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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

A STUDY OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


PROCESS AT APOLLO TYRES
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my guide


Mr. K. Prabhakar (Head Corporate HR Apollo Tyres Ltd.)
for taking personal interest, providing valuable guidance,
encouragement and timely supervision throughout the
completion of this project.

I am extremely indebted to Mr. for his guidance and


enriching suggestions without which this project would be
lacking in competence.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 Executive Summary 1

 Introduction

• Training and Development 3

• Review of Literature 26

 Scope of The Project

• Significance 32

• Project Objectives 33

• Company Profile 34

 Methodology 50

• Sample 50

• Data Collection 50

• Limitation 51

• Training and Development at Apollo Tyres 52

 Results 61

 Analysis and Conclusion 65

 Recommendations 73

• Scope of Further Research 74

 Bibliography 75
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Never before has the rapid increase in new knowledge and


technology and in the base of change and itself demanded
a learning response as great as what is now required to
remain competitive. Today individuals and organizations
must become continuous learners to survive and hence it is
not surprising to find that most successful organisations
operate in a continuous learning mode.

The challenge of globalization, technological innovation


increasing competition and growth through expansion,
diversification and acquisition has had a wide-ranging and
far reaching impact on HRD. There is a need for a
continuous process that aims at providing fresh knowledge
and skill inputs to the employees so as to ensure the
development of their competencies, dynamism, motivation
and effectiveness in a systematic and planned way, thereby
improving the productivity and overall organizational
effectiveness. As a result, training and development
activities have acquired great significance and are now
firmly centre-stage in most of the organizations. Hence it
can be said that with the advent of free market economy
rapid change in the environment, training and development
activities have assumed an importance never before
witnessed in Indian corporate history.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Training is the process of assisting a person in enhancing


his efficiency and effectiveness at work by improving and
updating his professional knowledge developing his
personal skills relevant to his work and cultivating in him
appropriate behavior and attitude towards his work and
people he is working with. Development takes place as a
result of training and essentially implies growth plus
change. Thus, training and development go hand in hand.
My endeavor has been to gain an in-depth insight into the
process of discovering, harnessing and developing of the
human capital to the benefit of both the individual and the
organization into days highly dynamic and competitive
business world through a comprehensive study and analysis
of the latest training and development techniques used by
Apollo Tyres Limited.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT –


SCALING NEW HEIGHTS

Corporate success depends upon having and retaining


talented people. This is true today as it has always been.
The shortage of such people is widely accepted and
training, at long last, is beginning to be recognized as part
of the solution and hence the total investment in training
is on the rise. This is true for all organizations. There
really is no alternative than to make sure that human skills
so vital to the corporate success are recognized,
harnessed, developed and suitably maintained.

Training is not however, one ‘one-off’ investment. It is a


continuing investment. Not only is it needed to create the
skilled workforce, but also maintain the high levels of
skills demanded by the ever changing, highly dynamic
work place.

The return on investment on HRD is still controversial in


view of the time variable in achieving the desired change
and effectiveness in the employees. The top management
looks at the loss and profit equation for any activity. It is
interested in the benefits to the organization in the terms
of increased productivity, increased profitability, reduction
in wastage etc in return for investment in training. Hence,
evaluation of training programmers and introduction of the

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necessary corrective measures also assumes considerable


significance.

Training is the most important function that contributes directly


to the development of human resources. If human resources
have to be developed, the organization should create conditions
in which people acquire new knowledge and skills and develop
healthy patterns of behavior and styles. One of the main
mechanisms of achieving this environment is training.

Training is essential because technology is developing


continuously and at a fast rate. Systems and practices get
outdated soon due to new discoveries in technology, including
technical, managerial and behavioral aspects. Organizations,
which do not develop mechanisms to catch up with and use the
growing technology, soon become outdated. However,
developing individuals in the organization can contribute to the
effectiveness of the organization.

Training and development are important activities in all


organizations, large and small. Every organization, regardless of
size, needs to have well-trained employees in its workforce who
are prepared to perform their jobs.

The term 'training' refers to the acquisition of specific skills or


knowledge. Training programs attempt to teach trainees to
perform a specific job and a particular activity.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

The term 'development' usually refers to improving the


intellectual or emotional abilities needed to do a better
job.

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PRINCIPLES AND EVALUATION OF TRAINING

Training is the process of assisting a person for enhancing his


efficiency and effectiveness at work by improving and updating
his professional knowledge, by developing skills relevant to his
work and cultivating appropriate behaviour and attitude towards
work and people. Training could be designed either for improving
present capabilities at work or for preparing a person for
assuming higher. Responsibilities in future which would call for
additional knowledge and superior skills.

Training is different from education particularly formal education.


While education is concerned mainly with enhancement of
knowledge, training aims essentially at increasing knowledge,
stimulating aptitude and imparting skills related to a specific job.

In India, considerable importance has been accorded to training


in social development and this is evident form the fact that the
community spends roughly six million dollars annually on training
every year. But there are complains about the ineffectiveness of
training and possible waste of resources because of the use of
stereotyped and conventional methods in training which are
often not set completely in tune with job requirements.

It is a continuous process

Training is a continuous and life long process. Right form the


time a child is born he starts receiving training form his mother
for a variety of needs, so that he becomes a social being. His
training continues in the school and the college situations.

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However training as an organized effort is designed with certain


objectives, for example to help the trainees to be informed of the
subject matter which they have to use in their work situation.
Apart from change of attitudes, their skills have to be improved
and knowledge or information has to be imparted through
effective methods. In other worlds, training provides and
synthesizing with the help of the trainers, the information already
available on the subject. Training is a time-bound programme.
Thus there is a separate specialized discipline of trainers
specializing in the field of human activity.

Prevailing concept New concept

1. The acquisition of subject 1. Motivation and skills lead to


matter knowledge by a action. Skills are acquired
participant leads to action. through practice.

2. The participant learns what 2. Learning is a complex


the trainer teaches. Learning function of the motivation
is a simple function of the and capacity of the
capacity of the participant to individual participant, the
learn and the ability of the norms of the training groups
trainer to teach. the training methods and the
behaviour of the trainers and
the general climate of the
institution. The participant's
motivation is influenced by
the climate of his work
organization.

3. Individual action leads to 3. Improvement on the job is


improvement on the job. complex function of
individual learning the norms

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of the working group and the


general climate of the
organization. Individual
learning used leads to
frustration.

4. Training is the responsibility 4. Training is the responsibility


of the training institution. It of three partners: the
begins and ends with the participant organization the
course. participant, and the training
institution. It has a
preparatory pertaining and a
subsequent, post-training
phase. All are equally
important to the success of
training.

There has been in some quarter’s criticism of training and it is


often argued that personnel can acquire administrative
capabilities and work skills through apprenticeship capabilities
and work skills through apprenticeship rather than through
formal training. While the training cannot by itself guarantee the
success of a development programme, its untrained personnel
are unlikely to prove effective. It is in this context that expert;
administrators and planners greatly appreciate the relevance of
training in development process.

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INTERACTION BETWEEN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT AND


OTHER HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS

The Training opportunities


reduce the demand for
interaction highly qualified
between applicants
training and
developmen
t and other
human Staffing
resource
functions
Careful selection may
reduce the need for
training. But hiring
additional employees
adds to training needs

Training helps employees


perform better
Training Performa
and nce
develop Performance evaluations evaluatio
ment provide information that n
helps to assess training
needs

Training should improve


performance and result
in higher levels of pay
Compens
Financial incentives can ation
create greater
enthusiasm for training
and increased
participation

Skilled employees should


perform better, reducing
Employee
the probability of
relations
grievances and discipline

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Unions may participate in


the design and
presentation of the
training
The Training Cycle

A training cycle consists of a series of steps which lead


to a training event being undertaken. Evaluation provides
feedback which links back to the initial stages of training
design. Indeed, it is the evaluation/ feedback process
which makes this a cyclical event without it training would
be a linear process leading from initiating training through
to its implementation. The steps in the cycle are:-

Stage1: Identification of training needs. Examining what


skills and attributes are necessary for the job to be
undertaken, the skills and attributes of the job holder and
the extent of the gap.

