary operation o given by xo y = x a ° y is also associative. Let A. Suppose e. 6.. B. If (here exists a bijection A and B have the same cardinal number (or cardinality.. Let A and B be sets.n) are equipotent if and only if m = n. If o is commutative. If there exists a bijective mappingf A —.) IAI = IBI. then A Definition. Let a E S.y. show that y= z.. ... we relied on our intuitive notion of counting... 4. Let S be a nonempty set with associative binary operation°. Show that x commutes with y o z also. This enables us to assign to every set Sa cardinal numberlSl in accordance with the following definition. if x o y = e = z ° x. We use this fact to define a finite set and its cardinality. Prove that e = Furthermore. We shall now make this notion precise and extend it to arbitrary sets.m) and n = (l. Suppose x commutes with y and z.. it can be easily proved that the sets m = (I . B.Cardinslity of a set 25 Proof Follows from the definition of a" and generalized associative law.z E S. iso commutative? Let Sbe a set with n elements. 0 Problems 1.B be sets. 5.y) xoy=xY+yx xoy=l 2. Let S be a nonempty set with associative binary operation °. Find the number of binary operations on S. Determine if the binary operation oØfl R is associative (commutative) in each of the following cases: (a) (b) (c) (d) xoy=x2y xey=min(x. It is clear that equipotence is an equivalence relation (on any given collection of sets). How many binary operations in Problem 4 are commutative? Suppose S is a nonempty set with associative binary operation °.fE S such that x e = x and Jo x = x for all x E S. 3. If m and n are natural numbers. we say that A is equipoteni to B and write A B. Let x.

1 A —' B andg: B —'A be infective mappings. Let S be a set. A set that is not finite is called an iitfinite set. Then there exists a bijection w: A—'B. and let 4° denote the identity mapping. Let A and B be sets. hence. We shall prove that.1 A —' B. then S is called a finite set ofcardinal number ii. Hence. have the usual meaning [i. For cardinal numbers of finite sets. The cardinal number of N (and hence of every countable set) is denoted by (Some authors call a set countable if it is finite or equipotent to N. n 0) and 4* = g(B) = (g(b)fb E B). Proof 1ff is not suijective. If mappingsf A is injective.. . the cardinal number c of R is strictly greater than The usual ordering of natural numbers gives an ordering of the cardinal numbers of finite sets. Theorem (Shröder—Bernstein). Care both injective. The following theorem shows that s is also antisymmetric and. Let A and B be sets. Moreover. in a sense to be explained later.. it is clear that for cardinal numbers of arbitrary sets the relation is reflexive and transitive. The letter pronounced aleph.e. a partial order on the set of cardinal numbers.. IBI s ICI imply fAl 1(1. Definition. C is also injective. For any IAI. n) for some n e N. setA the identity mapA A —' B and g: B —. the relation S coincides with the usual ordering of natural numbers. hence. is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. therefore. n E N. If S is equipozeni to she set (I. The cardinal number ofan infinite set is called a transfinize cardinal number.) We shall prove that Z and Q are both countable sets. • 4.26 Sets and mappings Definition. then 141 is said to be less than or equal to IBI (written Al IBD. An infinite set S is said to be countable (or denumerable) if S is equipotent to the set N. IAI fBI. and let f 5. then gf A —. We extend this ordering to arbitrary (finite or infinite) sets. let C= B — Set B* Imf = c E C. let = o o . If there exists an infective Pnapping . (n times)1. IZI = IQI = But the set R of real numbers is uncountable. For any mapping X —' X. An empty set is a finite set of cardinal number 0.

For any set X.1 )X. then a. is surjective and.1). If b Ba.6(b)1 that from X to is equipotent to (0. cv(a) = f(a) = b. then a =g(b) EA*.1) given by g(x') = 0 = I = 1. g C (0. then elements (Theorem 1. Therefore. 0 has 2" We saw earlier that if X is a finite set with n elements.Ifa EA.1 )X. Thus. IA I < IBI means that IA BI and IAI IBI.a' E A. Consider now the mapping g: X (0. Conversely.u is bijective. g(b). a E A*. lmf Hence. hence. then a =g(b)forsome b E B*. Leta E A. We first prove that a wherec E C. is a image of x under the mappingf mappingf. g '(a) = g '(a'). Hence.a' A.: X — (0. = 0. but g . let b = b. To prove cv is surjective. b =f(a) for some a E A. a = g(fg)" '(c) = then 1(a) = B. IXI < given by j(x) = {x) for all x C X is Proof The mapping j: X we To prove that IXI obviously injective. if f(a) E B. IXI have to show that there is no suijective (and hence no bijective) mapping Since we have already proved [Example 3.l)X.Cardinality of a set 27 The restriction of g to B is obviously a bijection B* A. Hence. n 0.1 )X• Consider any mappingf X —' (0. then IfbE B*. the X for all x' C X. which yields a = a'.a' E A and = çv(a') E B*. where b Let a. hence. hence. B.) 5. = =f(a') a a'. let j denote the being an element of (0. Sincef(a) a A.1) X• For any x in A'. lxi < The following theorem shows that this result holds for any set. bijective. This proves cv is injective. If çv(a) Thus. hence. Hence. =f(a) if A* if and only iff(a) E We claim that . Consider the mapping every a in A* has a unique preimage g'(a) in w: A B given by ifaEA. f(a) =fg(b) = for some c E C and n > 0. B. (As usual. it will suffice to prove that there is no surjective mapping from X to (0. b C because Cc B. then a.2 Theorem..3). Therefore. Therefore. Hence. Hence.

Hence.1 )N R. We shall now prove the important result that the set of real numbers is not countable.. we have an injective mapping givenby Therefore. This proves that IXI Therefore XI < 0 This by For any set X let us denote the cardinal number for finite sets = notation is in agreement with the equality (Theorem 1.. which is clearly injective. INI = We next prove some properties of countable sets. Therefore. Hence. then S is either countable or finite.) and be left with either a sequence or a finite list.3 Theorem..3). 0 By Theorem 5. by Theorem 5. where =0 or I for every n E N. but the S1 are not all distinct. so there is no bijection from N to R..1) determines an infinite decimal = Thenf'-..l)NI= 2K0• < 2K0..r is not surjective...). x1is a mapping (0.S2..1 )N.28 Sets and mappings (O. (S1 . R is not countable. It follows immedi- ately from the definition that a set S is countable if and only if S = ..x5x3x1. The cardinal number of the set R of real nzimbers is = Hence. we can delete all repetitions in the sequence (S1 . Proof Any mappingf N —' (0. =IRI=I(0. where the S1 are all distinct.. On the other hand.. 5.S2.l).). R is equipotent to (0.1. if there is a surjective mapping N 5. x determines a mapping with Thus.S2. IfS = (S1 . Put differently.. hence.2.. R is uncountable.x2x4x6. S is either countable or finite. any real number x can be expressed in the binary scale in the form x=.

). The more general result folows by induction on the number of sets.a2.. Z and Q are countable sets.}. there is nothing to prove. Let A B= (b1. Hence. Hence. A )< B is countable..B=(b1.. Hence. by Theorem 5...b2..). Z X N is countable.4 Theorem. Let A and B be countable sets.—2. the union and Cartesian product of a finite number of countable sets are countable...— l. Z is countable. and let Tc S.6 5.)..5 0 Theorem.5. Proof Let {A. The union of a sequence of unite sets is countable or finite..... Because S is countable.Csrdinallty of $ set 29 5.B. and let Sbe their union.b2.. Q is 4(a.bi. A U B is not finite.) be a sequence of finite sets.7 0 Theorem. if f(n) T.. More generally. 5. so S is countable or finite. there is a surjective mapping N 5. 5.bq). where N' = {O..b2. Proof Z = N U N'. Therefore. Hence. there is a bijectionf N g: N —' Tgiven by S that induces a surjective mapping g(n) =f(n) =a if f(n) E T. The mapping givenby is surjective. The set A X B can be partitioned into finite subsets I)...a2....). Then A U B and A X B are countable..ThenAUB={a1. 0 .b)=a/b countable.2 Hence. Thus. Proof LetA=(a1. 0 Theorem.bq. by the previous theorem. and so on. Then S={aj. A subset of a countable set is countable or finite. Suppose T is nonempty and let a E T. A U B is countable.. T is either countable or finite..ap. p= 1... Proof Let S be a countable set.b1.a2.. If T is empty. Because A C A U B...b2..

and the usual properties of these operations. 30 . We do not intend to give here an axiomatic development of this topic (we do this in Chapter 13). multiplication of integers. A nonzero integer p is called a prime ifp ± I and the only factors of p are ± p and ± I. rather we assume our familiarity with addition. which is proved in Chapter 13. We say that b divides a and write bla (b%a means b does not divide a). then S contains a smallest element (also called least element). We first give some definitions and notation. real numbers. Let a be an integer. The absolute value (or modulus) IaI of a is defined as follows: a ifa>O. 1a 0 ifa=0. We now state the well-ordering property of positive integers. IfS is a nonempty subset of N. and the set of positive integers (also called natural numbers) by N. This property along with our assumed familiarity with addition and multiplication of integers provides a basis for proving a number of other important properties of Z.CHAPTER 2 Integers. The set of integers is denoted by Z. ifa<0. and complex numbers I Integers In this section we give some properties of integers that the reader will encounter throughout the book. An integer b is a factor or divisor of an integer a (or a is a multiple of b) if there exists an integer c such that a = bc.

(ii) Then S = N. we are done. m # I.Intergers 31 We now derive some consequences of the well-ordering property of positive integers. and. T = 0. 0 Next we derive 1. Else. where I. By (i). Then.1 First principle of induction Let S be a subset of N satisfying the following properties: (i) IES.and n E S whenever m E Sfor all positive integers m <n. hence. If T= ø. But then by (ii). which contra- dicts the minimality of m. n2<n. n can be written as a .n2. Clearly. Thus. m # 1 because I E S. by the induction hypothesis each n1 . we derive 1. If a c S. We shall prove that it is true also for n. Then by the well-ordering property of positive integers. If T= 0.2 Second principle of induction Let S be a subset of N such that (i. so n1.n2 can be written uniquely as a product of positive primes. Thus. Every positive integer is either I or it can be written in one and only one way as a product of positive primes. Thas a smallest element m. If n is prime.wearedone. we are done. Now.3 Theorem (fundamental theorem of arithmetic). Otherwise by the well-ordering property T contains a smallest element m. Assume that the theorem is true for all positive integers <n. by (ii). Then for all positive integers x < m. Solet T# 0. S = N.) IES. Therefore T = 0. Proof The theorem is true ifn = 1. a contradiction. then a + I E S. 0 One of the important results that follow from the second principle of induction is 1. x E S. Proof Let T= (xc 5). (ii) Then S=N. To begin. m — I S. So let n> I. m E S. let n=n. Proof Let T= (x E Nix S).

n — b = a — b(x ÷ 1) €S. Let where p1 and q1 are positive primes. urn <b.. q — q' = 0. real numbers. S has a positive element a — b(—IaI). then chooseq =xand r= For uniqueness of q and r. in turn. If m> b. then But. S contains a smallest positive integer.4 Theorem (division algorithm). q. Then q1 (or if some p1 = So let By the induction hypothesis either q1 = Pi for some i = If 2. For definiteness. If m = b. by the induction hypothesis. Thus.. Thus. let p1 > q1. =p1. which gives.. q1 =p1 which reduces to the case considered in the beginning. i = 2. b> 0.). If p1 = q.. then . q = q'. By the well-ordering property of positive integers. r'I < b. 0 Next we prove 1. then a — bx = b implies a = b(x + I).. which contradicts the minimality of rn. and complex numbers product of positive primes. Then b(q—q')=(r'— Because Ir — r).32 Integers. m = a — bx.s. and r the remainder Proof Let S = (a — bxlx E Z)... say. of a modulo b.n b. We proceed to prove that the factorization so obtained is unique. this implies s — I = I — I. This proves the uniqueness of prime factorization ifp1 = p1 # q1.b E Z. 0 . let a=bq+r=bq'+r'.. Then there exist unique integers q and r such that a=bq+r. for some 2 The proof of the theorem then follows by the second principle of induc- hon.. Thus. . choose q = x+ I and r= 0. a contradiction. r=r'. Let a.s or q11(p1 — q. and by renumbering the subscripts (if necessary) = q.. Or<b. therefore. where q is called the quotient.

Integers 33 Definition. By the division algorithm a = dq + r. (ii) If c Z. by givingf(l) and prescribing a rule that determinesf(n + I) whenf(n) is known.5 (i.: N X S —. dib.d. S satisfying the conditions stated earlier? Intuitively.) Theorem. and clb. Then r=a—dq=a—(aml-bn)q=a(l—-mq)—hnq€S. there exist integers m. Then d is called a greatest common divisor (g.b E Z.y Z). Given a mapping4. We prove it formally in the following theorem. Let p be prime and a. Remark. let d = am + bn be the smallest positive integer in S. Further. Then (p. S. and cib. Now the question is whether this is a valid procedure for describing a mapping. Then (ii) a. of a and b. 1. let c E Z. We prove that d is the g. which contradicts the minimality ofdin Sunless r 0. Proof Let S = (ax + bylx.d.d. By the well-ordering property.6 Corollary.b have a positive g. Let a.) of a and b (1) the following hold: dlaanddib. dis unique to within the factors ± I. .n such that d = am + bn. 0 1. there exists a unique mappingf N —' S such that f(l)=a and f(n+ foralln€N. so since piab.7 Theorem (recursion theorem).c. In other words. For example. The positive g.d. Hence. Then uph + vab = Sometimes a mapping f: N S is described inductively. Another example is the definition of the factorial function: 1! 1. d = (a.b).c. sap d. Let S be a set and a S.b E Z such that plab. Then This implies that there exist u. Then obviously S contains positive integers.v b. cia. (n + I)! = (n + 1)'n! for all n N. 0 Z orplb.a) = 1.c.. the standard product a1 was defined in this manner in the last chapter (Section 4).b). r = 0 and Similarly. Let a and h be two nonzero integers.c. Then d = am + bn implies ci d. cia. Hence. the answer seems to be yes. of a and b is usually denoted by (a. where 0 r < d. does there exist a unique mapping f: N —. such that up + va = 1. Proof Suppose p%a. that is. 1. then cld.

f(n) = g(n) for all n E N. a contradiction.. + . iff(n)=g(n) forany nEN. If I P. Let P be the set of positive integers n for which there exists a unique element in S such that E R. E R. Prove by induction the following laws: (a) . M is nonempty. Then R satisfies (*). then that (n + I n + I E P.34 Integers. .b)) satisfies (*).a)EX. Further. hence R C R — ((n + I .f(n)) for all n C N. Let R = (X) be the intersection of all sets in M. Then there is a (n + such Since n+ 1 there exists cES. Now (n R.c)). hence.c)) satisfies (s).then(n+ N.. Then f(l)=a=g(l). for every n C N there is a unique element C S such that (n. b # a. real numbers. R M. if n E P. To prove the existence off let M be the set of all subsets X of N X S satisfying the following conditions: (l. A. So. then it is unique. Now let n E N and suppose n E P. Hence. C R. P = N.x)EX. Therefore. f(1) = q'(n.. hence. such that (I . Therefore. namely. the set N X S itself satisfies (*).. (*) Clearly. hence. by the induction principle. n(4n2— I) + (2n — 1)2 = (a) 12 + 32 + (b) 2. R C R — ((I .. be subsets of a set. thenf(n+ l)= cb(n.b)). there exists bE S. Again. Let fg: N —' S be two such mappings. Let A.b) E R. by uniqueness of = Therefore the mappingf: N —p S given byf(n) = satisfies the required conditions.f(n)) = = g(n + 1).andif(n. 0 a and f(n + I) = Problems Prove by induction the following summation formulas: 1. Therefore.+ [n(n+ l)]2 Prove by induction that (I 3. a contradiction. . hence.. But then R — ((I . but n + I unique E S such that P. I E P. and complex numbers Proof We first show that if a mapping satisfying the given conditions exists. it is easily verified that R — ((n + I .

b. (b) [a.m. where a. The least common multiple (l. Also show that any integral root must be a divisor of 0 8.b] = where g. denoted by [a. + nc. Euler's theorem generalizes Fermat's theorem. 7. (p — 1)! + 1 9. note that for a prime p. is defined to be a positive integer d such that (1) aidand bid.Rational. Constructing the rational numbers from integers is given in Chapter 12.b).b] is unique.n E Z. Landau 1960).b] = ab/(a. Prove Fermat's theorem: For any a. 2 Rational. I (mod n). = max(e. where (a. has no rational root that is not integral. 6. real.c. E Z. Show that any integer n> I is either a prime or has a prime factor (ii) rn. whenever aix and bix.) of a and b. Thus. real. and complex numbers We assume that the reader is familiar with rational and real numbers and the usual operations of addition and multiplication in them. If a.f). for 5. Prove Euler's theorem: For any integer a relatively prime to n. Show that the polynomial where a. A real number may be taken to be a (terminating or nonterminating) decimal. equivalently. 4(p) = p — 1. factorizationsofa Suppose a = and b = and b as a product of primes.b E Z and b .b) is the greatest common divisor of a and b. Let a. a fraction of the form a/b. a" a (modp). A terminating or a recumng decimal is a rational number that is.c E Z such that aib and aic. and complex numbers 35 (b) 4. The system of complex numbers is defined to be the set C R X R . (4 is called Euler's function). Prove Wilson's theorem: For any prime p. b]. where 0. However. Prove that (a) [a.p E Z with p prime. the construction of real numbers is not given because it is normally done in books on analysis (see." 0. 10. and let 4(n) denote the number of positive integers less than and prime to n.b E Z.. for example. (mod p). (c) [a. then dix. Let n be a positive integer. Furthermore. show that m.

O).36 Integers.0).b)( 1. that multiplication is distributive over addition.0) and (1. Addition and multiplication of two such complex numbers give (a. Thus. The complex number I = a — lb is called the conjugate of z.l)=(—l.0).0) = (a. moreover.0) with the real numberx and thereby treat R as a subset ofC. The nonnegative real number (zi + 'Ia2 + b2 is called the modulus of z. (0.b) + (c.0) + (0.d) = (ac — bd.0). Let z = a + lb C.l). abstract algebra is concerned with deriving properties of an abstract system (such as . (a.b) + (0. and complex numbers (where R is the set of real numbers) with addition and multiplication given by (a. if (a. This allows us to identify every complex number (x. For any (a.0).0) + (b. Let us henceforth write x for (x.0) = (ab.0) = (a + b. where a and b are real and i2 = — I.b) (c.b R. 3 Fields Introductory algebra is concerned with the operations of addition and multiplication of real or complex numbers as well as the related opposite operations of subtraction and division.—b) = (0. It is easily verified that addition and multiplication in C are both associative and commutative and. This is the common notation for complex numbers.b) = (a.1) . On the other hand.b) = (a. where a. Consider complex numbers of the form (x. ad + bc). respectively.b) E C.0)=—1.d) = (a + c. (a. Then a and b are called the real =a+ib part and the imaginary part of z.b) E C. respectively. (a. real numbers. Now j2(0.0) wherei=(0.b) ía (0. Furthermore. (a. (a.0) playing the roles of 0 and 1. with (0. addition and multiplication in C have the same properties as the corresponding operations in R (or Q).1 )(b. b + d). —b\ Thus. Then for any (a.b) + (—a. every complex number can be written as a + ib.0)' (b.0).O).

—(xO) E F. The multiplicative operation is associative: (xy)z = x(yz). is called a field (1 the following axioms hold: q'i. F has I 0 such that x I x = I x. The system of integers Z is not a field under the usual operations because each nonzero integer is not invertible in Z. Examples of fields are the systems of rational numbers. +. where F is a nonemply set and +. rigorous fashion. real. and complex numbers under the usual operations of addition and multiplication. real numbers. and complex numbers are concrete examples. ). (iv) (v) (vi) F such that x + The additive operation is commutative: x + y = y + x. Z is an example of another algebraic structure—"commutative ring"—discussed later in the book. for which the systems of rational. Definition. Note that although familiar statements such as (a) xO==0 (b) (— x)y = — (xy) = x(— y) (c) x(y—z)=xy—xz are not included in the axioms. (vii) Every element 0 * x E F has an inverse E F such that (viii) (19 xx__l = I = The multiplicative operation is commutative: xy = yx. The purpose of this section is to introduce the richest algebraic structure.. are binary operations on F. A system (F. they can be easily deduced from them. Not every field is infinite. x(y + z) = xy + xz. real numbers. Thus. xO + (—(xO)) = (xO + xO) + (—xO) = xO + (xO + (—xO)) [axiom (i)J.) The additive operation is associative: (x + v) + z = x + (v + z). . For example. to prove (a) consider xO = x(0 + 0) = xO + xO [axiom (ii)J [axiom (ix)] By axiom (iii). Every element x E F has a negative —x E (—x)=0=(—x)+x. or complex numbers) from its axioms in a formal. F has a zero element 0 sue/i that x + 0 = x = 0 + x. We close this section by giving an example of a finite field.Fields 37 the systems of integers. The multiplicative operation distributes over the additive operation. so0=xO.

. Let 0 IE Z. Chapter 1). the and = j7'... is it true that i + =1' + and are addition and multiplication in (1) well defined? We proceed to show that this is indeed the case. p prime. is a field with p elements.5).." . x. later in Chapter 9. E Since i= x + kn for all k E Z. for n = p. is well defined. (vi).38 Integers.1. That addition satisfies field axioms (i)—(iv) for is trivial. where n is any positive integer. real numbers. question arises: lfi= = in other words. xy=xy. n divides (xe' + x'y') — xy' — x'y = (xy — x'y') + x'(v' — y) + y'(x' — x) proving that multiplication is also well defined. However. This proves that addition in Similarly.1 Example (integers modulo n).(n — 1)) be the set of equivalence classes of integers mod n (Section 2.). So there exist integers u and v such that pu + xv = I (Theorem 1. for an example of a "finite ring.. and (ix). and the negative of is (i). we proceed to show that axiom jvii) does hold. We shall return to the algebraic structure . But then Hence = Ou + ji7=0 + = Therefore. Let ii be a fixed positive integer. This implies that pfx. but axiom (vii) need not hold. Now 1= and 5= 57' n divides x — x' and n divides y — n divides (x — x') + (y — y') n divides (x + v) — (x' + y') by(1). It is also trivial that multiplication satisfies axioms (v). We define addition and multiplication in as follows: x+y=x+y. The zero element is 0. and complex nwnhers 3. (viii). and let or Z/(n) = (O.

andlet(i.....j) under the mapping A.. for any positive integer n. As usual.n) that is the size. A Pnapping A:mXn—F is called an m X n matrix over F. Let F be a field and m and n positive integers..ThenA(i.. is called the (i.j) E m X ii..j).n) will be denoted by n.j) entry of A is written we say that A= An m X n matrix A over F and a p X q matrix B over F are said to be equal. When the (i. if m = p. which we shall study later. (Note that it is really the ordered pair (m.. LetAbeanm X nmatrixoverF. the set { I . IfA is an m x n matrix.j) entry (or element) of the matrix A and is denoted by A11 or the latter being more common. written A = B.the image of the ordered pair (i. Definition. The cartesian product m X n is therefore the set m X n = ((i.. They are a rich source of examples of algebraic structures. n = q.. A is said to be of size m X n. and a13 = b0foreach(i.j = 1.CHAPTER 3 Matrices and determinants I Matrices Matrices originated in the study of linear equations but have now acquired an independent status and constitute one of the most important systems in algebra...) 39 .j)ti = l.n).n.j)E mX n.

. . ami am2 a....n... = 0 for all i j.j)entry in A Thus.1 = 0 for all i > j. a.) If every entry mA that is not in its diagonal is zero.......... then A is called a diagonal matrix and denoted by diag(d1. The list (m-tuple) A..1 in a rectangular array as shown below: a11 a21 a12 a22 a1...1 a.. An n X n matrix A is called a square matrix of order n. and the list of entries a. the set I X n matrices (row vectors) and the set F"<' of all n X 1 matrices (col- umn vectors) over F are both written F" when the context makes the meaning unambiguous..amj is called thejth column (column)) of A. i = l. A1 is shown as a1.... Similarly.. for the sake of conveof all nience.. Again. is called the diagonal of A.. a21.......) is called a scalar matrix if d1 = d2 = d.a. written F. The(i.).. The list (n-tuple) of entnes a1 ..aa. where d. The set The set of all m X n matrices over a field F is denoted by of all square matrices of order n over F is. and denoted by In keeping with the topography of the rectangular array..Am and n is common to the ith row and thef th column.d. A (strictly) lower triangular matrix is defined similarly. A diagonal matrix diag(d1 .. An m X I matrix is called a column matrix (or a column vector). . a I X n matrix is called a row matrix (or a row vector).1) is called an upper triangularmatrix if a... for the sake of convenience. A has m rowsA..).. A square matrix A = (a..40 Matrices and determinants An m X n matrix is usually exhibited by writing the mn entries a. is called the ith row (or row i) of a.. = a..d..a22. .1...... and strictly upper triangular if a. (A matrix that is not necessarily square is said to be rectangular...av ..2 a1.... and exhibited as (a. denoted by A.a.

.j)EmXn. When the matrices are exhibited as rectangular arrays. The sum of A and B. Note that matrices A and B can be added if and only if they have the same size.. Definition. we are going to intro- duce two binary operations.p. addition and multiplication. These three operations are induced. a11 ami — ami — amn Next we define multiplication of matrices. is the m X n matrix C = (c. by the binary operations of addition and multiplication in the field F. the definition implies that a11 a11 +b11 + . Let A = (a. and a third operation called scalar multiplication. we denote it simply by 0. The negative of A is written — A. The m X n matrix in which every entry is zero is called the m X n zero matrix (or null matrix) and is denoted by When the size of the m X n zero matrix is clear from the context.Operations on matrices 2 41 Operations on matrices In order to set up an algebraic system of matrices.1) such that (i. The negative of the matrix A is the m X n matrix B = such that (i. in a manner to be described hereafter.1) be an m x n matrix. = . Thai is.j)EmXn. * bmi bmn ami + bmi amn + b. Let A = (afl) and B = (b0) be two m X n matrices over F. . Definition. written A + B.

. we have the rule: LetA = B= and C' be their product AB.42 Matrices and determinants Definition. The product AB is the m X p matrix C = (i. respectively.j)EmXp.) and b = (b1 we define ab=a1b. . .. But then AB is an m X m matrix and BA is ann X n matrix. A and B are in X n and n X in matrices. the dot product of the ith row in A and thejth column in B...j) entry in AB is the dot product of the !th row in A and the jth column in B. This is easily proved by the following example. The reader may also find it helpful to keep in mind the following.n X n and. Let A and B be matrices. The products AB and BA both exist if and only if. AB. Let us define the dot product of two n-tuples of elements ofFas follows. But even when A and B are both n X n matrices. for some m. and —that is.. j • j = ••• .n. respectively.. Note that matrices A and B can be multiplied (in that order) if and only if the number of columns in A is equal to the number of rows in B. A B and BA are not necessarily equal. a. therefore. Let A = and B = be.. which displays the fact that the (i. Given a = (a1 . BA have the same size if and only if in = n. Let and g].j) entry in the product AB is the dot product of the n-tuplcs (a. a. • • • b..+ Then the (i.. Then = A. Thus. X p where matrices over F..a.

The proofs for (ii) and (iii) are similar to the one for (I) and are left as exercises. Proof (i) Let A = (a11). 0 The Kronecker delta function is defined to be ô: N X such that jfj'j ifi#j a1ô11 = for z.j EN It is worth noting that given an n-tuple (a1 .1) be m X n. (ii. Let (i.1 (ij) * Theorem.j) E m X q. If A and B can be multiplied. 2. n X p. If A and B can be added. and B and C can he multiplied. then (A + B)C=AC+ BC. and C be matrices. except in the trivial case of I X I matrices.j) entry of (A B)C. Let A. This proves that multiplication of matrices is not commutative. B.) If A and B can be multiplied and B and C can he added.kbk/) = the (i. B = (b11). Then the (i. p X q matrices. and B and Ccan he multiplied. then A(B+ C)=AB+AC. This proves A(BC) = (AB)C. C = (c.Operations on matrIces 43 Then AB BA. then A(BC) = (AB)C.j) entry of A(BC) is 0k (± bk/cl)) = ± (± a. respectively. Then A(BC) and (AB)C are both in X q matrices.

a. each entry in the diagonal of I.. is 1.j) element is all (I. The following theorem justifies the nomenclature of the identity matrix..a)A.j) entry in A by a. The n X n matrix in which. aA = diag(a. is denoted by A = (a11) be an m X n matrix over F.. 2.0 00"' When the order of the identity matrix I...a) is an m X m scalar matrix.. The product aA (also written Aa) is the m X n matrix whose (i.2 Theorem.. is clear from the context. then A is said to be invertible and B is called an inverse The inverse of a matrix A. the elements of Fare called scalars. Then =A A be an n X n matrix.. if it exists. and likewise. Thus an identity matrix looks like 01 l0.j) is called the identity matrix of order n and denoted by entry is In other words..a. where diag(a. Remark.j) a X a.j) entry in aA is obtained by multiplying the (i. In the context of matrices over F.]) E m X fl A. the . and let a E F... If there is an n X n matrix B such that AB=l=BA. we drop the subscript n and simply write I. for each (i. and every other entry is zero. the (i. By that term we mean that the (i. Like addition of matrices.44 MatrIces and determinants Definition.. Therefore the multiplication ofa matrix by an element of Fis called scalar multiplication. scalar multiplication is also a poiniwise (or component-wise) operation. Let A be an m X n matrix.

