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MOHAMED ABDOU MOINDJIE
UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA 2006
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LITERARY TRANSLATION FROM ARABIC INTO ENGLISH AND FRENCH
MOHAMED ABDOU MOINDJIE
Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS It would be impossible for me to complete this work without the sponsorship, edifying supervision, and moral support, which I have been given during my study. I would like to appreciate deeply the Institute of Post-graduate Studies (IPS) of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) for the graduate assistance scheme which has supported me financially and has permitted me to have more teaching experience in the university. I have really enjoyed it. I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to my supervisor Dr. Tengku Sepora Binti Tengku Mahadi. You have given your time and attention to my study. You have edified me intellectually, and morally. I have learnt a lot from you. I am profoundly grateful for all the efforts you have done for me to complete my studies. Well-done and thank you very much! Special thanks go to Mrs. Tengku Hamida Tengku Mahadi, and Mr. Tengku Yahaya Tengku Mahadi for their moral support and encouragement. Thanks go also to the staff of the Department of Languages and translation of the Universiti Sains Malaysia for their amity, friendship, dealing, and interaction, which I have enjoyed for the period of my study. I’m grateful to my uncle Youssouf Ibrahim, and my aunt Maria Ibrahim for their moral support and encouragement. I ask forgiveness from my children, Camelia Mohamed Abdou and Housni Mohamed Abdou for living away from them for so long. I have lived away from you in your early ages for the quest for knowledge for the juvenile generation of which you are members. Do understand that I think of you too much. I pray to my late parents, Mbahoua Ibrahim and Abdou Moindjie. May God rest their souls. Finally, I thank God for giving me health and chances in my life. I pray Allah to bless and reward best the above-mentioned persons, and to bless me to contribute the knowledge I have learnt to mankind in general and to my country, Comoros in particular. Amen!
TABLE OF CONTENT
PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS ABSTRAK ABSTRACT ii iii xiii xv xvi xviii xix
RESEARCH ASPECTS 1.1.1 BACKGROUND
1 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 9 10
1.1.2 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY 1.1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1.1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1.1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1.1.6 CORPUS 1.1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 1.1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1.1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS 1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE LANGUAGES UNDER STUDY 1.2.1 1.2.2 ARABIC LANGUAGE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
11 12 16
1 126.96.36.199.10 WORD ORDER 188.8.131.52 ARABIC WORD ORDER 184.108.40.206.5 1.2 220.127.116.11.3.3.3 18.104.22.168.3 FRENCH WORD ORDER 1.3 1.3.6 1.7 1.15 PECULIARITIES CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW 2.3.2 22.214.171.124 FRENCH LANGUAGE 19 THE LANGUAGES UNDER STUDY AND TRANSLATION PROBLEMS 1.8 1.4 1.1 126.96.36.199 SYNTAX 1.14 WORD CLASS 1.3 LANGUAGE AND LINGUISTICS MULTILINGUALISM AND TRANSLATION TRANSLATION 54 56 58 iv .12 FAUX AMIS 1.3.2 ENGLISH WORD ORDER 1.11 PUNCTUATION 1. 9 WORD FORMATION NOUNS AND PRONOUNS GENDER NUMBER CASE MOOD ADJECTIVES TENSE CONJUNCTIONS 21 21 24 26 27 29 30 34 36 38 39 40 43 44 47 47 48 50 52 1.
7.2 CALQUE 2.7.3 LITERATURE AND LITERARINESS 188.8.131.52.4 CULTURE AND TRANSLATION 184.108.40.206 TRANSPOSITION 2.7.5 PERSONIFICATION 2.1 METAPHOR 220.127.116.11 DESCRIPTIVE TRANSLATION STUDY PERSPECTIVES OF TEXT 2.5.3 LITERAL TRANSLATION 2.1 WRITING AND TRANSLATING 2.6 LITERARY TRANSLATION 2.6 IRONY 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 SYNECDOCHE 2.5.2 STYLE 2.4.1 TEXT TYPE 2.4.7 TRANSLATION PROCEDURES 2.3 METONYMY 2.6.4 126.96.36.199.2 SYNTAX AND TRANSLATION 2.1 BORROWING 2.4 FIGURES OF SPEECH 2.5.3 FICTION TRANSLATION 2.3.3 SEMANTIC AND PRAGMATIC CONCEPTS IN TRANSLATION 2.2 DRAMA TRANSLATION 2.6.1 TRANSLATION AND VERSE 2.5 MODULATION 61 62 63 66 69 69 72 75 77 77 78 79 79 80 80 81 84 89 90 92 96 98 99 100 101 102 v .7.7.2 SIMILE 2.