Stage2: Design, preparation and delivery of training.

Stage 3: Discovering the trainees attitude to training


(reaction) and whether the training has been useful from
the point of view of training. Reaction involves the
participants feelings towards the training process,
including the training content, the trainer and the training
methods used. Learning is the extent to which the trainee
has actually absorbed the content of the learning event.

Stage 4: Discovering whether the lessons learnt during


training have been transferred to the job and are being
used effectively in doing the job.

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Identification of
training needs

DESIGN,

PREPARATI
Reaction to and
learning from the
training

Transferring training
tot he work place

Evaluation of the
impact on the
organisation

Measuring perspective
effects.

Stage5: Evaluating the effects of the training on the


organization. Thus is the area on which there is perhaps
most confusion, subsequently little real action to clear it.

Stage 6: Reinforcement of positive behavior. It is optimal


that positive outcomes are maintained for as long as
possible. It is not rare event for changes in behavior to be
temporary, with a gentle slide back to previous ways of

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working. It is important to note the feedback loops.


Feedback on the process of actually delivering the training
can come from the reaction and learning stage, the
transfer of the training to the work place and the
evaluation of the impact of the training. The main,
feedback for the identification of training needs comes
from an assessment of the transfer of work to the training
and the evaluation of the impact on the organization.

It is important to note that these feedback loops may


consist of two very different types of information.

• To determine the worth of training to the organization- a


process best done by quantitative methods and with
hard, numerical data.

• Allowing insights into the method of learning, where


the experience of those involved are the main focus,
thus using mainly softer, qualitative information.

Identification of training needs

The procedure of identifying training and development


needs is crucial for the success of the training function
and requires to be carried out systematically on a regular
basis, preferably every year.

How are training needs identified to match the


organizational requirements in terms of technology /task/
people? Has the training bought the desired change in the
individuals performance and if so, how is it assessed?

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These are the focal points, which require attention of the


HR professionals to assess the training needs of the
employees working in the organization.

Many organization have their own system to identifying


training needs every year. However, need identification
exercise can do real harm if the needs are not met by
conducting suitable programs. Managers must perceive
that their recommendations are grown due consideration
and suitable actions are initiated to satisfy the felt needs.
Only then, they will take this exercise seriously. Hence,
formulation of suitable and need based training programs
and their timely implementation is very important for the
success of any training program.

Evaluation of Training Programs

Training programs are conducted with a view to help the


employees to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitude
necessary to perform the task assigned to them. They are
conducted in order to bring about a planned change which
in turn involves substantial investment of money, time and
efforts. Therefore, one has to know whether such an
investment in training yielded the desired results. This
desire naturally leads to evaluation of training.

Evaluation means literally, the assessment of value or


worth. Strictly speaking the act of evaluating training is the
act of judging whether or not it was worthwhile in terms of
some criterion of value, in the light of the information

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available. Evaluation is the tool whereby information about


the result of trainees, interaction with the learning
experiences systematically collected and analyzed. Thus,
evaluation can provide useful data both for improvement of
training and enhancement of learning. In brief it is
important in 3 ways.

• It indicates whether appropriate monetary investment is


made on the implementation of training programs.

• It determines the degree of effectiveness and success of


the training programs.

• It provides a basis for introductory the necessary


corrective measures.

The benefits of constructive, practical evaluation of


training substantially outweigh the costs six direct benefits
of evaluating training programs are:-

Quality Control: Quality control systems are designed to


ensure that products or services are fit for their intended
purpose. Evaluation in training will assess the extent to
which work-related results can be demonstrated to arise
from the training. Successful, positive elements of training
can be maintained and reinforced, whilst negative
elements removed or revised. If results cannot be justified,
then it becomes hard to justify the commitment of any
resources to the training activity and they can be re-
allocated to

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where they may make a greater impact.

Efficient training design: It throws an emphasis on


those elements of a training system which matter, such
as proper definition of objectives and setting criteria on
now these objectives are to be measured.

Enhanced professional esteem: Training professionals


can gain enhanced stature from having systematic
evaluation of data rather than intuitive assessment of their
contribution to the business. Being assessed on their
contribution to the ‘bottom-line’ of the business puts the
HRD function on the same footing as other functions,
instead of claiming that the nature of their work does not
allow an application of the same criteria. This helps to
break down the barriers facing the integration of HRD
professionals within the organization.

Enhanced negotiating power: On much the same tack


evaluation makes it possible for the HR function to
demonstrate a successful contribution to the business
over a period of time. When resources are to be allocated
and new investment decisions to be made, them being
able to show the outcomes of training would be invaluable.

Appropriate criteria of assessment: Individuals within


an organization will make judgements about how effective
the training function is, regardless of whether an
evaluation system is in place or not. Given this, it is very
important that the HR controls the choices of appropriate

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criteria, which it can most safely do on the back of a


formal evaluation process.

Intervention strategy: Evaluation can be a tool for


changing the way that training is integrated into the
organization. It offers a means by which the HR function
can build on its enhanced esteem and negotiating power to
play a more active role in developing policies.

SYSTEMS MODEL FOR TRAINING

Assessment Phase
Assess
Training
needs and
training
resources

Identify
training
objective
Training and
development phase
Select
training
Develop Pretest
methods and
criteria trainees
learning
principles
Evaluation
phase
Compare
Monit
training
Conduct or
outcomes
training trainin
against
g
criteria

Feed back

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BENEFITS OF TRAINING:

Training usually is a strategic human resource activity because it


plays a major role in determining the effectiveness and efficiency
of an organization. A successful training and development
program will achieve the following benefits:

1. Improve the quality and quantity of work done.

2. Reduce the learning time required for employees to reach


acceptable standards of performance.

3. Create more favourable attitudes, loyalty and cooperation.

4. Satisfy human resource planning requirements.

5. Reduce the number and cost of accidents.

6. Help employees in their personal development and


advancement.

7. Help organizations to respond to dynamic market


conditions and changing consumer demands.

Different jobs require different capabilities. These capabilities can


be considered under four categories:

1.Technical

2.Managerial

3.Behavioural

4.Conceptual

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TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES:

They deal with the technology of the job or the tasks the
employee is expected to perform. They include information, skills
and knowledge.

MANAGERIAL CAPABILITIES:

They include the ability to organize, coordinate, plan, monitor,


evaluate and redesign a variety of activities. As managers have
the task of getting things done by others with optimal use of
resources for achieving the best possible results, they need to
possess managerial capabilities. Knowledge of management
techniques like PERT, systems analysis, performance budgeting
etc. are evidences of managerial capabilities. Management skills
involve the application of these techniques for better planning,
better coordination, better monitoring, and for better
achievement of results.

BEHAVIOURAL CAPABILITIES:

These include leadership skills, ability to motivate others,


communication skills, ability to work as a team member,
dynamism, initiative etc. Mere knowledge of behavioral sciences
does not ensure that person has behavioral capabilities. Attitudes
and orientations play an important role in determining the
effectiveness of the employees to a great degree.

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CONCEPTUAL CAPABILITIES:

These involve conceptual understanding of one's own tasks in


relation to those of others, imagination, futuristic thinking, model
building capabilities and perception of various tasks and their
interrelationships within the organization and outside it.