(The order n of the matrix is usually known from the context and therefore not included in the notation.. 2. For any two matrix units eu.j) entry in A + B is obtained by adding the (i.3 Theorem..j) E n X m. The n2 matrices i. If A and B can be added. '(aA)—a('A). and let (1) Then (ii) (iii) (iv) (v..) can be written as A= i—I The following result about the product of two matrix units will be used frequently. a(AB) = (cv. On the contrary. Let A and B ben x n matrices over F. (a+/J)AaA+flA.n. then '(A + B) — 'A + 'B. (amA = a(/)A). (afl) be an m X n matrix. 0 then X n matrix in which the (i. . 2.) It is clear that any n X n matrix A (at.4 (i) Theorem. multiplication of matrices is not a pointwise operation.A)B — A(aB). are called matrix units of order n. n X m matrix B = (ba). The transpose of A is the (i. where b0 = Definition.) a(A+B)=aA+aB.Operatloas on matrIces 45 (i. Then (ii) (iii) '('A)=A. IA=A. Proof Obvious. The following theorem gives properties of scalar multiplication. of order n. Let A and B be matrices over F and let a E F.j)entry is I and all other Let entries are 0.. = where is the Kronecker delta.j) entries in A and B.j = l. Let A The transpose of A is generally denoted by 'A and is obtained by interchanging rows and columns of A.

Similarly.j) entry of'BtA. we can consider B as the 2 X 1 matrix [B. Sometimes the multiplication of two matrices A and B becomes simpler by partitioning them into suitable blocks. To prove (iv). For example. b3. 2. Let Then and 'B = = and = 'A = Suppose AB (cu). (ii). the resulting (m — p) X (n — q) matrix is called a submatrix of A.1 1/121 A.4.l.j) entry of '(AB) is Cfl = (ljkbkj = = = (i. respectively. A matrix is said to be partitioned if it is divided into submatnces (called blocks) by horizontal and vertical lines between the rows and the columns. Prove Theorem 2. 3 Partitions of a matrix Let A be an m X n matrix.46 Matrices and determinants (iv) ifA and B can be multiplied. b41 b22 b32 b42 be matrices that have been partitioned by the horizontal and vertical lines as shown. Then the (i. We can now consider A as the 2 X 2 matrix [A. then t(AB) = tB'A. (iii) follow immediately from the definition. ' b12 B= b2. . (v) if A is invertible. 0 Problems I. let a11 A= a21 a3I a41 a12 a22 a32 a42 a13 a23 a33 a43 a14 a24 bI. let A = (afl) and B = (by) bern X n and n X p matrices. Proof (i). then 'A is invertible and = '(A'). If we delete any p rows and any qcolumns ofA. ProveTheorem2. The proof of (v) is left as an exercise.2 A22 whose elements A11 are the submatrices of A given by the partitioning..

. thus 43 In the same way 234 234 21 4 .. will be considered as a permutation a of the set (1.4.... say i. The product of two permutations of n is again a permutation of n. if 11 2 3 3 4\ 4 i)' (I I) = 2 3 I 3 4 I 2 are permutations of degree 4.5) such that a(3) = 3 and a(4) = 4.3. this notation the first column expresses the second column. Then it is easily checked that AB is the same as the product [As. n a(2) a(n) the fact that a maps I to a( I). The method of block multiplication is sometimes quite handy when multiplying large matrices. one must partition the two matrices in such a way that the product of the blocks occurring in the process of multiplication is meaningful. (1 In 2 \a(l) . a certain number. then ar( because r maps I to 4 and a maps 4 to I. The set of permutations of n is denoted by convenience a permutation a E is usually represented as Let n be the Sn. For example.The determinant functIon 47 whose elements are the submatrices of B given by the partitioning. For example. and so on. 4 For The determinant function set (l. LA2I +A12B21 1422JLB21J L1421B11 +14221321 Multiplying two matrices A and B in this manner is called block multiplication of A and B. Note that the order of the columns in this representation of a is imma12 4 3 terial. and so on.n). Ii represent 2 4 3 I 4'\ 3) and 3 1 1 2 the same permutation. Furthermore... that a maps 2 to a(2).2. similarly. it is understood that a keeps i fixed. that is..2. is absent. For example. if in such a representation of a. o(i) = i. . ar(2) = 4. Of course.

_(i although (2 5 6\(l4x2653 462135 2 3 4 Further.. Thus.cr E Sn. more usually.. as a product of transpositions.. the number of factors in any representation of a as a product of transpositions . For example.s are both even or both odd (Theorem 2. . o(a1) = a2. We write it as or.. For example. say (a1. (a3 a4 .. is a transposition.. It can be shown that if a permutation is a product of r transpositions. ifa. ak)... The set Sn is called the symmetric group of degree a. That is... a1 a2).. if any. Observe that (a1 a2 . a. ak). (a2 a3 . cyclically. if n the inverse of a. that is.a2 .. Note that the inverse of a j transposition (if) is (if) itself.1..a(ak) = a1.. Chapter 7). a1). (a. For example.48 MatrIces and determinants The inverse of a permutation of a is also a permutation. fixed... a(a2) = a3. then 12 0=Ifi ('I 2 ar. and also of s transpositions... as (if). every permutation in can be expressed. For example. and a(a) = a if a is not one of the a1 . cycles for which no two have any common element.. if -l \l (2 3 2 4 3 4)' More generally. A permutation that interchanges two elements and keeps others fixed is called a transposition. then r. is the permutation i\ which can also be written as Vi is a permutation of degree n.ak).. \1 2 Thus... (4 5 3 2 1) 1X3 1X5 1X4 I).a*.. that is. It is easily seen that any permutation a of a can be expressed as a product of disjoint cycles.. not necessarily uniquely. a1 . A cycle of length 2 is a transposition.. keeping the remaining elements. We write such a cycle as (a1 a2 .r E 2 n ft 2 2 j i j n n which maps I —' andj —' I and keeps other elements fixed. every cycle can be expressed as a product of transpositions. A permutation a of a is called a cycle of length k if a maps a set of k elements.. ak_I) are the same cycle. not necessarily uniquely.

Also. . Let A =(a11) be an n x n matrix and let R. Let A = be an n x n matrix over a field F. For example.. then it is called an even permutation.) denote its ith row. it is called an odd permutalion.= a12 (a.. . then er 'is also even (odd). Let R = (a. Indeed. If a permutation is a product of an even number of transpositions.3a21a32 — —a. det A = + a. 5 5. ii. Let a = then r' = . The identity permutation I of n is even because I (ijXj I). N.. . the first three are even.. S3 has 3! = 6 elements e=I(1 \l Ii 2 23/' 2 1 3\I ft 1 \23 ft 2 2 2 3\I 3\ a='fi \3 2 2 2 3 3\ 3)' + i)' Il 12' 3 3 2 Of these.. and the others are odd. For any permutation a we define sgn a to be I or — according to whether a is even or odd. because the inverse of any transposition is itself.a23a32. if a permutation a is even (odd).. it is of interest to note that the determinant of a matrix over a commutative ring is defined exactly in the same manner.. most of the results proved for determinants over fields also hold for determinants over a commutative ring. Then the sum is called the determinant of A and denoted by det A or IA..j E n.. a. Hence. 1 Definition. Gupta for his suggestions on this section. For readers familiar with the concept of a ring (for the definition see Chapter 9).. where i. a. In the following sections we prove some results that enable us to evaluate the determinant of any square matrix in a less tedious manner. consider a 3 X 3 matrix A = given by (a11). a2 denote a fixed * The authors would like to thank Professor R. if it is a product of an odd number of permutations.3a22a3..Properties of the determinant function 49 is always even or else always odd.1 Properties of the determinant function* Theorem.2a21a33 — a.

0: S —+ T such that 8(a) = at is easily seen to be onto mapping. proving (i).j). det (iii) (iv) If two rows of a matrix A are equal. R1 R. Thus (sgn a)(a a IA = .. . Suppose i <j. ..50 Matrices and determinants I x n matrix. Then R1 R1 R1 R2 (i) R2 R. T= The mapping aI— I Let t=(i. Let S={aeS1: a(i)<a(j)}. R R2 det R. (ii) (iii) Clear. Proof. R1 R2 (ii) R2 det R= R. then det A = det 'A = det A 0. (i) The left-hand side is (sgn 6ES. Suppose the ith and jth rows are equal. = det R1 + det . det R. + alj))•••ana(n) = (sgn o)a Ia( j)• R1 ..

= det B+0+0+det A. + 0 = det by Theorem 5. + det . R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R.1 (iii). 5.. = det . by Theorem 5.Properties of the determinant function 51 = (sgn cr)(a 1)••• . + det R. (iv) det(1A) = = = t(n) =detA. ..2 Coroilary. = — (since ith row =jth row) (sgn =0.1 (i). then det B = — det A. .. R. If a matrix B is obtained from a matrix A by interchanging the ith and jth ron's. + det . . R1 R. Proof. Thus det B = — det A .. R3+R.

Hence R1 D det : = (— 1)'" det R2 = (sgn a) det A. Proof. . det(XY) = (det X)(det Y). then det(Y) = Thus det (X Y) = = 0.3 are Corollary. by Theorem 5.. det (XV) = (sgn a){( i1=1 it I where i2. Let X. Suppose a is a product of m transpositions. . =( tES. may be assumed to be distinct because if i1.1 (iii). R1 Proof.. then det L : = (sgn a) det A. (sgn ...3. V he n x n matrices. are not all distinct.52 Matrices and determinants 5. n} and the rows of A respectively.. Hence by Corollary 5. . Then A = R2 can Re(l) be transformed to : by m interchanges of rows. If a is a permutation of{1.. (sgn a)y14 i)o(l) Y).2 5. .4 Theorem. . Then det(X Y) = (det X)(det Y). by Corollary 5. (x r(1) xflT(fl))( 4TES.

6 ExpansIon of det A det A Let A be an n X n matrix. is an n x n upper (or lower) triangular Show that if A = matrix.of det A 53 Problems 1. = where o(i)-f is called the cofacior of a. —1 5 2 a b c a2 b2 3. in det A. 2. prove det A = det A 5. If A is an invertible matrix. Prove that = (a — b)(b — c)(c — a). then det A = 0. then detA Evaluate the following determinants: (a) 234. I'tk UES. 6. Consider all the terms in the sum = > (— [)kaa a factor. Now detA= = 'I i_. Therefore. IfA isa square matrix such that A = A2. the sum of all such terms is that contain a given entry (— 1)ka CES. f1 . 3 123 4 I I I 31 (b) 4 0 1 I 0. 4. They are given by those permutations Q that satisfy the condition c(i) j. prove detA =Oor 1. If A is a square matrix such that A" = 0 for some positive integer k..

. Similarly.W(fl)..3. Substituting (I) for A1. detA Similarly. A pJ 5j V f—I V cES.. Now consider the sum p i. The expression on the right side is the determinant of the (n — 1) X . det A.6..a. (— by Corollary 5. we get V f—I I. 1/ = 0. By definition. (3) is the expansion of det A according to the jth column. Then (i) = det A. — — . = 0 if p #j. (3) (2) is called the expansion of det A according to the ith row.54 MatrIces and determinants That is. (2) detA = i1 a(s)—f = That is. Similarly.. Lel A be an n X ii matrix. (ii) the matrix A = A = for In the following we develop the method to evaluate the First we find A11. a where a is a permutation of (2.the cofactor ofa11. we get 6.n) and k = 0 or I according to whether a is even or odd. Combining the last two results and (2) and (3).1 Theorem.

1.2 Theorem. If we expand det A by the first row.1 a23 + a32(— 1)3+2 a. To find the value of a general cofactorA1. The cofactor of a11 in this new determinant is the (n — I )th-order determinant obtained by omitting the new first row and first column. a3. we first perform some row and column interchanges on A to bring a11 to the (1. detB.. we get detA = a31(— a12 a22 a. so that after i — interchanges it becomes the first row. a. so that it becomes the first column.Expansion of det 4 55 (n — I) submatrix of A.3(a21a32 — a31a22). a3... equal to (— I 6. The cofactor ofa13 in del A is times the determinant oft/ic submatth of A obtained by deleting the it/I row and the jth column.1) position. Let A be an n X n matrix. which is obtained by omitting the first row and the first column ofA. a22 a32 . that is. so that we can apply (I).3 a23 +a33(_l)3431at1 . of a. we move the ith row up past row i — I..(— 1)14 I a22 a32 a23 a33 + a.1) position.. the ith row and jth column of A. — a3. a2. we get det A = a. to bring a3 to the (1. The foregoing discussion gives the following 6. So by Theorem 5. we expand det A by the third row. a23) + a. row I. Thus...2(— 1)142 a2.1 the determinant of the new matrix is (— det A. a23 a33 + =a If a. where B is the submatnx of A obtained by omitting the ith row andjth column of A. We next move thejth column to the left past the firstj — I columns in turn. We now have a matrix that is obtained from A by i — 1 interchanges of rows and) — I interchanges of columns.3 Example LetA = (a1)be a 3 X 3 matrix. Thus.3(— I)143 1a.(a22a13 — a32a23) — a 12(a2.

. c3 2. a7' n—I 2 2 A A •. a23 a.1 + a22(— l)2f2 a33 a3.. a13 a33 a.. an—I A This determinant is known as the Vandermonde determinant.56 MatrIces and determinants If we expand A by the second column. we get det A = a12(— 1)1+2 a3.1 + a32(— 1)3+2 a2. c .3 a23 Problems I. Prove the following result: I I I a a3 b c b3 =(b—cXc—aXa—b)(a+b+c). 3. c—a—b a2+b2+c2 Prove that (a) a2+b2+c2 a3+b3+c3 a2+b2+c2 a3+b3+c3 a4+b4+c4 I a+b+c a b I 1 3 a+b+c = a2 b2 c2 2 = (a — b)2(b — c)2(c — a)2. a. Prove that I 1 a1 2 2 . 2b 2c b—c—a 2c 2a 2b =(a+b+c)3. a—b—c (b) 4. Prove that (b+c)2 (a) b2 a2 a2 (c + a)2 c2 b2 c2 (a+b)2 2a = 2abc(a + b + c)3.

of det 4 57 abc2 (b) c 2bc—a2 c2 b2 b a c b = c2 2ca—b2 a2 a2 a b2 2ab—c2 a2—bc b2—ca c2—ab = c2—ab a2—bc b2—ca b2—ca c2—ab a2—bc = (a3 + b3 + c3 — 3abc)2. .

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PART II Groups .

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A right identity is defined similarly. reals. Algebraic structures whose binary operations satisfy particularly important properties are semigroups.•). it is also customary to use an expression such as "the algebraic structure S under addition or multiplication. and so on. rings.CHAPTER 4 Groups 1 Semigroups and groups An algebraic structure or algebraic system is a nonempty set together with one or more binary operations on that set. e is the unique two-sided identity of the semigroup. The simplest algebraic structure to recognize is a semigroup. 61 . if a semigroup S has both a left identity eand a right then e = ef=f Therefore. However. groups. However. modules.+) or (S. It is possible to have a semigroup with several left identities or several right identities." Examples of semigroups are (a) The systems of integers. Any algebraic structure S with a binary operation + or is normally written (S. which is defined as a nonempty setS with an associative binary operation. We usually write ab instead of a b.b E S. or complex numbers under usual multiplication (or addition) (b) (c) The set of mappings from a nonempty set S into itself under composition of mappings The set of n X n matrices over complex numbers under multiplication (or addition) of matrices Let (S. fields. ) be a semigroup and let a.AnelementeinSiscalledalefiidentityifea=aforallaES.

Definition. Suppose (G. then b = be = bac = ec = c. Ifthere is an element e inS such that ex—x=xe for aJixES.b. let a' be a left inverse ofa. Therefore a' is also a right inverse of a.). (ii) There exists e E G such that ea = afor all a E G. Again. (iii) For every a E G there exists a' G such that a'a = e. Now ae = aa'a = ea = a for every a E G. An element in S may have several left inverses or several right inverses. b is a right inverse if ab e. or two-sided) identity in S. An element bin Sis called a left inverse of a (with respect to e) if ba = e. Let a E S. A group may be defined as a semigroup with identity in which every element has an inverse (that must be unique). Hence. the binary operation in a group . This proves that G is a group according to the definition that it is a semigroup with identity in which every element has an inverse. We now give an equivalent definition with weaker postulates. However. let S be a semigroup and let e be a left (right. Let be a semigroup with identity e. Let (S. if e is a two-sided identity and a has a left inverse b and a right inverse c.c E G. Hence. Let a E G. Let a E S. on G is called a group jf the following axioms hold: (i) a(bc) = (ab)c for all a. aa' = eaa' a"a'aa' = a"ea' a"a' = e.62 Groups Definition.) is a group according to this definition. ) be a semigroup. Our objective in this chapter and the following four chapters is to give basic results and techniques in the theory of a somewhat richer algebraic structure called a group. A nonempty set G with a binary operation . and a is said to be invertible. then b is called the inverse of a. Henceforth. then e is called the identity of the semigroup (S. and let a" be a left inverse ofa'. If there exists an element b in S such that ab = e = ba. e is also a right identity. unless otherwise stated. Definition. Then a'a = e = a"a'.

Therefore.) simply by G. b in G. and a E S. Theorem 4. say x = x0.Semigroups and groups 63 will be written multiplicatively. Since. Therefore. we define. D . If the binary operation in a group (G. the equation ax = b has a solution. For any positive integer n. Hence. for any positive integer n. say y = e.b E G — then the group is called commutative or abelian. Now for any b in G.•) is commutative — that is.1 each (n-foldsum).. a = aa. then clearly the equations ax = band ya b have solutions x = a'b and y = respectively. for every a in G. we speak of sums and multiples instead of products and powers. Conversely. and the inverse of If the binary operation is written additively. so that ea = a. and therefore there is a unique product of any given elements E S. an element a is written the identity element is denoted by 0. let G be a semigroup and suppose ax = band ya = b have solutions for all a.b E G. and the inverse of an element a is written —a. the equation ya = a has a solution. Then. The identity element is denoted by e or 1. in particular. Further. and we shall denote the group (G. as before.. IfS has an identity e.is associative. its binary operation is generally written additively. the equation ya = e has a solution. a has a left inverse. we define +a 1. in that order. called the negative of a.a (n-fold product). ab = ba for all a. Hence. A semigroup G is a group and on/v effor a/la. Let (S. we also defineS a° = e. where is an inverse of a. e is a left identity. Further. Proof If G is a group. so that ax0 = b. if a is an invertible element in S. Theorem. which is called the nih power of a. In the case of an additive semigroup (S. When a group A is abelian. = (a—'r. that are written For any positive integer n we define. of the equations ax = b and ya = b has a solution. eb = eax0 = ax0 = b.') be a semigroup. Let a E G. G is a group.+).2 (Chapter 1) holds here.

Similarly. Hence.b. We define multiplication in Z/(n) as = As proved for addition in example (a). Con- sider the set H = (aa1 Since aa. for if I = and = then nix — x' and niy — y'. E G. Define x x—y y (mod n) if for some q E Z. = a1. G is a group. hence. it follows from the right cancellation law that the equation ya = b is solvable. This is well defined. Let Z/(n) denote the set lence classes..1. 1.b in G.. Hence.3 Examples of groups (a) Integers modulo a under addition Let x. Afinite semigroup G is a group if and only :fthe cancellation laws hold for all elements in G. This proves that the equation ax = b is solvable. We shall prove that for all a. Clearly. Indeed. Let G = are distinct. Z/(n) is an additive abelian group of order n. where Let a. Clearly. by Theorem 1.cE G. = b for some a. we can prove that multi- . Denote by ithe equivalence class containing x. the equations ax = b and ya — b are solvable. 0 is the identity.. the cancellation laws hold trivially. G is a group.(n — I)). E G for each I = H C G. By the left cancellation law. and for all a. Hence. let G be a finite semigroup and suppose that the cancellation laws hold. ba=ca=*b=c If G is a group.2 Theorem. H has n distinct elements. aa. qn = i' Z/(n) = (O. b E II and therefore aa. and therefore.64 Groups The following theorem gives a simpler characterization for a finite group.bE G. Thus. x + y = x' + y'. The cardinality of the set G is called the order of the group G and denoted by IGI or o(G). and therefore H = G. We define addition in Z/(n) as follows: i + = x + y. Conversely. and is the inverse ofl Thus.y c Z and let n be a positive integer. = aa1 a. A group (or a semigroup) (G.1.) is said to be finite or infinite according to whether the set G is finite or infinite. 0 1. by the last theorem. (b) Integers modulo n under multiplication Consider the set Z/(n) as in (a). is an equivalence relation. nI(x + y) — (x' + y'). that is..

b). where is the Euler function. when d(a. and the set (Z/(n))5 consisting of the invertible elements in Z/(n) forms a multiplicative group of order /.Semigroups and groups 65 plication is well defined. if a is a symmetry then = d(o a symmetry. Clearly.r are two symmetries. the identity permutation is a symmetry.c(r(b))) = d(r(a).) is a semigroup with identity. and let G be the set of bijective mappings on Xto X(i. Call a permutation a: X —' X a "symmetry" of S when it preserves diswhere d(a. The unit element of G is the identity map of X. that is. Further. permutations of X). or is also a symmetry. Then (Z/(n). This group is called the group ofpermutazions of X (or the symmetric group on X) and is denoted as is a group of order n!. (c) Permutations under usual composition Let X be a nonempty set. Let us consider a special case when Xis the set of points on the perimeter of an equilateral triangle: 2 3 The counterclockwise rotations through 0.i(n). then d((ar)(a).t13.r(b)) = d(a.(orXb)) = d(c(r(a)).b E X. and the other group postulates are easily verified by direct applications of results on mappings (see Chapter 1). 2.e. If a. !fIXl = (d) Symmetries of a geometric figure Consider permutations of the set Xof all points of some geometric figures. and 4ir/3 are three of the symmetries that move the vertices in the following manner: . Thus.b) = tance between the points a. Then G is a group under the usual composition of mappings. the set of symmetries of S forms a group under composition of mappings..b) denotes the distances. Hence.

Then GL(n. D3 = S3. called the dihedral group of degree 3. (e) Linear groups Let GL(n. These are commonly written as e=(l 2 a 3 2 a rotation through 4ir/3 is equivalent to.3 l—'3 These may be rewritten as and respectively. Then det(AB) = (det AXdet B) — I. E SL(n.F).F) is a group under multiplication.! 2—'3.F) consisting of matrices of determinant I.66 Groups l—. performing a rotation through This explains our symbol a2 for the rotation through Three other symmetries are the reflections in the altitudes through the three vertices. Consider the subset SL(n.B E SL(n. We denote this group by D3. SL(n. so ABE SL(n. the set of six symmetries is a complete list of symmetries of an equilateral triangle. 1 A) = = implies = I.F).F). E SL(n.F) of GL(n. called the general linear group (in dimension n). 3—. Similar considerations apply to any regular polygon of n sides.F) be the set of n X n invertible matrices over a field F. I—. or is a resultand then again through 2it/3. ant of. Also.. I. and 2—.F) is also a group under multiplication. aearly. Since D3 is a subset of 53 and each has six elements. so Therefore.2 2—'2. 3—*2 3—'l respectively.l.2 2—'2 3—'l.F). where the "product" is composition of mappings. and 3—. This is discussed later in Section 5. . Let A. namely. Since any symmetry of the equilateral triangle is determined by its effect on three vertices.

).. where G (a1 For example. I n.. the multiplication table for the group (Z/(4). which is an ii x n matrix whose (i.. ife1 is the identity ofG1. A finite group (G.2.. X (g1 be a family of groups.Semigroups and groups 67 (f) Direct product of groups Let G1 G1 X ..') is the inverse of(g. as we saw in the proof of Theorem 1. Then the cartesian product is a group under the "pointwise" binary operation = whereg......+) is +0123 00123 2 11230..g E G.IG. is e e a a2 e a a a2 a2 a2 b b ab a2b a2b ab a a2 b e a2b b b e a ab a2b b ab a2b e a2b b a2 b ab.g.and is also written as I1?.j) entry is * aj.g...3(d)]... .*) of order n can be exhibited by its multiplication table. then (e1 is the identity of G1 X . This is a consequence of the cancellation law.. . the symmetries of an equilateral triangle [Example 1. Associativity of the binary operation is an immediate consequence of the associativity of the binary operations in each G.. Clearly. X and .. 2301 33012 We observe that the elements in each row (column) are distinct. The multiplication table for the group D3 (=S3). I I n. a a2 ab a2b ab a2b a a2 e ab a e In the following examples we provide solutions to a couple of problems illustrating computational techniques.

= a group such that (ab)2 = (ba)2 for all a. in other words. from (2) and (3).b E G. that H is a group under multiplication. b"a = ab".+) is a group under the usual addition of mappings. by hypothesis. a2b2 for all a. (a/r'b)2 that is. Show that G is abelian. so. so ab Solution. by hypothesis. Prove 2. Let G be a group such that (ab)2 G is abelian.68 G is a group such that (ab)" — a"b" for three consecutive integers. by appropriate cancellations. 'aXba 'b1) Then. 4. Suppose G also has the property that x2 — e. e. Solution. and hence ab = ba. Then. the square of every element in G commutes with every element in G. Let a. (2) = and (3) From (1) and (2) we get (a"b"Xab) = = This implies. x E G implies x = e. Let G be a group such that a2 = e for all a E G. Similarly. Show that (A. Show that . c Problems 1.b E G. Let A be the set of mappings from R to R.b E G. then ab = ba. Then G is abelian. a2='ba2b' or a2b—ba2. Let H be the subset of C consisting of the nih roots of unity. We have (1) (ab)" = a"b". 3. Set c = and consider c2 = ab(a 'b— 'aXba 'b') = ab(aa2b = ab(ab 'a2aXba 'b') = ab(ab )(ba 'b = ab(abb2a 1Xba 'b') (abXaba 'b2Xba = = = (abX aba = e. we get = But then b(b"a) = b(ab").

9. 0 01 —'PT]' [—i oJ' [PT [—JET 0 1 [o —11 [ 1. A mapping 4: G-'H is called a homomorphism tffor all x. (v) G is a group. bEG. Let G. 69 Prove that the matrices Ii ol Ii [0 four-group. a*aa* = a* and a** = a. then e* = e. then x = (ii) If (iii) For all aEG. 1]' 1. x. Homomorphisms 2 Definition. = a*.(Thisgroupisknownasthe quaternion group. Prove that there exists e E 6 such that e = e2. m and n relatively prime. show that if Ii e=1. Suppose G is a semigroup with the property that for each aeG.) Let G be a finite semigroup.j1 P11 0 thena4 = e. aeG.x = is a solution of xb = a. is abelian.andb'ab = a3. 8.y E G = . ..0 ol ii' 7. ol 1—i 01 0 1]' and 1—i L 0 0 —l form a multiplicative group. Show that a group in which all the mth powers commute with each other and all the nth powers commute with each other.tI be groups.) 6.b2 = a2.Homomorphisms 5. (This group is known as the Klein Prove that the following matrices form a nonabelian group of order 8 under multiplication of matrices: [101 Lo [—1 1. Prove (i) If e is an idempotent in G. (iv) For all a. there is a unique a*EG such that = a. 01101110 Li 0 0 0 —ii' o 0]' Further. ['PT 0 ol lo b=1.

G is said lobe homomorphic to H.) 2.1 Examples (a) Let G and H be groups. that is. = x= x = y. Consequently. Let G and H be groups with identities e and e'. that is. For a given a E G consider the mapping 1a:GG Since givenby )(aya 1) forallxEG. For any x in G.2 Theorem. then 4) is called an isomorphism of G onto I!. H is an onto homomorphism. !f4): G —' H is a 1-I homomorphism. (Note that in the definition of homomorphism we have written both the groups multiplicatively. onto. then H is called a homomorphic image of G. then we say that 4) is an isomorphism (or monomorphism) of G into H.A homomorphism ofGintouse!f is called an endomorphism of G. = = a. ff4) is surjeclive. = Hence. Hence. The mapping 4): R given by 4)(x) log x is an isomorphism. I-I. and we write GGH. ff4): G —. also. is an automorphism of G. (b) For any group G the identity mapping i: G —' G is an automorphism of G. (c) Let G be the group (R'y) of positive real numbers under multiplication. (d) Let G be a group. and we write G H. then G is said to be embeddable in H. ff4) is just infective. if 4) is bzjeciive. is surjective. then 4) is called anepimorphism. and let H be the additive group R. 2. called the inner auzomorphism of G determined by a.70 Groups Furthermore. By the cancellation laws. The mapping givenby 8(x)—e' forallxEG is trivially a homomorphism.xya' = '0 is a homomorphism. 'a is injective. respec- . though the actual binary operations in G and H may be different. An endomorphism of G that is both 1-I and onto is called an automorphism of G. and let e' be the identity of H.

Hence. We noted earlier that every group is isomorphic to itself. x = e. . Then 4)(x) = e' = Hence. Definition. Conversely. Therefore. Because 4)(e) = e'. Let G andif be groups. Ker 4) = (e}. Prove that G (Z/(n). H is infective if and only Ker4)=(e). Then 4)(x) = 4)(y) 4) is injective. çb(e) = e'. iff G H is an isomorphism of G onto H. Problems I. and let 4): G —. The kernel of4) is defined to be the set Ker4)=(xE GI4)(x)=e'). 0 (ii) = 4)(xx') = gb(e) = e'. Further. it follows that Ker 4) is not empty. Proof (i) 4)(e)4)(e) = 4)(ee) = 4)(e) = e'4)(e). and let x Ker 4). by the cancellation law. 23 Theorem. This proves that isomorphism of groups is an equivalence relation. A homomorphism 4): G —.+). H be a homomorphism. Proof Suppose 4) is injective. 0 It can be easily proved that iff: G H and g: H K are homomorphisms (isomorphisms) of groups. suppose Ker 4) = (e}.Homomorphisms 71 lively. Let G be the multiplicative group of the nth roots of unity. where e' is the identity in H. Hence. and let 4): G H be a homomorphism. then the inverse mappingf': G is also an isomorphism. = Thus. Then (1) 4)(e)—e'. (ii) = each x E G. a homomorphism 4): G H not only "preserves" the group operation but also the group identity and the unary operation x '—' x -'. then the composite map K is G also a homomorphism (isomorphism).

