Gas Gathering


Gas Gathering

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Figure 1 The gas in this case is varied. the elevation changes. a gas gathering system located on varied terrain is simulated using the steady state capabilities of HYSYS. Additional Mixer operations are used to model mixing points where flows from remote wells are combined in common lines.2 Gas Gathering Workshop In this example. The following figure shows the physical configuration of this system superimposed on a topographic map. A Mixer combines all of the incoming gas streams from the outlying wells into one common header. both sour and sweet gas are being combined in the pipeline. 2 . The system consists of four wells distributed over an area of approximately 2. connected to a gas plant via a network of pipelines. Flowlines extending from this central site to each of the individual wells are modelled in HYSYS using the Pipe Segment operation.0 square km. as well as a gas condensate mixture. must be accounted for in the Pipe Segments. Since the plant is located in an area with mixed terrain.

6 mm (4") 76. All pipes are uninsulated.2 mm (3") 101.2 mm (3") 101.6 mm (4") 76. Prerequisites Before beginning this module you need to know how to add streams and unit operations. Process Overview Pipe Diameters for each of the branches are: Pipe Branch Branch 1 Branch 2 Branch 3 Branch 4 Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 7 Diameter 76. 3 .2 mm (3") 152 mm (6") 152 mm (6") Schedule 40 steel pipe is used throughout and all branches are buried at a depth of 1 m (3 ft).Gas Gathering 3 Learning Objectives Once you have completed this module. you will be able to use the Pipe Segment in HYSYS to model pipelines.

5 (2075) -7.4 Gas Gathering Elevation data for each of the branches are provided in the following table.5 (40) -14 (-45) -1 (-3) 637 (2090) -4 (-13) 632. Branches that traverse undulating terrain have been subdivided into a number of segments with elevation points assigned at locations where there is a significant slope change.5 (2089) 637 (2090) 637 (2090) 648 (2125) 634 (2080) 633 (2077) 633 (2077) 625 (2050) 617 (2025) 617 (2025) 604 (1980) 6 (15) -6.5 (2085) 12.5 (-21) 0. Such locations in the network are labeled on the schematic diagram with the elevation value in italics.5 (-25) -8 (-25) 633 (2077) -16 (-52) 617 (2025) -13 (-45) Elevation Change meters (feet) Branch Branch 1 Segment GasWell 1 1 2 3 Branch 2 Branch 3 GasWell 2 1 GasWell 3 1 2 3 Branch 4 Branch 5 Branch 1 & 2 1 GasWell 4 1 2 Branch 6 Branch 7 Branch 3 & 4 1 Branch 5 & 6 1 4 . Length meters (feet) Elevation meters (feet) 639 (2095) 150 (500) 125 (410) 100 (325) 200 (665) 160 (525) 100 (325) 205 (670) 355 (1165) 180 (590) 165 (540) 300 (985) 340 (1115) 645 (2110) 636.5 (1) 614 (2015) 23 (75) 635.

Process Overview .

n-C4. Four levels of complexity in heat transfer estimation allow you to find a solution as rigorously as required while allowing for quick generalized solutions to well-known problems. C6. C7+*. C1. is also available as a gradient method. In addition there are a large number of specialty pressure drop correlations available. The fluid package needs to contain the components from the Getting Started module as well as the oil components from the Gas Chromatograph module. i-C5. H20. H2S. and Mandhane. to large capacity looped pipeline problems. and Beggs and Brill. NBP[0]171*. Consult the on-line help and the manual for more information on these methods. The following components should appear in the fluid package. NBP[0]322*.6 Gas Gathering Building the Simulation The gas field will be modelled using the Peng Robinson property package. CO2. C2. N2. corresponding to the different NBP. open the case from the Oil Characterization module (containing the four Gas Well streams). A third option. C3. If you are using Field units. Aziz. It offers the common pressure drop correlations developed by Gregory. The four streams should have the following values: GasWell 1 Temperature °C (°F) Pressure kPa (psia) Flow kgmole/h (lbmole/hr) 40 (105) 4135 (600) 425 (935) GasWell 2 45 (115) 3450 (500) 375 (825) GasWell 3 45 (115) <empty> 575 (1270) GasWell 4 35 (95) <empty> 545 (1200) Adding the Pipe Segments The pipe segment is used to simulate a wide variety of piping situations ranging from single/multiphase plant piping with rigorous heat transfer estimation. 6 . NBP[0]243*. NBP[0]432*. the oil components will have different names. NBP[0]92*. i-C4. OLGAS. n-C5. Rather than adding the components and the oil again.

each Pipe Operation may contain multiple segments to represent the various elevation rises and drops. we will be using seven individual pipe segment operations in the gathering system. Complete the Connections page as shown below: Figure 2 7 . 2. Adding the first Pipe Segment 1. you must supply enough information to completely define both the material balance and energy balance. Product and Energy stream connections are made. Pipe Segment icon Double-click on the Pipe Segment icon. Connections page On the Connections page. Flow. the appropriate mode will automatically be selected depending on the information supplied.Gas Gathering 7 The pipe segment offers three calculation modes: Pressure Drop. In addition. the Feed. and Length. In order to solve the pipe. In this simulation.