TYPES OF TRAINING:

1.Orientation/Induction Training:

The orientation or induction training is given to employees as


soon as they join an organization. The purpose of this training is
to orient the employee to the company and its tasks, to help his
role in detail and see the link his role has with other roles in the
company, to help him understand the expectations of other
employees from him, and to give him a feel of the organization
and feel part of it.

The induction training normally does not focus on skill


development. It focuses more on perspective development and
understanding of the organization. Without such understanding
of the organization, its mission etc., the employee may soon feel
alienated. Induction training is one way in which culture and
traditions are established and maintained through socialization of
the new employees into the culture of that organization.

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2.On-The-Job Coaching:

On-the-job coaching is another way of training employees. This


type of training is given to employees who are new to a given job
(not necessarily to the organization). The purpose of this kind of
training is to equip the employee with the capabilities required to
perform various tasks of his job. This may involve skill training by
the supervisor of the employee, either on a day-to-day basis or
periodically. On-the-job training techniques also include job
instruction training, job rotations, internships, coaching and
counseling. On-the-job training should be particularly stressed
upon during the early stages of their careers.

3.Apprentice Training:

Apprentice training is given to those who have just completed


their studies and are about to enter the organizational world. The
apprenticeship involves practical training under the guidance of
one or more instructors designated by the organization to train
the trainees.

IN-HOUSE TRAINING:

In-house training programs are programs offered exclusively for


the employees of an organization by the organization. The
Training Department assesses the training needs of various
categories of employees periodically, invite suggestions from the
senior executives of that company on the training needs as
perceived by them, keep in touch with the new developments
taking place in the outside world that have relevance to their

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own organizational activities and periodically invite outside


trainers to train their employees.

In the in-house training programmes, the training department


may use its own senior employees as trainers or may depend
exclusively on outsiders or may use both sets of resources.

SPONSORED TRAINING:

As most organizations do not have sizeable units of training, it is


easier for them to sponsor a few employees for training by
outside agencies.

DISTANCE TRAINING:

Distance training is the training conducted without the trainer


being physically present near the trainee. The most well known
forms of distance training are correspondence courses, auto-
teaching machines, programmed instruction materials, video and
audio cassette programs, alumni bulletins etc. This form of
training is useful mainly to keep the trainee informed about
various developments in his field or to acquaint him with new
technology, processes etc.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

Career Development programs help people grow and continue


after they begin their employment. Career Development refers to
helping individuals plan their future careers within the
organization. The objectives of career development are to help

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individuals achieve maximum self-development and also to help


the organization achieve its objectives.

INDIVIDUAL BENEFITS:

For the individual, the most immediate benefits of career


development include a better job, more money, increased
responsibility, greater mobility, and the acquisition of skills that
improve productivity. Career Development also provides less
tangible benefits for individuals, such as increased job
satisfaction, the development of a career orientation rather than
a job orientation, increased involvement at work, greater
exposure, a better understanding of what is expected and
broader knowledge of additional areas of career interest.

ORGANIZATIONAL BENEFITS:

Through the development of competent employees,


organizations are able to identify future managers and prepare
them to achieve organizational goals. By developing competent
replacement managers, an organization is able to practice
promotion from within, which increases the level of motivation
for aspiring managers.

Employees who remain in the same position for an extended


period typically become obsolete, either because of a lack of
training or a lack of motivation. Career planning helps to prevent
the problems of obsolescence by providing employee training by
moving employees into different jobs, and by motivating
employees to make valuable contributions to the organization.

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An organization that tries to help employees’ plan their careers


can benefit directly through lower turnover and personal costs.

DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRAMS:

1. Mentoring:

Some organizations assign an experienced employee to serve as


a mentor for new employees. A mentor is a trusted counselor,
coach or advisor who provides advice and assistance. Effective
mentors teach these new employees a number of things, which
include:

1. Provide instruction in specific skills and knowledge critical


to successful job performance.

2. Help in socializing them in the culture of the organization


and understanding the unwritten rules of the organization.

3. Answer questions and provide useful insights.

4. Offer emotional support and encouragement.

5. Serve as a role model.

6. Create an environment in which mistakes can be made


without losing self-confidence.

2.Career Counseling:

Most organizations provide some form of career counseling on


various occasions: during employment interviews when
employees are first hired, during employees' annual performance

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evaluation interviews, and as part of the special career


counseling that is provided for high-potential employees. Career
counseling typically occurs as part of the day-to-day relationship
between a supervisor and a subordinate. Moreover, some
organizations provide special career counseling by conducting
psychological assessments of employees and helping them
interpret their individual results.

3.Career Pathing:

Career pathing refers to identifying a sequence of jobs through


which an individual can expect to progress towards high levels of
management. Some organizations provide job progression plans
for all new employees, while others do it only for exceptionally
bright and promising candidates. Career path information must
be provided to the employees before a possible career path can
be charted out for them.

4.Career Development Programs:

Career development includes any and all activities that prepare a


person for progression along a designated career path. Career
development usually involves both formal and informal means.
These programs maybe conducted in-house or by external
sources, such as professional organizations or colleges and
universities and are organized by the T&D department of an
organization.

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Internal Mobility

There is a possibility in organizations that over a period of time


an employee will change his role or position, from one job to
another – laterally or vertically in the organization structure.
This kind of employees’ movement within an organization is
known as internal mobility. Internal mobility includes a cluster
comprising, may take place between jobs in section, sections,
departments, division or even between plants in multi - plant
operations.

Promotion

Promotion is the upward reassignment of an individual in an


organization’s hierarchy, accompanied by increased
responsibilities, enhanced status, and usually with increased
income, though not always so. On being promoted, the
promoter’s duties and responsibilities increase, and the higher
one goes in an organization the greater the implications of the
individual’s decisions on the viability of the enterprise. After
promotion, an individual’s duties and responsibilities usually
becomes qualitatively different from those of this earlier job.

The following are the objectives of promotion:

1. It is recognition of a job well done by an employee.

2. It is a device to retain and reward and employee for his years


of service to the company.

3. It is to increase individual and organizational effectiveness.

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4. It is to promote a sense of job satisfaction in the employee.

5. It is to build loyalty, morale and a sense of belongingness in


the employee.

6. It is to impress upon others that opportunities are open to


them also in the organization, if they perform well.

An internal mobility system also needs as supportive information


system to make it viable.

It is desirable to have a central, maintain a detailed inventory of


the skills of all employees and coordinate all information – promo
-table posts available, posts vacant, number of employees on
transfer, permanent and temporary posts.

When making internal mobility decisions, organizations tend to


place emphasis on their objectives, filling job vacancies,
eliminating employee surpluses, correcting behavioral problems,
etc. Promotion maintains organizational effectiveness through
maintenance of employee moral and favorable attitudes towards
the organization. Demotions frequently used as from of
disciplinary action since it represents loss of status and earning.

Transfers are required in the process of organization job


requirements, job rotations and filling in absenteeism,
separations and termination, such as discharge and dismissal,
from a part of the outward mobility of an organization.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A number of studies on the identification of training needs


in India are available. Some of them deal with the general
framework while others are specific company based
studies.

For training activity to be meaningful, Dayal (1970a)


suggests that a detailed study of jobs and skill analysis is
absolutely necessary. The training, thus, imparted would
help the employee to adjust to their job requirements. As
far as the supervisory category is concerned. Sundaram
(19709) points out that the training needs for supervisors
can be identified through careful observation of their work
which is indicative of poor performance, low production,
high cost, poor product quality, high scrap, spoilage,
wastage, accidents, absenteeism, and turnover. The day-to-
day complaints and grievances also form a useful sources
for identifying their training needs. Given that supervisors
are the first contact point for the workers. Ghosh (1984)
stresses the need for behavioral inputs in any training
programme organized for managers. Srinivasan (1977)
recommends that their training programmes should focus
on corporate planning, organizational development, and
personnel management.