(i) and (ii) are obviously true.b C H. = eb E II. where G is the quatern on group (see Problem 6. Let (G.2 Theorem. called trivial subgroups. suppose H satisfies (i). subgroup of G if and only if either of the following holds: (1) For all a. a subgroup. given by f(x) = x2. Section 1) and f(a) = 0. Show that a group G is abelian if and only if the mapping f: G —. F) S3. 1(b) = 1. H is called a subgroup of G. II is a group relative to the binary operation in G.b C H. Hence. abE II. a' C H. For any group G the singleton (e) and G itself are subgroups of G. ) be a group. Then for any a C H. f: Z —. written H < G. Z2.72 Groups Prove that a group G is abelian if and only if the mapping f G —' G.1 Theorem. suppose that H satisfies (ii). ab = C H. Therefore.b H. Let F be a field with two elements. A a subgroup and only if ab C H for all a. Then e = bb' C H. Let G be a group. and (ii) For all a. Next. Let (G. given byf(x) = is a homomorphism: 3.b C H. A nonemply subset 11 of G is a C H. G. given by f(x) = f: G -. ZN. Subgroups and cosets 3 Definition. (a) (b) 5. 3. and/el H be a subset of G. 3. which proves that I! is a subgroup of G. 0 There is a simpler criterion for a finite subgroup. e = Let a. Conversely. Find the kernel of each of the following homomorphism: 2. It is easily seen that the identity element of a subgroup of a group must be same as that of the group. 4.3(d)) to the group Z3. Show that GL(2. is a homomorphism. Hence. a subgroup. finite subset H of G is . A subgroup !!of G is said to be a proper subgroup if!! (e)andH*G.) be a group. 6. Show that there does not exist any nonzero homomorphism of the group D3 (or S3) (see Example 1.

and a is called a generator of H. Ker 4). The subgroup nZ in the previous example is thus the cyclic subgroup of Z generated by n. The center of a group G.k' E Z. Then a = 4)(x). H be a homomorphism of groups. nZ = (nklk E Z).v E G.2. = aexir' = ax/r' = xab'. The next two theorems give further examples of subgroups. Hence. let = Im 4). Since is closed under . then [a) = (kalk E Z) is the set of all multiples of a.e E Z(G). A group G is said to be cyclic if G [a) for some a in G. let ) be any group. Let a. Then k. 0 For an example of a subgroup. is the set of those elements in G that commute wit/i every clement in G: that is. Then = 4)(a)4)(b) = e'e' = e' (where e' is the identity of H). nk — nk' = n(k — k') E nZ. = E H for all all powers of a: H = (akIk E Z}. they must hold for all elements in H. Hence. 3. The center of a group G is a subgroup of G. Therefore.Subgroups and cosets 73 Proof If H is a finite semigroup. Then for allxE G. Then for all k. where n is any given integer. Z(G) is a subgroup of G. If G is an additive group. Proof Ker 4) and Im 4) 4)(ab 1) a. ab' E Z(G). II is a subgroup of G. nZ is a subgroup of the additive group Z. Hence. Let Hbe the set of general ed by a.3 Ker 4) is a subgroup of G and Im 4) is a subgroup qf H. Hence. Then 3. that is. Next. then cancellation laws hold for all elements in G.4 Theorem. 0 are both nonempty. consider the set nZ of all multiples of n. H is a group and.k' e Z. Theorem. Hence. Z(G) = (a E GIax = xafor alix E G}. Let a. 0 alr'x = = = . Therefore. a subgroup of G. /1 = 4)(v) for some x. Let 4): G —. and let a E G. = E lm 4).b E Ker 4).h E Z(G). This proves that Ker 4) is a subgroup of G. by Theorem 1. The converse is obvious. Proof Since ex = x = xc for all x E G.fl II. written H = [a). written Z(G). which proves that Im 4) is a subgroup of Definition. hence. H is called the cyclic subgroup of G More generally.

Then h'k' for some h' H. Let H and K be subgroups a subgroup of G if and only if ilK = Ku. Let H and K be subgroups of G. Now C KH = I/K. (For an additive group G. Let a. For suppose H U K is a subgroup. = C K/I. Hence. we define AB = (xy A. then air' E H. hence. b = /i2k2 for some E H and k.. Let H and K be subgroups of a group G. then IlK is a subgroup for any subgroups H. k4 E K. air' E 11K. suppose that ilK is a subgroup. Therefore. Hence. Then e C 1!.k. Conversely.h3k4 = I:4k4. = h.h3 C H. More generally. if ab c K. Hence. Hence. lfa. This proves that HK is a sub- group. but neither If C K nor K C H.B of a group G. Therefore. H fl K is a subgroup of G. Hence. HK. yE B). It follows from the theorem that if G is an abelian group. then a = abir' E K. Next. a similar argument shows that the intersection of any number of subgroups of G is again a subgroup of G. J1Ci K is not empty. air' H fl K. we define A + B = (x + ylx C A. group Then HK is Proof Let HK =KY. Hence. e K. This proves that I/K = K!!. 0 ilK. Then H fl K is the largest subgroup of G contained in both H and K.k2 E K.74 Groups Let us next see how new subgroups may be obtained from given sub- groups.b E H U K.K of G. Then a' = Therefore.b E IlK. Then there exist elements a E I!— K and b K — H. some h3 H. so that a = k/i ilK. Hence. Now a. b = ilK C K!!. in the sense that if L is any subgroup con- . But the union of subgroups H and K is a subgroup of G if and only if H C K or K C If. Then a = h.b Hfl K. The subgroups of a group G can be partially ordered by set inclusion. again a contradiction. KH C HK. If ab H. a K/f. = h3k4 for where h4 = h.) 33 Theorem. Let a for some h E II. abE H U K. air' K. . let be IlK. On the other hand. HKis not empty. then b = a contradiction. Therefore. for any subsets A. k E K. Since e = ee C ilK. = = where k3 = e K. set A binary operation on a set S induces a binary operation on the power Accordingly. k' K. Hence. yE B).

the subgroup generated by S.6 Theorem. as shown earlier. For if M is any subgroup containingilandK. To go back to the previous case of subgroups H and K. is not empty. EM'. therefore. if there exists a least positive integer m such that am = e. the subgroup generated by Sis the cyclic subgroup [a] = (a'Ii E Z). Let S be a nonempty subset of a group G.3. 0 IfS is a singleton (a).x EW. then L C if fl K. then a is said to be of infinite order. which is denoted by H V K.) IfS is empty. If M' is a subgroup and S C M'. It is called the subgroup generated by S and denoted by [SI. Let S be a subset of G. ThereforeM'containsall Then foreachx S. then S is called a set of generators of G. the set G itself is a set of generators of the group G. This proves that M is the smallest subgroup containing Sand. For any two elements a = x in M. then G is said to be a finitely generated group. x. i= I finite products x1 Mc M'. then M' E Hence. Sc M. Let M be the intersection of all subgroups A in of G and S C M. and b = a subgroup of G.thenhkE Mforallh E H. if no such positive integer exists. (Trivially. . for each i. IfS is a finite set and G = [5]. Let G be a group. written o(a). then m is ca/led the order ofa. . that. Hence. Definition. = (ALA is a subgroup of G. If ilK = KH.Subgroups and cosets 75 tamed in both H and K. E S or Proof Clearly. we can still find a smallest subgroup containing both H and K. Then (lie such subgroup generated by S is the set M of al/finite products E S. such that XES or Xr1ES. M C M'. Then Mis a subgroup Since G is in ?. and a E G. That is. n.EvenifHK#KH. Consider the family of all subgroups of G containing S. Let M' be any subgroup of G containing S. Therefore M is the smallest subgroup containing S. then HK is the smallest subgroup containing both H and K. If G = [SI for some subset S of G. then [S) is the trivial subgroup (e). Sc A).k E K. we see that the smallest subgroup containing H and K is the subgroup generated by ii U K.

then there exists a positive integer k such that x* = efor all x E G. (iii) Let 0(a) = m. a contradiction. a' = a'. . For any i Z. a2. So there exist distinct positive integers i. where r(i) is the (iii) [a) is of order m and only t(o(a) = m. as proved earlier. then o(a)In. In the multiplicative group G = {xeCIx3 = 1}. e = a" = (am )Ga' = a'.8 0 Corollary.j. 0 I <j m — 1. Therefore by the well-ordering property of N. Hence. Then are distinct. then a" — e. if of G.j E Z. If 0(a) = m. n = mq + r. Let G be a group and a E G. Find one. a' = If a" remainder of i modulo m. since 2 + 2 = 0. a3. a' = forsome i. i = mq + r. efor some integer n 0. By the division algorithm. o(2) = 2. Therefore r = 0 and mm. say m. then the elements a. Let H = (a] be the cyclic subgroup generated by a.j such that a' = (c) (f) = e.) 3.. then for all integers i. 0 r < m. (i) If a" = e. Hence. 0 (ii) Again by the division algorithm. Then a is of finite order. Hence a' = e for some I> 0. for otherwise a' for some i. Then a"s are not distinct forall i E Z. the order is 2 and that of a finite group 6 is finite. i <j. 3.. r < m. Section 1) is of order 2. For. Hence 0(a) is finite.7 (i) (ii) Theorem. Hence. o(3)=4. Further. (d) In S3. the element ---hasorder3. suppose that His of finite order. But then H has exactly m elements. a' = This implies that H has exactly m elements Conversely. there is a least positive integer m = 0(a) such that atm = e. +) is infinite. Each element different from e in the Klein four-group (see Problem 5. Hence. which gives The order of any nonzero element in the group (Z. where r = r(i) is the remainder of i modulo m.76 Groups We now give some examples to illustrate this concept.Theorderofi in G={xeClx4 = 1} 2 is 4.. (a) (b) In the additive group Z4. (There exist infinite groups in which each element is of finite order. of 6 cannot all be distinct. If G is aJinite group. for any i E Z.

That is. Hence. A right coset Ha is defined similarly.b in G belong to the same right coset if and only if ab' E H. Hence. a'b E and (a'b)' E H. G the mappingfi H —' aH. since eH = H. given byf(h) = ah. For all a. the cyclic subgroup (a] is also finite. therefore w is bijective. and the set H\G of all right cosets ofH is a partition of G. 0 Definition. Given a E G. By a similar argument. Then x E G. Hence. Definition. Consequentl). Consider now the right cosets of H in G. where a b means a 'b E H. say n(a). the set G/H of left cosets of H in G is a partition of G. we have the following definition. — is an equivalence relation on G. Thus.Subgroups and cosets 77 Proof Since G is finite. Let us confine our attention for the present to left cosets aH of H in G. The set of all right cosets of Hin G is written H\G. Consider the relation on G. It is easily verified that the equivalence classes of— are precisely the left cosets of H in G. Let H be a subgroup of G. The cardinai number of the set of . For any a E a'a = e E H.c E G. the distinct left cosets of H are pairwise disjoint and their union is G. 0(a) is finite. is obviously surjective. By arguments similar to those given above. the set aH=(ahlhE H) is called the left coset of H determined by a. Choose k = IICEGn(a). Two elements a. is clearly a bijection.' == Hb' = all = b!!. Let H be a subgroup of G.b. The set of all left cosels of H in G is written G/H. Note that H itself is a left coset of H. Therefore. Hence. The mapping is well defined because H=*a (b')' E Moreover. A subset C of G is called a left coset of H in G if C = aHfor some a in G. a'b. every left coset of H has the same cardinality as H. w is injective. Consider the mapping w: H\G given by aH—* Ha'. = Hb'. b'c E a'c = (a'bXb'c) E H. we can prove that any two right cosets of H have the same cardinality. G/H and H\G have the same cardinality.

. Hence. Indeed it is easy tc• check that K = nZ. then [a] = G. . Let G be afinite group oforder n. Otherwise.78 Groups left (right) cosets of H in G is called the index of H in G and denoted by [G:H]. o(a)In.3. 0 3. or 5 are cyclic. which is of fundamental importance in the theory of finite groups. n 0. For each nonzero subgroup K of the additive group Z. Let IGI = IHI = m.10 Corollary. In other words.9 Theorem (Lagrange). we must have n = km. Let G be a finite group. Hence. [Z: K] is finite. Consider a group G of order 4. and let If be any subgroup of G. and so Z/nZ = 7. and therefore G is cyclic. Then every left coset of H has m elements.. 3. Writing I for the trivial subgroup {e).11 Examples (a) (Groups of order <6) It follows from Corollary 3. the order of [a] must ben. Hence. If n is prime and a e. This proves the following theorem. If G has an element a of order 4. = e. consequently. We shall now derive some important results from Lagrange's theorem. every element # e is of order 2. [G: 1] = [G:HJ[H: I]. abelian. (Example 1. Proof Let a C G. Then for every a E G. hence. Since the distinct left cosets of If are pairwise disjoint and their union is G. By Lagrange's theorem the order of the cyclic subgroup [a] divides n. Let G be a finite group. each left (right) coset of If in G is a singleton. [a] = G. G is cyclic. hence. Then the order of any subgroup of G divides the order of G. where k is the number of left cosets of H in G. the index of H is equal to the order of G.3(a)). every finite group of prime order is cyclic and. If II is the trivial subgroup {e).10 that groups of orders 2. 3. we get IGI = (G: 11. So o(a)In. and.

then where — 1 (mod rn). • = akbk = e which gives kfrnn (Theorem 3. Hence. n) = 1. ab e. (d) Let G be a group and a. any right coset of H fl K is the intersection of a right coset of H and a right coset of K. and ca = b = ac. all groups of order <6 are abelian.K < G. but the number of such intersections is finite. is called the Klein four-group. This yields (c) (Poincaré's theorem) The intersection of two subgroups of finite index is of finite index. G is abelian. G = (e. and (m. which implies b = a.Subgroups and cosets 79 that is. (b) (Euler.7). then o(ab) = mn. o(b) = n. and the order of the multiplicative group (Z/(m)) of the inverSince (a. or any group isomorphic to it. Then (ab)k = e. Let o(ab) = k. ab b. H. bc = a = cb. (This group. Hence. = I. Solution. b€G such that ab = ba. Let H. If o(a) = m. This proves that the number of right cosets of H fl K is finite. Consider = (ab)k = e Thus. Note that an element i E Z/(m) is invertible if and only if (x. ab = c. ba = c. Solution.m) I.c) and a2 = b2 = c2 = e.b. Let a E G. By the same argument. Solution.m) = 1. Consider the product ab.) Thus. äE (Z/(m)).K of finite indices. ab '# a. Then it is trivial that (H fl K)a = Ha fl Ka.a.Fermat theorem) If a is an integer prime to the positive integer m. o(ak) = o(b") = o(bk) . is the Euler function. If ab = e. a contradiction. so tible elements in Z/(m) is I (mod m). Also ak = (Problem 10). then ab = aa. Thus. Hence. Similarly.

(Theorem 3. T < G.7). Hence.z) denote the equivalence class of Solution. so from (I) we get ISX TI=ISTIISfl fl.n) soak = e. Hence.l') for some a E Sn T. Similarly. Therefore.t) E S X T. divides (m. k = ISTI. 1. The result contained in the following problem is sometimes quite handy when studying structure of finite groups. .fis well forsomeaESfl Also. and let S X T/— be the set of equivalence classes.)= S Therefore. and S.. E T= (s.80 Groups But am = e = e : o(ak)Im Therefore. Then ISTI= ISIITI ISn 71• in S X Tby (s. We now define a mappingf S X TI— defined and injective. Consequently. Then — is an equivalence relation. Since klmn. it follows that k = mn. 1. It follows from the definition of equivalence relation that (. ISX T/-I=ISTI.f is clearly surjective. because (I) = s1t.t) — (s'. Similarly. Consider S X Tand define a relation if and only if s' — sa and 1' (s.. But then m(k.t1) be the disjoint union of equivalence classes. ISXTJ=kISflTI. (e) Let G be a finite group. Let (s.

then a E Z(G) and n=2.b are any two elements in a group G. . then prove that A is also a right coset of some subgroup of G. Find the subgroups of the groups given in Problems 5 and 6 of Section I. ShowthatforallxEG. Let H be a subgroup of a group G. 8. Show that there exists an element c E G such that 0(c) is the least common multiple of m and n. 10. 12. ments of a left coset form a right coset. show that ab and ba have the same order. with vector addition as the binary operation. LetGbeagroupanda. Show that 0(a) = Ifa group G has only one element a of order n. Let G be a group and a. then either Hr' K = {e} or H <K. respectively.and cosets 81 which gives ISV TI = ISTIIS fl fl or ISTI = Problems 1. IS. Let G be a group and H < G. 3. (a) If H and K are subgroups whose orders are relatively prime. 2. If a. Suppose IG/HI = 2. More generally. prove that H and K are subgroups of order p and n. Let Vbe the group of vectors in the plane. Prove that Ha = H if and only if H. 14. Show that for any subgroup of a group the inverses of the ele6. 9. 5. Show that 0(a) = ii. Prove that aH Ha for all a E G. Show that if G is a group of even order then there are exactly an odd number of elements of order 2. 4.b E Gsuchthatab —ba. What are the cosets relative to this subgroup? 7. Show that a subset A of a group G cannot be a left coset of two distinct subgrotps of G. IfA is a left coset of some subgroup of G.b E G. Show that the vectors that issue from the origin 0 and have endpoints on a fixed line through 0 form a subgroup. if A is a nonempty subset of G then show that AH = H if and only if A H. Also show that HH = H.x'Hxis a subgroup of G of the same cardinality as that of H. where p is prime. 13. o(a') for any element a in a group G. Leto(a) = mand o(b) = n. Let Gbeagroupand H<G. Show that the elements of finite order in any abelian group form a subgroup.

cv is an isomorphism. for all s E S). Let G be a finite group. Letg: G —p G' be a homomorphism of groups. The most important examples of cyclic groups are the additive group Z of integers and the additive groups Z/(n) of integers modulo n. is Hence. In fact. Prove that IGIISI+ITI. for any prime p.82 Groups 16. Let m be a positive integer. 18. Consider the mapping cv: Z/(n) —' G given by yi(i) = a'. Cyclic groups As already defined. a' = is surjective. Theorem. Let m be a positive integer such that (m. Further. Prove that o(am) r. Let a E G. G given by qi(i) = a'. and let C(S) = {x E GIxs = sx. suppose G = [a] is a cyclic group of finite order n. (1 2)). It is clear that w is a surjective homomorphism. Let a be an element of a group G such that 0(a) = r.r) I. consider the mapping w: Z —. Further prove that if g is injective.1n) for some n E N. these are the only cyclic groups up to isomorphism. and let S. 17. tralizer of S in G. Let a be an element of a group G such that 0(a) = r. Moreover. a group G is said to be cyclic if G = [a] = (a'Ii E Z) for some a E G. an isomorphism. Prove Wilson's theorem that. ci' is well defined and also injective. (p — I)! — (modp). for let 1. Then = Clearly.n. Let S be a nonempty subset of a group G. 4. Show that C(S) < G.) 22. 20.1 E Z/(n). 21. {(1 2)). for otherwise a would be of finite order.r). 19. Every cyclic group is isomorphic to Z or to Z. Prove that o(am) = r/(. cv = ci4i+j) — = a'a1. Therefore. 0 . and {(l 2 3). wis injective. then o(g(a)) = o(a). What is C(G)? (C(S) is called the cenFind the centralizer of each of the following subsets of S3: {(l 4 2 3)).1 Proof If G = [a] is an infinite cyclic group.7). T be nonempty subsets of G such that G ST. Then G = j and o(a)= n (Theorem 3. I a' * a1. Hence. Next. Prove that o(g(a))Io(a).

Let a' E H. Hence. Let —s. Then G has exactly one subgroup of order d. Every subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic. nisd. Proof Let G [a) be a cyclic group. 4. [a'] = [a"]. By Theorem 4. (b) is a cyclic subgroup of order d. Let G = [aJ. Theorem. Let G be afinite cyclic group of order n. mdIsd and so mis. 4.bd) implies a" = e b1. there is a least positive integer m such that b atm E H. Hence. Also (e. Proof The result holds trivially if d = I or n.bm") = (e. so mid and nid. . Hence. respectively. then a' E H.Cyclic groups 83 The following is immediate from the above theorem. and let d be a positive divisor of n. 0 The converse of Lagrange's theorem is not true in general. Any two cyclic groups of the same order (finite orinfi. Problems I. This yields [a'] c= [atm] = [b]. But since each of the subgroups [a'] and [a"] is of order d. the result is obvious. To prove the uniqueness. such that (m.3. So let 1 <d < n and put n/d = m.b)" = (a41. So let Jibe a proper subgroup of G. Then b atm is of order d. Since Ill X = mn. it follows that (a. Now (a. Then azd=cd—_e.n) I. 4. but the following theorem shows that it does hold for cyclic groups.3 Theorem.2 flue) are isomorphic. mn — d. Therefore. Solution. This proves H = [b]. Ifa1 E H. By the division algorithm Then a' a'" = a' H [bJ. We prove that H [bJ. Prove that the multiplicative group of the nth roots of unity is a cyclic group of order n.b)"" (a"".b) generates the group H X K.e) implies dimn. Let o(a. 4. Then H X K is a cyclic group of order mn. If H is a trivial subgroup. mnld.e) = (a.4 Theorem. Consequently. that is.b) — d. H is generated by an element c = as. and let Jibe a subgroup of G. let Jibe any subgroup of G of order d.5 Example Let H = [a) and K [bJ be cyclic groups of orders m and n.

Let X be a nonempty set. S Permutation groups Definition. where represents positive rational numbers.. A permutation a E can be exhibited in the form (i \c(l) 2 c(2) . one-row notation for a special kind ofpermutation called a cycle. (Z/(n)..n. Show also (Q.. The group of all permutations of X under composition of mappings is called the symmetric group on X and is denoted by A subgroup of is called a permutation group on X.. It is easily seen that a bijection X V induces in a natural way an isomorphism S1. There is a simpler.n)= 1.. and 12 of Z12. Prove that there are exactly çb(n) elements of a cyclic group of order n that_can generate it. 3.. 7... Show that every finitely generated subgroup of(Q.84 Groups 2. and the bottom row has 0(1) below i for each i — . Let a E If there exists a list ofdis:inct integers x1 .. E n. the top row has integers I . . 9. 0(n))' consisting of two rows of integers.1 Show that a group G has no proper subgroups if and only if it is a cyclic group of prime order. . and called the If lxi = n.. which yields (a. 8.n. Show that Z x Z is not cyclic. Is Z2 x Z2 cyclic? Give an example of a nonabelian group such that each of its proper subgroups is cyclic.. +). 10. so ma 1 (mod n). + ) is cyclic. usually (but not necessarily) in their natural order.. [Hint: If a is a generator of 5. This is called a two-row notation for a permutation.x.. 1 Definition. 4. Find a homomorphism from S3 onto a nontrivial cyclic group..4. Prove that there are exactly two elements of an infinite cyclic group G that can generate it... then I = ma for some meZ. 6. S1 is denoted by symmetric group of degree n. Find all possible sets of generators of the subgroups of orders 3.

. a2=(l I). In other words. one step around a circle as shown in the diagram (for r = 5) and leaves every other integer in ii unmoved.. a cycle (x1. Two permutations a.).. For the sake of illustration.. that is...) = x1. Note that the one-row notation for a cycle does not indicate the degree n. for all x E n.. a(x) =x 2 if x {x1 . t2=(3 =(I 2 3). any cycle of length I is the identity mapping e. t3=(l 2). then a is called a cycle of length rand denoted by (x1 . e=(l). we say a does not move x. a(x) = x or r(x) = x.. A cycle oflength is called a transposition. z1=(2 3). .. let us consider the symmetric group S3.Permutation groups 85 such that o(x1) = i= 1.3) given by II (I 2 2 3\ 3)' 11 2 3 2 2 3\ i)' Ii 2 I 3\ 2)' 3 3 2 3 3\ 2)' a1 (1 3\ i)' 3 fi 2 1 On examination we find that they are all cycles..r— I a(x. that is. which has to be understood from the context.) moves the integers x.. 2).x...r E are said to be disjoint if they do not both move the same integer. We can find the product of any two permutations by the usual rule for . There are six permutations of the set (1.x.Xr). (If a(x) = x..2.) x x4 2 I Trivially.x..

ar=r3. Thus. because ax = ax' x.y E G. and the product of any two elements in S3 can be computed by using the relations o3=e=r2. is called a permutation group. 4 givenby L(x)=ax forallxEG. 5. where SG is the symmetric group on the set G. Every group is isomorphic to a permutation group. (This is not true for symmetric groups of degree >3.c3=e. how- ever.1 Theorem (Cayley).or.) Let us write a for a1 = (1 2 3)and r for = (2 3). followed by r.x E G.a2.x '. We shall later see further examples of these relations. a acts first.a2r). For any given a E G. =fa(f. 4:G—'S0 = abx Hence.86 Groups composition of mappings. The following theorem indicates the importance of permutation groups.a2r=r2=w. give a simpler description of the multiplication structure in S3. For all a.r.) We can. a permutation group is a group ) such that the elements of G are permutations of some set X. the mapping fa:G'G. We easily verify that o2=a2. and• is composition of mappings. Relations of the type (*) that completely determine the multiplication table of the group are called its defining relations. Proof Let G be a group. ro=a2r (*) and the associative property of multiplication.b.(x)) = 4 is a subgroup of SG. S3 = (e.r2=e. Consider the mapping givenby forallaEG. x = x' and y = for all is a bijection. In A subgroup of a symmetric group other words. Hence.a. 11 2 2 3\ (Recall that in the product ra. More- .

y is given for all x. if and .a '(y)) = d(ao '(x). Consider. forall is an injective homomorphism.T E and x.y E X.. which can be labeled as I . that is. a symmetry is a permutation that preserves distance between every two points.n. Thus. denote the set of all symmetries of X. the case when Xis the set of points constituting a polygon of n sides in a plane. in particular. Therefore we need consider only the symmetries of the set of vertices.rcr t(y)) = d(a '(x).a(y)) = d(x.yEX.y). Similarly. It is called the group of symmetries of X. rcr' E is itself a group under composition of mappings. we have a right regular representation. Therefore. The above isomorphism is called the lefi regular representation of G. so that the distance d(x. Let T1.y) between points x.acr '(y)) = d(x. The group of symmetries of a regular polygon called the dihedral group of degree n and denoted by The particular case n = of n sides is 3 was considered in Example 1. This proves that is a subgroup of and. Then for all O. Let Xbe a set of points in space. Let us now consider the general case of a regular polygon (see the if and only is asymmetry figure).Permutation groups 87 over.. the group of symmetries of a polygon of n sides is a subgroup of Hence.3(d).2. A permutation tiofXis called a symmetry of X if d(o(x). therefore.. d(ra '(x). It is clear from geometrical considerations that any symmetry ofXis determined uniquely by its effect on the vertices of the polygon.y) for all x. G is isomorphic to a 0 SubgroUp of Hence.y E X.. Groups of Symmetries We now describe an important class of permutation groups known as groups of symmetries. In other words. It is clear that a permutation a if a takes any two adjacent vertices of to adjacent vertices. DefinitIon.

n.. Thus.n—l.. This proves that the dihedral has 2n elements a.. Clearly..ando"takesl to l.. the n symmetries that preserve the cyclic order of vertices are a' (i=O.......a(n) are either in the cyclic order 1. and w(l)= r(2)= n.. The dihed ral group isa group oforder 2n generated .2 n or in the reverse cyclic order n....1. 2)' we clearly see that a'r reverses the cyclic order and takes ito i + I. where a is the cycle (I Writing t for 11 2 n .n— 1).n — I)..n. a(2).. By the same argument there are exactly n symmetries that reverse the cyclic order. (i = group We now give a simpler description of the elements of that enables us to write the product of any two elements easily.. and once a( I) is fixed. 1. Moreover.. Hence.+i.88 Groups 3 2 n only if a( I ).. Therefore.a(2). is the identity we easily permutation e.n).n— 1).2 We sum up the above Theorem... there are exactly n symmetries that preserve the cyclic order of the vertices.. it follows that 01=C.n).. Since ta reverses the cyclic order.. Hence. is the symmetry taking I to i. Now a( 1) can have any one of the values 1 ....2. Writing a for venfythato'takesl toi+ 1(1= l. 2.n — I ... a'r = . = e.2. Let a be a symmetry that preserves the cyclic order.÷1 (i = O. the symmetries of Pn can be classified into two kinds: those that preserve the cyclic order I .. Let us call them a1 .Sincec' (I> 1) preserves the cyclic order.. and those that reverse the order. and 02 is the cycle (1 2.. Now consider the product ra..a2 where a. i=I..1. r2 takes Ito 1 and preserves the order. . Hence r2 — e.. where r.....o(n) are uniquely determined by the cyclic order.2... we conclude that ta= discussion in 5. takes I to i..