188.8.131.52 CONJUNCTIONS vi .1.2 SUBSTITUTION 184.108.40.206.1.2.3 ELLIPSIS 220.127.116.11 LAMBERT AND VAN GORP’S SYSTEMS THEORY JUSTIFICATION OF THE THEORY TRANSLATION AND MODELLING 104 104 105 107 108 108 111 112 114 114 115 115 116 116 116 117 117 117 118 118 118 ASPECTS OF ANALYSIS 3.1 MACROSTRUCTURES 3.1 COHESION 18.104.22.168.2.3 CLAUSAL SUBSTITUTION 22.214.171.124 MICROSTRUCTURES 126.96.36.199 NOMINAL SUBSTITUTION 188.8.131.52.1 NOMINAL ELLIPSIS 3.7 ADAPTATION 184.108.40.206 VERBAL ELLIPSIS 3.6 EQUIVALENCE 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2 DEMONSTRATIVE REFERENCE 3.3 COMPARATIVE REFERENCE 3.1.1 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199.2.1 PERSONAL REFERENCE 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 VERBAL SUBSTITUTION 3.1.2 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 3.8 RECAPITULATION 102 103 103 CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 REFERENCE 126.96.36.199 CLAUSAL ELLIPSIS 3.
1.2 JUSTIFICATION OF THE CHOICE OF THE CORPUS 188.8.131.52 DATA IDENTIFICATION AND COLLECTION 184.108.40.206.1.2.6 TEXTS AND EXTRACTS LABELLING AND NUMBERING 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 LEXICAL COHESION 3.1 ADDITIVE CONJUNCTIONS 3.1 ARABIC NOVEL 22.214.171.124 TEXT ANALYSIS 3.1.2 ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS 3.3 COMPARABILITY 126.96.36.199.1.3 FRENCH NOVEL 3.2.3 CAUSAL CONJUNCTIONS 3.4 WORD AND MEANING 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO TEXT ANALYSIS 119 119 119 120 120 121 121 127 129 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 137 138 138 139 139 140 140 vii .2.5 CONTINUATIVE CONJUNCTIONS 3.3.2 MODALITY 220.127.116.11.3 CORPUS 18.104.22.168 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICES 3.2.2 ENGLISH NOVEL 3.5 SELECTION AND COLLECTION OF EXTRACTS 3.3.7 DEFINITION OF DATA 22.214.171.124.2.1 JUSTIFICATION OF THE CORPUS 3.4 TEMPORAL CONJUNCTIONS 3.2 DATA ANALYSIS 3.1.
3.3 4.2.2 MACROSTRUCTURES 126.96.36.199 NOMINAL SUBSTITUTION 4.2.2 VERBAL SUBSTITUTION 4.1.1 PERSONAL REFERENCE 4.1 NOMINAL ELLIPSIS viii .1 PRELIMINARY DATA 188.8.131.52 SUBSTITUTION 4.2.1 184.108.40.206.1.4 TITLE METATEXT TYPOGRAPHY OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS 142 142 144 146 147 148 148 151 152 164 166 170 170 173 173 174 174 183 190 192 192 194 196 198 198 4.1.3 MICROSTRUCTURES 220.127.116.11.3 ELLIPSIS 4.2.3 4.2 4.7 SETTING AND COMPOSITION SYNOPSIS OF THE NOVEL THEMES CHARACTERS FIELD MODE TENOR 18.104.22.168.1 COHESION 4.3 COMPARATIVE REFERENCE 22.214.171.124 CLAUSAL SUBSTITUTION 4.2 4.CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS OF MIDAQ ALLEY 126.96.36.199.2 DEMONSTRATIVE REFERENCE 188.8.131.52.5 184.108.40.206.1 REFERENCE 220.127.116.11 4.4 18.104.22.168.1.6 4.3.
4.4 VOICES WORDS AND TRANSLATABILITY SYSTEMIC CONTEXT 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.2 OBLIGATORINESS 4.5 CONTINUATIVE CONJUNCTIONS 4.1 ADDITIVE CONJUNCTIONS 4.5.2 VERBAL ELLIPSIS 4.5 LEXICAL COHESION 4.2.2 ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS 4.4 USUALITY 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.3.3 CAUSAL CONJUNCTIONS 4.2.3 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 PROBABILITY 4.1.2 INTERTEXTUAL RELATIONS 4.3.4 188.8.131.52.2 REITERATION COLLOCATION 202 203 204 204 206 208 209 210 212 212 213 215 215 216 219 221 223 229 231 231 MODAL MARKERS 184.108.40.206.3 WILLINGNESS 4.1.4 TEMPORAL CONJUNCTIONS 220.127.116.11 COMPARISON OF MACROSTRUCTURES AND MICROSTRUCTURES 18.104.22.168 CONJUNCTIONS 4.3 CLAUSAL ELLIPSIS 4.4.3 INTERSYSTEMIC RELATIONS 22.214.171.124 OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS 233 234 235 ix .1.