Bhatia (1981) sees a shift from knowledge to attitude as


the main objective of training. He identifies three areas of

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training- technical skills and knowledge, knowledge of


organization and external systems, and conceptual and
interpersonal skills. He suggests that the emphasis on
these three must vary according to the level of the
employee. The workers training should focus on technical
skills and knowledge followed by conceptual and
interpersonal skills, and knowledge of orgnaisation and
external systems. In the case of supervisors, conceptual
and interpersonal skills should be emphasized followed by
technical skills and knowledge, and knowledge of
organisation and external environment. As far as managers
are concerned, the sequence is the same as that for
supervisors except that the order of knowledge of
organization and external environment and technical skills
and knowledge is interchanged.

Seth (1984) administered a 720item questionnaire on 119


personnel managers. The cluster analysis revealed
personnel managers to be more employee oriented; able to
recognize the utility of group processes, and having fait in
workers ability to take initiative and handle responsibility.
On the basis of results. Seth suggested that training for
personnel managers should be directed towards attitudes
and beliefs underlying managerial philosophy and their
inter relatedness.

As far as identifying training needs by the company is


concerned, Glaxo Laboratories considers the following
factors.

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1. Level and rapidity of technological and administrative


changes

2. Level of individual and group performance.

3. Changing organizational structure

4. Perceived organisational imbalances.

At the individual level, the person himself identifies the


need for training and records it or the appraisee discusses
the individuals training needs in view of this deficiencies on
the job. Since Glaxo uses the MbO system, this process
helps a great deal in making training useful to both the
employees and the organisation (lawande, 1980)

Studies on the identification of training needs thus


emphasise not only the organisational analysis but job and
individual role analysis as well. It is also useful to note that
many studies emphasise the need for training in human
resources management.

Johnson (1967) suggests that clues for training needs can


also come from a number of written sources. He lists 17
sources for identifying training needs. Some of them are
highlighted below.

1. Articles: Articles published in journals or magazines


often indicate individual company’s experiences with
personnel utilisations and the ways organisations
improve productivity. Such individual experiences could

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

be a good source of learning from the experiences of


others.

2. Books: Knowledge in training and development is


increasing at a faster speed today than before. Many
books are published every year on training and they
provide useful sources in learning newer techniques
developed in identifying training needs.

3. Case studies: In an attempt to find solutions to specific


problems people often show gaps in understanding.
These can become useful themes for training.

4. Companies: All organisations in organizations provide


useful data for preparing people to not only face such
situations but learn to avoid them in future.

5. Crisis: Crisis situations in orgnaisations provide useful


data for preparing people to not only face such
situations but learn to avoid them in future.

6. Factual data: Factual information such aspects as


absenteeism, wastage, turnover, machine breakdown,
sales, and the like also open avenues to identify what
can possibly be done to improve upon them.

7. Grievances: Formal grievances are important sources to


identify training needs.

30
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

8. Reports: Often reports submitted by many departments


provide useful clues on what is lacking or what should
be reinforced.

9. Rumours and grapevine: Taken seriously, they provide


useful feed-back on the total activity of an organisation
and may often identify gaps in various areas of
orgnaisational functioning.

10. Suggestions: A number of organisations are very


particular about suggestions and take them very
seriously. Since suggestions have a base in experience
they provide useful clues for training needs.

A more direct approach for identifying training needs was


used by Kanitkar et. al.(1994). Instead of going to HRM
department, they approached section heads and senior
managers of 73 milk unions associated with National Dairy
Development Board. Their study revealed five contents of
training that were identified by a very large majority of
respondents. These were cost consciousness, loss control,
marketing, sanitation and hygiene, and operations and
maintenance of utilities.

Who needs what kind of training was the focus of a study


by Singh et.al. (1998). In a study of 92 Anganwadi workers,
they found that the need for training correlated inversely
with age and in service training. In other words those who
were older did not feel ten need for training and if offered
in service they did not want to go through it. However the

31
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

need for training correlated significantly and positively with


education, years of experience, communication skill, job
satisfaction, knowledge level and attitude towards
integrated Child Development Service. Scheme.

Mayo and DuBois (1987) cite eight criteria for including a


task in a training course. Think about how you would apply
these criteria to a task area that you teach (e.g.,
performance appraisals,. World processing, project
management, etc.)

Criteria for selecting a Training task

1. The percentage of job incumbents who actually perform


the tasks

2. The percentage of total work time that job incumbents


spend on the task.

3. How critical the task is.

4. The among of delay that can be tolerated between the


time when the need for performance of the task
becomes evident and the time when actual performance
must begin.

5. The frequency with which the task is performed.

6. The difficulty or complexity of the task.

7. The probability of deficient performance of the task on


the part of job incumbents.

32
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

8. How soon the task must be performed after a person is


assigned to a job that involves it.

Finally, the selection of training objectives may hinge on


one’s under standing of adult learning needs.

33
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

SIGNIFICANCE

The significance of the study on training and development


by the new researchers, has increased due to rapidly
changing technology and work culture in industrial
environment due to an increasingly skilled workforce and
very competitive global marketing.

Training is very much essential to upgrade skills of


employees in this scenario, for the development of self as
well as the organization.

Thus, study on Training and Development is extremely


important as it reveals and identifies the lacunas in the
training policy and the areas where the organization can
improve for the betterment of the organization as well as
the industry.

34
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

PROJECT OBJECTIVES

The objective of my study is to examine the training and


development process being followed by Apollo Tyres Ltd
by-

• Honing up identified functional skill areas of


personnel, for more effective contribution to the
organization.

• Providing platforms for professional growth and


exploration leading to overall improved organizational
health and quality of life.

• Developing human resources in consonance with


broader corporate horizon and long range vision of the
organization.

This will be done on the basis of four parameters which


forms the basis of the questionnaire-

1. Purpose of training- What is the purpose of training at


Apollo

2. Identify training needs- How will the training needs be


identified

3. Administration set up for training-What is the set up like

4. Effectiveness-How effective is the system

This analysis will be based solely on the perception of


individuals who have gone through this process. The

35
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

outcome will depict whether difference in perception exists


between two levels of employees or not.

COMPANY PROFILE

• Apollo Tyres Limited was incorporated in the year 1972,


in technical collaboration with General Tyre
International Corporation, USA (now owned by
Continental AG, Germany, the fourth largest tyre
company in the world). Apollo tyres limited is one of
the fastest growing companies in the world

• The first manufacturing unit located in Perambra near


Cochin in the state of Kerala began its commercial
production in the year 1977.

• The Limda plant came into operation from the year


1991 and in the year 1995, the company took over
Premier Tyre Limited at Cochin and Apollo brand
products are being made there.

• In the year 1997, Apollo started a new tube plant at


Ranjangaon at Pune.

• The corporate office of the company is located at


Apollo House, 7 institutional area, sector 32, Gurgaon
and the Registered office is at Cochin.

• Apollo’s workforce constitutes of 6,500 employee’s


countrywide and 140 employees in the corporate office.

• A latest state of the Art passenger Car Radial Plant has


been set up at Limda in 1999.

• Apollo tyres have been rated as the 6 th fastest growing


tyre company in the world by European Rubber Journal.

36
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

• Apollo is the market leader in the replacement


segment. In truck tyres, their brand like Hercules,
Load Star Super, Amar, Xt-7, Xt-9 is very well accepted.
In radials they have the Amazer XL and the storm
range of tyres and in a short span of time have
achieved market leadership position.