5. ab = c. Then (arXi) # (taXi). the group of symmetries of a rectangle is the Klein four-group. so at # to-. It is easily verified that a2 = b2 = c2 = e. Find all subgroups of 53 and S4. (Hint. where n 2 t1(1 2 n Geometrically. Show that the subgroup generated by a and b is D4. The dihedral group D4 is called the octic group. prove that Show that I = (e). Choose r E such that t(i) = r(j) = k. we shall consider the symmetries of a rectangle in Example 5. .3. Let e # a E Suppose o(i) =j. = I or 2 according to whether n is odd or even. 2. As an example of the group of symmetries of a nonregular polygon. a is a rotation of the regular polygon through an angle 2n/n in its own plane. and b and c are reflections in the axes of symmetry parallel to the sides. Problems 1. and r is a reflection (or a turning over) in the diameter through the vertex 1. Suppose o(ab) 4.Permutation groups 89 by two elements a. If n 3.3 Example The symmetries of a rectangle 4 3 I 2 are easily seen to be e=1'I 2 3 4'\ a=(i 2 4 3 2 3 4 1 4 Geometrically.t satisfying a" = e t2 and to.= a" 'r. Let k i. ca = b. Let a and b be elements of order 2 in a group G. a is a rotation through an angle t. 4. i *j. Thus. bc = a. DefinitIon. r(k) =j.j.) 3.

+) is generated by I such that n I = 0. Hence. in gen= eral. is generated by (a. we are naturally interested in a minimal subset Xof the group that generates it. and also in the set of equations satisfied by elements in the generating set that would suffice to give us all products of elements in the group. The set X is called a set of generators.b) such that a3 = I = b2..90 Generators and relations 6 Generators and relations Sometimes it is convenient to define a group by a subset X of the group and a set of equations satisfied by elements of X. A finite group. The group S3 is generated by {a. The dihedral group 0. The system called a presentation of the group. A set of equations (r1 = l)JEA that suffice to construct the multiplication table of (i is called a set ofdefining relationsfor the group are products of ci eFnents of X). the group (Z/(n). Definition. Let G be a group generated by a subset X of G. may also be described by listing its elements and by writing down the multiplication table.b) such that = I = b2. b 'ab = a2. For example. ')JEA) is . but clearly this is an impossible act for groups of large orders (without computers!).

Let N be a subgroup of a group G. . Then the following (I) (ii) (iv) are equivalent.y G. 1. If G is abelian. A subgroup N of G is called a normal subgroup of G. Definition. xyN for all x. yE B). If A or B is a singleton. Trivially. Since multiplication in G is associative. given by AB = (xylx E A. x (xNXyN) 91 every x G.1 Theorem. then every subgroup of G is a normal subgroup. NIG. The following theorem gives several characterizations of a normal subgroup.5(e)1. and if 4): G of groups. written N G. Let G be a group. then Ker 4) <1 G. ifxNx' C Nfor every x E G. the subgroups (e) and G itself are normal subgroups of G. we write aB for (a)B and A1 for A(b). But the con- verse is not true: A group in which every subgroup is normal is not necessarily abelian [Example 1 . the induced multiplication of subsets of G is also associative.CHAPTER 5 Normal subgroups 1 Normal subgroups and quotient groups We recall that multiplication in a group G induces a product of any two subsets A and B of G. It is easily proved that the center of a H is a homomorphism group G is a normal subgroup of G.

2 is a group under multiplication. Further. we need not distinguish between left cosets and right cosets of N. N = Hence. Let N be a normal subgroup of the group G. Hence.1. The group GIN is called the quotient group of G by N. 1. multiplication is also associative in GIN. and Ker 4 = N. The normalizer of S in G is the set N(S) (x E S). Proof By Theorem 1. N(S) Ls a subgroup of G. Hence. given by '-' xN. 1. GIN is closed under multiplication. is a surjective homomorphism. Hence. Definition. and for any x E G. given by x xN. Therefore. by definition. NN = N. Let x E G. Also. Therefore. eN. 0 (iv) (i) xNx' = xNx'eC xNx'N= Let Nbc a normal subgroup of G. C N. qS is a homomorphism. For all x.92 Normal subgroups (1) Proof (ii) Suppose N <. The mapping 4 is obviously surjective. and let S be a nonempty subset of G.y G. C xNx'. Let G bea group. Further.3 . For any non empty subset SofG.1 G. We shall write all cosets of N as left cosets and denote the set of all cosets of N in G by GIN. Let N be a normal subgroup of G. for any subgroup H of G. The coset eN = N is the identity = = for multiplication in GIN. This proves that GIN is a group. Then GIN G —' GIN. Theorem. xNx (iii) (iv) = x(Ny)N = x(yN)N — xy(NN). Hence. because N is closed under multiplication. The homomorphism G GiN. çb(xy) = (xy)N = 0 Hence. Let G be a group. (xNXyN) (xy)N for all x. On the other hand. C N. The above theorem has shown that any left coset of N in G is a right coset and vice versa. Definition. is called the natural (or canonical) homomorphism of G onto GIN. The normalizer of a singleton (a) is written N(a). Hence. xN eN if and only if x E N. Now NN C N eN= N. (xNXyN) = (xy)N. Because multiplication is associative in G. x' E G. N<G. N = eN C NN. Then.y G. The mapping x Theorem.

. and H C KH. H is a subset and. If x. K C N(H'). then = x '(ySy' )x = x'Sx = )x = S. Then hllh -' = H for all h E H. Moreover. Therefore. The subgroup of G generated by tile set of all commutators in G is called the commutator subgroup of G (or the derived group of G) and denoted by G'. xHx' = H for all x E N(H). Then for all k E K. Let H be a subgroup of G. kH = Hence. If H G. 0 a Definition. N(S) is a subgroup of G. e E N(S).) Proof (i) Let x= be any commutator in G. (iii. by Theorem 3. and let G' be the den ved group of G. XII is a subgroup of N(If). H N(H). G' is a normal subgroup of G. Then for any g G. Therefore. commutator in G. Hence.. b E G. yE N(S). hence. say where x1 are commutators. Let G be a group. II IlK.4 Theorem. Hence. G'. by definition. then G/H is abelian if and only if G' C 1!. (ii) . a subgroup of N(H). Consequently. Further. For any a. Then k E K. = Hence. = (gag Xgbg'Xgag E G'. Let K be any subgroup of G such that II 'I K. Hence N(S). Now any element yin G' is a product of a finite number of commutators. = = G'.b E G. Let G be a group. For all a. for any gin G. Then bab'a' is also a commutator.5 of Chapter 4. Then (1) G"IG. Proof Clearly. This proves that N(H) is the largest subgroup of G containing H as a normal subgroup.Normal subgroups and quotient groups 93 N(H) is the largest subgroup of G in which H is normal: if K is a subgroup of N(J-I). Let Kbe a subgroup of N(H). 1. GIG' is abelian.. then H is a normal subgroup of KY.

then nm=mn. To prove AB < G. Trivially. GIG' is abelian. Ha 0 H = 0. x E E B. Thus. because AB<G. (c) If G is a group and H is a subgroup of index 2 in G. 0 1.. Hence. because B <I G. H.5 Examples = II. A fl B.thenA flBlAandAB<G. Obviously A fl B <A. But clearly aH = Ha. (b) b. I = l. let a E A. let a. (iii) Suppose G/H is abelian. Thus. Then for all a. This proves that G' C H. = abb. . by hypothesis.. then H is a normal subgroup of G. Solution. VxEAflB.. Then VaEA. Then ab(a1 b1 = B. a H. The converse is proved (a)lfA <Gand BIG..VmEM. then n)m E MM = M.Hk < G. axa' E A. gH Hg. Thus. G = H U Ha. Solution. )' ci G. G = H U all and aH fl H = 0. b1 for some b2 B. (aba 'b ')JJ = (aIIXbHXaH) Hence. a1 E A. m E M. If n N.2. Solution.'ar' E AB. Vg G...94 Normal subgroups Hence. Follows by induction on k. Therefore. similarly.VnEN. Va E H.k. proving that H is normal mG. If a H. Also. 1m1 nm = (n and also NN=N. all = Ha. Thus. C Nfl M= {e). then. (d) If N and Mare normal subgroups of G such that Nfl M = (e). (aG')(bG') = (bG'XaG'). To prove its normality.b E G. then HIH2. Solution.

Let K < G such that 1K] = Ni. K = K fl N. and if G/Z(G) is cyclic. are normal by Example (c). Then KN/N < GIN. T and K are subgroups. Clearly. Choose T = (e. that is. K is not normal in G. Solution. Since the 2. hence. 1. and thus K <3 T. that is. Section ter 4). then G must be abelian. However. Chap- J(i o\ f—i o\l 0 —i)J' I\o is trivially normal All the subgroups of order 4 have index 2 and. Solution.Normal subgroups and quotient groups 95 Hence. (f) Give an example of a group G having subgroups Kand Tsuch that K 1 T <3 G. . (g) Let G be a finite group with (IN1. then a'w K. Then a normal subgroup N such that N is the unique subgroup of G of order IN1.r. Solution. Let G be the quaternion group (see Problem 6. aZ(G) = xmZ(G). T <1 G by index of T is Example (c).b E G. so K=N. but K is not a normal subgroup of G. Also K as a subgroup of T has index 2.c2. Then aZ(G). Solution. Let G/Z(G) be generated by xZ(G).2 in Chapter 4). (e) Give an example of a nonabelian group each of whose subgroups is normal. Let G be the octic group 1)4 (see 5. IG/N1) = 1. from the defining relations of the octic group. Hence. G is a desired group. IG/NI) = I. must be of the form xmZ(G) for some integer m. Hence. Let a. because if we choose a E G and r E K. nm = mn.r). XE G. But since = INI and (INI. (h) If G is a group with center Z(G). Now KN IKNI N IN1IKflNI So by Lagrange's theorem KI/IK fl divides IG/NI.c2r) and K = (e. as an element in G/Z(G). this implies IKI/IK n NI = I. The only subgroup of order 2.

since yE for some z E Z(G). Suppose o(gN) is finite.b E G. 2. Show that the order of each element of the quotient group Q/Z is finite. If N is a normal subgroup of a group G. b = Z(G) and some integer n. 6. Also show that g'4cN if and only if o(gN) divides m. If N is a normal subgroup of a group G such that Nfl G' = (e). Let GIN be the quotient group of G. Similarly. 12. so that ab = (xmyXxnz) = xmyxnz = xmxnyz = xm+nyz. . prove that NM is also a normal subgroup of G. Section 3. (Hint: See Problem 3. R) of invertible n x n matrices over R having determinant 1 forms a normal subgroup of the linear group GL (n. 3. 4. Prove that the center Z(G) of a group G isa normal subgroup. 13. 5. Prove that 11<1 G if and only if the product of two left cosets of H in G is again a left coset. show that H G. If there exists a unique subgroup H of order 10 (or 20) in a group G. = since And ba = (xnzXxmy) = Hence ab = ba. 10. a = xmy for some yE Z(G). z E Z(G). Find the elements of S4/N and show that they can be made into a group. (I 23). Problems 1. R). If N and Mare normal subgroups of G. Prove that H ci G and G/H is abelian. Generalize this result to subgroups of other orders. 8. Find the elements of S3/N. prove that NH is a subgroup of G. and His any subgroup of G. 7. Va. Show that the set SL (ii. (1 32)) is a normal subgroup. prove that NC Z(G). 9. Prove that in S3 the set N= (e.) is Show that the cyclic subgroup of S3 generated by not normal in S3. Let H be a subgroup of a group G such that x2 E I! for every x E G. 11. Let H be a subgroup of G.96 Normal subgroups Thus. Find a subgroup N of order 12 in the symmetric group S4 on four elements. Show that o(gN) divides o(g).

extension of two suitable proper subgroups. every homomorphic image of G is isomorphic to a quotient group of G. [A lattice L is called modular if for all a. BIG. for all a. = G' and = (G'). Show that the dihedral group can be expressed as a split 18. B are subgroups of a group G such that G=AB. Show also that the lattice of all subgroups need not be modular. If A. 2. For G = S3. Show that there does not exist any group G such that IG/Z(G)I =37. nontrivial subgroups. Let L(G) be the set of normal subgroups of a group G. then G is called a semidirect product (or split extension) of A and B.cEL.1 Theorem (first isomorphism theorem).b. G' be a homomorphism of groups. Section 1. Let 4: G/Ker 4 Im G —. with a c.Isomorphism theorems 14.] 2 Isomorphism theorems In this section we prove some important theorems on group homomorphisms known as isornorphism theorems. G and the order of each element of GIG"' is finite. Then . Show that L(G) is a modular lattice.2 that every quotient group G/Nofa group G isa homomorphic image of G. compute the first and second derived groups. bEG. We saw in Theorem 1. that is. Chapter 4) cannot be expressed as a split extension of two 19. and let = Show that G"' 15. 17. 16. Show that the quaternion group (see Problem 4. a v (b A c) =(a v b) A c. (ab)"' = a"b"'. The first isomorphism theorem (which is also known as the fundamental theorem of homomorphisms) proves the converse. 97 Let G be a group such that for some integer rn> I.

Because of this. 0 2." . 0 2. For any x. sv is a homomorphism. in particular.98 Nonnal subgroups Hence. Then H/Nfl N fIN/N. The inclusion diagram shown below is helpful in visualizing the theorem. andj: Im 4) —' G' is the inclusion map. Let H and N be subgroups of G.y C y XE K = x) = e' 4)(x) = Hence.n. Proof Consider the mapping v:G/K—1m4) xK = yK givenby where K = Ker 4). Im 4) is the isomorphism obtained in the theore.2 loved as Corollary. the theorem is also known as the "diamond isomorphism theorem. Any homomorphism 4): G —* G' ofgroups can befac4) =j. G 17 / G/KerØ Proof Clear.p is an isomorphism of groups. w is well defined and injective. = cb(xy) = Hence. if 4) is surjeclive.3 Theorem (second isomorphism theorem). Since IL" is obviously suijective. 1/zen G'. Further. G/Ker 4) — n'here G —' G/Ker 4) is the natural homomorphism. we conclude that . and N G.

(xyK) = xyH = (xH)(yH). Hence. is clearly surjective.((xKXyK)) = 4. This theorem is also known as the "double quotient isomorphism theorem. HN = NH is a subgroup of G and N <1 HN.: Gill given by xH. The mapping is well defined. = H fl N. is the restriction of the natural homomorphism p: G —.IsomorpMsm G 99 FIN N HnN Proof Since N <1 G. GIN to H. Further. (G/K)/(!f/K) GIll. = (xKlxH = H) = (xKIx E if) Hence. 0 The next theorem shows that the direct product of two quotient groups is isomorphic to a quotient group. and Ker 4." Proof Consider the mapping 4. In fact. . Then (G/K)/(H/K) G/H.yE G. Let H and K be normal subgroups of G and K C H. Consider the mapping givenby forallhElf. Moreover. 4. H/Il fl N HN/N. Ker 4. by the first isomorphism theorem. is a homomorphism. 4. H/K. for xK = yK x'y E K EH xH = yH. 0 2. Now 4.4 Theorem (third isomorphism theorem). Hence. 4. 4. is obviously surjeclive. for all x. Hence. by the first isomorphism theorem.

(a)4.: G — G' be a homomorphism of a group G onto a group G'. and if X C T. Let 4.(H) is a 1-1 correspondence between the family of subgroups of G containing Ker 4. Then = since = E 4.(H). .x2) '—. Then Proof Consider 4. X G2)/(N. 4r'(H') <G. c '(X) is known as the inverse image of X under a. ifais bijection then defined as above coincides with the usual inverse.N. G2.100 Normal subgroups 23 Theorem. is a surjective homomorphism and Ker 4. and the family of subgroups of G'.(b) E H'.napping H 4. normal subgroups of G correspond to normal subgroups of G'. Let G1 and G2 be groups. N2 (G. e H. çb(H) < G'. so 4. 4r'(H'). the result follows by the first isomorphism theorem. < G. = N. Thus. X N2. and N. Thus.x2N2). 1 G. It is easily verified that 4. X G2 —' (G.: G. Proof (i) Let a.cb(b) E 4. Now (i)' Let a.6 (i) (i)' H' <G' (ii) (iv) H<G=ç6(JI)<G'. . (x. 0 We recall that if c: S Tis a mapping from a setS into a set T.b so = H'. then r'(X) denotes the set (s E Sic(s) E X)../N1) X (GilN2). We may emphasize that c 'isa mapping not from Tto Sbut rather from to However. furthermore.b E H.(a). . X N2) = (G. Then the following are true: 2. Theorem (correspondence theorem). H< G andH3 H= . H' <G' The 4r'(H') 1 G.(H). Hence./N1) X (G2/N2) given by (x. Then 4.

.. Now g' 1(4(h))g' = (4(g)) (ii)' Let Ii L = since H <1 G. A normal subgroup N of G is called a maximal normal subgroup if (i) (ii) N*G. 4)(H) <G'.Isomorphism theorems 101 (ii)Let4)(h) E4)(H)andg' E G'. 4r'(H'). there is a unique subgroup H of G such that H' = H/N. Then 4)(h) E H'. Then by (i)' isa subgroup of G containing Ker 4). then Theorem 2.6 remains true if G' is replaced by Im 4). To show that the mapping is injective. Hc 4)(x) E 4)(H) I. Therefore. Theng' =4)(g) for someg E G. 2. So the mapping H'—' 4)(H) is surjective. that is. Given any subgroup H' ofG/N. where H. by (iii). A group G is said to be simple if G has no proper normal subgroups. 4)(4r '(H')) = II'. lf4): G —' G' is any homomorphism.7 Consider the natural homomorphism 4): G GIN given by x '—' xN. and only if H/N<1G/N. Corollary. 4r'(H') <1G. Further. (iii) Trivially. Then = so. so by (iii). G has no normal subgroups except {e) and G.6 there is a unique subgroup HofG containing Nsuch that H'==4)(H)=H/N. By Theorem 2.et xE Hence. 0 Definition. let = 4)(H2). = The last part of(iv) follows from (ii). Let G be a group. H. Therefore. Definition. Let N be a normal subgroup of G. g E G. 0 Remark.H2 are subgroups of G containing Ker 4). Then 4) 4)(x) = 4)(h) (for some h E H) xE H= (iv) Let H' < G'. Now E since H' <IG'.

102

Normal subgroups

The following result is an immediate consequence of Corollary 2.7.

Corollary. Let N be a proper normal subgroup of G. Then N is a maximal normal subgroup of G if and only if GIN is simple.
2.8

Corollary. Let H and K be distinct maximal normal subgroups of G. Then H fl K is a maximal normal subgroup of H and also of K.
2.9

Proof By the diamond isomorphism theorem

H/H fl K HK/K.
Now K < HK

HK=

G. Hence, HK = Kor HK = G, since K is maximal. But Hc K,acontradiction, sinceHandKareboth maximaland
G.

distinct. Hence, HK =

Therefore,

H/H fl K

G/K.

Hence, by Corollary 2.8, H fl Kis a maximal normal subgroup ofHand,

similarly, of K. 0
2.10

Examples
for

(a) Let G be a group such that for some fixed integer n> I, = all a,b E G. Let = (a E = e) and = E G). Then

G,,IG,
Solution. Let a,b

and

and x

G. Then (ab')" =

=

e,

so

E Also, Hence, = = e implies E <1 G. Similarly, G" <1 G. Define a mappingf G —, G" byf(a) = a". Then, for all a,b G,f(ab) = (ab)" = a"b". Thus,fis a homomorphism.

Now Ker f= (ala"
theorem GIG,,
G".

e) =

Therefore, by the first isomorphism

(b) Let G be a finite group, and let Tbe an automorphism of G with the property T(x) = x if and only ifx = e. Then every g E G can be expressed as g = x E G.

Solution. We assert that

x = y.

=

=

theorems

103

by hypothesis. Therefore

G=

G).

(c) If in Example (b) we also have the condition that T2 = I, then G is abelian.
Solution. Let x E G. Then

x'(T(x)) =
=
Therefore, forailgE G, On the other hand,

=

=
ab.

g.Nowifa,bE G,then

=
Therefore, ab = ba.

=

= ba.

(d) A nonabelian group of order 6 is isomorphic to S3.

Solution. If each element is of order 2, then G is abelian. So there must be an element a of order 3. Let b E G be such that b {e,a,a2). Then it is easy to check that e,a ,a2,b,ab,a2b are all distinct elements and, thus, constitute the whole group G. Now b2 a or a2. For let b2 = a. Then b6 = e. This implies that the order of b = 2,3,6. But then the order of b = 2 implies a = e, a contradiction. And the order of b = 3, along with b2 = a, implies ab = e, a contradiction. Also the order of b = 6 implies that G is cyclic, a contradiction to the fact that G is not abelian. Hence, b2 * a. Similarly, b2 * a2. Also b2 = b, ab, or a2b would imply b = e, a, or a2, which is not the case. Therefore the only possibility for b2 E G is that b2 = e. Further, the subgroup [aJ = (e,a,a2) generated by a is of index 2 and, thus, normal. Therefore, bab' = e, a, or a2. But bab' = e gives a = e, which is not

so; and

bab' = a2. Hence, G is generated by a,b with the defining relations
a3=e=b2,
a'3 =
= b'2,
a2.

= a says that G is abelian, which is also not so. Thus,

On the other hand, S3, is also generated by a' and b', where

= a'2.
ab'—'a'b',

Then the mapping

a'—'a',
is an isomorphism of G onto S3.

104

Normal subgroups

Problems

If a is an isomorphism of a group G into a group H, prove that (o(a))" e' if and only if a" = e. Give an example to show this is not true if a is not an isomorphism. 2. If a group G is generated by a subset S, prove that a(S) also generates G, where a is an automorphism of G. 3. Show that a cyclic group of order 8 is homomorphic to a cyclic group of order 4. 4. Write down all the homomorphic images of (i) the Klein four-group, (ii) the octic group. 5. Show that each dihedral group is homomorphic to the group of order 2.
1.

6.

Let [a] be a cyclic group of order m and (bJ a cyclic group of order n. Show that there is a homomorphism a of[a] into [bi such that o(a) = bk if and only if mk is a multiple of n. Further, if mk qn,

show that a is an isomorphism if and only if (m,q) =
3

1.

Automorphisms

Recall that an aulomorphfsm of a group G is an isomorphism of G onto G. The set of all automorphisms of G is denoted by Aut(G). We have seen (Example 2.1(d), Chapter 4) that every g E G determines an automorphism I, of G (called an inner automorphism) given by xi—' gxg'. The set of all inner automorphisms of G is denoted by In(G).

Theorem. The set Aut(G) of all automorphisms of a group G isa group under composition of mappings, and In(G) Aut(G). Moreover,
3.1

G/Z(G)
x,y C G,

In(G).

Proof Clearly, Aut(G) is nonempty. Let a,r C Aut(G). Then for all
ar(xy) = o((rxXry)) = (ar(x)Xat(y)).
Hence, aT C Aut(G). Again,

= aa'(x)a(r'(y) = .xy.
Therefore, E Aut(G). This proves = Hence that Aut(G) is a subgroup of the symmetric group S0 and, hence, is itself a group.

Automorphisms

105

Consider the mapping

4)G—+Aut(G) givenby
For any a,b E G,

=
for all x
Im
4) is

a(bxb ')a' = 1a4(x)

G. Hence, 4) is a homomorphism, and, therefore, ln(G) = a subgroup of Aut(G). Further, is the identity automorphism if and only if = x for all x G. Hence, Ker 4) = Z(G), and by the fundamental theorem of homomorphisms

G/Z(G)

ln(G).

Finally, for any a E Aut(G),

(aJ4a 'Xx) = a(aa '(x)a

hence, a!4tr' =
G

= E In(G). Therefore, ln(G) <1 Aut(G). 0
1)

It follows from the theorem that if the center of a group G is trivial, then In(G). A group G is said to be complete if Z(G) = (e) and every automorphism of G is an inner automorphism; that is, G In(G) Aut(G). When considering the possible automorphisms a of a group G, it is useful to remember that, for any x E G, x and a(x) must be of the same order (see Problem 19, Section 3, Chapter 4).
3.2

Examples
S3.

(a) The symmetric group S3 has a trivial center {e}. Hence, In(S3) Now consider all automorphisms of S3. We have seen that
S3 = (e,a,a2,b,ab,a2b)

with the defining relations

a3—e=b2,

ba=a2b.

The elements a and a2 are of order 3, and b,ab, and a2b are all of order 2.

Hence, for any a Aut(S3), c(a) = a or a2, a(b) = b, ab, or a2b. Moreover, when o(a) and o-(b) are fixed, a(x) is known for every x ES3. Hence,
o is completely determined. Thus, there cannot be more than six automorphisms of S3. Hence, Aut(S3) In(S3) S3. Therefore, S3 is a complete group. (b) Let G be a finite abelian group of order n, and let m be a positive

106

Normal subgroups

integer prime to n. Then the mapping o: x '—b x'" is an automorphism

of G.

Solution. (m,n) = 1 I Yx E G,

3

integers u
= XWPS,

and v such

that mu + nv =

x=
since

=
n.

0(G) =

Now Vx E G, x = (Xu)m implies that a is onto. Further, Xm = e Xmu = e x = e, showing that a is I - I. That a is a homomorphism fol-

lows from the fact that G is abelian. Hence, a is an automorphism of G.

(c) A finite group G having more than two elements and with the condition that x2 # e for some x E G must have a nontrivial automorphism. (Also see Problem 1.)
is an automorphism, and, Solution. When G is abelian, then a: x 'clearly, a is not an identity automorphism. When G is not abelian, there exists a nontrivial inner automorphism.
a '—' atm

(d) Let G = [a] be a finite cyclic group of order n. Then the mapping a: is an automorphism of G if (,n,n) = I.

Solution. lf(m,n) = I, then it has been shown in Example (b) that a is an

automorphism. So let us assume now that a is an automorphism. Then the order of o(a) = am is the same as that of a, which is n. Further, if (m,n) d, then (am)hh/d = (anrid = e. Thus, the order of am divides n/d; that is, nln/d. Hence, d = I, and the solution is complete.
(e) If G is a finite cyclic group of order n, then the order of Aut(G), the

group of automorphisms of G, is 4(n), where 4

is

Euler's function.

Solution. Let G = [aJ and a E Aut(G). Since a(a') = (a(a))' for each integer i, a is completely known if we know o(a). Now let a(a) = am, m n. Then as in Example (d), we have (m,n) = I. Thus, each a determines a unique integer m less than and prime to n, and conversely, which completes the solution.

Problems
1.

2.

Find the group of automorphisms of (Z, +). Find the group of automorphism of (ZN, +).

Conjugacy and G-sets
3.

107

4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

Find Aut(K) where K is the Klein four-group. What about Aut(Z2 x Z2)? Show that the group of automorphism of D4 is of order 8. Show that Aut(Z2 x Z4) consists of eight elements sending (1,0) to (1,0) or (1,2) and (0,1) to (0,1), (0,3), (1, 1), or (1,3). Show that Aut(Z2 x Z3) Aut(Z2) x Aut(Z3). in the following problems 7 and 8, you may invoke Theorem 2.1, Chapter 8. Let A be a noncyclic finite abelian group. Prove that Aut(A) is not abelian. Let 6 be a finite group such that IAut(G)t = p. Prove IGI 3. (Hint: Note G is abelian)
Conjugacy and G-sets

4

Definition. Let G be a group andX a set. Then G is said to act on X there is a mapping written a x, such that for all 6 X X —' X, with

a,bE G, xEX,
(i)

a*(b*x)=(ab)ax,

(ii)
The mapping 4 is called the action of G on X, and Xis said zobe a G-set.
One of the most important examples of G-sets is the action of the group 6 on itself by conjugation defined by

a *x Example 4. l(b)j. The reader interested in conjugation and its applications only may go directly to Theorem 4.8 without breaking continuity. To be more precise, we have just defined an action on the left. Simi(see

X X G —, X with (x,a) '— x

larly, an action of G on X on the right is defined to be a mapping * a such that x * (ab) = (x * a) * b and

e=xfor all a,bEGandxEX.
We shall confine ourselves to groups acting on the left, and for the sake of convenience we sometimes write ax instead of a . x.
4.1

Examples of G-sets
(a)

Let G be the additive group U, and X be the set of complex z such that fri = 1. Then X is a G-set under the action y* where yeR and ceX. Here the action of y is the rotation through an angle 0= y radians,
numbers
anticlockwise.

108

Normal subgroups

(b) Let G = S5 and X = {x1,x2,x3,x4,x5} be a set of beads forming a circular ring. Then X is a G-set under the action
g*xj—xg(j), gES5.
(c) Let G = D4 and X be the vertices 1,2,3,4 of a square. X is a

G-set under the action

g*i=g(i), gED4, IE{l,2,3,4).
(d) Let G be a group. Define

a*x=ax, aEG,xEG.
Then, clearly, the set G is a G-set. This action of the group G on itself is

called translation.
(e)

Let G be a group. Define

aEG,xEG.
We show that G is a G-set. Let a,b E G. Then

(ab) * x =

=a(b*x)irl =a*(b*x).

=

Also, e * x = .x. This proves G is a G-set. This action of the group G on itself is called conjugation.

(f) Let G be a group acting on a set X. The action of G on X can be as follows. Define extended to the power set
a * S=(a
for
e* S

S)

a * (1' * 5) and a,b E G and Sc X. Therefore is a G-set. (g) Let G be a group and H < G. Then the set G/H of left cosets can be made into a G-set by defining a E G, xH E G/H. a * xH = ax/f,

all a E G and Sc X. Then, clearly, (ab) * S =
=
S for

(h) Let G be a group and H <1 G. Then the set G/H of left cosets is a G-set if we define
a * xH =

a E G, xH E Gill.
a * (b
*

To see this, let a,b E G and xli E Gil-I. Then

(ab) • xH= Also, e * xH = xli. Hence, G/H is a G-set.

xH).