1.2 126.96.36.199 TYPOGRAPHY 5.1 x .3.2.2 MACROSTRUCTURES 5.7 TENOR 5.3.3 MICROSTRUCTURES 5.3.2 METATEXT 5.1 188.8.131.52.6 MODE 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS 236 236 236 238 239 240 240 242 243 245 247 251 252 254 255 255 255 267 272 274 274 276 277 278 NOMINAL ELLIPSIS 278 5.2 SUBSTITUTION NOMINAL SUBSTITUTION VERBAL SUBSTITUTION CLAUSAL SUBSTITUTION 18.104.22.168.3.2 5.1 5.CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS OF SEASON OF MIGRATION TO THE NORTH 22.214.171.124 THEMES 5.3 5.1 SETTING AND COMPOSITION 5.3.5 FIELD 5.1 PRELIMINARY DATA 126.96.36.199.1 REFERENCE PERSONAL REFERENCE DEMONSTRATIVE REFERENCE COMPARATIVE REFERENCE 188.8.131.52.1 COHESION 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11.2.1 TITLE 5.1.2 SYNOPSIS OF THE NOVEL 18.104.22.168 CHARACTERS 5.3 ELLIPSIS 5.
1.3.2 COLLOCATION 22.214.171.124.3.3.4 TEMPORAL CONJUNCTIONS 126.96.36.199 WILLINGNESS 188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1 ADDITIVE CONJUNCTIONS 220.127.116.11 OBLIGATORINESS 5.2 MODALITY MARKERS 18.104.22.168.4 CONJUNCTIONS 5.3 22.214.171.124.3.1.3 5.3 CAUSAL CONJUNCTIONS 5.5 CONTINUATIVE CONJUNCTIONS 5.4 INTERTEXTUAL RELATIONS INTERSYSTEMIC RELATIONS OBSERVATIONS AND COMMENTS 307 308 309 310 xi .1 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE MACROSTRUCTURES AND MICROSTRUCTURES 5.2 126.96.36.199.3.4 USUALITY 188.8.131.52.1.1 REITERATION 5.5 LEXICAL COHESION 5.3.2 ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS 5.4.4 VOICES WORDS AND TRANSLATABILITY SYSTEMIC CONTEXT 184.108.40.206.2.1 PROBABILITY 5.2 220.127.116.11.3.3 VERBAL ELLIPSIS CLAUSAL ELLIPSIS 280 280 281 282 283 285 286 288 289 289 290 292 292 293 295 297 299 304 306 18.104.22.168 5.
3.4 6.1 REFERENCE 6.3 6.7 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199.8 6.2 6.2 6.5 6.6 6.3 6.2 6.1.1 188.8.131.52.1 COHESION 6.CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION 184.108.40.206 SUBSTITUTION ELLIPSIS CONJUNCTIONS LEXICAL COHESION 311 312 314 314 314 315 316 316 317 318 319 320 320 322 324 325 326 327 MODALITY MARKERS VOICES WORDS AND TRANSLATABILITY 6.4 220.127.116.11 SYSTEMIC CONTEXT TRANSLATION MODELLING FINDING ASPECTS VALIDITY OF METHODOLOGY THEORY AND FINDINGS RECOMMENDATION BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES PUBLICATIONS AND CONFERENCES 328 343 675 xii .3 PRELIMINARY DATA MACROSTRUCTURES MICROSTRUCTURES 6.
active (ETT).7 Table 1.7 Table 4. and passive (FTT) Active (AST).10 Table 1.3 Table 1. passive (ETT). reflexive.6 Table 1. infinitive.9 xiii .8 Table 1. and relative pronouns Case Adjectives Tense Affirmative Negative Interrogative Negative interrogative Word class Peculiarities Text type Characters Literary words Tenor Active (AST. demonstrative. interrogative.4 Table 4. passive (ETT).12 Table 1.3 Table 4.9 Table 1. and active (FTT) Passive (AST). and passive (FTT) Active (AST).1 Table 1. and active (FTT) 16 24 24 25 30 35 37 42 43 43 43 51 52 70 164 169 172 223 224 225 226 227 228 Table 1. and active (FTT) Passive (AST). active (ETT).2 Table 4. passive (ETT).5 Table 1.5 Table 4. 6 Table 4. passive (ETT).11 Table 1.4 Arabic language Nouns Personal pronouns Possessive.1 Table 4. and passive (FTT) Passive (AST).2 Table 1.1 Table 4.LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1.13 Table 2.8 Table 4.
and passive (FTT) Passive (AST).4 Table 5.11 Table 5. active (ETT).1 Table 5. and passive (FTT) Active (AST). and active (FTT) Passive (AST).5 Table 5.10 Table 5. passive (ETT).10 Table 4. and active (FTT) Passive (AST). passive (ETT). 6 Table 5. passive (ETT). passive (ETT).11 Passive (AST).8 Table 5. active (ETT).Table 4. and passive (FTT) Words and translatability Characters Literary words Tenor Active (AST. passive (ETT).3 Table 5. passive (ETT). and passive (FTT) Words and translatability 228 229 246 250 254 300 301 301 302 303 303 304 305 xiv . and passive (FTT) Active (AST).7 Table 5. and active (FTT) Passive (AST).9 Table 5.2 Table 5.