• The company has a large wide domestic marketing


network consisting of 97 offices, 2000 exclusive dealers
and 1000 multi brand dealers. The 2000 exclusive
dealers are under the brand of “Apollo Tyre World”.
This network helps Apollo to ensure excellent and
timely delivery of products to the customer and also
helps to provide prompt after sales service.

• In 1998, Apollo tyre launched its Kaizen range mainly


to develop the multibrand dealer network by offering
them world class products.

• The company also sells its products, both to Original


Equipment Manufacturing (OEM) and institutional
buyers other than the replacement market. The state
transport undertakings and the government agencies
are also amongst the customer base of Apollo.

• Apollo has identified export as the focus area,


marketing its products to Asian and American countries
through Apollo International limited a wholly owned
subsidiary of Apollo tyres limited.

• Its tyres meet the stringent quality standards of DOT


(Department of Transport) and FMVSS (Federal Motor
Vehicle Safety Standards).

37
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

• Apollo has another subsidiary company namely, Apollo


Finance Limited doing merchant banking, finance and
leasing business.

• It was in the year 1982 that Apollo tyres limited


formulated and put in action a series of pragmatic
profit generating policies geared to take the company
on the fast growth track. A new dynamic management
team under the leadership of Vice Chairman and
Managing Director, Mr. Onkar S Kanwar, took over the
helm of the company. Objectives were redefined with
growth through quality products and services coupled
with an aggressive market penetration strategy. With
expense containments made the company bear fruits
in 1984. A modest profit of Rs. 57 lacs was made on a
turnover of Rs. 58 crores after wiping out the
accumulated losses of Rs. 27.8 crores till then.

• Apollo tyres has now reorganized itself using the profit


center concept for all its location and divisions. This
has been done to enhance effectiveness and efficiency
at all units across the locations.

• Today Apollo tyres limited is the best professional Tyre


Company in India. It has today more than 500 qualified
professional working for them, making them the
employer of the highest number of management
graduates in the industry. The average employee age
of the company is only 35 years.

38
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

The driving Force of Apollo Success is its People

Apollo’s Vision, Goals and Values

Vision
‘A LEADER IN THE INDIAN TYRE INDUSTRY
AND A SIGNIFICANT GLOBAL PLAYER,
PROVIDING CUSTOMR DELIGHT
AND ENHANCING SHAREHOLDER VALUE’.

GOAL
5YHK
Achieve by 2005
A Gross Profit of Rs. 500 crores
And a turnover of Rs. 5,000 crores
At 1999 prices.

CORE VALUES
C- CARE FOR CUSTOMERS
R- RESPECT FOR ASSOCIATES
E- EXCELLENCE THROUGH TEAMWORK
A-ALWAYS LEARNING
T-TRUST MUTUALLY
E-ETHICAL PRACTICES

39
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

QUALITY PLEDGE

We, the people of


Apollo Tyres Ltd.
Will create an enterprise
Committed to quality
It is our policy to design,
Manufacture and service our
Products to provide the level of
Quality and value that meets
Every Customer need.
We will aim to generate
Customer enthusiasm through
Continuous improvements in
Our products and services.
We are committed to
Excellence in the way we
Work together within the
Organization as well as outside,
Aimed at total customer
satisfaction

40
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

BRIEF PROFILE

Peramb Baroda Kalamas Ranjang Conversio


ra sery aon n unit and
other
sources

Land 3,44,000 5,26,000 2,84,000 1,30,000 TCIL, S


Area Kumar’s
(m2) and other
flap
Building 36,000 63,600 32,600 13,000 manufactur
Area er
(m2)

Installed 118 192 55 30


Capacity
(MT/Day)

TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY: 455 MT/Day

OUR PRODUCTION GROWTHS

Year Pera Barod Premi Pune TCIL Other Total


Mt/Da mbra a er conve
y rsion
units
1990- 75 - - - - 10 85
94
1995 106 - - - - 10 116
1996 106 65 - - - 15 186
1997 106 75 - - - 20 201
1998 106 85 - - - 25 216
1999 106 100 - - - 30 236
2000 112 130 40 - 45 30 357
2001 112 150 45 - 45 35 387
2002 112 165 55 25 45 15 417
2003 118 180 55 25 45 15 438
2004 118 180 55 30 45 15 443
2005 132 190 55 30 45 15 469

41
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

WORLD TYRE INDUSTRY

World Company Trunover Rank is Country


Rank (US $ India if
million) Indian
Company
1 Michelin 12916.3 France
2 Bridgestone 12634.8 Japan
3 Goodyear 11311 USA
4 Continental 4334 Germany
5 Sumitomo 3750 Japan
6 Pirelli 3005.8 Italy
7 Yokohama 2193.5 Japan
8 Cooper 1447.4 USA
9 Toyo 1120.2 Japan
10 Kumho 965.5 Korea
11 Hankook 905 Korea
12 Ohtsu 616.1 Japan
13 MRF 537.7 1 India
14 Cheng Shin 497.5 Taiwan
15 Shanghai 461.7 China
16 JK Industries 357.7 2 India
17 Apollo 346.3 3 India
18 Shangdong 330.9 China
Triangle
19 Liantes 328 Mexico
20 Shangdong 326.2 China
Chengshan
21 China Tyre 314.8 Hongkong
22 Nizhnekamsksh 300 Russia
ina
23 Ceat 295 4 India
24 BRISA 273.3 Turkey
(Bridgestone)
25 Titan 265 USA
26 Modi Rubber 22.8 5 India
27 Birla Tyre 142.8 6 India
28 Total Industry 660834.4

42
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

PRODUCT RANGE

Category Size PLY Brand Name Type


Rate
HCV 10.00-20 16 XT-7 LUG
HCV 9.00-20 16 XT-7 LUG
HCV 10.00-20 16 XT-9 LUG
HCV 9.00-20 16 XT-9 LUG
HCV 10.00-20 18 LOADSTAR LUG
HCV 10.00-20 16 HAULUG LUG
HCV 10.00-20 16 AMAR RIB
HCV 9.00-20 16 AMAR DELUXE RIB
HCV 10.00-20 16 AMAR DELUXE RIB
HCV 9.00-20 14&16 AMAR RIB
EXPRESS
HCV 9.00-20 16 ST-5 SEMILUG
HCV 10.00-20 16 ST-5 SEMILUG
HCV 9.00-20 16 ANCHOR SEMILUG
HCV 9.00-20 16 DUAL TREAD SEMILUG
PLUS
LCV 7.50-16 16 MILESTAR LUG
LCV 7.50-16 16 AMAR RIB
LCV 7.50-16 16 ANCHOR SEMILUG
LCV 7.50-R-16 16 RANCER RADIAL
LCV 9.00-16 16 DHRUV TRACTOR TRAILER
FARM 12.4-28 8 KRISHAK TRACTOR REAR
SUPER
FARM 12.4-28 12 KRISHAK TRACTOR REAR
SUPER
FARM 13.6-28 8 KRISHAK TRACTOR REAR
SUPER
FARM 13.6-28 12 KRISHAK TRACTOR REAR
SUPER
FARM 16.9-28 12 KRISHAK TRACTOR REAR