If X is a G-set, then, as stated earlier, we generally write ax instead of a * x for the sake of simplicity.

Conjugacy and G-sets
4.2

109

Theorem. Let G be a group and let X be a set.

(i) If X is a G-set, then the action of G on X induces a homomorphism
(ii) Any homomorphism 4G —,
induces an action of G onto X.

Proof. (I) We define 4: G by (4(a))(x) = ax, aeG, xEX. Clearly çb(a)€S5, aeG. Let a, bEG. Then
(rb(ab)Xx)

(ab)x = a(bx) = a((cb(b)Xx)) = (4)(a)X(4)(b)Xx)) for all x E X. = (4)(a)4)(b)Xx)

Hence, 4)(ab) =

çb(a)çb(b).

(ii) Define a*x = (4i(a))(x); that is, ax = (#(a))(x). Then
(ab)x = (4)(ab)Xx) = (4)(a)4)(b)Xx)

4,(aX4i(bXx))

4)(aXbx) = a(bx).

Also, ex = (4)(e)Xx) = x. Hence, Xis a G-set.

0

Regarding G as a G-set as in Example 4.1(d), we obtain Cayley's

theorem (see Theorem 5.1, Chapter 4).

43

Cayley's theorem. Let G be a group. Then G is isomorphic into the symmetric group SG.

Proof By Theorem 4.2 there exists a homomorphism 4): G where (4)(a)Xx) = ax, a E G, x E G. Suppose 4)(a) the identity element in SG. Then for all x E G, (4)(a)Xx) = x. This implies ax = x for all x E X, and hence a = e, the identity in G. Therefore, 4) is injective. 0
Remark. An isomorphism of G into a group of permutations is called a faithful representation of G by a group ofpermutaiions.

Further, if H < G the set Gill of left cosets of H in G is a G-set [Example 4.1(g)]. The action of G on 6/H gives us another representation of 6 by a group of permutations, which is not necessarily faithful. This is contained in

Theorem. Let G be a group and H < G of finite index n. Then 4.4 such that Ker 4) = flX€GXHX there is a homomorphism 4): G

110

Normal subgroups

Proof Since 16/HI = n, SG,,, morphism 4): G such that

By Theorem 4.2 there exists a homo= axH. Now

Ker 4) = (a E Gf4)(a) = identity permutation)

= (a E GIaxH

xl!, Vx E G)

=(aEGIx'axEH, YxE G)

=(aE
XE 0

=flxllx-'.

YxE 6)

0

Remark. We obtain the Cayley representation of G by taking H = (e).

Corollary. Let G be a group with a 4.5 Then GIN is isomorphic into

subgroup H of index n.

Proof Follows from Theorem 4.4, since H <16 implies Ker 4) = 1!. 0
Corollary. Let G be a simple group with a subgroup 4.6 index n. Then G is isomorphic into

G offinite

Proof Follows from Theorem 4.4 by recalling that Ker 4) <1 G. 0
Definition. Let G be a group acting on a set X, and let x E I. Then the set

G(gx=x),
which can be easily shown to be a subgroup, is called the stabilizer (or isotropy) group of x in G.
For example, if G acts on itself by conjugation [Example 4.1(e)], then, for x E G,

=x)=N(x),
the normalizer of x in G. Thus, in this case the stabilizer of any element x in G is the normalizer of x in G. Another example is the 6-set 6/H, where H < G [Example 4.1(g)]. Here the stabilizer of a left coset xH is the subgroup

(gE

) = (gE GJx'gxE H)

={gE

Conjugacy and G-sets

Ill

Definition. Let G be a group acting on a set X, and let x E X. Then the set

Gx={axlaE G)
is called the orbit of x in G.

In case G acts on itself as in Example 4.1(d), the orbit ofxeG is Gx = {axIaEG} = G. Further, considering G as a G-set as in Example 4.1(e), where the

action of the group G is by conjugation, the orbit of x E G is Gx =
E G), called the conjugate class of x and denoted by C(x). We now prove a very important result.
4.7 Theorem. Let G be a group acting on a set X. Then the set of all orbits in X under G is a partition of X. For any x X there is a bijection Gx G/GX and, hence,

lGxl=
Therefore,

is a finite set,
XE C

111=
where C is a subset of X containing exactly one element from each orbit.

Proof For any x,y X, let x — y mean that x = ay for some a E G. Now ex for all x E X; and ifx = ay, then y = a'x. Ifx = ar andy = bz, then x = (ab)z. Hence, — is an equivalence relation on X, and the equiva-

x=

lence class of x Xis the orbit Gx. Hence, the set of all orbits is a partition of X. Therefore,

X=
where

Gx
XEC

(disjoint),

C is any subset of X containing exactly one element from each

orbit. Given x C X, consider the mapping
givenby

forallacG.
bG,r.

For any a,b E G,
Hence, is well defined and injective. Moreover, and, therefore, bijective. Hence, IGxI =
is obviously surjective

it is I-I. Recall that the normalizer of a in G is the set =a). which is called the conjugate class of a in G.r1 = Hence. This proves G = UC(a). (iii) If G is finite. 0 The partition of G given by the conjugate classes in Theorem 4. Let G be a group. Let a E G.8 we give a version of Theorem 4. a disjoint union of conjugate classes. For the reader interested in conjugation only. a running over exactly one element from each conjugate class. then IXI= xEC xEC [G:G. To see this. let x.112 Normal subgroups Since X is the disjoint union of orbits Gx. Then ay_tx=xa. Then the following are true: (i) The set of conjugate classes of G is a partition of G. Proof (i) Define a relation — on G as follows: a—b if forsomex€G. Then we define qa) = E G). 4. Clearly. (iii) Follows from (I) and (ii). — is an equivalence relation on G. proving IC(a)I — IG/N(a)t.8.8 (i) is . which is also the conjugate class C(a) of a. (ii) IC(a)I = [G:N(a)J. 0 The partition of X given by the orbits in X under G is called the orbit decomposition of X under G. The equivalence class ofa in G is then the set e G}. (ii) Let a G. = EfG:N(a)J. it follows that if X is finite. which is a subgroup of G. In Theorem 4. we give an independent proof of Theorem 4.7 for the case when G acts on itself by conjugation. Also. a is a bijection.]. Then the mapping o: C(a) G/N(a) given by xN(a) is trivially onto.8 Theorem.y C G.

(iii) If H is a proper subgroup of G. the class equation can be expressed as IGI'=IZ(G)I+ XE C where C contains exactly one element from each conjugate class with more than one element. Let G be a group. XEC (I) . we Theorem. then H is properly contained in N(H). Let G be a group. Then for any subset S of G. Let us first observe that xE Z(G) if and only if the conjugate class C(x) has just one element.Conjugacy and G-sets 113 called the class decomposition of G. H is a subgroup of order then H 1 G. hence.9 where G acts on by conjugation. If x E G. Definition. "being conjugate to" is an equivalence relation in the power set of the set G.8 or by specializing Theorem 4. [G:N(x)]. Then (ii) Z fl N is nont rivial for any nontrivial normal subgroup N of G. where p is prime and n>O. Let G be a finite group order G has a nontrivial center Z. 4.7 to the G-set can easily prove 4. and let Sbe a subset of G. then the set = is E S) called a conjugate of S. Hence. The equation in part (iii) is called the class equation (or class equation formula) of G. IC(S)I = [G:N(S)J [N(S) = (x E = S)]. Let Sand T be two subsets of a group G. We now give some important applications of the class equation of a finite group G(Theorem 4. Therefore Gisthedisjoint union ofZ(G)andallconjugateclasseshaving more than one element. Then T is said to be conjugate to S if there exists x E G such that T = Clearly.8). Following the method of proof of Theorem 4. namely x itself.10 (1) Theorem. Proof (1) Consider the class equation of G.

p divides now from the class equation (I) that p divides ZI. 0 We close this section by proving Burnside's theorem. Hence. Because L/K is the center of G/K. Let G be afinite group acting on afinize set . a contradiction. p divides It follows IG:N(x)] for every x Z. it follows from the equation (2) that p divides IZ fl This proves that Z fl N is not trivial. 0 4. If H is a subgroup N(H) = G and. p divides Because p divides INI. (ii) Because G Z U C(x)) (disjoint).12 Theorem (Burnside). then C(x) C N. Since LIX '1 G/K. (2) If x E N.6 that L G.11 Corollary. H . a Z. G/K has a nontrivial center.10. Hence. (hKX/K) = (IK)(hK). This implies N(a) = G. let X. Let h E H. since K is a maximal normal subgroup of G contained in H. N (Zfl u (u C(x) fl N) XE C (disjoint). say L/K. then N(H) must be Hence. and therefore C(x) fl is either zero or equal to [G:N(x)J. and if x Z. This proves that Z is not trivial. Then Z is a proper subset of N(a). Proof Suppose G is a nonabelian group of order p2. Hence. Because H C N(1f). Hence.114 Normal subgroups where Z = Z(G). Hence. G has a nontrivial center Z that must be of order p. and C is a subset of G having exactly one element from each conjugate class not contained in Z. Let a E G. Hence. N = G fl Hence. 4. Hence. Therefore. This implies that H # N(H). for every x C. / E L. By Theorem 4. therefore. Then the quotient group G/K is of order p' for some r> 0. it follows by Theorem 2. it follows that His properly contained in N(H).c3 G. which has applications in combinatorics. by the first part of the theorem. N(a) must be of order p2. a E Z. By Lagrange's theorem IN(x)I divides pfl for every x E G. Now L is not contained in I!. Every group of order p2 (p prime) is abe/ian. and K ç L. For a fixed g E G. IN(x)I < ph. Therefore. C(x) fl N is either empty or equal to C(x). (iii) Let Kbe a maximal normal subgroup of G contained in H. 1 'hlehK C H. = (XE XIgx = x). L C N(H).

because G has only two conjugate classes. IGI = 2.x) in S.x) inS is exactly lXgI. Then . a2 = x for i = n. Hence. we obtain 1 (mod n). then a2 E C(a).7. Then the number k of orbits in X under G is Proof LetS = ((g.13 Examples 2. for any fixed x E X. Now IGxI = IGal for every x E Ga. the power set of G. (b) Let H be a subgroup of a finite group G. the cyclic group generated by a. Let A. so for a2' = a. Thus o(b) = 0(a) = n. Hence. If a2 e. Then there exists an element b such that b E f a].B E 9'(G). then b E C(a). Similarly. Therefore. g2 = e. IGxI= [G:Gj = xEX Hence.Conjegacy and G-sets 115 X. Define A to be conjugate to B with respect to H if B = hE H. Hence. a2 = e.x) E G X XIgx =x). 0 4. a contradiction. (a) Let G be a group containing an element of finite order n> I and exactly two conjugacy classes. This implies G is abelian. n is prime. if e b E G. For any fixedg E Gthe number of ordered pairs (g. But. Hence. Prove that IGI = Solution. IGXI = k. Therefore. It then follows that m = n. xeX aeCxEGa where C is a subset of X containing exactly one element from each orbit. these must be (e) and C(a). Let mln. Therefore. Let e a E G such that o(a) n. and o(b) = m. This yields all g G. Because = e. We claim that a2 = e. IGXI is the number of ordered pairs (g. which proves the theorem. Because there are only two conjugate classes. gEG XEX By Theorem 4.

(c) Find the number of different necklaces with p beads.h2 E H. The example which follows gives a beautiful illustration of the Burnside Theorem. Then the orbit of and the stabilizer is H fl N(A). First. Solution. Follows from Theorem 4. a is bijective. p prime.7 by taking X to be the power set of G and H to be the group that acts on Xby conjugation. Let G = [aJ be the cyclic group of order p.116 Normal (i) (ii) Conjugacy defined in is an equivalence relation. (i) is obvious. Then X is a G-set under the action . Solution. consider the mapping a: where a a is also 1-1. then (CH(A)I = [H: fin N(A)1. for let h1 . Clearly IXI = Let be a necklace. where the beads can have any of n different colors. A E X is the conjugate class The direct argument is as follows. For the proof of (ii). Then E H fl N(A) h1(Hn N(A)) = h2(Hn N(A)) : hT'h2A = Ahj1h2 = h1A/zj' = Hence. (called the conjuIf CH(A) is the equivalence class of A E gate class of A with respect to H). Let X be the set of all possible necklaces.

Find the number of conjugates of the element (1 3) in D4. Since G is cyclic of prime order. for all geG.Conjugacy . g e. The Burnside Theorem then gives the number of different necklaces as (p -. Xg = = = =x. Show that G contains at least one element that is not in any conjugate off!. Then Let g # e. Clearly the action of any fixed element a given necklace yields the same necklace. Problems 1. Let G be a group.nd G-sets 117 = where subscripts are modulo p. So G. We now compute Xg for each gEG. = n". First Xe = {XEXIe*X = x} = X. Xg consists of all those necklaces which are unchanged by any permutation and these are precisely those which are of one color.) So the number of orbits is the same as the number of different necklaces. 4. Therefore. x€G. 2. Determine the conjugate classes of the symmetric group of degree 3 and verify that the number of elements in each conjugate class is a divisor of the order of the group. I timcs) I)]. Show that Z(G) = UC(x). Hence IXgI = n. VaeG}. (The beads are just being permuted cyclically. 3. [Hint: IC(H)I = [G:N(H)] and 1x' HxI =IHLI . g generates = x} = x. Let H be a proper subgroup of a finite group G.

1—3. prove that G is cyclic.2. and let the index of H in G be finite. [Hint: G acts by conjugation on N. 2 / 1—3 2 2 1 /\ \ /\ 2 2 3 . Prove that each of the following sets is a G-set: 8. 11. Prove that in any group the subset of all elements that have only a finite number of conjugates is a subgroup.118 Normal subgroups 5. Also show if H < G and X = G/H. Prove that if a finite group G has a normal subgroup N with INI = 3 such that N Z(G). 2 .] Let G be a group and X be a G-set. prove that each element in G has at most m conjugates. Let G be the group of symmetries of a cube. show that the number of orbits is four. (iv) Set of edges. 7.3 . I—3 . (ii) Set of long diagonals.3 consisting of 2. 1—3 3• Show G acts on X canonically. then G acts on X transitively. 13. 6. Let G be a group in which each proper subgroup is contained in a maximal subgroup of finite index in G. Show that every element of order dividing INI is contained in N. 9.IG/NI) = 1. Let G = S3 and X be the undirected graph with vertices 1. 1 2 3 . Let G be a finite group with a normal subgroup N such that (INI. x2EX there exists geG such that g*x1 = x2. Show G acts transitively on X if and only if there is only one orbit. We say G acts transitively on X if for all x1. (iii) Set of faces. Prove that H contains a normal subgroup N that is of finite index. the set of left cosets of H. Let H < G. Let X = be the set consisting of diagonals of a square . If the commutator group G' ofa group G is of order m. then G has a subgroup K such that [G:KJ = 12. If every two maximal subgroups of G are conjugate in G. (i) Set of vertices. Use the Burnside Theorem to 14. 10.

Find the number of necklaces with six beads and two colors. Suppose X is a G-set.6). Consider the Klein fourgroup K as the group of symmetries of a rectangle with vertices 1. 17.Coaijugacy and G-sets 119 15. (2 4)).a= and Regard and X x X as G-sets in a natural way (as ordinary matrix multi- plication).5.4).2.3. Show that X x X is also a G-set under the action g*(x1. Consider additive and multiplicative groups (Z7. Regard X as a D4-set under the action a diaa a + 2) = {g(a). (1 3).3.2. and 4. Regarding each of the sets X and X x X as a K-set in a canonical way. (2 4). a + 2. Find the orbit \OJJ x x. 19. 16. + kt(" Show that there are neckties having n strips (of equal width) of k distinct colors. +) and For convenience write Z.2)eX x X. (1 3). = {O. and let X = (1. 18. Show that there exists a homomorphism G—.S3 with = {I.g(a + 2)).2. find the orbits of IEX and (1. with vertices 1.x2)=(g*x1. Show that there are six different necklaces with four beads and two colors and eight different ones with five beads and two colors. .3.3.2.4. 1. and 4. where gonal with vertices a. and let G = 1/ab\ beZ1.g*x2).

G1 The factors of a normal series are the quotient groups G.Gr) without repetition whosefactors are all simple groups.. 1. Proof If IGI 1 or if G is simple..) by saying that {e} = G0 C G1C . . then the result is trivial (ifiGi I. G. {e} = G0C G1 = G is trivially a normal series of G. 1 i r.. Thefactors G1/G1_1 are called composition factors of G. A sequence (G0.CHAPTER 6 Normal series I Normal series Gr) of subgroups of a group G is called a normal series (or subnormal series) of G if Definition. and the result holds for all groups of order < Let H be a maximal normal subgroup of G. C is =G a normal series of G. A composition series of a group G is a normal series (G0. then (e) C G is the only composition series of G. By the induction hypothesis H has a composition 120 . Every finite group has a composition series.._I. For any group G.1 Lemma.. . then (G) isa composition series of G without factors). . We often refer to a normal series (G0./G. Suppose G is not simple... Definition. G1. If G is a simple group.

G has a composition series Examples (a) (e) C (e.9) C (0.. Consider any two composition series of G. (d) (0) C (0.. ifthefaciors of one series are isomorphic to the factors of the other after some permutation. Definition.l. I = 1 .1 = H5_1. (c) (e) C (e.Normal serIes 121 series {e) C H1 C (e)CH1C"CHCG.3 Theorem (Jordan — Holder).c.(l 2 3). By Corollary 2. For example.i._1 () H3_1. 0 1." in the following sense.=G. S2bytheinductionhypothesis.a2) C (e. (1 3 2)) C S3 is a composition series for S3. Two normal series S = (G0...thenS1 let K = G. Proof Let G be a finite group and suppose the theorem holds for every group of order < IGI.9._1 #H5_1.... 1.. it is shown in the next section that any two composition series of the same group are "equivalent. Chapter 5.2 C H. Therefore.i3) C 1)4 is a composition series for the octic group 1)4 (see Section 5..9.i7) = Z/(18) isa composition for Z/( 18)..a2.lfG. written S S'.12. Any two composition series ofafinite group are equivalent.6. where e' = —e and 01 0 (b) (e) C (e.i') C G is a composition series for the quaternion group G. Evidently.15) C (0..r. Chapter 4).2. another composition series for the octic group 1)4 is (e) C (e. Kis a maximal normal . — is an equivalence relation.a2r) C However. for some aE S.. We remark that a composition series is not necessarily unique.c2. If G.t) C (e.3.r. say S1: S2: (e)=G0cG1c•"cG.e'. that is.G1 Gr) and S' = G are said to be equivalent.e') C (e.

SupposeG = [a)isacyclicgroupoforderp1 "p. S1 S2 —S4. then it is a p-group.3 shows that the factors of any composition series ofa finite group G — that is. 1=1 r— I.. 0 S3 and Theorem 1. Hence. Then the quotient groups G.thatis. by the induction hypothesis.4 Examples (a) An abelian group G has a composition series if and only if G is finite. Thus.. Solution.1. G1 = [aP'*' Pj.4 in Chapter 4. an abelian group G has a composition series ifand only if (. Further. the composition factors — are determined uniquely up to isomorphism and ordering. 53: S4: {e)=K0CK1C"CKCG.and also of Now K has a composition series. 113_1/K Now and G/1131 G. G has a unique composition series if and only if ./G1_11= Pi Pr... every composition series of G such that 1G1/G1_1 I = p. 1.1CG.—G is a unique r. 1 IGI = fllG. I = . . Let (e) G be an abelian group with a composition series = G0 C G1 C C G. Therefore. namely. 53 — S4. . Hence./G. Hence. (e)=G0CG1 C G. Solution.JGj=rpr. say C K. (b) If a cyclic group has exactly one composition series. (e) K0 C K1 c namely. = G. = G. This proves that S1 and S2 are equivalent.. Pr are primes (not necessarily distinct).=p. is finite. .wherep. p1. by the diamond isomorphism theorem... ..122 Nonnal series subgroup of G._1/K. G has a unique subgroup of order p1 . This gives two more composition series of G. Moreover the composition factors of G are determined by the prime factors of JGJ. must be cyclic groups of prime order p (say).r. By Theorem 4. Therefore.. Hence. being abelian and simple. i = I permutation of the prime factors of IGI determines a unique composition Pi series of G.

distinct primes. Solution. Clearly.J{e) such that Show that Z has is simple. and no finite composition series but does possess .. 5.• p. By the Jordan — HOlder theorem the two series must be equivalent. Thus. respecposition series whose factors are cyclic groups of orders q1 tively. Suppose n has two factonzations into positive primes... i= 1. H which have isomorphic composition factors. Find all composition series for Z/(30). Show that G has a composiI.. p prime.. Write down all the composition series for the octic group. Solution. Problems Write down all the composition series for the quatern ion group. 9. Let us define a composition series of any group G to be a descending chain (possibly infinite) G0=GJG1JG2J. But since a group of prime power order has a nontrivial center. Let G be a cyclic group of order n.2. 8. Let G be a finite group and N <1 G.. Then G has a composition series such that all its composition factors are of order p. r = s and p1 = q. any composition factor is of order pk for some k> 0.p. Verify that they are equivalent.. If G is a cyclic group such that IGI = . and each composition factor is a simple group. 7. (after reordering if necessary). p.. 2. and also a comq. Write down a composition series for the Klein four-group.. of order p. G has a composition series whose factors are cyclic groups of orders p.3. (d) Let G be a group of order pfl. Find the composition factors of the additive group of integers modulo 8.. it follows that each composition factor is a simple abelian group and. say q3.. 4. 6. as shown in Example (b). show that the number of distinct composition series of G is r!. Then. and n= n = p1 p. . tion series in which N appears as a term. therefore.. respectively. Give an example of two nonisomorphic finite groups G. 3.Normal serfes 123 (c) The Jordan — HOlder theorem implies the fundamental theorem of arithmetic.

= (n > 1). = for any positive and. Further. trivially. Thus. Hence. C H G H be a surjective homomorphism. then every subgroup of G and every homomorphic image of G are solvable. (e) 2. H' = integer n. so that for every positive integer n. Conversely.1 (e). morphic image of G is solvable. group H of G. conversely.2 Theorem.b . then G (e) = G(k) C . Write two such series and show that the Jordan—Holder Theorem does not generalize to infinite groups. then G is solvable. G is solvable. Because GIN is a homomorphic image of G (under the natural homomorphism for every positive integer n. by induction. Then for any subProof Let G be a solvable group. A group G is said to be solvable integer k. 2 Solvable groups Recall that the subgroup G' generated by the set of all commutators aba'b' in a group G is called the derived group of G.124 Normal series infinite composition series. Therefore. we define the nih derived group of G. 2. This proves that every homo. Then N(k) = and (G/N)(') = (e) for some positive integers k. For any positive integer n. every abelian group is solvable. Therefore. if N is a normal subgroup of G such that NandG/N are solvable. Theorem. Proof If {e). For any a. JIG is solvable. a finite group is solvable if and only if its composition factors are cyclic groups of prime orders. Jf(k) 4((e)) = (e). written as follows: = G'. let N '1 G such that Nand G/N are solvable. Hence. 0 C N. = G —' GIN). then G' = (e).l. fl(n) = Hence. A group G is solvable jfand only if G has a norma/series with abe/ian factors. = (e)for some positive It is obvious that if G is abelian. Let G be a group. Definition.

.(1 32))CS3 is a normal series such that SilN is abelian.—G is abelian. Show that if A.. Then G has a normal series is abelian. We may first show that M is an abelian p-group. between the terms get a composition series of G in which every factor is a cyclic group of prime order. . being a finite abelian group. is not (b) The dihedral group (e) C (e. G' C I . B are groups. and. and G is solvable.CER.C"CH. Hence. is solvable. Show that a simple group is solvable if and only if it is cyclic.. G in which each factor (e} H. 0 such that 1 5. n 5. We shall see in the next chapter that S4 is solvable... Then M is cyclic of order p. i = .1CH.. (c) Let G be a finite solvable group and M be a minimal normal subgroup of G.4 of Chapter C !4_. for some prime p. Now C ... for 23). Therefore. Generalize this to n x n upper triangular matrices..r.. H C 2. C H. but solvable./H1_I.a'"') C is solvable. then A x B is solvable if and only if both A.a. The converse follows from the first part of the theorem. Inserting the corresponding subgroups of C H. c .r... I Now suppose G is a finite solvable group.Solvable groups 125 is a normal series of G in which each factor a normal series G (e)=H0CH. by induction.. G" = (e). a. B are solvable. has a composition series whose factors are cyclic of prime order. 3.in the normal series C H. Show that the group of all upper triangular matrices of the form lab i o 001 2.b.3 Examples (a) S3 is solvable. Then by Theorem 1. we and H. Problems 1.. for is a normal series with abelian factors...

126

Normal series
4.

Let A, B be normal solvable subgroups of a group G. Show that AB is also solvable.

Additional problems on solvable groups are given in the problem set at the end of Chapter 8.
3

Nilpotent groups

We define inductively the nih center of a group Gas follows. For n I, Z1(G) Z(G). Consider the center of the quotient group G/Z1(G). Beis a normal subgroup of G/Z(G), by Corollary 2.7 of cause Chapter 5 there is a unique normal subgroup Z2(G) of G such that Z2(G )/ Z1(G) Z(G/Z1(G)). Thus, inductively we obtain a normal subgroup = for every positive Z,,(G) of G such that integer n> 1. is called the nih center of G. Setting 4(G) = (e), we 1(G)) for all positive integers n. It follows have 1(G) = immediately from the definition that (XE
Hence,
C

E

for all yE G).

The ascending series

of subgroups of a group G is called the upper central series of G.
Definition. A group G is said to be nilpotent if Z,,,(G) = GJor some iii. The smallest m such that Zm(G) = G is ca/led the class of nilpotency of G. If G is an abelian group, then Z1(G) = Z(G) = G. Thus, trivially, every abelian group is nilpotent. For a nontrivial example we prove
3.1

Theorem. A group of order p" (p prime) is nilpotent.

Proof By Theorem 4.10 of Chapter 5, G has a nontrivial center Z,(G). Now G/ZI(G), being of order Pr <p1. has a nontrivial center. Hence,
I Z1(G)I <1Z2(G)I. By repeating the argument we get IZm(G)t = p1 for some n. Hence, Zm(G) = G. 0

m

3.2
series

Theorem. A group G is ni/potent
(e)

and only if G has a normal

= G0 C G1C •"C
C Z(G/G1...1)for

G

such that

al/i =

I

m.

Nilpotent groups

127

Proof Let G be a nilpotent group of class m, so that Zm(G) =

(1.

Then

(e)=Z0(G)CZ1(G)C"C Zm(G)=G
is a normal seties that satisfies the required condition, since Z.(G)/
(e} =
Z1_ 1(G) = G0 C G1 C

1(G)). Conversely, suppose that G has a normal series C Gm = G such that G/G11 C Z(G/GI_L) for all i.

Then G1 C Z(G). Now GilGI C Z(G/G1). Hence, for every x E G2, yE G, C G1 C Z1(G). Therefore,G2 C Z2(G). By repeating the ari = l,...,m. Hence, G = Gm C Zm(G), and G is gument we get G1 C therefore nilpotent. 0
3.3

Corollary. Every ni/potent group is solvable.

Proof Let G be a nilpotent group. By Theorem 3.2, G has a normal series

with abelian factors. Hence, by Theorem 2.2, G is solvable. 0
The converse of this corollary is not true. For example, the symmetric group S3 is not nilpotent because its center is trivial. But it is easily verified

that is trivial. Hence, S3 is solvable. Thus, we see that the class of nilpotent groups is contained strictly between the classes ofabelian groups and solvable groups.
3.4

Theorem. Let G be a ni/potent group. Then even' subgroup of G

and every homomorphic image of G are ni/potent.
Proof Let G be a nilpotent group of class m, so that Zm(G) = G. Let Jibe a

subgroup of G. Then, clearly, H fl Z(G) C Z(H). For all x C Z2(G), E Z1(G). Hence, for all x C H fl Z2(G), and y C it, andy C G, xp. xx 1y' C H fl Z1(G). Therefore, H fl Z2(G) C Z2(H). By repeating the argument we see that H fl Z.(G) C Z,(H), i I m. Hence, H = H fl G H fl Zm(G) C Zm(Ji). Thus. ii is nilpotent. Let G —. H be a surjective homomorphism. Then

=
Hence, y C G. Hence
C Z(H). Let XE Z2(G). Then

for all x,i' E G.

C Z(G) for all

C 4(Z(G)) C Z(H).

Because d is surjective, it follows that

Z2(H). Therefore,

C Z2(H). By repeated use of the argument we see that /(Z1(G))c Z,(H), i= 1 in. Zm(H). Therefore, H is nilpotent. 0

128

Nonnal series

3.5
H1

X"

Theorem. Let H1
X

.

be a family of ni/potent groups. Then

is also nilpotent.

Proof We show that ifH and Kare nilpotent groups, then II X Kis also nilpotent. The proof of the theorem then follows by induction. it can be easily shown that Zm(H X K) Zm(H) X Zm(K) for any m. Hence, Zm(H>( K) = H X K for some m. Therefore, H X K is nilpotent. 0
Problems
1.

2. 3.

Show that is not nilpotent for n 3. nilpotent? solvable? Is Give an example of a group G such that G has a normal subgroup H with both H and G/H nilpotent but G nonnilpotent.

4.

Let a group G be a product of normal subgroups H and K of
orders pA and qP, respectively, where p and q are distinct primes.

Show that G is nilpotent.
5.

Let G be a finite nilpotent group, and let p be prime. Show that ifp divides then p also divides JZ(G)J.