5 Figure 2.6 Figure 3.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 1.5 Semitic language family Indo-European languages Number Arabic word order Translation studies Text type Text Style The system of the qualities of expression Translation procedures Lambert’s and van Gorp’s system theory Translation modelling Mood Modality and modulation Modality xv .3 Figure 3.1 Figure 1.LIST OF FIGURES Page 11 11 28 42 67 71 72 74 83 98 106 108 123 124 126 Figure 1.1 Figure 3.3 Figure 1.2 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.2 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS ADV AST C ETT FTT IM NM NP O Ø PEC Q S SL ST TL TT TTs V X ADVERBIAL ARABIC SOURCE TEXT COMPLEMENT ENGLISH TARGET TEXT FRENCH TARGET TEXT INTERROGATIVE MARKER NEGATIVE MARKER NEGATIVE PARTICLE OBJECT NO WORD USED PECULIAR QUESTION SUBJECT SOURCE LANGUAGE SOURCE TEXT TARGET LANGUAGE TARGET TEXTS TARGET TEXTS VERB ANY SENTENCE ELEMENT xvi .
Ger. Fr. Ma. Sp. Sw.LANGUAGES Ar. ARABIC ENGLISH FRENCH GERMAN MALAY SPANISH SWAHILI xvii . En.
didapati terdapat banyak hubungkait antara-teks dan antara-sistem seperti dicadangkan oleh teori Lambert dan van Gorp. dan ( موسم الحجرة إلى الشمالSeason of Migration to the North. Darinya. bahasa Inggeris dan bahasa Perancis . sebaliknya. Walau bagaimanapun. makrostrktur dan mikrostruktur. Bahasa Inggeris mempunyai lebih banyak ciri tersendiri yang dapat dilihat melalui mikrostrukturnya. xviii .SATU KAJIAN PERBANDINGAN TERJEMAHAN SASTERA DARI BAHASA ARAB KE BAHASA INGGERIS DAN BAHASA PERANCIS ABSTRAK Kajian ini adalah satu kajian perbandingan sastera yang bertujuan menjelaskan perbezaan dan persamaan antara tiga bahasa – bahasa Arab. didapati terdapat hubungkait yang banyak antara metateks.bagi mengwujudkan satu model penterjemahan. kurang bergantung pada mikrostruktur untuk menunjukkan ciri-ciri bahasa itu yang tersendiri. Amnya. Passage des Miracles) oleh Naguib Mahfouz. tidak menunjukkan persamaan system atau system yang sealiran. Bahasa Perancis dan bahasa Arab. ia menyelidiki kejadian tiga aspek teks – makrostruktur. Khususnya. ia sering ditentukan oleh keanehan bahasa dan pilihan penterjemah.( زقاق المدقMidaq Alley.merupakan korporanya dan Teori Deskriptif Sistem Lambert dan van Gorp (Descriptive Theory System) menyediakan rangka teori untuk kajian ini. Makrostrukturnya adalah unsur-unsur universal yang terkandung dalam laras bahasa. Dua buah novel dan terjemahan bahasa Inggerisnya dan terjemahan bahasa Perancisnya . Saison de la Migration Vers Le Nord) oleh Tayeb Saleh . mikrostruktur dan konteks sistemik – dalam terjemahan dari bahasa Arab ke bahasa Inggeris dan dari bahasa Arab ke bahasa Perancis. sebaliknya pula. Bahasa Perancis dan bahasa Arab mempunyai mikrostruktur yang hampir serupa kerana ciri-ciri bahasa mereka juga mempunyai persamaan yang banyak. Mikrostrukturnya. pentingnya ciri-ciri tersendiri dan ciri-ciri universal dalam mencapai penerimaan pembaca harus diberi pertimbangan yang sewajarnya.
and ( موسم الحجرة إلى الشمالSeason of Migration to the North. English is more diverse with its peculiarities allowing many microstructure elements to surface. The French and Arabic have similar microstructures due to the quasi-similarity of their peculiarities. macrostructures and microstructures. French and Arabic.( زقاق المدقMidaq Alley. Nevertheless. they are often determined by language peculiarities and translators’ preference and choice. Two novels and their English and French translations. Passage des Miracles) by Nagib Mahfouz. it is found that there are substantial intertextual and intersystemic relations as proposed by Lambert’s and van Gorp’s theory. The macrostructures are universals accommodated by language register. however. it is found that there are substantial relations among the metatexts. on the other hand. Saison de la Migration Vers Le Nord) by Taleb Saleh . do not reflect systematic correspondence. More specifically. English and French – to establish a translation modelling. the significance of language peculiarities and universals in achieving readership acceptability should be given due consideration. From the study. show moderate usage and less distinctive usage of microstructure elements. microstructure and systemic context – in translations from Arabic to English and Arabic to French. In general. xix . The microstructures. it examines occurrences of three aspects of text – macrostructure.A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LITERARY TRANSLATION FROM ARABIC INTO ENGLISH AND FRENCH ABSTRACT This study is a comparative study on literary translation which aims at describing differences and similarities between three languages – Arabic.form its corpora and Lambert and van Gorp’s Descriptive Systems Theory provides the theoretical framework for this comparative study.