Homogeneous Flow OLGAS2000_2P OLGAS2000_3P Orkiszewski Poettman & Carpenter Tacite Hydrodynamic Module Tulsa99 For single phase streams. For all of the pipes in this example. The pressure drop for the pipe can be supplied on the Parameters page. Aziz. use the Beggs and Brill correlation for two-phase flow. Each pipe section and fitting is labeled as a segment. The first pipe. The options are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aziz. you can select the gradient method which will be used for two-phase (VL) flow calculations. Mandhane Hagedorn & Brown HTFS. diameters. Rating tab Sizing page On the Sizing page. In this example. pipe material and a number of increments. you construct the length-elevation profile for the Pipe Segment. Govier & Fogarasi Baxendell & Thomas Beggs & Brill Duns & Ros Gregory.8 Gas Gathering Parameters page On this page. Branch 1 is broken into three segments. the Darcy equation is used for pressure drop predictions. 8 . you must also specify pipe schedule. To fully define the pipe sections segments. it will be left empty and calculated. Liquid Slip HTFS.

7. The Outer and Inner Diameter will be calculated by HYSYS. Pipe 150 m (500 ft) 6 m (15 ft) Horizontal pipe sections have an Elevation of 0. select 76. Enter. 4.5 m (-21 ft) 40 76.. 3 Pipe 100 m (325 ft) 0. 5. Use the default Pipe Material.Gas Gathering 9 3. 80 and 160.5 m (1 ft) 40 76.. click the View Segment button. In this cell.0018 inch). Two more segments are needed to complete the branch. Add the first segment to the pipe unit operation by clicking the Append Segment button. From the Available Nominal Diameters group. 8. Mild Steel and the default Roughness. Specify the following information for the segment..20 mm (3 inch) diameter pipe and click the Specify button... 2 Pipe 125 m (410 ft) -6.572e-5 m (0. Fitting/Pipe Length Elevation Change 4. Select Schedule 40 as the Pipe Schedule.2 mm (3 inch) Enter.... In this cell. To specify the diameter. Positive elevation indicates that the outlet is higher than the inlet. HYSYS contains a database for three pipe schedules. 40. Segment Fitting/Pipe Length Elevation Schedule Nominal Diameter 9 ..2 mm (3 inch) 6. Enter..

then rigorous heat transfer calculations are performed on each increment of the pipe. • • • • • By Segment. If the Overall heat duty of the segment is known. You have the option of specifying the heat transfer information By Segment or Overall. Each increment is assumed to have the same heat loss. You specify the Ambient Temperature and HTC (Heat Transfer Coefficient) for each segment that was created on the Dimensions page. the view should look like this: Figure 3 The Pipe Segment is not yet able to solve because we have not specified any information about the heat transfer properties of the pipe. Stream Temperatures. One of four heat transfer methods will be applied to the whole pipe segment.10 Gas Gathering When all three segments have been added and defined. you select the method that HYSYS will use for the heat transfer calculations. Heat Transfer page On this page. If both inlet and outlet and ambient temperatures are specified. a linear profile is assumed and the overall heat duty can be calculated. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Specified. Overall. Duty Method. 10 . the energy balance can be calculated immediately. If the overall HTC and Ambient Temperature are known.

9. Switch to the Estimate HTC page. use the Estimate HTC method.Gas Gathering 11 • Heat Transfer Coefficient Estimation. The overall HTC can be found from its component parts. and complete it as follows: Figure 4 What is the outlet pressure of Branch 1? _______________________________ 11 . and enter an Ambient Temperature of 5°C (40°F) 10. Switch to the Overall HTC radio button. • Inside Film Convection • Outside Conduction/Convection • Conduction through Insulation For all pipes in this simulation.

Add two Pipe Segments with the following values: Enter.. 1. Outer and Pipe Wall HTC 5° Ambient temperature In this cell. In this cell.6 mm (4 in) Schedule 40 Estimate the Inner. Branch 3 GasWell 3 B3 Out B3-Q 160 m (525 ft) 12.. Heat Transfer Branch 2 GasWell 2 B2 Out B2-Q 200 m (655 ft) 23 m (75 ft) 101. use Schedule 40.12 Gas Gathering Completing the Simulation Now add the remaining unit operations to your case.. Connections Name Inlet Outlet Energy Dimensions Segment 1 Length Elevation Nominal Diameter Segment 2 Length Elevation Nominal Diameter Segment 3 Enter. Connections Name Inlet Outlet Energy Dimensions Segment 1 Length Elevation Nominal Diameter Remember for all pipes in this example.5 m (40 ft) 76..2 mm (3 in) 12 .... an Ambient Temperature of 5°C and do not estimate the HTC for Insulation.2 mm (3 in) 100 m (325 ft) -14 m (-45 ft) 76..