CHAPTER 7
Permutation groups

1

Cyclic decomposition

Let us recall that a cycle a = (a1

a,) in

is a permutation such that

inn. Two cycles (a1 ..a,),(b1 b3) in are disjoint permutations if and only if the sets {a1,. . . , a,) and {b1,. . , bj are disjoint. Note that a cycle
.

of length r can be written in r ways, namely, as (a1 a,) and

i=2,...,r.

A cycle of length r is also called an

r-cycle.
1.1

Theorem. Any permutation a E

is a product of pairwise dis-

joint cycles. This cyclic factorization is unique except for the order in which the cycles are written and the inclusion or omission of cycles of length 1.

Proof We prove the theorem by induction on n. If n = the theorem is obvious. Let i1 E (I ,2,...,n). Then there exists a smallest positive integer r such that a'(i1) = i1. Let i2 = c(11), i3 = a(i2) = a2(i1),...,i, = a(i,_1) Next, let
1

I = (1 ,2,...,n) — (i1
IfX = 0, then oisacycleand wearedone. SoletX
c5c1, where c1 = (i1
cycles.
j2 . . . i,),

0,andletos = oil.

Then is a permutation of a set consisting of n — r elements. By inductiOn 0* = C2C3 ... Cm, where are pairwise disjoint cycles. But since a

it follows that a is a product of disjoint
.

To prove uniqueness, suppose a has two decompositions into disjoint

cycles of length> I, say a =
129

fi,.

130

PermutatIon groups

Let x E n. If x does not appear in any then a(x) = x. Hence, x does not appear in any f3,. Ifx is in some y1, then a(x) x. Hence, x must be in some fi,. But then a'(x) occurs in both y, and for every r E Z. Hence, y, and are identical cycles. This proves that the two decompositions written earlier are identical, except for the ordering of factors. 0

Corollary. Every permutation can be expressed as a product of 1.2 transpositions.
Proof We need only show that every cycle is a product of transpositions. It is easily verified that

(aia2...am)=(aiam)(ajam_i)...(aja2).
factors need not be pairwise disjoints. For example,
(1

D

Note that decomposition into transpositions is not unique, and the
2
3

4

S)=(4 =(5

=(5 2X4 2X3
3X2

5X3

5X2

5X1 2X1

lX3

5)(4

5) 5) 5X2

3X3

5)

Let a E S,. Let us write the decomposition of a into disjoint cycles, including cycles of length 1, and write the factors in order of increasing the cycles ,...,ykare of lengths length. Supposea= y1 -" nkandnl + n2 + + nk = n. Thus,a respectively. Then n1 n2 determines a partition (n ,. ..,flk) of n, which is called the cycle structure of a. Conversely, given a partition (n1 ,...,flk) of n, there always exists (not

uniquely) a permutation a E Sn such that the cycle structure of a is for the product of any disjoint cycles y, ,...,Yk of length n1 ,...,nk,
respectively, satisfies that condition.
1.3

Theorem.

if a,c E
a

then r =

the symbols in a. Hence, any Iwo conjugate permutations in have the same cycle structure. C'onversely, any two permutations in with the same cycle structure are conjugate.

= ao(i) a(j). Therefore, if Proof If a(i) =j, then za(i) is a cycle in the decomposition of o, then is a (a1
cycle in the decomposition of r. Hence, the cycle decomposition of t is obtained by substituting a(x) forx everywhere in the decomposition of a. Thus, a and have the same cycle structure.

Cyclic decomposition

131

Conversely, suppose that a and r have the same cycle structure
(p,q,...,r). Then a and t
have cycle decompositions

Define a E by = I = l,...,n. Then it is easily verified that = t(b,), I = l,...,n. Hence, a and r are conjugate.

0

1.4 Corollary. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of conjugate classes of S, and the set of partitions of n.

Proof Obvious. 0
Examples

1.5

(a) Express the following permutations as a product of disjoint cycles:
k2 5 (ii) (4 2
(i)

/1

2
1

3
I

4
6

5

6
3

4

(in)

Ii

2

3
1

5X3 4 4 5
2
5

2

6X5

6

7

I)

4

Solution. (1) We start with I and obtain the cycle (I 2 5 4 6 3). (ii) The given permutation can be rewritten as

°\4 6

_(i

2

3 2

4
1

5

6
7

3

7 5

Starting with 1, we obtain the cycle (I 4). Then start with any other
element not in (1 4), say 2. Starting with 2, we get a cycle (2 6 7 5 3). These

two cycles exhaust the list (1,2,3,4,5,6,7). Thus, a = (26 7 5 3)0 4). (iii) Proceeding as before, we obtain that the given permutation is (I 3X2 4X5) by the convention of omitting cycles of length 1, equal to (1 3X24).

(b)Let a=(l 5 3)0 2), r =(l 6 79). Compute
Solution.

By Theorem 1.3, ata' = (a(l) a(6) a(7) a(9)) = (26 7 9). The interested reader may actually verify this by first computing a'.

132

Permutation groups

°'k2 5

fi

2
5

3
1

4 4
1

234 5)k3
OW
._,

5\ 3)' 4 3\

fi
6 7

2
1

3

4

5

Thus, by composing the mappings we obtain

fi

2

3
3

4

5

7

8

9\

6

4

5

9

8

2)=(2 6

7

9).

Problems
I. 2. 3.

4.

If a and fi are disjoint cycles, then a/i = fla. If a is a cycle of length r, then a' is the identity permutation. Show that the order ofany c E is the least common riiultiple of the lengths of its disjoint cycles. Any two cycles in Sn are conjugate if and only if they are of the same length.
Alternating group

2

We showed in Section I that every permutation in be expressed as a product of transpositions, and the number of transpositions in any given product is not necessarily unique. However, we have the following important result showing that the number of factors is always even or always odd.
2.1

Theorem. If a permutation c E Sn isa product of r transpositions

and also a product of s transpositions, ihen rand s are either both even or
both odd.

Proof Let C' Let P = 111<1(x1

where

and

are

transpositions.

Xj) be a polynomial in the variablesx1 ,...,x,,. Define
— X,1(f)),

—P. Let is a transposition, then where E We show that = (k 1), k < 1. Now one of the factors in the polynomial P1SXk — Xg, and

the corresponding factor becomes x, — xk. Any factor ofF of the form x, — x1, where neither i non is equal to kor I, is unaltered under the mapping All other factors can be paired to form products of the form — XkXX, — x,), with the sign determined by the
in

relative magnitudes of i, k, and I. But since the effect of

is just to

Alternating group A,

133

interchange Xk and x,, any such product of pairs is unaltered. Therefore, the above argument gives that the only effect of P.

This proves our assertion. Finally,

Also

Thus (— 1)' =

(—

1)', proving that r and s are both even or both odd. 0
is

Definition. A permutation in is called an even (odd) permutation a product of an even (odd) number of transpositions.

The sign of a permutation a, written sgn(a) or e(a), is defined to be + I or — I, according to whether a is even or odd. More generally, we define the sign of any mapping from n to n as follows. Definition. Let
: n —' n. Then

1+ 1

j

—I

0

if 4) is an even permutation, if 4) is an odd permutation, if 4) is not a permutation.
be mappings from n to n. Then

2.2

Lemma. Let

=
Hence for any a E S,,,

= e(a).

Proof If 4) and ware both permutations, the result foLlows from Theorem 2.1. If 4) or w is not a permutation, then is not a permutation. Hence,

= 0=
Hence,

If a is a permutation,

= €(a). 0

=

1.

Let A, denote the set of all even permutations in S,,.

2.3 Theorem. A,, is a normal subgroup of S,,. Jfn> I, A,, is of index 2 in S,,. and, hence. (A,,I =

Proof If n

1, S1 (e) = A1. Hence, A1 is trivially a normal subgroup. Letn> 1. Let G=(1,— 1) be the multiplicative group of integers 1,—f.

134

PermutatIon

group
givenby

Consider the mapping

4):S,,—'G

a'—'€(a).

By Lemma 2.2,4) is a homomorphism. Because n> 1, the transposition = (1 2) is inS, and 4)(r) = — 1. Hence, 4) is surjective. Therefore, by the fundamental theorem of homomorphisms, S,,/Ker 4) G. But Ker 4) is precisely the set A,, of all even permutations. Hence, A,, is a normal subgroup of S,,, and [S,:A,,J = IGI = 2. Consequently, IA,,I = IIS,,I =
3n!.

0

Definition. The subgroup A,, of all even permutations in S, is called the alternating group of degree n.
2.4

Examples

(a) In S3 the identity and the cycles (I 2 3), (I 3 2) are the only even permutations. Hence,

((l),(l 2 3),(l 3 2)). (b) A,, is nonabelian if n> 3. For, if a, b, c, d are distinct, then
A3 =

(a b cXa b d)

(a cXb d), whereas (a b dXa b c) = (a dXb c). Hence,

(c) The only possible even permutations inS4 are 3-cycles and products of two transpositions, in addition to the identity. Hence, A4 consists of the following elements:

e=(l), a=(I 2X3 a=(I 2 3), fl=(l
a2=(1
3

4),
3

2),

fl2=(I

4), y(l 4
4
3),

b='(l

3X2

y2(l

4), c=(l 4X2 3), 2), 3), 2 4), o2=(2 3 4).

ö=(2 4

It is easily verified that a, b, and c are conjugate to one another. For

example, aaa' = c.

Similarly, a, fi, y, and cS are conjugate elements, and so are a2, fl2, y2, and ö2. Thus, the conjugate classes in A4 are (e), {a,b,c), (a,fl,y,ö), and (a2,fi2,y2,ô2). Note that two elements of A,, may be conjugate in S,, but not in A,,. For example, a and a2, being of the same length, are conjugate in 54 but not in
A4.

(d) A4 has only one proper normal subgroup, which is the Klein fourgroup. Consequently, A4 has no subgroup of order 6. (This example shows

that the converse of Lagrange's theorem does not hold.)
c2

With the same notation as before, we easily verify that a2 = b2 = = e, ab = c, bc — a, ca = b. Hence, H {e,a,b,c) is a subgroup of A4.

Moreover, since a, b, and c constitute a conjugate class, H is normal. It is

Simplicity of

135

clear from the relations satisfied by a, h, and c that H is the Klein fourgroup.

Let K be any normal subgroup of A4. If XE K, then x2 E K, and because K is normal, every element conjugate to x or to x2 is also in K. then K must Hence, if K contains any of the elements contain all of them. But then KI> 8. Hence, by Lagrange's theorem,K = 44. This proves that H = (e,a,b,c) is the only normal subgroup of A4. Finally, any subgroup of order 6 of 44, being of index 2, would be a normal subgroup. Hence, A4 has no subgroup of order 6.

3
3.1

Simplicity of A,,
Lemma. The alternating group

is generated by the set of all

3-cycles in
1,2, for then A,, = (e) and S,, does not have any 3-cycle. So let n> 2. Now every 3-cycle is an even permutation and, hence, an element of A,,. Conversely, every element in A,, is a product of an even number of transpositions. Consider the product of any two transpositions a and r. If a and r are disjoint, say a = (a b), r = (c d),

Proof The result holds trivially for n =

thenar

(a bcXb c d).Otherwise,a = (a b),r = (b c)givesar =(a b c).

Thus, every even permutation is a product of 3-cycles. Hence, A,, is generated by the set of all 3-cycles in Sn. 0
3.2

Lemma. The derived group of S,,

is A,,.

Proof Forn= 1,2, fl=(1 23). Then
2X1
2

2 andleta=(l 2)and
3X2
1X3 2

l)=(I

2

3).

must contain every conjugate of Hence, (1 2 3) E S',,. Because Sn, On the other (1 2 3). Hence, every 3-cycle; therefore, An C hand, every commutator in an even permutation. Hence, C A,,. This proves that = A,,. °

Theorem. The alternating group A,, is simple if n > 4. Conse3.3 quently. S,, is not solvable if n > 4
Proof Suppose H is a nontrivial normal subgroup Of A,,. We first prove
that H must contain a 3-cycle. Let a
e

be a permutation in H that

Consequently.. a contradiction. 3.. 0 proves that S.b...... flE Hand moves fewer integers than a. n > 4.. /1(x) = x if o(x) = x. is group of A. Hence.. Hence.... With a (c d e) as before. and An is simple. Because is trivial or = A. But A. is not solvable. (afiXaXafiY' = Hence. a and r are conjugate in A. Consider first case (I).)..c. and t(x) = x whenever a(x) = x. is the only nontrivial normal subgroup of Sn. Let a = (c d e).136 PermutatIon groups the least number of integers in n. /3(b) b... Therefore. Because any two cycles of the same length are a transpoa conjugate in Sn.... . a contradiction. Let r be any 3-cycle inS.. Hence.. Hence. a must be a 3-cycle or have a decomposition of the form moves a=(a or b C (1) a=(a bXc d)". Thus. Consider now case (2). a cannot be a cycle of even length. r E H. (This is possible because aca' = r. Because a cannot be a 4-cycle. is simple if n> 4. n >4.(e d c) Now let r — = (c d eXa bXc d) =(a bxd (e d c) Then /3(a) a. and for every x other Let /3 = than e. Therefore. Being an even permutation.d are distinct. either nonabelian if n> 3.. for all k 1. But r E H. Then d . A. This = = A. which proves that A.. H contains every 3-cycle in 5. is not trivial. it must move at least two more elements.. Therefore.. Then r(a) = a. has no proper normal subgroup. =(c d =(a b e)(a b C •. Hence.? — sition /1 in 5.'. = An for every = A.4 Example A.. (2) where a. H = A.) Then are disjoint. r moves fewer elements than a.. say d and e.). such that a and /1 and n> 4. is a normal subConsider now the derived group of A. we conclude that a must be a 3-cycle.. Thus. Thus.

. a contradiction. b)fr d e). Show that there are 1120 elements of S8 having disjoint cyclic decomposition of the type (a b c)(d e f)(g h). If H — (e. Find also the number of elements in the orbit of (a b)(c d e). is simple. n — 1) and Let H < S. H A.. is generated by the cycles (I 2 (ii — I n). Problems I. Consider a cube with vertices numbered I through 8.. Show that there are 420 elements of S7 having disjoint cyclic decomposition of the type (a 6.. But then — 2 implies 2..tl). isA. This implies C H. 7. = because A. Prove that every finite group is isomorphic to a subgroup of the alternating group A. ... Let S5 act on itself by conjugation. then IH = IHI 2 or )H1 2 ci E = because H * (e). 4.. 5. Let (e) # H <1 Suppose H r) # (e).) — (e).. then Z(S.SimplidtyofA. . S3 and 161 = 48.. Hence. Show IKI = 10 and 1111=12. 137 Solution. Prove that S. Let H be the subgroup of the group 6 of rotations and reflections keeping one vertex fixed. Then II n gives H fl A. Show H S3 and IGI=24. respectively. so H or If H n (e). Let H be the subgroup of the group G of rotations and reflections keeping the vertex I fixed. 3. Show H 8. for some n> 1. Let K and H be. Consider a regular tetrahedron with vertices numbered I through 4. Show that any group of order 4n + 2 has a subgroup of index 2. 2. the only nontrivial normal subgroup of S. 9. the orbit and stabilizer of (1 2) S5. Show that exactly half the permutations in H are even..

I 138 . under the given mapping. <1 Further. to x1 Theorem.4. x._. and XX1 (iii) H.. be afamily ofsubgroups ofa group G... •" •" H. X '' X H under the canonical mapping that sends (x.andll.. Trivially. Thus. Proof (i) X fin.x.). !1 <I H. x. Then the following are equivalent.1 let H = (i) ii. then each x. = e.1 answers the question. then the structure of the group can generally be determined. Also H.. = H. Theorem 1.=e. Also e " e e. . Then and (xç have the same image under the given isomorphism.<IH. <1 H. = e. x..CHAPTER 8 Structure theorems of groups I Direct products If a group is isomorphic to the direct product of a family of its subgroups (known as summands) whose structures are known to us.' H. these summands are like the "building blocks" of a structure.fl(H1 "'H. Let H.. When is a group isomorphic to the direct product of a given finite family of its subgroups? 1. and if x1 '' (iv) x E ii can be uniquely expressed as e. let x=x. By uniqueness of representation. fin. (ii) (iii) x.H. X (ii) Let H = H. Hence. 1!.

.1. X H. is a homomorphism. I n. 1.... ... that the external direct product X H.. the direct product of cyclic groups each of order 2.. .2 (a) IGI Examples If each element e of a finite group G is of order 2.. a direct ...H. But then.. I Then since all xis commute. we are through. = x2 x. If G = (a... x C2 x x C. X . (iv) (i) First observe that for all x E H.b E G.H. Continuing thus. whereas the internal direct product exists if H. it follows immediately that the mapping a: H. Then that x1' = e. yE Hi. The mapping is clearly surjective.. I. . tion..Direct products 139 (iv) The hypothesis implies (iii) fl H3 = {e). however. ii follows that xy = for all x E H. X H. = e =x7'. and called the direct sum of H. we shall generally omit the word "internal" or "external" whenever the subgroups H... .. So if a. E since 1-11.. = e..]. (a. Then the product (a. Thus..][a2].].. X H.or G [a. the cyclic - group generated by a... let xs=xI where xfl.H.. If the group is additive. . . For let Then e = xx. where C1 are cyclic and lCd = 2. The emphasis on the word internal is more psychological than mathematical because the "external II. The mapping is injective. in our situadirect product" H.. of G is also written as H.]. a(x. otherwise G [a... E G.].. = e. 3 a2 E G such that a2 [a. Then either G = [a...](a2] [a. and only if the canonical map H.... i #j. = x. the (internal) direct product of subgroups H... (ah)' = Solution. given by x. we ultimately get G = (a. In the second situation. H.. ® ® I-f. then = and G C.)(a2) . 0 x1eH1. is an isomorX H.. always exists. Then X If. This proves (iv). so x. satisfy any one of the conditions in Theorem 1.. (b) A group G of order 4 is either cyclic of G product of two cyclic groups each of order 2. is isomorphic to I!. x. i xy = yx. we say that!! is an internal direct product of!!. Under any one of the equivalent statements in Theorem I. then ab = Let e '1' a. e = so by (iii) each x1 = e. x1 = E H. = ba..11) '1 H. yE To prove (iv). Note.H.].' impliesx.... for let x.][a2] is direct. This implies by hypothesis. Now x2 = e x = x' for all xE G. C2 x C'2.. proving (i). X phism.

there exist a unique subgroup!! of order rn and a unique subgroup Kof order n. then G is a direct product of cyclic groups of orders 0. where (m. By Lagrange's theorem H fl K = (e}. Problems 1. where H is a subgroup of order m.2. If G is not cyclic.140 Structure theorems of groups Solution. then 0(411k) = o(h)o(k) = pq. then H x K. and K = 2. 3. . (e) X K nontrivially.4. 1. By Lagrange's theorem normal and HK Hence G is generated by hk. (d) If G is a cyclic group of order mn. IHKI = IHDKI = mn. Prove that either Nis abelian or N intersects one of the subgroups H X (e).n) = G Solution. Let N <1 G H X K. Since H and K are hk=kh for all hEH and keK. Hence. = {e}. Show that the group (Z/(8).6. Also then If x K.11(e) in Chapter 4. then G is cyclic. distinct primes. and if G has a normal subgroup H of order p and a normal subgroup K of order q. Solution. Proceed as in (d). wherep and qare distinct primes. Because G is cyclic. Show that the group (Z/(4). 1 i S k. Then by Example 3. 4.8). Show that the group Z/( 10) is a direct sum of H = (0. Obviously. +) cannot be written as the direct sum of two subgroups of order 2. If H = [h] and K = [k]. G is a group of orderpq. +) cannot be written as the direct sum of two nontrivial subgroups. G is a finite cyclic group of order n p. then by Lagrange's theorem G must contain an element a of order 2 and also another element b of order 2. and K is a subgroup of order n. Solution.

. or.. then + xkak. enables us to find the number of nonisomorphic abelian groups of a given order (Section 3). .ak) with the property that. when applied to finite abelian groups. X1 E Z.. for some) k. the theorem is trivially true. for all integers x1 . are all infinite.1 Theorem (fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups).. 2. A is a cyclic group. . +xkak=O XkO This implies that every a E A has a unique representation of the form a = x1a1 + For if a=x1a1+ ".+)). Precisely. If k = I. such that either nile.Finitely generated abelian groups 2 141 Finitely generated abelian groups An important question in the study of an algebraic structure is to know if it can be decomposed into a direct sum of certain "well-behaved" direct summands. Then A can be decomposed as a direct sum of a finite nwnber of cyclic groups Ci. We prove the theorem by induction on k. Let A be a finitely generated abelian group. . +xkak=xtal+ '..Xk. . for example.. hence. We may remark that not every finitely generated group is finite (consider. the equation x1a1+ implies •. C1 are of Proof Let k be the smallest number such that A is generated by a set of k elements. First consider the case when A has a generating set (a1 . and assume that the theorem holds for every group generated by a set of k — I elements.. (Z. Let k> 1... This decomposition.. In this section we show that any finitely generated abelian group can be decomposed as a finite direct sum of cyclic groups...

for some generating set (1) By the division algorithm we can write x1=q1m1+r1. x2.x&) of integers such that x1>Oforsomci. Moreover.ak) is a generating set of A. Hence. Then (I) becomes + where b1 = a1 + q2a2 + Now b1 # 0. C1 ® elements. Hence. Hence... = 0 implies x1 0. Without loss of generality... Moreover. we can assume that x > 0 for some i.. for otherwise a1 —q2a2 — which implies that A is generated by a set of k — I elements.xkEZ. A = where C1 = [a6] is the cyclic subgroup generated by a....142 Structure theorems of groups I = 1. so that. (a2 ak).k. k.<. Let C1 = [b1].. is an infinite cyclic group. by the minimal property of in1. fl A. (2) for each i = 2.. m1b1 = 0. namely. Then.. C. Consider now all possible generating sets ofA with k Hence. Therefore. a contradiction. we may take rn1 to be the first component. and let Xdenote the set of all k-tuples (x1 ... given any generating set (a . = (0). Let m1 be the least positive integer that occurs as a component in any k-tuple in X. it follows from (2) that r2 = = rk = 0.k.. a 1 .. since x1a. there exist integers x1 . @ A1. which proves our claim that A = C.. a1 = b1 — q2a2 — — Hence... Now suppose that A has no generating set of k elements with the property stated in the last paragraph. i = ® l. Then x1b1=x2a2+ C.n. x.Xk (not all zero) such that x1a1 + + xkak = 0. .. for otherwise A would be generated by a set with less than k elements. A1 cannot be generated by a set with less than k — elements. + rkak = 0...n1b1 + r2a2 + where0r.a&} of A. Therefore. Now A1 is generated by a set of k — I elements.. We claim that So suppose x1b1 CA1 for some x1.ak). for some generating set (a1 ofA.a2. Moreover. A is the direct sum ofa finite number ofinfinite cyclic subgroups. (b1 .... in this case..... Therefore. A =C1 < in. which implies x1 =0 by the minimal property olin1. by Theorem LI..b1—x2a2— — =0. Since =0 = 0. C1 is a cyclic subgroup of order Let A1 be the subgroup generated by (a2. Because m1 is the least positive integer such that m1b1 = + 0a2 + + Oak =0..

since X = ISH TI for any finite sets S and T it follows that IAI = ''• = P"lI Moreover. 3 Invarlants of a finite abelian group Throughout this section A denotes a finite abelian group written additively... then C1 Ck are all finite. suppose ... are infinite for i >j...m.. To prove the uniqueness of the list rn... .... and m. any cyclic group of order m is isomorphic to Zm.. Hence......Ck are cyclic subgroups that are either all infinite or.b1 By + m2b2 + 0b3 + + = 0.. A = C.mk are determined uniquely. by the induction hypothesis.. Let A be a finite abe/ian group.. are cyclic where C. respectively. i = 2....mk. We prove in the next section that for a given A the positive integers nz3 . 3. C2. respectively.1 Theorem.. IAI = andA = C1 ® .C. Then {b1 ... .. consequently. are cyclic subgroups ofA of order mk. if A is a finite abelian group.k... 0 Evidently. Then there exists a (all> I) such that unique list of integers m1 .. ® where C. Hence. This completes the proof of the theorem. where C2.. are finite cyclic groups of orders m2... we conclude that m11m2... for some j k.bk) is a generating set of A. such that subgroups of orders Further. ® ® respectively.Invariants of a finite abelian group 143 contradiction. and suppose that C2 is of order m2. repeating the argument given for equation (I).. and with m21m31 Let C1 = [b1].

mijm2I..IC._.k— I..) E P(e).. JDjJ=nj...)DJ) Because ?n. and e1+e2+ Define a mapping a: F—' P(e) by o(A) = (e1 ..2 i= 1. then A is said to be oftype (m1 ... 0 (mk_IDI_I) 0 i= 1...=n.ek).) of positive integers such that k = 1k._I...144 Structure theorems of groups where are all cyclic subgroups of A.. 0 . IPnk_IDJI= I forj= 1. = n.e.. If A where I <mlImlt. 0 0 Z. we get ?nk_IA = (Pnk_ICI) ® .•(m&. Hence. Therefore. mk_dn. The fundamental theorem of finite abelian groups enables us to determine the number of isomorphism classes of abelian groups of order n. p prime..!— I..Imk. n...mk).k. A partition of a positive integer k is an r-tuple (k1 .... From the two decompositions .. and each Lemma.. mk... 0 ... To show that a is surjective... Let A be afinite abe/ian group. There is a 1-I correspondence between the family F of nonisomorphic abe/ian groups of order p'.. let (e. and the set P(e) of partitions of e.lmk_I for Ci) ® •. . is obviously the preimage of (e1 .2 Proof Let A E F.. Byasymmetricargument._Ifrnk_I. with fC1J=m.mk are called the invariants of A... Then A determines a unique type where se.... This completes the proof.. n..1.. it follows that mk...A of A assumed above.. Then the group Z..... a is clearly injective (Theorem 3.l. is trivial for i= l... 3...k— 1. Hence.r=O... Definition.. Therefore..e3). and the integers m1 . ® = (Ink. mk=IAI=nI n... has an element of order n.1)... we canshowthatmk_. But every element in A is of order Hence...k. mk Now consider mk_ = (mk_ 1ala E A).. Proceeding in this manner.. Hence.. Now D.. By the same argument mk n1.

A. We have IA = .) and H.. respectively. by Theorem 1. Then the number of nonisomorphic abelian groups of order n is .)® ® S(p. A = S(p1) ® . where A.. However. e. ® A = S(p.IP(f1)I. Let A be a finite abelian group of order distinct primes. contains unique subgroups A... 3.® Put S(p1) fA. say. where This decomposition of A is unique. The last statement can be proved easily by observing that each of the subgroups S(p. 0. . = S(p..=A.1.Invariants of a finite abelian group 145 The following lemma is an immediate consequence of Sylow's theorems discussed in the next section. • 0.)I IS(pk)I = ps'.. e. By Lemma 3. it follows that IS(p.. of orders for all j So 1 .J.. By Lagrange's theorem . that is. Let n = p1 distinct primes.3..2 . . By Theorem 3.4 0 Theorem. Because A1 is cyclic.).3 Lemma. ® ..).> 0. Therefore. if where then H. ® By Lemma 3.. Proof Let be the family of nonisomorphic abelian groups of order n. 3. Then by comparing orders on both sides. A.. is the subgroup (x C A 0(x) is a power of p. A = Proof. Let A C Abe.k. are cyclic groups of orders.1. we give a proof based on the fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups.... Then A p.

®Z3. which occupy an important place in the theory of finite groups. Definition. In particular. 4 Sylow theorems In the last section we obtained the decomposition of a finite abelian group A that provides a complete description of the structure of A. and these are = . and let p be a prime. there are six nonisomorphic abelian groups of order 360. 4 ® Z4 ® 4 ® Z3 ® Z5. Z2®Z2®Z2®4®Z5. Hence. Lemma (Cauchy's theorem for abelian groups). Definition. Hence. zs®z. among other machinery. then A has an element of order p. IP(3)l = 3. IP(2)l = 2. Z2®Z2®Z2®Z3®Z3®Z5. Let G be a finite group.146 Structure theorems of groups the number of nonisomorphic abelian groups S(p1) is IP(fJI. 4. 4® Z3 ® Z3 Z5. a subgroup H ofany group G is called a p-subgroup of 0 if the order of every element in H is some power of p. A group G is called a p-group if the order of every element in G is some power ofp. There is no such general result for finite nonabelian groups. the existence or nonexistence ofa simple group ofa given order can sometimes be determined by application of the Sylow theorems.9®Z5. 32. n = 360 32. Then any subgroup of G of order ptm is called a Sylow p-subgroup of G. are a powerful tool in studying the structure of finite nonabelian groups.5 Example Find the nonisomorphic abelian groups of order 360 Solution. Jfp divides IAI. Let A be afinite abe/ian group. IP( 1)1 =1. Likewise. k I—I ° 3. m > 0. Let p be prime. The Sylow theorems. 51.1 . Let PtmI KIGI. Z2®Z4®Z. and let p be a prime. 5'.