It has turned from traditional processes to new approaches which describe meanings scientifically and “put together systematic taxonomies of translation phenomena” (ibid: 29). Munday (2001: 17) argues that translation in the twentieth century. (2) descriptive translation studies (DTS). and (3) applied translation studies. has helped to fill the gap between theory and practice. change. Gambier (1995: 222-4) emphasizes the role played by translators in importing foreign cultural values and creating aesthetic values.1 1. and academic knowledge. Furthermore. and standards of languages. spoken and written forms. varieties.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The second category deals with comparative studies. The first category deals with the explanation and prediction of phenomena to constitute general principles. from country to country. Moreover. Cary (1959: 43) mentions that translation is playing the role of discovery. resulting in the hybridity of cultures. cultural diversity. differences.1. from age to age. It discovers things from language to language. translation has gone further as a unifying communicative factor of lingual. This made translation not to be a substitution but “cross-fertilization. and from world to world. and literatures. it focuses on textual phenomena and their translatability.” Wilss(1982:11) points out that the importance of translation in the human communicative acts has made it one of the most important branches of linguistics.1 RESEARCH ASPECTS BACKGROUND Evolving from linguistics whose role is to study the similarities. thanks to Holmes. acquisition. be they 1 . It then plays big role in the evolution and spread of religions. Holmes (2000: 172-185) has divided translation studies into three categories: (1) theoretical translation studies.
it is a descriptive translation study in literary translation. Wilss (1998: 58. Translation allows us to clarify certain linguistic phenomena which otherwise would remain undiscovered.14) have linguistically discussed the interdependence between macrostructures and microstructures in terms of coherence and relationships. text type.” Weston (1991: 9) points out that translation difficulties deal with overcoming conceptual differences between the SL and TL. Based on the above statements. their occurrence. It is motivated by problems concerning the macrostructures (the global meaning of the texts understudy) and microstructures (the expressive means of the texts understudy). translatability. and reflectiveness to other genres. translation aids. functions in different languages. according to Hermans (1985: 10-12). and translation criticism. This study is conducted on the second category (DTS). a propos of their range. It describes and compares translation aspects that can be semantically problematic. The former deal with the global relationships of the events and actions of the text. It is a descriptive study on literary texts whose dynamic polysystem. requires a “continual interplay between theoretical models and practical case studies” carried out in a descriptive approach which is target-text oriented.1. whereas the latter deals with the local details and their relationships between the sentences on the one hand and the whole text on the other hand. literary. 2 . some problems arise. and Charolles (1978: 12. and effects in literary translation. The last category deals with translator training. 1. in translation. or cultural.linguistic. van Dijk (1981: 5). Moreover.60). Vinay and Darbelnet (1995: 9) state that “translation can be an object of research into the mechanisms of one language in relation to another.2 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY This study is a multilingual comparative study.
translation study needs to determine the range and possibilities of those trends with a systematic approach. a systematic and comparative description in the ST and the TTs of such unit in terms of macrostructures and microstructures can elucidate translation operativeness in the languages under study. 1976: 293). (c) meaning as context and use.265).61) argues that meanings can take different patterns: (a) meaning as reference. but their representation. 1975: 239. language is not a nomenclature but a text in the sense of “a semantic unit” in context. By “semantic unit” they mean the systematic and interdependent function of the ideational (the way language conceptualizes the world). expressed by a texture (Halliday and Hasan. (d) meaning as culture. and textual (the way language is used to form texts) (Halliday. Frawley (1992: 17. therefore. the interpersonal (i. This may hold some truth concerning the relationships between the semantic macrostructures and microstructures in a given source text (ST). understanding. (b) meaning as logical form. and globalization. Secondly. interrelatedness. the way language is used as a personal medium). In addition. Fourthly. a skill and a taste. owing to effective human communication. consists of several reasons. They are: First since translation is “a science and an art. 1983: 15). while literary translation must pay attention to both text and texture hermeneutically. there is a lack of a multilingual comparative study determining the range of the behaviour of linguistic aspects in literary translation. which is epistemic (Wilss. which is increasingly in demand for the understanding of the otherness. 3 . compared to language for special purpose translation. translation study may need to focus more on translation modelling based on descriptive comparative study in literary translation. Therefore. and (e) meaning as conceptual structure. 1996: 168). Thirdly.The rationale behind this topic. an exercise of choices and decisions” (Newmark. and functions as “a semantic unit” in given target texts (TTs) is still vague.e.