43
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

SUPER
FARM 12.4-28 8 POWER FUL TRACTOR REAR
FARM 12.4-28 12 POWER FUL TRACTOR REAR
FARM 13.6-28 8 POWER FUL TRACTOR REAR
FARM 13.6-28 12 POWER FUL TRACTOR REAR
FARM 16.9-28 12 POWER FUL TRACTOR REAR
FARM 5.50-16 8 SARPANCH TRACTOR FRONT
FARM 6.00-16 8 SARPANCH TRACTOR FRONT
FARM 5.00-19 6 BHIM ADV
FARM 6.00-19 8 BHIM ADV
FARM 7.00-19 10 BHIM ADV
FARM 8.00-19 10 BHIM ADV
CAR&JEEP 145/70-R- AMAZON XL PASSENGER
12 RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 145/70-R- AMAZON XL PASSENGER
13 RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 155/80-R- AMAZON XL PASSENGER
13 RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 175/70-R- AMAZON XL PASSENGER
13 RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 175/80-R- AMAZON XL PASSENGER
13 RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 195/70-R- AMAZON XL PASSENGER
13 RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 195/80-R- AMAZON XL PASSENGER
15LT RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 145/80-R- AMAZON PASSENGER
12 RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 175/80-R- AMAZON PASSENGER
13 RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 155/80-R- AMAZON PASSENGER
14 RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 175/80-R- AMAZON PASSENGER
14 RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 1+65/80-R- AMAZON PASSENGER

44
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

15T RADIAL
CAR&JEEP 195/80-R- STORM 4-MD RADIAL
15T
CAR&JEEP 4.50-12 6&8 ARMOUR PASSENGER BIAS
CAR&JEEP 5.65-12 6 ARMOUR PASSENGER BIAS
CAR&JEEP 5.60-13 6 ARMOUR PASSENGER BIAS
CAR&JEEP 5.20-14 6 ARMOUR PASSENGER BIAS
CAR&JEEP 5.90-15 6 ARMOUR PASSENGER BIAS
CAR&JEEP 6.00-16 8 TROOPER JEEP BIAS
CAR&JEEP 6.00-16 6&8 GRIPPER JEEP BIAS
CAR&JEEP F78-15 6 GRIPPER JEEP BIAS
CAR&JEEP 6.00-16 8 HUNTER JEEP BIAS
CAR&JEEP 3.50-8 4 BLACKCAT SCOOTER
ULTRA
CAR&JEEP 3.50-10 4 BLACKCAT SCOOTER
ULTRA
CAR&JEEP 4.00-8 6 VIJAYTA 3 WHEELER
CAR&JEEP 4.50-10 8 VIJAYTA 3WHEELER

45
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

COMPANY SCENARIO OVER THE LAST


DECADE

HISTORY

The history of Apollo Tyres Ltd. is about a company’s passion,


determination and will to surpass all obstacles and emerge as a
leader in the Indian tyre industry.

Named after the radiant Greek Sun God Apollo, the company
has created a niche for itself in the Indian tyre market. After
three decades of consistent growth, today, Apollo Tyres Ltd. is
India's premier tyre manufacturing company.

Apollo Tyres Ltd's history dates back to the early Seventies. The
company's license was obtained in 1972 by Mr Mathew T
Marattukalam, Jacob Thomas and his associates. In 1974
the company was taken over by Dr. Raunaq Singh and his
associates. The tyre project was implemented in 1976 in
Perambra, Kerala. The commercial production began in 1977
with an installed capacity of 420,000 each of tyres and tubes.

The company commenced production at its first


manufacturing facility located at Perambra near Cochin in
Kerala in the year 1977. From the first year of operation,
the company started incurring heavy losses. By 31 st
October, 1989, the total accumulated loss suffered by the
company amounted to Rs. 27.80 crores. The accumulated

46
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

loss was more than 3 times the equity share capital of the
company which stood at Rs. 7.75 crores at that time.

TURNAROUND

During the year 1982 and 1983 the company put a lot of
emphasis on revamping the management set up through
human resources development. As a result, a new vibrant
team was developed with well-defined objectives in
different areas of management. The new team slowly but
effectively brought about a transformation in the operation
of the company since 1984 the track record has been
exceptional which is evident from the turnover record.

47
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

BRIEF HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS

1974-1982, first phase- turbulent period.

• Problem with product, marketing and management

• Government takes over

1981, new CEO decides that unless productivity improves


there is no future.

• 1981 lot of in discipline

• Lock out declared

• Norms agreed upon to build 40 tyres.

1982 onwards total thrust on productivity.

• CEO was tough

• Productivity orientation came.

1980-93, welfare period by a CEO who joined from a


public sector.

• Introduced welfare measure.

• Discipline was causality

• IR became bad.

• About 52 people were found not to do any work and


just roam around.

48
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

1994-new CEO-open and understanding and a team


player.

• Tried to buy peace many times

• Cost has become a major factor

• Quality became important due to liberalization and


globalization

1998, short spell of lock out

• things became clear

• Workers understood the importance of discipline and


productivity to some extent.

1999, Negotiations for long term settlement.

• Baroda lock out as the management was about to


achieve a break through in negotiations.

• Management advised to go slow.

• What seemed a break through was diluted.

49
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

MARKET POSITION

Over the last decade, Apollo has been in transition. It has


moved from being ‘One of the players’ to ‘A dominant
player’. Now it aspires to be internationally known. It
presently occupies the number 2 position in the Indian
tyre industry. It aspires for the number 1 rank, which is
presently occupied by MRF tyres.

The company has a large and wide domestic marketing


network consisting of 97 offices, 2000 exclusive dealers
and 1000 multi brand dealers. In 2002, Apollo tyres
launched its Kaizen range mainly to develop the multi
brand dealer network offering them world class products.

The need for transition at Apollo arose primarily to the


hindsight of the CEO which in turn was in response to the
changing external situation. The organization realized that
the weak players will be forced to close down. Seeing the
domestic and foreign competition, the company realized it
is time to consolidate and move forward. Apollo is not just
vying for numbers but considers being a significant global
player as a challenge.

50
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

MARKET SHARE (DOMESTIC) 1999-2000

MRF Modi
12% TCIL
19%
1%

VTL ATL
6% 18%

JK Premier
14% 2%
Birla
GY
Ceat 9%
6%
13%

Turnover

As can be seen from the table, the turnover for the last
financial year 2004-2005 was 1348.75. Over the last 13
years the company has increased its turnover from 146.19
to 348.75 crores, a nine fold increase. In the next five
years the company aspires to reach the 5000 mark.

The company’s goal states:-

5YHK

Achieve by 2007

A gross profit of Rs. 500 crores

And a turnover of Rs. 5000 crores

At 2004 prices

51
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

TURNOVER

Year Turnover Gross Profit Net Profit


(Rs. Crores) (Rs. Crores) (Rs. Crores)

1991-92 146.19 18.38 14.36

1992-93 152.03 16.42 14.79

1993-94 178.2 18.24 15.34

1994-96 (17 274.77 25.78 20.36


months)

1996-97 360.85 4154 33.01

1997-98 500.66 38.07 20.80

1998-99 685.59 33.74 15.63

1999-00 747.85 30.88 25.02

2000-01 1,237.69 49.64 35.3

2001-02 1,413.7 56.25 36.32

2002-03 1,365.19 62.77 40.68

2003-04 1,151.56 63.48 40.02

2004-2005 1,348.75 102.66 76.06

52
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

METHODOLOGY

Sampling Technique

A sample size of 40 was taken ,which consisted of 14


employees who were senior managers and above and 20
employees who were of the level senior officers to assistant
managers

Primary

Questionnaire - A questionnaire was designed and


administered to the training incharge professionals, and
employees drawn from various levels and various
departments in the organization.

Internal – Information regarding the training policies and


procedures was also obtained through personal discussions with
trainers, senior managers and assistant managers.

Secondary

This involved extensive research on apollo’s databases.

• Training / HRD manuals, Company reports, house


journals records etc.

• Latest books and magazines on HRD

The Questionnaire

The questionnaire consisted of 9 questions which were a


combination of multiple and open ended questions.