Therefore. If the order of the center of G is divisible by p. and therefore there exists an element oforderp. some power of the element a is of order p. Now pjn. Then since o(a) = p. by the induction hypothesis there exists liE A/[b]. then there exists a cyclic subgroup of A oforderp. The cyclic group C generated by a is clearly normal in G. pim. 0 . the cyclic subgroup generated by there exists b ('# e) E A such that A b. where pin. p1k. If the order of a finite group G is divisible by a prime number p. 0 A special case of the theorem is 43 Corollary (Cauchy's theorem). and let p 4.the result is obvious. Hence. G/C contains a subgroup H/C of order pm—I. If IAI = p or even if A is a cyclic group. proving the theorem in this case. a Z(G). but pf IZ(G)I. Therefore. and this yields the required subgroup of G. By the induction hypothesis N(a) has a subgroup of order ptm. p%[G: N(a)] for some a E G.2 be a prime. Now consider the case when the order of the center is not divisible by p. which is divisible by ptm I. This means p divides the order of[aJ. and the quotient group G/C has order nip. then p divides the order ofA/[b]. Ifp I lEbli. by the induction hypothesis. the order of A. then it follows from Cauchy's theorem for abelian groups that the center of G contains an element a of order p. a E A. Let G be afinite group. then G has a subgroup of order ptm. The class equation of G is n =1GI=1Z(G)I+ where summation runs over one element from each conjugate class having more than one element. there are at least p — I elements of order p (namely. Suppose now [bJ. and m <n. So let us assume that the result holds for all groups of orders less than n. hence. Let k = o(a). Hence. Suppose that the result is true for all groups of orders m. we are done. Proof By Sylow's theorem there exists a subgroup of order p. Proof We prove the theorem by induction on n =IGI.Sylow theorems 147 Proof We prove the theorem by induction on n. that o(ã) = p. If ptm divides 1GI. 0 Theorem (first Sylow theorem). then G has an element of order p. all but the identity element of the cyclic subgroup of order p). such = e implies ãk = Therefore. But ifp KiIb]i. This implies that IN(a)i and IN(a)i <IGI. If n = l.

If possible.13 (b) in Chapter 5. that is. We want to show that 11 is conjugate to K. let q # p be a prime number dividing the order of G. p' = 1. Then for ER). A finite group G is a p-group if its order is a power ofp. and/el p be a prime. e 0. C(K) = C G). the orbit of L. any L e C(K)..5 Theorem (second and third Sylow theorems). let G.. G is of order a power ofp.p)= 1. p= I But then HL/L established. Hence. Let G be a finite group. Proof If G is of prime power order. trivially. = index of!! fl N(L) in H = p'. (I) = 1. (2) where the union runs over one element L from each orbit [= conjugate class CH(L)J. We first show that pt = I if I! = L.. So let us assume that each element in G has order a power ofp and prove that order of G is a power ofp.. Then all Sylow p-subgroups ofG are conjugate. So our assertion that p' = if H L is . Conversely. Next let H be any Sylow p-subgroup. then each element has. order a power of p. and C(K) = U CH(L) LEC(K) (disjoint). then. and their number divides 0(G) and satisfies n. Let C(K) denote the family of subgroups of G conjugate to K. (3) because H is Sylow p-subgroup. Because K is a Sylow p-subgroup.(L) C C(K). Regard the set C(K) as an 11-set by conjugation. H/H fl L HL/L is a p-group IlL = I since L is a Sylow p-subgroup. 0 4. therefore.148 Structure theorems of groups 4. I (mod p). a contradiction. Then = IG/N(K)I. If 11= L.4 Corollary. Then by Cauchy's theorem there exists an element of order q. (IC(K)I.(L) = C'. Obviously. By Example 4. trivially. Proof Let K be a Sylow p-subgroup in G.

a H. 1 S(p1) ® ® S(p.7 Examples then it is cyclic. proving the second Sylow theorem.. A Sylow p-subgroup ofa finite group G is unique only (fit is normal.. (b) If d is a divisor of the order n of a finite abelian group A. . Because these subgroups are also subgroups of G. that H must be equal to some conjugate L of K.) of order group of order d. Solution. Hence. then the order of a must be pfl.. Thus.). This would mean a E H.. it follows that their number Is equal to IC(K)I = IGI/IN(K)I.I IGI. and G is therefore a cyclic group generated by a. and let H be a subgroup of order By Sylow's fIrst theorem H contains subgroups of orders p. If n = p1' . pr'. n. by what we established in the last paragraph. 4.. e>O proving the third Sylow theorem.6 0 Corollary. By Sylow's first theorem each S(p1) contains a Let d = S'(p.3).... (a) If a group of order p" contains exactly one subgroup each of orders Solution. Let G be a group of order pfl. Now if a E G. that is It is also clear that there is one and only one term in the sum equal to I.. then A = pr'.Sylow theorems 149 By (2) and (3) we have IC(K)I = (4) at least one term pe must But then (I) implies that in the summation be equal to I.) is a subThen B = S'(p1) ® . p2. because a E K C H. and this in turn implies. and = i r (Lemma 3. subgroup S'(p. Because all Sylow p-subgroups of G are conjugate to K. the order of a is p". otherwise a will generate a subgroup K of order <p'. then A contains a subgroup of order d. it follows that all the proper subgroups of G are contained in H. so we have from (4) that the number of distinct conjugates of K is (modp). 4.

which is sometimes easier.S4. But then I + 7k divides 32• This yields k 0. The number of Sylow 7-subgroups is n7 = + 7k. N(HflK)Jii IHKI=lHflK. 7. So 1 again we have a normal subgroup. Now consider N(H n K). Chapter 5.150 Structure theorems of groups Note. Chapter4). 27)/IH fl 27/4 < hUn KL so IH fl JCI= 9. 27 Then HK C N(H fl K).11(e).11 + 3kand(l + 33. (d) Let G be a group of order 108.56. This yields a7 I or 8. If k = I.= . we have a unique Sylow 3-subgroup that is then a normal subgroup Solution. But then the remaining eight elements must form a unique Sylow 2-subgroup. = l G. The nonsimplicity of groups of order 36 may be proved similarly. and 1 + 7k divides 32. Because IKI 27 =81. If n7 = 8. and therefore G cannot be a simple group. alternatively. Thus. Let H and K be two distinct Sylow 3-subgroups. there exists a homomorphism p:G—. lfn7 = 1. 33• The number of Sylow 3-subgroups is a3 = 1. fin K 'I Ji and i/fl K 1 K because subgroups of order are normal in a group of order p" (or. and N(HnK)JK. the number of Sylow 7-subgroups n7 = I + 7k 7.Thus. Example (b) proves the converse of Lagrange's theorem for abehan groups. Then from the result II1KI=IHIIKI/IH fl 108. (c) Prove that there are no simple groups of orders 63. By Theorem 4. we must divide are done. which is not possible since jGI = 36 and Kerq. and 36. H fl K = H fl N(K) <1 H). Show that there exists a normal subgroup of order 27 or 9. Therefore. Also normal subgroup of G and so G is not simple. For groups of order 56. Here is an alternative method. Because H fl K is a normal subgroup in H as well as in K. since the index of H in G is 4. IGI I of order 27. (1 + 7k)12'.(I + k =0.jHKp= (27 . we have four Sylow 3-subgroups. Further. Solution. . Note implies G s S4. = 108 = 22. Thisgives (Example 3. there is a unique Sylow 7-subgroup that must be a normal subgroup. then there are 8 6 = 48 elements of order 7.4. Let H be a Sylow 3-subgroup of G. Thus Kerq is a nontrivial = 1541 = 24.

thus.Sylow theorems 151 and N(H n K) < G. Let IGI = p"q. K) = G. and thus q=A1(1 +kp) for some positive integer A1. H (as a group by itself) contains a Sylow p-subgroup K. for some positive integer A. (p. hence. ptm. and this implies that there is a unique Sylow q-subgroup.q1) = I. Hence. Because the index of H — that is IGI/IHI — is prime top.6. By the third Sylow theorem the number is equal 'o I + kp for some positive integer k. Hence. Further. and. where p and q are prime numbers such thatp> qand q%(p— 1). the number flg of Sylow q-subgroups is equal to I + k'q for some integer k'. (f) Let G be a group of order pq. Let K1 be another Sylow p-subgroup of G. Hence. p-subgroups pq=A(l +kp). (p. IN(H fl HflK<1G. and. IHI = p"q1. Then by Sylow's second theorem K1 = x E G. . respectively. then H contains every Sylow p-subgroup of G.andthen we get by Corollary 4. uk V/i E H and Vk E K.6 that there is only one Sylow p-subgroup. since 11<1G. It is easy to see that K fl If = {e}. By Sylow's first theorem. This implies pIA. and if the index of 11 in G is prime to p. and by the same argument pp1(l +k'q) for some positive integer Butsinceqj'(p— +k'q)ispossibleonly ifk'=O. say 11. But sincep>q. all Sylow p-subgroups of G are contained in 11. that must be normal. then the order of the element xy is equal to IHIIKI = pq. Then IKI = ptm. (e) If 11 is a normal subgroup ofa finite group G. and. clearly. Then Gis cyclic.q) = 1. This implies that if x and y generate the cyclic groups H and K. K is normal by Corollary 4. Hence. Because IKI = K1 = C C H. Solution. G is cyclic. G is generated by the element xi'. say K. Solution.q=A1(l +kp)isnotpossibleunlessk=0. K is also a Sylow p-subgroup of G.

Because a3 = C [a]. (2. Consider a nonabelian group G of order 8. (ii) The group G generated by a and b with defining relations a4e. more generally. b2=e. We denote by [xJ the cyclic group generated by x. Then G = [a] U [ajb. then N(H) (ii) (iii) If 111= p".1 Groups of order p2 We have already shown (Corollary 4. Throughout this section p and q are distinct primes. Hence. there are two. otherwise G is abelian. there are three. b2=a2. and. we have two nonabelian groups of order 8: (i) The group G generated by a and b with defining relations a4=e. pq We recall that there are cyclic groups of every possible order.4). Follows from (f). Thus. b'ab = a3. and only two. If H is a proper subgroup of P. is normal. 5 Groups of orders p2. (8).y. that two cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic.152 Structure theorems of groups (g) Any group of order 15 is cyclic. groups of order p2: . two groups isomorphic to each other are identified. Chapter 5) that a group of order p2 is abelian. abelian groups of order 8 that are of types (2. o(a). We also recall the following properties of a finite p-group P: Z(P) is nontrivial. Hence. Solution. [a] <1G. Solution. That they are nonisomorphic is easily checked. we must have b2 = eor a2. The first is the octic group. Incidently. and G is abelian.2. and only three. Thus G contains an element a of order 4. (h) There are only two nonabelian groups of order 8.y] the group generated by x. 5. and b2 C [a].11. In the following. Let b E G such that b [a]. then G is abelian. by [x. Then G contains no element of order 8. If each element of G is of order 2. we have Thus. a or a3. and that a direct product of cyclic groups is abelian.2). Because [a] is of index 2 in G. and the second is the quaternion group. Hence. Now b2 = a or o(b) is 8. then every subgroup (1) H.

for otherwise ba = ab.2 abe/ian group of type (p2).b].whence G = [a. Then r 1 (mod q). In this case q I (mod p). and G is abelian. G is generated by a and b with defining relations a'— I —be. which divides pq. Because[bJ 'I G. G — lab). Groups of order pq. where a' 1. which in turn implies that the number of Sylow p-subgroups is 1... (I) (2) The integer r in (I) is a solution of the congruence equation (modq) for = b' = b'3 = b2' by a'b2a — b2' induction = b" = b'2 a2ba2 = b'2 by induction (modq). then the defining relations (1) determine a group consisting of the pq distinct elementsa'bJ. pq 153 (i) (ii) 5. and all yield the same group. Suppose the number of Sylow p-subgroups in G is I. Because o(ab) ispq. This gives 1 + Aq = I. a'ba—b'. or q. Let [a) be one of the Sylow p-subgroups of G. The number of Sylow p-subgroups is q. is cyclic. . where a' — 1. be this unique Sylow q-subgroup. being of order q. q > p Let G be a group of order pq. where I. We conclude that there are at most two groups of order pq: (i) The cyclic group of order pq. a contradiction. and. = for some integer r.r2. which.b) contains a subgroup (a] oforderp and a subgroup (b) of order pq. Let [bI. Then the subgroup Ia. because replacing a by a1 as a generator of [a] replaces r by r1. Case (ii).Oi<p— l(modq)arer. Since [a) and [b) are normal in G. and thus there is exactly one Sylow q-subgroup. Then the number of Sylow q-subgroups of G is I + Aq. G is cyclic.p). we have G [a] X [b). and (a] fl [b) — {e). Also the number of Sylow p-subgroups is 1 + pp. and abe/ian group of type (p.. which divides pq.. Thus.Groups of orders p2. thus. if r is a solution of the congruence equation (2). This gives I + Case (1). Conversely. and Let 1 this be Ia).

4. must contain a normal Sylow subgroup and be solvable. Prove that this group is isomorphic toll X K. be the number of Sylow p-subgroups. Using this 13. Suppose a group G H X K is a product of groups II and K. where p is prime. Deduce that G has a normal Sylow 3-subgroup. then the group must be cyclic. Show that the set of positive integers less than and prime to 21 form a group with respect to multiplication modulo 21. where p is prime. Show that a group of order p2q. respectively. Let G be a cyclic group of order .p). and let H be a cyclic group of order n. 7. Prove that a group of order 200 must contain a normal Sylow subgroup. Show that an abelian group oforderpk and of type contains — I elements of order p. Let G be a simple group and let n. 8. Prove that the group of all rational numbers under addition cannot be written as a direct sum of two nontrivial subgroups. 11. Prove that G/ll X {e) K.J Structure theorems of groups The nonabelian group generated lions I a'ha=b'.n) = I. or otherwise. 10. 14. p and q distinct primes. 6. prove that G is the direct product of its Sylow subgroups. 2. Prove that any group oforder 2p must have a normal subgroup of order p. I (mod q). Ifeach Sylow subgroup ofa finite group G is normal. prove that its Sylow 7-subgroup is normal. If the order of a group is 42. Show that a group of order 1986 is not simple. I. If n is a divisor of the order of an abelian group. Show I divides (np)!. 12. 5.n. prove groups of order 48 cannot be simple. 16. Show that a finite abelian group that is not cyclic contains a subgroup of type (p. Prove that any group G of order 12 that is not isomorphic to 44 contains an element of order 6. prove that the number of solutions of x" = e in G is a multiple of n. hr a and b with defining re/aI (mod q). Prove that if the order of an abelian group is not divisible by a square. . provided p dividec q Problems I. 15. 3.154 (1i. where H and K are cyclic groups of orders 6 and 2. Show that G X H is cyclic if and only if(rn. 9.

Let G be a finite group such that G = HK. subgroups of G. Suppose P is a Sylow p-subgroup of a group G. 155 Let G be a group. Let A be an abelian subgroup ofG. where p is prime. 25. group and G is solvable. if P is a Sylow p-subgroup of 6. If M is a normal p-subgroup. show that M c P. and let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of G. Prove that a finite group G is nilpotent if and only if it is the direct product of its Sylow subgroups. [Hint: First show that if!! < G.pq 17. then H <1 G. Show that N Ii P is a Sylow p-subgroup of N. . Show 20. Prove that IG/Z(G)I # 77. Also. 21. Then use Problem 21 to obtain that if H is a 24. Let H < G such that H H fl P. Suppose A G <1 G and G be a nonabelian group of order p3. show that 'PxrK is a Sylow p-subgroup of K for some x€H. Let N <1 G. Let N = N(P). 23. that Z(G) = G'. K <G. Show that G contains a normal Sylow sub. show that NP/N is a Sylow p-subgroup of GIN. Show also that G con- tains a normal p-subgroup H that contains all normal p27. where H < G. Show that any subgroup of G that contains N (N included) is equal to its own normalizer. Let G be a finite group with a Sylow p-subgroup P.j Prove that A5 is the first nonabelian simple group. Sylow p-subgroup. 18. Let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of a finite group G.Groupsofordersp2. 26. then N(H) # H. 22. Let G be a finite group. What is the order of Z(G)? Suppose G is a finite group of order PIPZ where are distinct primes. For a prime p.

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PART Ill Rings and modules .

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b E R. in a ring R. the additive inverse ofan element a of the additive abehian group (R. Q: the ring of all rational numbers. By a ring we mean a nonemptv set R wit/i two binary operations + and called addition and . we denote a + (—b) by a — The most familiar examples of rings are Z: the ring of all integers.CHAPTER 9 Rings I Definition and examples Definition. (The two distributive laws are respective/v called the left distributive law and the right distributive law. that is.+) shall.nultiplication ('aLco called producf. Further. if a. (R. respectively. We denote the zero element of a ring by 0. (iii.i. a+(—a)0 forallaER. as usual. b. for all a. The identity of the additive abehan group is called zero element of the ring Rand is unique.+) is an additive abe/ian group.) a (b+c)=a b+a c.) Multiplication is distributive (on both sides) over addition. Further.) We usually write ab instead of a b. 159 . such that (R.c. E R. (U (ii.b. Thus.) is a multiplicative semigroup. be denoted by — a. (a+b) c=a c+b c. .

. a ring with finite number of (or Z/(n)): the ring of integers modulo n. 1): the ring of all continuous functions from the interval 10.1 in Chapter 4.bEA The ringA so obtained is called a trivial ring. C: the ring of all complex numbers.. that is. = (0.b R. ba for all a. The addition in each of the rings is the usual addition of mappings. the ring of all functions from a nonempty set X to the real numbers R. (f+ g)(x) =f(x) + g(x).l. ab = 00000 iO!23 20202 30321 R such that A commutative ring is a ring R in which multiplication is commutative. 00123 11230 22301 33012 that is.. We define a trivial ring as one in which the product (or multiplication) of any two elements is 0.160 Rings R: the ring of all real numbers. We define multiplication by (JgXx) =f(x)g(x). that is.) To illustrate. If a ring is not commutative it is called noncommut alive. that is. A ring with unity is a ring R in which the multiplicative semigroup has an identity element. there exists e ae = a = ea for all a E R.The elements of elements — is are the residue classes mod n.1) to R. Other interesting examples are CEO. we give the addition and multiplication tables of 4. Addition and multiplication in 4 are defined as follows: (See Example 3. An example of a finite ring — that is..(n — I)). the unity or identity element is denoted by I. . Another example of a ring is an additive abelian group A in which multiplication is defined by ab=0 foralla. The element e is called unity or the identity element of R. Generally.

c C R. Similarly. = a1. .b. Similarly. +(—(aO))= aO. Then for all a. Let R be a ring. n>!. (a—b)c=ac--bc. —(ab) = (—a)b. Thus. (ii) a(—b) = —(ab) = (—a)b. We define their product a.(a—b)c=ac—bc. 0 of elements of a ring Let a1 be a sequence inductively: R. aO So. 2. (iii) a(b—c)=ab—ac. Similarly. (ii) o aO = a(b + (—b)) = ab + a(—b). (iii) a(b—c)= a(b +(— c))= ab+ a(—c)= ab— ac.1 (i) aO=O=Oa. Proof (i) aO a(O +0) = aO + aO. o = Oa. — (ab) = a(— b). O=aO. Thus.Elementary properties of rhigs 2 161 Elementary properties of rings Theorem.

The uniquely determined product of the sequence a1 is denoted a1a2 In the same way we can dewe can easily fine uniquely the sum of the sequence a1 + Also. then ma stands for -m times (—a) + (— a) + + a). called the generalized associative law for products. we write in times and in times am=a.b2+ •.4 Theorem. for al/a1 .a If in is ma—a+a+"+a...a. a negative integer. the following hold: (I) (ii) (a'? = a'"".. then we define a° = 1.) 2. in a ring R.162 RIngs We then have the following result.. which can be directly proved by induction on m and n.2 of Chapter I. in a ring R.. . 2...a2.am+. then a—rn denotes the element (ar. If a E R and in is a positive integer. If a has an inverse I E R. If R. essentially asserts that we can insert parentheses in any manner in our product without changing its value. (a) For all positive integers in and n and for a/la in a ring R. This result.. (See Theorem 4. a2 + prove the generalized distributive law given in 2..2 Theorem (n arn÷j) = njy a. by using induction on m and n. Also we define Oa to be the zero element of the ring..3 Theorem +amXbt+b2+ +a2b1+ for al/a1 am and b1 ±ambi±a.

the real numbers R.—& a complex a a nonzero matrix. so x'(xy) —0. Let H be the set of2 X 2 matrices of the form I a bl a and a I. (Let F be a field. (maXnb) = (mnXab) — (naXmb). y = 0. x E R. then R is called a field. R is commutative. The rational numbers Q. A ring R whose nonzero elements form a group under multiplication is called a division ring.) xy = 0. implies x =0 or y =0. y E R. If in addition. Ifx #0. Every field (therefore every division ring) is an integral domain.b in a ring R thefollowing hold. The ring of integers Z is an integral domain. An example of a division ring that is not a field is the ring of real quaternions.y E F. and let exists. then . and. hence. m(na) — (mn)a. Thus.Types of rings 163 (b) For all integers m and n andfor all a. and the complex numbers C are examples of fields. (iii) ma + na (iv) (v) (m + n)a. 3 Types of rings Definition. ã —b A ring R is called an integral domain zfxy = 0. It is left as an exercise for the reader. then its determinant ô = + bb # 0. The theorem may be proved by using induction on m and n. x.

and let be the set of all n X n matrices over R. If n> I and R is not a trivial ring. Then with the usual addition and multiplication of matrices is called the ring ofnX n matrices over R. an integral domain need not be a division ring or a field. that is. An element x in a ring R is called a right zero divisor if there exists a nonzero element yE R such that yx = 0. Matrices with entries in a ring R (i. R has unity I.164 Rings However. where aMER. and = eth. For if b=[g then ab ba. We may note that a ring R is an integral domain ifand only if it has no right (or left) zero divisors except 0. that is.. From the definition of multiplication of matrices. I This representation of matrices in terms of matrix units is often a conve- nient tool in certain problems involving algebraic manipulations. Let R be a ring.'s over R. if A then A can be E uniquely expressed as a linear combination of ç. then is not commutative.1 Some important examples of rings (a) The ring of matrices Rudiments of matrices over any field have been given in Chapter 3. = 0 if3 k. An element is called a zero divisor if it is both a right and a left zero divisor. Also. One can similarly define left zero divisor. it follows that ej)ek. matrices over R) and their addition and multiplication can be defined in exactly the same manner. We denote by the matrices in whose (i. 1 eUek. (For example. It also follows that if n> I. 3. that is. contains nonzero zero divisors. = is the Kronecker delta. all of whose entries below the main . the ring of integers Z is neither.e.) I)efinition. The i. are called matrix units. Let Sbe the set of n X n matrices.j n.J) entry is I and whose other entries are zero.

i>m+ I. that is.. let S consist of matrices a11 a12 as.. and let . Let f(x) = Then + a1x + a2x2 + + amxm.am. I I m + I. a E R. A polynomial with coefficients in R is a formal expression of the form a0 + a1x + a2x2 + are + amxm.x + + called equal if m = n and a = b. Alternatively. and + b1 R. o a ring with the usual addition and multiplication of matrices and is called the ring of upper triangular matrices. g(x)=b0+b1x+b2x2+"' +b. f(i)—'O.x". Polynomials may be added and multiplied to form a ring in the following manner.O.O.._1. a function f:N —'B. Two polynomials a0 + a1x + + amx'" and b0 + b. we have the ring of lower triangular matrices.Types of rings 165 diagonal are zero. be another polynomial. Similarly..). a1 E B.= j+k—I aJbk. +b1)x+(a2+b2)x2+ where c.ai. where f(i)= a.. for all i. (b) The ring of polynomials Let R be a ring.. Let b0 + b1x + a1ER.. one may look upon a0 + a1x + as + amxm. a sequence (ao.. that is..

.. RIxj contains a carbon copy of R. denoted by Further.0. where h(i) or. I n+ I and g(i)'=O. ... equivalently. Thus. The sumf+gof the functionsfandgis defined to be the or.. R be the corresponding function..0.).0.0.. x3 = (0.. . and we denote by x the sequence (0..0.. (a0 + a1x + where Cl— J+k—i f(j)g(k).0.). (a0 + a1x + usual sum of functions. By identifying the element a E R with the sequence (a.).... (f+ gXi) =f(i) + g(i).) of the ring R into the ring R(xJ preserves binary operations. In what follows we assume I E R.) = (a.0.) = (a.0. a + b —p (a and the mapping is also I-I. and so on. then + b.)..0...0...1.0.. iEN. if b —' (b.0. the mapping a —' (a. + amxm) + (b0 + b1x + + b. that is. Consider with finitely many nonzero entries.0.0.. sequences with finitely many nonzero entries) forms a ring called the poiyring over R. equivalently.) E R[x]..)(b.). I> n +1.)..x"Xb0 + b1x + = C0 + It is now straightforward to verify that the set of polynomials (i..) + (b. We find a sequence (a0...0.a1 +(0 which yields the familiar expression of a polynomial in x.. ab —p (ah... + + + + a.0..1.. we say that R is a subring of R[xJ....0...e.0.0.0.1.0...0.0.. We call x an indeterminate and refer to the polynomials in R[xJ as polynomials in one indeterminate over R (sometimes we also call them polynomials in a variable x). Then x2 (0.x") =(a0+b0)+(a1+b1)x+(a2+b2)x2+ The product of two functionsfand g is defined to be the function h.0. namely. so that g(i) = b11.166 Rings i g: N —..

Further (fgXx + y) =f(g(x + y)) [by (ii)) =f[g(x) + g(y)] (because g is a homomorphism) =f(g(x)) +f(g(y)) (becausefis a homomorphism) = (fgXx) + [by (ii)). which shows thatfg E End(M).g E End(M) and XE M.y C M. for allf. We define addition and multiplication in End(M) as follows: (i) (ii) (f+ gXx) =f(x) + g(x). for any x. Obviously. as usual. M)] denote. (fg)(x) =f(g(x)). 1ff C End(M). the set of endomorphisms of the group M into itself.y C (—fXx + y) = — [f(x + y)] = — [f(x) +f(y)J —f(x) —f(y) = (—fXx) + (—f)(y). = [1(x) + g(x)] + [f(y) + g(y)] = (f+ g)(x) + (f+ guy) This shows (f+ g) C End(M). Then —f C End(M) because. First we show that if fg E End(M). Let End(M) [or Hom(M. Let x. Then (f+ gXx + y) =f(x + v) + g(x + y) [by (i)J = [f(x) +f(y)] + [g(x) + g(y)] (because fand g are homomorphisms) (because M is abelian) [by (i)].Types of rings 167 (c) Ring of endomorphisms of an abelian group Let M be an additive abelian group.f+ 0 =fandf+ (—f) 0 for alifE End(M). . then f+ g C End(M) and fg C End(M). We show that the set End(M) together with the above binary operations of addition and multiplication forms a ring. define —fto be the mapping given by (—fXx) = —f(x) for all x C M. Also it is easily shown that the two mappings 0: x and I: x '—' 0 (zero endomorphism of M) (identity endomorphism of U) x of M into M are also endomorphisms of U.

and f(gh). We note that addition and multiplication of elements of S are to coincide with addition and multiplication of these elements considered as elements of the larger ring R. and let S be a nonelnpty subset of R. it can be easily shown that for all jg.) is a ring. 4 Subrings and characteristic of a ring Definition.and 2a = 0. +.+. f(g+ h)—fg+fh.168 Rings Furthermore. f+g=g+f (fg)h (f+ g)li =fh + gh. along the same lines. (d) Boolean ring Let be the set of all subsets ofa nonempty set A [called the power set ofA and denoted by If a.+. we can define a subdivision ring of a division ring and a subfield of a field. Let (R. The zero element of this ring is the empty set.b E we define a+b=(aUb)—(aflb). Then S is called a subring ([(S. for all a E A ring R is called a Boolean ring ifx2 = x for all x E R. Hence (End(M).h E End(M). It is interesting to point out that any Boolean ring is known to be a subring ofthe ring of all subsets of a set. Similarly. Then ) is a commutative ring with identity (which is the whole set A). ab = an b. .) be a ring. (f+ g) + h f+ (g + h). Some of the important properties of the ring R are (i) (ii) &=a.) is itself a ring. It can be easily shown that x2 = x for all x E R implies 2x =0.

(ab)x — a(bx) = a(xb) = (ax)b = (xa)b = x(ab).b E S we have a — b E Sand ab E S. The subring generated by the empty set is clearly (0). The following result is frequently useful: 4. (0) or simply 0 and R.2 Theorem.b €5. Let R be a ring. by Theorem 4. it follows that the subring generated by a subset SofR is the intersection of all subrings of R containing S. The x Definition.+). Proof(Jfpart). The condition abE S for all a. Thus. = ax for all 4. and k a positive integer. Because the intersection of a family of subrings is again a subring. The condition a — b e S for all a.+) is an additive subgroup of the group (R. Then 0. Because the two distributive laws hold in R.) is a semigroup.Sulwings. The center of a ring is a subring. x E R. Let S be a subset of a ring R. Let (a—b)x——ax—bx=xa—xb=x(a—b).b E S implies (S. Then the smallest subring of R containing S is called the subring generated by S.+. 0 Definition. n1a + n2a2 + We now define the characteristic of a ring. ab E S. n1 E Z. D ). A subring of R may have unity different from the unity of R [see Problem 10(b)). ) is a subring of(R. Then the set 7(R) = (a E RIxa R) is called the center of the ring R.ndcharacteristkofaring 169 Every ring R has two trivial subrings. Write Z(R) = S. Proof Let R be a ring. Therefore. then S a. Hence.1. S is a subring. they also hold in S. A noneinpty subset Sofa ring R is a subring if and only iffor all a. converse follows from the definition of a subring. Further.1 Theorem. Hence.b E S implies (S. If there exists a positive integer n such that na = 0 for each element a of a ring R. and the subring generated by a single element a in R consists of all elements of the form + nkak. a — 1' E S. Let R be a ring (with or without unity). the smallest such positive integer is called the . Because 0 E S. Definition.