3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study are: i. German. semantic. or in the international dissertation abstracts in America and United Kingdom. 4 . reveals that there is no recorded research on a multilingual comparative study on literary translation from Arabic into both English and French. net whether in the national interlibrary universities. However. To examine intertextual relations and intersystemic relations. To construct a translation model.Accordingly. iv. and C. into non-European languages. To support this descriptive study. Spanish. To compare the behaviour of both macrostructures and microstructures in the literary products. etc. 1. v. and vice versa.53) is followed. a system theory concerning DTS by Lambert and van Gorp (1985: 42. pragmatic and cultural factors particularly from well-documented European languages like English. It is explained in the theoretical framework and methodology chapter of this thesis.D. ii. iii. French. a search in the internet.1. To examine the translatability of macrostructures and microstructures. many studies may have been done on translation particularly in language pairs (from one source language into one target language) concerning translation and its problems in terms of syntactical. To identify and describe the semantic relation between macrostructures and microstructures.
4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The research tries to answer the following questions: i. What are the similarities and differences between Arabic. English. novels. and French with respect to languages pairs that may occur in translating the macrostructures and microstructures? ii. How do the macrostructures and microstructures of the TTs function to serve the same function of the macrostructures and microstructures of the ST? iv.1. Moreover. the hypothesis which the research tests concerning those questions is that the macrostructures may affect the macrostructures due to translators’ misuse of their choices. and mishandling of expressive possibilities which are offered by the languages they deal with. What makes the macrostructures and microstructures of the genre chosen. i. this study will be conducted in one of the co hyponyms of literature. What literary translation modelling of the languages in question will be functional and effective? To answer those questions. which is the novel. whose findings are expected to be reflective of other types and genres.e. What are the translators’ possible choices for handling the macrostructures and microstructures in translation? iii. at the level of macrostructures and microstructures. To what extent do the microstructures affect or enhance the macrostructures or vice versa in translation? v. reflective of other genres? vi.1. 5 .
either in the same period or in different periods of time. Lambert and van Gorp (1985: 42.. linguistic. English. This study is a multilingual comparative study. But the choice of the third corresponds 6 . whether they are scientific. literary. and 3. the third comparative approach will be utilized. and linguistic factors on the modelling of a translation.1.. in order to reconstruct the interplay of ‘acceptability’ and ‘adequacy’ during its genesis. He writes: One may compare several translations into one language done by different translators. comparative study of one text into different languages. 1985: 24) Due to the foci of this research. He believes that its modelling strategy can be useful to “contrastive purposes and to the theoretical study and practical pursuit of translation. The purpose of such studies is to suggest similarities and differences. 2. as an initial means of establishing the effects of different cultural. finally. or one may compare different phases in the establishment of one translation.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY Comparative studies are used in many research fields.53) consider Descriptive Translation Study as an effective means for determining theoretical and practical approaches to the degree of interaction of the source and target systems in literary translation.. or. comparative study of different target translations of one ST into one language. Teich (2001: 219) believes that translations are suitable data for multilingual studies because they can provide “contrastive-linguistic insights”. or literary.” Toury (1985) classifies translation comparative study into three categories: 1. comparative study on different phases. several translations of what is assumed to be the same text into different languages.. This is because in terms of translation comparative studies people used to rely on the first and second approach due to multilingual barriers. Enkvist (1978: 185) argues that “it is often said that contrastive text linguistics is still in its infancy”. (Toury. and French). and then be aware of phenomena that may occur among the parameters established..1.. it describes textual macrostructures and microstructures of novels from three languages (Arabic.
translation corpus-based study has been taking different shapes from corpus linguistics which began during the 1960s. namely that it is a sample of texts. and (c) multilingual (Laviosa.also to the needs of this period of globalization in which translation modelling is needed for the effective transfer of knowledge and experience. (b) bilingual. assembled according to explicit design criteria. multilingual corpus (to provide contrastive lexical information) . either full running texts or text extracts. Both definitions express an important feature of a corpus. Sager (1990) points out that most of the corpora studies are monolingual and do cater for the needs of linguists.1. McEnery and Wilson (2001: 158) state that corpora are suitable materials for language engineering and machine translation. However. 2002). However. Kenny (1998: 50-52) discusses that corpora in translation have been so far categorized by Mona Baker into parallel corpus (to provide translational behaviour of lexes and structures in terms of language pair relationships) . Therefore. It has become data source for Descriptive Translation Study. It is defined as far as translation is concerned as follows: A corpus is generally referred to as either a collection of texts or a collection of pieces of language. and comparable corpus (to provide information of specific features occurrences that may stand as translation universals). in translation. The demand of translation studies for corpora reflects the “new ways of looking at 7 . 2002: 33) In addition. (Laviosa. corpora can be categorized into (a) monolingual.6 CORPUS Corpus is a collection of written texts or a collection of spoken material used for linguistic investigation in terms of structures and frequencies. They are excellent sources for quantitative data and linguistic knowledge. 1. traductologists may need data from corpora from more than one language to serve their purpose.