In this cell. Add two Pipe Segments to your case with the values provided in the following tables... Connections Name Inlet Enter.2 mm (3 in) Estimate the Inner... Branch 5 GasWell 4 13 . Length Elevation Nominal Diameter Heat Transfer Enter.....6 mm (4 in) Estimate the Inner. B2 Out J1 Out Set Outlet to Lowest Inlet 3.. Outer and Pipe Wall HTC In this cell...Gas Gathering 13 In this cell. Outer and Pipe Wall HTC 2. In this cell. 205 m (670 ft) -1 m (-3 ft) 76... Add a Mixer with the following information: Enter.. Connections Name Inlet Outlet Energy Dimensions Segment 1 Length Elevation Nominal Diameter Heat Transfer Branch 4 J1 Out B4 Out B4-Q 355 m (1165 ft) -4 m (-13 ft) 101. Connections Name Inlets Outlet Parameters Pressure Assignment Junction 1 B1 Out. Enter...

. Add a second Mixer to your case. In this cell.. Connections Name Inlet Outlet Energy Dimensions Segment 1 Length Branch 6 J2 Out B6 Out B6-Q 300 m (985 ft) 14 . In this cell..2 mm (3 in) Estimate the Inner.. Connections Name Inlets Outlet Parameters Pressure Assignment Junction 2 B3 Out.5 m (-25 ft) 76.. Outlet Energy Dimensions Segment 1 Length Elevation Nominal Diameter Segment 2 Length Elevation Nominal Diameter Heat Transfer Enter... Outer and Pipe Wall HTC 4... Add a Pipe Segment to your case.. Enter. B5 Out B5-Q 180 m (590 ft) -7. B4 Out J2 Out Equalize All What is the pressure of GasWell 3? _____________________________________ How was this calculated? _____________________________________________ 5.. Enter.2 mm (3 in) 165 m (540 ft) -8 m (-25 ft) 76.14 Gas Gathering In this cell..

In this cell. B6 Out J3 Out Equalize All What is the pressure of GasWell 4? _____________________________________ How was this calculated? _____________________________________________ 7...4 mm (6 in) Estimate the Inner. Elevation Nominal Diameter Heat Transfer Enter.. Connections Name Inlet Outlet Energy Dimensions Segment 1 Length Elevation Nominal Diameter Heat Transfer Branch 7 J3 Out B7 Out B7-Q 340 m (1115 ft) -13 m (-45 ft) 152. Connections Name Inlets Outlet Parameters Pressure Assignment Junction 3 B5 Out.Gas Gathering 15 In this cell. -16 m (-52 ft) 152.4 mm (6 in) Estimate the Inner... Add a Mixer to the simulation.. Enter. In this cell... Outer and Pipe Wall HTC Save your case! 15 . Outer and Pipe Wall HTC 6. Add another Pipe Segment to the simulation with the following values: Enter.....

which consists of a Table tab and a Plot tab. The Table tab shows the following information for each increment along the Pipe Segment. • • • • • • • • • • • • Length Elevation Pressure Temperature Heat Transferred Flow Regime Liquid Holdup Friction Gradient Static Gradient Accel Gradient Bulk Liquid and Vapour Reynolds Number Bulk Liquid and Vapour Velocity The Plot tab graphically displays the profile data that is listed on the Table tab. you access the Pipe Profile view.16 Gas Gathering Optional Convert your case to a template and save! Analyzing the Results If you saved your case as a template. By clicking the View Profile button. elevation and number of increments are displayed for each segment. The Profiles page on the Performance tab provides a summary table for the segments which make up the Pipe Segment. close the template and open the saved case. The distance. 16 .

Gas Gathering 17 Open the property view for Branch 1 and examine the Table and Plots on the Profiles page of the Performance tab. Figure 5 Figure 6 17 .

He reports that the temperature is 38°C (100°F) and the pressure is 7457 kPa (1080 psia). 18 . Can the existing pipeline handle this increased flow? If not.18 Gas Gathering Exploring the Simulation Exercise 1: Pipe Flow The flow of gas being produced by GasWell 2 increases to about 1000 kgmole/h (2200 lbmole/hr). Peter Reynolds to go out to the field and measure the temperature and pressure of the gas that is being delivered to the Gas Plant. what do you find the pressure of each of the Gas Wells to be? Hint: you will have to make some changes to the simulation in order for it to solve completely. what pipe is limiting the flow in the system? What size will be required for this branch? Do any other parts of the pipeline need to be changed? Challenge You instruct your summer student. Using your HYSYS simulator.

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