/JEF. so Definition. The characteristic of R is denoted char R. n2a =0) for all a E R.X.e. a(xy) = (ax)y = x(ay). Theorem. If possible. then R does not possess any nonzero nilpotent a E R. . Then (n1n2)e = 0 yields (n1e)(n2e) = 0. 4. n1 <n. (a/3)x=a(fJx). IEF.n2) <n. Thus.. But then either n1ea = 0 (i. and let Fbe afield. the ring of integers has characteristic zero. then = 0.x) ax ofF X A into A such that (1) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) a(x+y)=ax+ay.170 Rings characteristic of R. (a+/J)x=ax+fix.y E A. either n1e = 0 or n2e = 0. Let F he afield. 0 Definition. The ring Z/(n) of integers modulo n has characteristic n./JEF. The element (8 nilpotent because Io l\2 fo 0 0 If R is an integral domain.xEA. n2 <n. This proves n is prime. =0 = e2. Let A be an arbitrary ring. Then we say that A is an algebra over F if there exists a mapping (a. because for = 0. a contradiction.xEA. For example.YEA. lx=x. a E F.. 0 and I (if R has unity) are idempotent elements.e. aEF. the characteristic ofF is max (n1 . we have elements. An element a in a ring R is called n such that = 0. if no such positive integer exists. 0. Definition. n1a = 0) or n2ea =0 (i. a. Continuing like this we obtain a = 0. a. in a 2 X 2 matrix ring is also 0 is always nilpotent. let n = n1is2. An element e in a ring R is called idempotent if e = Clearly.3 Proof Let n 0 be the characteristic of F If e is the identity of F. R is said to have characteristic zero. x. Then the characteristic ofF is either 0 or a prune number p. The element ax is called the scalar multiplication of a and x. But since F is a field.xEA.

. More generally... is then easy to verify that R is a ring... then® I..R. i = 1.. We construct from this family a new ring as follows. This ring S is called the direct sum of the family R... then direct product and direct sum coincide..2 be a family of rings.b2.. Let R.a2+b2.)Ia. 4. .) and (a1.) of R forms a subring of R. i = 1. may be called the component rings of this direct product..a2. the polynomial ring Q[x) is an algebra over Q.... This ring R is called the direct product of the rings R.O.)—(a1+b.. may have unity. The set 1... then ax = x. if (a..4 Examples (a) Let R be a ring and let x E R. then all but a finite number of the components of(a1) are zero.. We now introduce the concepts of direct product and direct sum of a family of rings. The rings R... is finite. we define them here.) (b.a2..) = It (a..). It is easy to verify that S is a subring of R.a2.. has unity.2 R7' of elements of the form (O.. E R) sequences (a.. then R can be regarded as an algebra over F.. . will not have unity even though each R.a2. Because of their many-sided importance and also for our present need to construct some interesting examples. If there exists a unique a E R such that xa = x...2 and often designated by I1..b1.b2.a.... Note that if the family of rings R. Consider the set R of ((a1 . which we write as (a.)...We define binary operations on R in the following natural way: (a1.Subrings and cbaracterls*Ic of a ring Ill Any field Fcan be regarded as an algebra over itself by defining scalar multiplication as multiplication of elements in F.. i = 1..). Also..)+(b.R1. These will be discussed in somewhat greater detail in a later chapter. and is of R1 for all i = denoted by® R is infinite.a2. it is convenient to call a the ith component of this element and to refer to addition and multiplication in R as componentwise addition and multiplication....2.O.a. Thus.. if R is a ring containing a subnng F C Z(R) such that F is a field. Moreover.a2b2. the field of real numbers R can be regarded as an algebra over the field of rational numbers Q.. Consider a subset S of R such if(a1) E S..) E R... R will have unity if every R.. The zero element of R is the element whose ith component is the zero Also.O.

Now xyx=x gives x(yx— I)—O. Then e * 0 and a(e — e2) — 0. we have (xe — x)e — Xe2 — xe —0. Thus. Hence. then there exists b E R such that ab — e. thus. If an element a of R has more than one right inverse. R. But this implies e — e2 0. bx — c has a solution. (c) Let R be a ring with I. Hence. Thus. If possible. Finally. if R has a unique right unity e. We assert that e is an identity element in B. Thus. 1). hence. (d) Let R be a ring with more than one element. forall CE R. It can be easily checked that this mapping is I-I but not onto (a0 does not have a 1 Solution. A must be an infinite set because every 1. If there exists a unique R such that xyx x.eO. a *0. It follows then that a does not have a two-sided inverse. Then x(y + r)x — x and. Similarly. Solution. if 0 * a R. y (b) Let x be a nonzero element ofa ring R with I. Then R is commuta- . then it has infinitely many right inverses. for some C R. hence. x is invertible in R. ax = x. So a+ax—x—a and. e(ex — x) —0 yields ex — x. Now. then xy — 1 — yx. y + r y. Then abx 0 forallx E R. andab =0. Also. (e) Let R be a ring such that x3 = x for all x tive. Fix a0 E A and consider the mapping a' '—' a'a — + a0 ofA to A. Chapter 1). Let A — (a' E RIaa' = preimage). we get a —0. let a b . Because. which completes the solution. This proves that each nonzero element a E R has an inverse. First we show R is an integral domain. then R is a division ring. so xe — x —0. By hypothesis A has more than one element. xy — I =0. If ax — b has a solution for all nonzero a E R and for all b E R.3. Clearly. r E R. (ba — e)b — bab — b — 0. Similarly. ac — a. R must be an integral domain. Thus. xr=O implies r='O. x(a+ax—x)—x. Solution. Solution. This proves our assertion. ac 0 for every c R.172 Rings In particular. that is. a contradiction. yx — 1 =0. Let xr =0. by hypothesis. then e is the unity of R. ba — e. eisa nonzero idempo- tent. Now for all x R. Next let x e E R be a solution of ax — a.I mapping of a finite set into itself is an onto mapping (Theorem 3.

2yxy2 + 2y2xy + 2yx = 0. and (x — y)3 = x — y implies xy2 — x2y (I) xyx — yx2 + yxy + y2x = 0. 3xy = 3yx. Consider S = (3xIx E R). 6x = 0 for all XE R. (2) By adding (I) and (2) we get 2xy2+2yxy+ 2y2x=0. S has no idempotents #0. y2 = (3x)2 = 9x2 = 6x2 + 3x2 = 3X2 = 3x y. Problems 1. Let a E [0. that is. Then the set T = (fE Slf(a) =0) is a subring such thatfg. Multiply the last equation by y on right and by y on left: 2xi' + 2yxy2 + 2y2xy = 0. (x2 — x)3 = x2 — x implies 3x2 = 3x after simplifications. Thus. 9xy = 9yx. y2 = y for all y E S implies S is commutative. so (3xX3y) = (3y)(3x).1]. Hence. as usual. respectively. It can be easily checked that S subring of is a Rand.Subrings and characteristic of a ring 173 Solution. Thus. we have xy = yx for all x. Subtract (3) from (4) to get (3) (4) 2xy= Because 2yx. by (f+ g) (x) = f(x) + g(x) and (fg) (x) = f(x)g(x).1. Also. + .y E R. Let 0 and I be the constant functions 0 and 1. ) is a commutative ring with unity. Show that (a) (b) (c) (d) (S. where we definef+ g andfg. x3 = x for all x E R implies (x + x)3 = (x + x) for all x E R. Let S = CEO. Now (x + y)3 = x + y implies xy2 + x2y + xyx + yx2 + yxy + y2x = 0. 1] be the set of real-valued continuous functions defined on the closed interval [0. R is commutative. foryES. gfE Tfor allfE Tand g ES. which implies 3xy = 3yx. . S has nonzero zero divisors.11.

b are halves of odd integers). show that a + b is also nilpotent. show that a = b.then where 6.2. (i) = (a + b a. (b) 9. Show that the set cRc (eaela E R) is a subring of R with unity e. 4(n) is Euler's function (this is called the Euler— 2 Ferinat theorem). Show also that if(x. show that R contains a subring that is in I-I correspondence with Z (this subring is called the prime subring of R). 3. Show that nilpotent elements form a subring. and (m.174 Rings 2. (a) Ifa ring R with I has characteristic 0. lfa ER such that a2 = 0.b E Z a.8).n) = I.6. (gA matrices over Z of the form Show (b) = where * denotes some integer. and invertible elements of the following rings: (i) Z/(4) (ii) Z/(20) (b) Show that the set U(R) ofunits of a ring R with unity forms a multiplicative group (cf. then a= 0. Give an example to show that this may fail if the ring is not commutative. (a) Determine the idempotents. Furthermore. If atm = btm. Prove that the following statements for a ring R are equivalent: (a) R has no nonzero nilpotent elements. nilpotent elements. (b) Let e be an idem potent in a ring R. (a) Show that the following are subrings of C. (c) Prove that an element E Z/(n) is invertible if and only if I (mod ii). If a and bare nilpotent elements ofa commutative ring. Problem 18(c)). The set A is called the ring of Gaussian integers. 4.n) = I.4. 5. 10. Also find the idempotents and nilpotent elements of S. Let R be an integral domain and a. (x.b E R. show that under any of the conditions (a) or (b) all idempotents are central. Show that S is a subring of Z10 with unity different from the unity of Z10. Let Sbe the set of 2 X that (a) S is a ring. . 8. 7. Show that the characteristic of an integral domain is either 0 or a prime number. (b) Let S = (0.n) = l. Show that an integral domain contains no idempotents except 0 and I (if I exists).

Further. for each nonzero element a in R. Define a circle composition ° in R by a b = a+b—ab. then a is quasi-regular.o). Let (U(R). e. 17.bE R. Show also that if ab is right quasi-regular. there exists bin R such that ab = a division ring. (b) axa — a is nilpotent and. (a) (b) (c) 19. Prove the following: (a) R has no nonzero nilpotent elements. Let R be a ring with unity such that for each a x R such that a2x = a.o) is a semigroup with identity. Show that a finite integral domain is a division ring. where n is some positive integer. y2a = y. and yE R is chosen as in (e). where u = I + . . Let a be an element in a ring R with unity. by a right (left) quasi-regular element in a ring R. If e is right quasi-regular. 15.e. we mean an element a E R such that the equation a+x—ax=0 (a+x—xa=0) has a solution x = b R. Let R be a ring with left identity e. An element a C R is called quasi-regular if it is both right and left quasi-regular in R. (f) aua = a. axa = a. a. show that e 0. Let a.. If there exists an invertible element u R such that aua = a. Show that if a R is nilpotent. Let e be an idem potent in a ring R. invertible elements) of R.b E R such that ha = h and a is right quasi-regular. Show that (R. Let R be a ring. show that ab = I for R there exists somebERimpliesba= 1. hence. If x4 = x for all x in a ring R.' R such that a2y = a. Let a R and let a" be right quasi-regular. Prove that R is In Problems 16—23.' = ya.Subrings and characteristic of a ring 175 11. Suppose. ) denote the group of units 20. then ba is also right quasi-regular. if R has a unity. 12. (i. Show that ha is nilpotent. and a. 13. 18. then is a group. 21. There exists. show that R is commutative. Show that (S. Let a. then I — a is invertible. 16. 14. IfS is the set of all quasi-regular elements in R. Show that a is right quasi-regular.' — ay is invertible. Suppose R has unity.h R such that ah is nilpotent. ax and xa are idempotents in the center of R. (c) (d) (e) ax = xa. Show that b = 0.

aJbk. and let ((a. is (a1 nilpotent.) = (c.u2 . i = 1. (d) R has no idempotents different from 0 and I.. (b) 0. i = 1. (f) The set of invertible elements in R along with 0 forms a 23.Xb..).) = (a.2. respectively.a2. Define addition and multiplication in (b. Let R be a ring with I such that each regular element different from I is right quasi-regular. all invertible elements and idempotent elements are von Neumann regular). u.2 n. As in a polynomial ring. Call an element a in a ring R (von Neumann) regular if there exists an element b R such that aba a (for example.. x where U(R). Then (RIEx)).a.. n> I. I # a E R is invertible if and only if a is right quasiregular. Show that the invertible elements of R are the elements (u1 .)1a1 E R).. the elements of R where c. (c) R has no nonzero nilpotent elements. = . U(R. as usual.. . Let R be the direct sum of a family of rings R. as in R[x].. Also show that a = E R is nilpotent if and only ifeach a1. + (a..) = (a0. Show that R is a division ring if and only if all but one element are right quasiregular. show that U(R2)x .. Let R be a ring with more than one element. + .. the group of units of the rings R and R1.. (e) Either 2 = 0 or 2 is invertible in R. In other words. Show that R cannot be an integral domain.. that is. ) becomes a ring. an invertible element of R.n.. Show the following: (a) 0 # a E R is invertible if and only if a is regular.176 Rings 22. 5 Additional examples of rings (a) Ring offormal power series Let R be a ring. called the ring offormalpower series over R. division ring..) denote. Let R be the direct sum of a family of rings R1 25.u1).. 24.

.0.. R<x> is called the ring of formal Laurent series over R. If addition and multiplication of elements of R(x) are defined precisely as in REx] or in REIxI).)Ia.. As an exercise... then R<x> becomes a ring containing as a subring. and let R<x) = ((.. Straightforward computations yield that R(x) isa field if R is a field.Additional exampks of rings 177 themselves may be considered to be elements ofR[fxJJ. ER).a2.i. Define addition. It is an interesting exercise to show that if R is an integral domain.k. and RIG] the set of mappings ai.. multiplication. Show that if R is commutative.. where F — Z/(2) and G is a group of order 3. with the understanding that at most a finite number of the components a..a. write the multiplication table and list some properties for the group algebra FIGI..-if(a) of G into R such that f(a) = 0 for all but a finite number of elements of G. then RIIx]J is also an integral domain.. Show that R[G] is a ring called the group algebra of G over R.j. and 1 in RIG] by (f+ g)(a) =f(a) + g(a). the elements of R<x> are infinite sequences. with i a negative integer.. (d) Quaternions over any field Readers not familiar with the notion of a basis of a vector space may skip this.aO. Further.. 0. then R is contained in the center of R[G]. (fgXa) = bc—a f(b)g(c). We shall make Q into an algebra over K by suitably defining multiplication of these basis elements in Q as follows: . (c) Group algebra Let G be a group. ifa*e.. l(a)=0 =0. Let Q be a vector space of dimension 4 over a field K. are different from zero.k) be a basis of Q over K..aI. 0(a) l(e)=l. the elements of are generally written as (b) Ring offormal Laurent series Let R be a ring. R a ring with unity. In other words. Let (I .a_k+.0.

As an exercise show that if K = C.178 RIngs . (PT o \.) We extend multiplication to the whole set Q in the obvious manner. If K= R. . then by taking Ii o\. discussed earlier in this chapter. called the algebra of quaternions over K. then Q not a division ring. I 1 1 ijk j i k I i —I k —j j —i —l (Recall that the product of any element in the left column by any element in the top row (in this order) is to be found at the intersection of the respective row and column. This yields that Q is an algebra over K. fo l\ is Io we see that Q is the same as the ring of real quaternions H.

CHAPTER 10 Ideals and homomorphisms The concept of an "ideal" in a ring is analogous to the concept of a "normal subgroup" in a group. (ii) aESandrERimplyarESandraES. (0) and R are ideals. in a commutative ring every right ideal or left ideal is two-sided. 179 . Definition. I Ideals Definition. Rings modulo an ideal are constructed in the same canonical fashion as groups modulo a normal subgroup. A nonemply subset S of a ring R is called an ideal of R if (i) a. In every ring R." Theorems proved in this chapter on the direct sum of ideals in a ring and on homomorphisms between rings are parallel to the corresponding theorems for groups proved in Chapters 5 and 8. Clearly. a right ideal or a left ideal is a subring of R. A nonempty subset Sofa ring R is called a right (left) ideal if (I) (ii) arES(raES)forallaESandrER. The role of an ideal in a "homomorphism between rings" is similar to the role of a normal subgroup in a "homomorphism between groups. so an ideal is sometimes called a two-sided ideal. Trivially. and every ideal is both right and left.bESimpliesa—bES. called trivial ideals.bESimpliesa—bES. a.

Then A is a right ideal. because a unit u C I implies u:r' E I. rE Z.180 Ideals and homomorphisms 1. Indeed. We later show that R has no nontrivial ideals. ifa right or a left ideal Iofa ring R contains a unit ofR. (e) Let R be the ring of 2 X 2 upper triangular matrices over a field F. and B1 is a left ideal in R. . let I be a subring ofZ and a El. the2 X 2 matrix ringoverafieldF. We note that a need not belong to aR. Then the subset is an ideal in R. that is. If R is commutative. (f) Let R be the ring of all functions from the closed interval [0. Then I is an ideal of R. ifr=0.1 Examples of ideals (a) In the ring of integers Z every subring is an ideal. (g)LetR F2. Then aR = (axjx C R) is R. A sufficient condition for a to be in aR is that I E R. if r<0.11 to the field of real numbers. So in every case arE I. then aR is an ideal of R. but 1 is neither a right ideal nor a left ideal I= of R. I E I. Hence. Let CE [0. If then I is an ideal of S. so for all r R. LetS= [lflbelhe set of upper triangular matrices over F. and Ra=(xaIxER) is a left ideal of R. in this case aR is the smallest right ideal containing a. (b) The right as well as left ideals ofa division ring are trivial ideals only. Foranyl nletA. then! is the whole ring. To see this. Then r times =0 —r times ifr>0. we have r = rI C I. I = (c) Let R be a ring and a R. except possibly the ith. Hence.1] and! = (f C RJf(c) = 0). (or B1) be the set of matrices in R having all rows (columns). zero. (d)LetRbethen X nmatrixringoverafieldF. Then S is a subring of R. a right ideal of R. I is an ideal ofZ.

If D is a division ring. then R = D. Similarly. x E I. that is.. a55r E A..2 does not hold. it follows that Theorem 1. in general.. Hence. let E A. has nontrivial right. 0 As an immediate consequence. Then 1A. The following theorem states that the converse is true for rings with unity..1 E = in I. Our purpose is to show that we can multiply x suitably on the right and left to produce an element in I whose entry at the (1.j = 1.. Here we will show that each term a13e11 of x is in I.. hence... On the other hand... Then the matrix El. ideals Isee Example 1... ra51 E A. Proof Let (a11 E i. Let x = C land let rand s be some fixed integers between I and n. where A is some nonzero ideal in D. This completes the proof.3e55.1) position This will mean that all a. Thus. XE A. El such that Because au C A. A = D. Proof Let I be a nonzero ideal in D... and fi = an ideal. Clearly. Theorem. We now proceed to show that! = A. then it can be easily shown that the ring A. has no nontrivial ideals. Because (0) and Dare also the only right (or left) ideals of D. Then we claim A is an ideal in R.1 E A and.Ideab 181 If Next we prove an important result about ideals in the matrix ring A is an ideal in the ring R. If a ring R has unity. so! = D. Because A.2 ring RN is of the form where A is some ideal in R. Next. as desired. hence. there exists a matrix = Then = C 1. then every ideal fin the matrix 1. 0 Remark. let rE R and a51 E A with E I... as well as left.3 E A. and. Thus. C I for each i. So A is an ideal in R. if we replace the word "ideal" by "right ideal" (or "left ideal") in the theorem.. ofall a X a matrices with entries from A is an ideal in R.2 a.2 n.. proving that (0) and D. we get an important result contained in 1.. denote the matrix units in R.1 (d)1. But the only ideals in any division ring Dare (0) and D.3 Corollary.. a —/1 El. so a11 — b11 CA.... I C A. are the only ideals in the ring!). For let a11 . D. aiieii) e35 = a. Then there exist matrices a = save.j = 1..b.. If a> I. Set A = El).. x= which shows a. .

for some a R. is also a rig/u (left) ideal.. rE R.. Definition.. because A. In a similar manner we define a finitely generated left ideal.+) is a subgroup of(R. for matrix rings over rings without unity. A right ideal I of a ring R is called finitely generated (a1 am)p for some a. But since (R. Then 0 because R E Let! = Then! is the smallest right ideal of R containing Sand is denoted by (S).2 does not hold. Define multiplication by ab = 0 for all a.EAA. then (S)r is also written (a1 . Then for all i A.4 Then Theorem.+)..2 is not necessarily true if R is a ring without unity. Thus a — b and ar (ra) E fl. where p is prime. respectively. and Ic R2. proving that flIEAA. lfXis an additive subgroup of(R. . Simi- larly. 0 Next. we have xr = 0 E X and rx 0 E X. is a right (left) ideal. are right (left) ideals. R.+). a — bE A.am). Let (A..b ER.. denoted. Theorem 1. IfS = (a1 .b fl. A right ideal I of a ring R is called principal if! = (a). and a principal ideal. Then R isa ring without unity. But clearly I 0. it is straightforward to verify that i={(g is an ideal in R2. then Xis also an ideal.. I i m. This implies I (0) or R2. A.. Proof Let a.am} is a finite set. (0) and Rare the only ideals of R.EA be a family of right (left) ideals in a ring R. Suppose I = A2 for some ideal A in R. The smallest right ideal of R containing a subset S is called a right ideal generated by S.+) has no proper subgroups. Let (R. let Sbe a subset ofa ring R.since (0) or Rare the only ideals in R. 1... a finitely generated ideal. Letd = (AlA is a right ideal ofR containing S)..). Now. a principal left ideal.182 Ideals and homomorphisms Further.. the following example shows that Theorem 1. I= Definition. Hence.EAA. because for all x E X and r E R. we define the left ideal and the ideal generated by a subset S. and ar (ra) A. by (S)1 and (S). in general.. Example.+) be an additive group of order p.. It then follows that a nonempty subset X of R is an ideal of R if (X.

and thus. We can make RI! into a ring by defining addition and multiplication as follows: 5b = ab. For a. It can be easily checked that the class of elements of the form a + x. it is also denoted by a + I. Then for any element m C I. r must be zero. these can be simplified to (a) = I. We note that all ideals in the ring of integers Z and the polynomial ring F(x) over a field Fare principal. Then is an equivalence relation in R. where 0 r < n. x C I. so I = (n). Definition. Similarly. and let n be the smallest positive integer in I (note that I does contain positive integers). If I E R. Similarly. We now proceed to define the quotient ring of a ring R. m = qn. we define principal righi (left) ideal rings.bn.tesurn r1as1Ir1.1 (a)1 = (arir E R). we write m = qn + r. (a)1. Because n is the smallest positive integer in I. Z and F[x] are principal ideal rings. Thus. and (a)1.1.s1 C . Chapter Il). A ring in which each ideal is principal is called a principal ideal ring (PIR). and let RI! be the equivalence class containing a. n E Z).183 We leave it as an exercise to verify that (a)— Unite turn (a). aR. Then r = m — qn C I. n E Z). Let I be a nonzero ideal in Z. In this case the symbols RaR. Let RI! denote the set of equivalence classes. A commutative integral domain with unity that is a principal ideal ring is called a principal ideal domain (ND). (a)1 = {ra + flair E R. (a)1 = (rairE R). Let! be an ideal in a ring R. by using the division algorithm for F[x] (Theorem 4. . and Ra are also used for (a). respectively. we can show that every ideal in F[xJ is principal. Hence.h C R define a b(mod I) ifa — b C I. = (ar + nair E R.

and let R[xJ be the polynomial ring over R. ) is called the quotient ring of R modulo!. abstractly speaking. then RI! is also commutative. If n —0. If n #0. The ring RI! is also sometimes denoted by R if there is no ambiguity If! R.letñ—Eandb—d. Examples E Z) be an ideal in Z. if I R. ab = cd. First. with a.5 about!. (R/I.+) is an additive abeian group: 1+ (5+ E) — (b-I-c) — (a + (b + c))—(a+ b) + c (1) (2) (3) (4) a+b'=a+b=b+a=S+ä Second. then RI! is. we proceed to_show that multiplication is well defined. If ! = (0). 1. Then the ring (R/L+.•) is a ring. the same as the ring R by identifying a + (0). and if R is commutative. b — d E I. Let ! be an idea! in a ring R. similarly. Definition. (a) Let(n) — (b) Let R be a ring with unity. (RI! ñ(b E) ) is a semigroup: a(bc) = a(bc) — (ab)c — (ab)E—' (ab)ë (5) Third. a E R.Thena—cE!andb—dEL Write ab — cd= a(b — d) + (a — c)d. then RI! is the zero ring. Then the quotient ring R[xJI! = (ñIa R). then the quotient ring the usual ring of integers modulo n. Further. Let I (x) be the ideal in R(xJ consisting of the multiples of x. we have ab — cd E 1.184 Ideals and homomorphisms We can easily show that these binary operations are well defined. We show (R/!. Hence. then I is the unity of R/!. which is an ideal. This proves that multiplication is well defined.+. For example. then Z/(n) is ZI(n) is the same as Z. There- fore. the distnbutive laws hold: (6) (7) (i + E)i = + ëã. Because a — c. .

Let x E 1. if ER[x]/!. Therefore. + E R/A C R/A — . = i.soingeneral. Let a+bx+cx2+" ER[xJ/(x2+l). Then Solution. Thisyieldsi3 = and Then = ±iif n is odd. Then —1.Ideals 185 Solution.i" = ±lifniseven forsomea.andsoon.fiER. and i is identified with 1. Then x 0. Lndeed. R[x]/(x2 + 1) is the field of complex numbers. where is identified with a. (d) Let R and let A be an ideal in R. then a+bx+cx2+ showing that R[xJ/I = E R}. E R/A Hence. Let (0 Then x\E(0 Q 0 (o x \o o Therefore. R[xJ/(x2 + 1)= R) where = —T. Thus. (c) Consider the quotient ring R(xJ/(x2 + 1).

that is. Let g)EAforsomeaEQ}. in this case any right ideal of R is of the form where K is an additive subgroup of Q. AC('flbZ Q Therefore. jfK is an additive subgroup of Q. n0 0. where is identified with n. indeed. Let g)EA}. X = n0Z for some n0 E Z. X (0). hence. Therefore. Then (n0z q\(n0 \0 0/ \0 0)\0 Hence.186 Ideals and homomorphisms R/A is. Clearly. . K is an additive subgroup of Q. (e) Find the nontrivial (i) right ideals and (ii) ideals of the ring R = Solution. 1(n0z \0 Q 0' as claimed. (1) Let A be a nonzero right ideal of R. and A = Conversely. X is an additive subgroup of Z. Clearly. q/n0 0 EA (n0ZQCA \O 0 Trivially. X= (0). We show \0 Q 0 Let a E Q be such that Let zE Z and qE Q. The proof also shows that A is a principal right ideal of R. Case 2. it is easy to verify that is indeed a right ideal of R. the ring of integers. Case 1.

2. Then there exists a natural mapping that sends a R into c R/!. (Consider A={(T where n0 and a are fixed elements in Z and Q. we have an example of a ring that is not commutative in which each right ideal is an ideal. 7. Prove the converse of Problem 1. and ideals of a ring R = Show that every nonzero ideal in the ring of formal power series F([x)) in an indeterminate x over a field Fis of the form (xi for some nonnegative integer m.) Problems I. This mapping preserves binary operations . (2) of R are also left ideals. 5. (b A c) = (a v I. eeL. Find all ideals in Z and also in Z/( 10). Give an example to show that the lattice L(R) need not be distributive. [A lattice is called distributive if a v a. left ideals.) A (a 8. It is interesting to note that each left ideal of R is not an ideal. Therefore. Show that L(R) is a modular lattice (see Problem 17. Section 1. and let! be an ideal in R. Let R/! be the quotient ring ofR modulo 1. Find right ideals. Find all ideals in a polynomial ring Fixi over a field F. Prove that R is a field. Let L(R) be the set of all right (left) ideals in a ring R. Let R be a commutative ring with unity. b. respectively. Generalize Problem I to noncommutative rings with unity having no nontrivial right ideals. Chapter 5). 4.] 2 v c) for all HomomorphIsms Let R be a ring.Homolnorplllsm3 187 (ii) It is straightforward to verify that the nontrivial right ideals A an additive subgroup of Q. 3. 6. Suppose R has no nontrivial ideals.

In this case we say that the two rings R and S are isomorphic.norphism)ofR into S. The symbol R C. and.nbedding of the ring R into the ring S (or R is embeddable ins). It is easy to verify that if!: R —' Sand g: Tare isomorphisms of R onto Sand S onto T. Leif be a mapping from a ring R into a ring S such that (i) (ii) f(a+b)=f(a)+f(b). Then we have the following: 2. we also say that Scontains a copy of R. (iii) The set (f(a)la E R) is a subring of S called the homomorphic image of R by the mappingf and is denoted by Im forf(R). R Sand S = Timply R = T. abstractly speaking. then gfis also an isomorphism of R onto T. these rings can be regarded as the same. Let us now list a few elementary but fundamental properties of homomorphisms.b€R. and R may be identified with a subring of S.1 ofa ring R into a ring (I) If 0 is the zero of R. Thus. thenfis called an isomorphism (or a mono. Then f is called a homomorphism of R into S. Definition. (ii) If a E R. Leif R —' S be a S. respectively. Ihenf(O) is tile zero of S. Also. S means that R is embeddable in S. then f(— a) = —f(a). Hence.b E R. . 1ff is 1-1. If a homomorphismffrom a ring R into a ring Sis both 1-1 and onto. In this casef is also called an e. we have shown that Isomorphism is an equivalence relation in the class of rings. a. The mapping is called a natural or canonical homomorphism. (iv) The set (a E Rlf(a) =0) is an ideal in R called the kernel off and is denoted by Kerforf '(0). As stated above R S implies S R. then there exists a homomorphism g from S into R that is also I-I and onto. the identity mapping gives R R for any ring R. a.I homomorphism of R onto S. Theorem. f(ab) =f(a)