A full description of the corpus and its justification is given in the methodology section. just as corpora are already leading to new ways of looking at translation” (ibid. Being a multilingual comparative study. be they literary or non-literary. The second is entitled موسم الحجرة إلى الشمالby Tayeb Salih. The first is entitled ( زقاق المدقZukāk el. 53).Midaq) by Naguib Mahfouz (1947). (Baker. 1996: 185) Based on the above theories concerning corpus-based translation studies. the corpus is composed of two novels written in Arabic as ST. and levelling out (balance between SL and TL). The translations are entitled (1) Midaq Alley and (2) Passage des Miracles. 8 .corpora. It is chosen for its literary quality. explicitation (explanation). and (2) Saison de la Migration vers le Nord. She writes: Translation scholars are ultimately not interested in the words or syntactic structures themselves. the translations are entitled (1) Season of Migration to the North. which are independent of specific languages and have various manifestations on the surface. Moreover. Baker (1996: 175-185) points out that corpora in descriptive translation studies is a basic source for discovering translation phenomena in terms of simplification (making the text easy to understand). global notions such as explicitation and simplification. She believes that the foci of corpora in translation go beyond the linguistic ones which are based on frequency lists and concordances. Baker (2000) highlights the importance of translation corpus-based study in electronic process for discovering data on the range of style in literary translation. and for convenience in that it can be reflective of other genres. normalization and conservatism (target language standardization bias or exaggeration) . this study opts for the novel as its corpus. What they are interested in are abstract.
Mounin (1959: 51. according to van Dijk (1981). and language learners know more about the occurrence of some language phenomena of the languages understudy in translation so that they can be aware of them in decision making. limits itself to aspects of the macrostructures and microstructures of the texts under study. (b) elucidate more to linguists and translatologists 9 .52) discusses that the study of linguistic aspects is very important in translation because they lead to the understanding of the non-linguistic aspects.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study is intended to (a) help professional translators. and speech acts. and Majordomo (1987) deal with the global semantic and pragmatic aspects of the text. and availability of translations. it. It limits itself also to certain languages. the microstructures deal with linguistic aspects that provide information to the macrostructures. interpreters.1. Being a qualitative study. but some excerpts reflecting the problems of the macrostructures and the microstructures will be selected in the ST and TTs respectively. They range over phonological. Garcia-Berrio. It will be carried out in the novel taken as corpus in order to compare the occurrences of the macrostructures and microstructures. and French. and systemic context. macrostructures and specific linguistic microstructures.1. this study limits itself to semantic textual metatexts. graphological. Being a multilingual comparative study and due to time constraints. 1. The entire novels are studied. the study limits itself to two original novels and four translations. Macrostructures of any text. English. lexicogrammatical sentences and propositions. and the foci of the study. therefore.1. translation students. Owing to the wide range of both macrostructures and microstructures. Arabic.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This multilingual comparative study is a case study. which are conceived to be problematic in translation.
culture. Saison de la Migration Vers le Nord. it limits itself to the macrostructures and specific semantic microstructures. which elucidates the topic and its relation. Passage des Miracles). and gives some recommendations for further research relative to the research topic.the effectiveness of descriptive multilingual comparative study in the study of translation in the Arabic language. i. English language. 10 . literary translation. position in translation.e. and French. Chapter 5 analyses ( موسم الحجرة إلى الشمالSeason of Migration to the North. Chapter 1 is a preliminary discussion. (3) the objectives. importance. chapter 6 concludes the research. 1. Chapter 2 contains a review of related literature on language. linguistics. . as well as its motivation. (7) the limitation of the study. and hypothesis. which discusses and elaborates the following headings: (1) background. and translation procedures. (4) the research questions. descriptive translation studies (DTS). and the problems. (10) historical background of languages understudy. translation. Arabic. and (c) contribute a model of translation to the translation field. English. (5) the scope of the study. it specifies the texts to be used in the research. (8) the significance of the study. Chapter 3 embodies the theoretical framework and methodology. it determines the kind of comparative study to be conducted. and (11) language problems in the translating process from Arabic into English and French. (9) the organization of the study. and French language.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS This thesis is organized to contain six chapters. Finally. (2) the rationale of the study.1. (6) the corpus of the study. Chapter 4 analyses ( زقاق المدقMidaq Alley. it comprises the organization of six chapters.
2001: 541-545). Semitic language family Afro-Asiatic languages Etc. English and French are two members of the Indo-European languages family. The word Semitic comes from Shem. which embodies Afro-Asiatic languages.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF LANGUAGES UNDER STUDY This section discusses the historical background of the languages understudy.1. 2001: 72). English. Arabic Hebrew Amharic Figure 1.1 Semitic language family 11 . It originated from Proto-Indo European. Arabic. and French. a language thought to be spoken about 3000 B. Arabic is a member of the Semitic languages family. presumed ancestor of this language family (Berry. C. The following figures illustrate more their member families and origins. (Lehmann.