53
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

LIMITATION

The topic was such that it required vast and thorough study
necessitating complete enumeration of the organization and
analysis of several issues that considerable time which was a
major limiting factor. Collecting information from people during
the working hours was also critical. Besides this, the issue of
confidentiality was a tough obstacle to conquer. But finally
persuasion won and the study was completed with a degree of
comprehensiveness.

54
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT AT


APOLLO TYRES

Training and Development (T&D)at ATL is classified for two


categories of employees: New Recruits and Others.
Currently, the T&D process is evolving and undergoing
many changes. This document provides the current
process as it exists as well as the new process as it is
envisaged by the Corporate T&D group.

Process As It Future System should ATL to


Exists Today Requirement if provide Give
Different
I. New Recruits:
New recruits go -same- Linkage from Sample
through an Induction Recr. Module Programme
programme Introduction schedule
routing to be Position
provided by the chart
system Recording
Recording of Format
Indusction Recording
programmes Format
and attendees
Recording of
Training Details
for each
attendee
Classroom Training -same- Drawing up
exists for groups Introduction list Recording
joining from Format
simultaneously (e.g. recruitment Recording
In Mkt. Currently) module Format
Recording of
Introduction and
attendees
Recording of
Training Details
for each
attendee

55
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

II. Other Employees:


Training Needs
Analysis – There are
two kinds of training Sample
needs that get Training
generated for all Needs
employees – Sample
Those that arise from Training
the Appraisal Needs
(Appraisal Trng
needs) (Detailed
after next bullet)
Those that arise from
Business Needs
(Business Trng.
Needs) Only in
Marketing at
present. Needs
analysed jointly by Appraisal
Corp. Trng. Group Format ISO
and Marketing System to Formats
provide data
Appraisal Training from previous
Needs Analysis cycle training
The appraiser at the The appraiser need identified
end of the appraisal should complete and training
session, completes programmes
the ‘Identification of attended,
Training Needs’
form.
HoD collects and the ISO form, Action plan
sends these forms to which could generated,
Corp. HR replace the completed and
Corp. HR copies each Identification of rated
form onto an ISO Training Needs
format and sends it Form
back to the appraiser
for signatures
Appraiser sends it Format for
back to Corp. HR -same- collation
duly signed Automatic Format for
Corp. HR collates -same- collation needs deciding on
and sorts the and planning batches

56
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

training needs. out of training (e.g. Not


batches for more than
each subjects ‘x’ number
from a
location,
grouped by
grades/loca
tions etc.)
Calendar
format

Normination To be done by Nomination list Nomination


HR decides on HoD, based on to be generated format
nomination of training calendar by system
employees across and list of highlighting
the company for persons with training
Training similar needs, completed
Programmes, based both to be against budget,
on training needs provided by HR past year
generated in the training data.
appraisal. HR to send the Sample
nomination System to Letter
HR sends the letters, addressed generate letter
nominees’ names to to the employee,
respective HoD’s and to be handed over
letters to nominees by the HoD.

Training Session -same-


Training programme
Held -same- Complication of Feedback
Feedback from -same- feedback format
Trainee obtained Average Action plant
Action plan follow -same- feedback scores format
through after 3 -same- of faculty, Action plan
months faculty record follow
Following records -same- updation system through
updated: trigger and format
Training Record -same- mails to be sent
Training Card out
Snapshot Training
history to be record
stored?? format
Training
Card format

57
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Generation of Number of System to Report


Training Reports training days generate all format to
Does not exist at attended by given reports be provided
present employee against
given budget:
Of 2 days per
employee in
plants
7 days per
employee in Mkt.
2 days per
employee in Corp.
Number of
training days
completed by
give
unit/location/depa
rtment/group
against budget.
Number of
training days
completed by
company as a
whole against
budget.

Parallel Processes 1. -same-


Vendor Selection
The vendor for -same-
training programes
can be either a
company or a faculty
member.
In case of a -same- System to Profile
company, the crosscheck format
Concerned faculty Profile against
member’s profile is template??
sought
In all cases faculty is -same-
first given a pilot
programme
If average rating in Faculty card and Initiate and 2 Formats
feedback sheet is 4.2 faculty record to maintain
or avove for normal be created, company and
programmes (or3.5 similar to Training faculty record

58
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

for confrontational, card and training


lab type record.
programmes),
faculty is finalised.

Parallel Process -sane-


2. Internal Faculty
(Trainer) Selection
There is a ‘Train the -same- Maintain Certification
Trainer’ programme records of format
which results in a internal trainers
certification process and
at theend, for all prompt/suggest
internal faculty names while
compiling
programme
batches

59
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

GOALS OF HRD SYSTEM AT APOLLO

• To create on enabling climate that continuously


identity, nurtures and utilize the capabilities of
employees.

• To develop the capacity of each employee as an


individual

• To develop the capacity of each employee in relation


his/her present job/role.

• To develop the capacity of each employee in his/ her


expected future job/role

• To develop a mutually supporting relationship between


each employee and his/her supervision.

• To develop team spirit and effective functioning of


every subsystem of the organization.

• To develop overall health and self reasoning


capabilities in the organization.

The goals of HRD system at ATL are realized through


various sub systems practiced on the company. They are
as follows:

• Performance appraisal

• Suggestion scheme

60
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

• Training

• Awards

• Grievance procedure for the employees

• Incentive and reward scheme

• Employee participation

• Communication policies

• Socio cultural activities

• Employee welfare and quality of work life

Training and Development

Keeping in view the principle of Right person for the


management position, ATL take adequate care while
selecting the employee. Merit is always recognized and
given weightage.

To meet the demands of competition,high premium is


attached to training activities.

Training Objectives

High premium is placed on training and development


activities in the organization keeping in view the following
objectives-

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

• To achieve systematic integration of training in the


organizations mission.

• To upgrade skills, abilities and capabilities of the


employees.

• To establish a distinctive work culture in the


organization.

• To meet the organizations need for success, better


performance and growth .

• To prepare employees the job meant for them while on


first application, on transfer or on promotion and
impact to them ,the required skills and knowledge.

• To assist the employees to function more effectively in


their present positions by exposing them to the latest
concepts, information, techniques and developing the
skills that would be required in the particular fields.

ATL is relentlessly trying to materialize these objectives to


the fullest extent

TRAINING SET UP

Main thrust areas of training

• Management training in house

• External programs

• Overseas programs

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

• Training of trainees

• Pre employee training scheme

• Apprentrenship training

• Vocation training coming from other institutions

• Other training programs

Training policy

Formulation of training policy

Training and development function

Responsibility of Training and development

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

RESULTS

Q.1 < 5years 5-7 years >7 years and above

11 11 18

Q.2 Senior officer to Assistant Senior manager and


manager above

26 14

Q.3 Engg/PG Mgt Grad CA/ICWA Others

11 10 9 10

Q.4 < 25 years 26-34 35-45 yrs >45yrs


years

16 16 8

Q.5

Senior Mgr Senior Mgr


to Ass. Mgr. and above

Upgradation 1-26 16 10

2-9 7 2

3-5 0 5

Promotion 1-6 4 2

2-6 5 1

3-10 4 6

Future 1-6 6 0
assignment

2-9 5 4

3-7 3 4

Training in 1-5 3 2
allied fields

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

2-9 9 0

3-19 10 9

Preparing for 1-5 2 3


transfer

2-6 5 1

3-5 3 2

Develop 1-8 5 3
specific
abilities
competencie
s

2-16 10 6

3-11 9 2

Q.6

Performance Discussion Training Job Other


appraisal with dept rotati s
superiors on

Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior


off to Mgr.& off to Mgr. & off to Mgr. & off to Mgr. &
Ass.M above Ass. above Ass. above Ass. above
gr Mgr. Mgr. Mgr.

14 5 7 4 4 6 0 0

19 11 10 0

Q.7 Senior manager and above

Outbound (Mr. Santosh Babu) -Ranibhet

1. Team building = 10

2. Internal audit = 3

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

3. Dr. Atraya’s (W/SH = 5

4. Proj. Mgt. (IIMA) = 3

5. LMI Trg. = 3

6. None = 3

7. Vision goals and values = 3

8. Train the trainers = 3

9. IT networking related = 3

Senior officer to assistant managers

1. Adventure in attitudes =3

2. Factory orients =4

3. None = 8

4. Tech. Trg. =3

5. Compt. Trg. = 5

6. Comm. Skills = 3

7. SCM Trg and IIMB =3

8. MDP Dr. Srivastava =4

9. Proj. Mgt. IIMA =3

10. Team Building =3

11. Plant orient =3

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

12. Best prac. Benchmarking =3

13. Inv. Mgt. =3

14. Fin. For non fin. =3

15. HRIS = 3

Q.8

Man days Senior and Senior to


training’s above assistant

1-5 days 10 4

5-10 6 4

10 days or more 5 3

None 2 6

Q9.

Senior Officer to Senior


Assistant Manager
Manager and
above
Improving work 14 8
performance
Future growth 5 3
Not at all 7 3
Total 26 14

ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Q.1. WORK EXPERIENCE AT APOLLO TYRES

12

10

0
Less than 5 years 6-7 Years More than 7 years
Senior officer to Assistant Manager Senior Manager and above
Q.2 DESIGNATION
30

25
No. of employees

20

15

8 10

7 5

6 0
Senior managerand Senior officer to
5 above assistant manager
4 Designation
Q.3. EDUCATION QUALIFICATION
3

0
Engg./PG Mgt. Grad
68 CA/ICWA Others

Senior officer to Assistant Manager Senior Manager and above


TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Q.4. AGE GROUP


14

12

10

0
Less than 25 26-34 Years 35-45 Years Morethan 45
years Years
Senior officer to Assistant Manager Senior Manager and above

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Q.5 Purpose of Training

Rank
Senior officer Senior
to assistant manager
manager and above
Upgradation of abilities 1 1
Preparing for promotions - -
Preparing for future 3 3
assignments in same
position
Training in allied fields 2 -
Preparing for transfers - 2
Develop specific - -
abilities/ competence
It is seen from the analysis that both the levels of
employees think that upgradation of training and training
for allied fields is the least important.

While senior officers to assistant managers feel that


preparing for transfers is the second most important
purpose of training senior managers and above feel that
developing specific abilities/ competencies is the second
most important purpose of training so a difference in
perception exists here.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Q.6 IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

Senior Mgr.
and above
25.5%

Senior
officer to
Asstt. Mgr.
74.5%

DISCUSSION WITH SUPERIORS

Senior Mgr.
and above
35.3%

Senior
officer to
Asstt. Mgr.
64.7%

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Senior
officer to
Asstt. Mgr.
40%

Senior Mgr.
and above
60%

73.68% of senior officers to assistant managers felt that


training needs are identified through performance
appraisal whereas only 2.6.31% of senior managers and
above felt the same.

66.63% of senior officers to assistant managers felt that


discussion with superiors is a method of identifying
training needs whereas 36.36% of senior managers and
above felt the same.

40% of senior officer to assistant managers felt that


training needs are identified by the training department
and 60% of senior managers and above felt the same.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Hence a significant difference in perception exists


between the two levels when it comes to identifying
training needs.

The analysis also shows that none of the employees at


both the such felt that after job rotation was a means of
identifying training needs.

Q.7 Training programmes attended

The employees were asked to list any 3 training


programme they had attended in the last two years.

Most of the senior managers and above remembered


attending the ‘Team Building Exercise by Mr. Santosh
Babu at Ranibhaet and Dr. Atraya’s Workshop.

A majority of the senior officers to assistant managers had


not attended a single training progrmame.

The few that had attended, had undergone a ‘Computer


Training Programme’.

As compared to this, there were only a handful of senior


managers and above who had not attended a single
training progrmme. Some of the other training
programmes attended by them were ‘Train the Trainees’
and ‘Project Management at IIM Ahmedabad’ A few
training programmes attended by Senior Officers to
Assistant Managers were ‘Project Management at IIM
Ahmedabad and MDP by Dr. Srivastava.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Q.8 Man Days of Training

35% of the employees had attended upto 5 man days of


training. Out of this 71.5% were senior managers and
above and 28.5% were senior offices to assistant
managers.

25% of the employees had attended 5-10 man days of


training. Out of this 60% were senior managers and above
and 40% were senior officers to assistant managers 20%
of the of the employees had attended more than 10 man
days of training. Out of this 62.5% were senior managers
and above and 37.5% were senior officers to assistant
managers.

20% of the employees had not attended a single man-day


of training. Out of this 75% were senior officers to
assistant managers and 25% were senior managers and
above.

Q.9 How has the training provided helped you?

53.8% of senior officer to assistant managers felt that the


training they received helped them to improve their work
performance and 57.1% of senior managers and above flet
the same.

19.2% of senior officers to assistant managers felt that the


training they received helped them for future growth and
21.4% of senior managers and above felt the same.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

26.9% of senior officer to assistant managers felt that the


training did not help them at all and 21.4% of senior
managers and above felt the same.

From this analysis, it can be seen that both the levels felt
that the training provided to them has helped them mainly
in improving their work performance.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Training should be given according to the job profile of


the employees.

e.g. Managers should be made to attend more of team


oriented workshops since they are required to work in
teams. Whereas an officer level employee needs to
enhance his computer skills. Hence training
programmes have to be designed accordingly.

2. Since a few employees felt that the training they had


undergone in the last two years didn’t help them at all,
a feedback session should be made mandatory after
every training session, in order to ascertain whether
the above idea behind the training programme had
been accomplished or not.

3. Every now and then the employees should be


encouraged to identify their own training needs which
would enhance employee morale and also shift the
burden from the superior to the employee him self.

4. Rather than just investing money on various training


programmes, Apollo Tyres Ltd. should also concentrate
on regular training evaluation.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

SCOPE OF FURTHER RESEARCH

The training needs analysis is the base for all training

activities in Apollo Tyres ltd. Efforts at all levels of the

organisation are made to identify and meet the training

needs of the employees. Priority is given to ‘need base

training’ which can have direct impact on the employees’

performance and improve work efficiency. The training and

development department takes into consideration the

annual appraisal report of the employees for analysing the

training needs.

The training programmes usually provided valuable inputs

to the trainees for performing present as well as future

roles effectively.

Also, at the end of each training session trainers

impressions about the session should be recorded in a

register which gives an weight into the trainees

performance during the training period. The timely

feedback of both the trainers and the trainees helps in

taking corrective action for future training programmes.

This analysis has depicted what common training and

development techniques are adopted by from and has

provided an insight into the training and development

system followed by Apollo Tyres Ltd.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

But still much more can be done. Suitable strategies can

be framed to develop a team of highly motivated and

committed work force so that the company can make

inroads into the international markets and build a

favourable image there. The quest for improvement should

never end as it is an endless journey.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

BIBLIOGRAPHY

• Apollo Tyres.com

• Apollo Tyres Limited Induction Book

• HR.com

• Mirza S. Saiyadain - Human Resource Management 2nd


Edition Publishers – Tata McGraw-Hill.

• V.K. Dubey – Management of Training and Development


and Motivation Skills.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

LOCATION OF APOLLO DELEARS OUTSIDE INDIA

80