Houssa. the Koran came into being. and the early Islamic period whereby writing was in vogue.(Eckersley and Eckerseley. and others. and official language of the Arab countries since the 7th century thanks to a decree from the Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān who reigned between 685 to 705 A. which make Arabic the official language of twenty countries. 12 . and nationalism. it is characterized by awakening. Urdu. The fourth period is the period that comes after (1800). Goldziher(1966: 2-5) states that the spread of Arabic into other places and countries brings about many dialects. It has become the lingua franca of Muslims. During the period (610. 1960: 432) Figure 1. Its value promotes its universality.661 AD) whereby Arabic was a spoken language rich of oral literature. Turkic. it was used in both south and north of Arabia. which officializes and encourages the Turkish language instead of the Arabic language. Malay. due to the Koran those dialects could not affect its purity or divide it into different languages as the case with the Latin.632) the powerful. which takes place during the Ummayad and Abbassids rules. The second period is (661. holy and literary book.Islamic period (500. 1998). revival.1 ARABIC LANGUAGE Arabic is a Semitic language. (Baker. Egyptian. D. In this period Arabic becomes the religious and official language of the above-mentioned empires. and Maghreb Arabic. Nevertheless. The third period (1258.2. Syrian.2 Indo-European languages 1. Altaic. Chejne (1969) points out that the Arabic language has undergone four periods. The first period is the pre. Swahili.1800) is a period of decline wherein Arabic disintegrates into many dialects due to the negligence of the Turkish empire ruling in this long period.1258). It enriched many languages like Persian. for example Iraqi. It is still the universal language of Muslims all over the world.
in the Abbasid Period. Sharabi (1970: 18) writes: What this Christian-inspired feeling demonstrated with increasing clarity was that a common religion did not necessarily make for a common destiny. the spread of Islam contributed to the spread of Arabic language in Africa. persane et indienne. It has brought about the idea of Arabism. like the Muslims. He writes: La culture arabo-musilmane est vraiment neé au cours des premiers siècles abbassides. it enjoyed. a wider range of internationality through the Islamisation process. Chejne (1969: 3. etc. les auteurs de toutes les ethnies et de toutes les confessions. that Arabism expressed interests and loyalties that went 13 . Asian. That is. and the language of the people of Paradise. English. and Europe in the past. Apart from that. They also contribute much to its survival. Muslims and Arabs consider Arabic as “a God-given language. French. s’expriment en arabe. Burlot (1990:111) In addition. unique in beauty and majesty. They believe that Arabic is the mother of all languages. Arabic is the language of Christian Arabs who. Soon the Arabic language becomes the language of expression of the intellectuals who feel very proud of it like Al Khwarizmi. the language of the Koran and prophet. It had replaced some languages like hieroglyphic in Egypt. Arabic has become a unifying factor for Muslims in one hand and Arabs on the other hand. Mais tout le monde. Its rich literary heritage that dates back to the middle ages until the modern age has given it an undeniable universality. consider it as an eloquent and communicative language. C’est d’ailleurs la composante persane qui domine. African languages in the Sudan. the longevity of classical Arabic is due to the Koran which makes it remain unchanged or branching out into many languages as was the case with Latin. Latin. etc. and are proud of it.Burlot (1990) states that the appearance of Islam in the 6th century has played double roles in that its believers spread that religion and Arabic language to many places.” Moreover. The poet of the Arabic language was highly respected and considered as the spokesman of his tribe. in the past. Spanish and Russian. Moreover. Elle résulte de la fusion á Bagdad du fond arab avec les cultures greque. Ibn Sina.13) mentions that Arabic is one of the major languages of the world like Greek.
to pan-Islamism. it happened that the intellectuals marginalized those dialects in favour of the Arabic language which has become the official language in the Arab countries. analyzing and codifying the Arabic language following the Koran structure. The oral literature was replaced by written literature. The absolute Bedouin rule was replaced by urbanized elite of different classes. who took the lead in running the country. The grammatical principles worked out by the eighth-century grammarians are taken to be the only “correct” ones. it has played a big role in unifying the Arab nations in terms of communication and culture. but also the language of science. and form the basis of language teaching in schools throughout the Arabic-speaking world at the present day. It still imposes itself despite some linguistic problems emerging from internal and external pressures. and Smith (1983) write: The strength of this normative attitude has prevented the Arab grammarians from accepting the concept of linguistic evolution and development. The Koran then has become the source and touchstone of any language study or analysis. by one remove. Sergeant.175. (Beeston et al. and pronunciation. and vehicle of the Arabo-Islamic culture. communication. 169. Arabic then was not only considered the language of the Holy Koran and paradise. and the ideal and the real. Beeston. It has 14 . Its recent challenge is “to bridge the gap between past ideals and future needs” (ibid. Arabism stood opposed to Ottomanism and. and non-Arabs. 1983: 5) Despite that aspect that hinders the Arabic language change. Arabic has undergone a setback caused by the emergence of European languages. However. and descriptive Arabic grammar. tribes. past and present factors. p. was introduced. Owing to the preservation of the Koran from different readings and misinterpretation that could emerge from different dialects perspective in terms of words and meanings. syntax.beyond those of religion.) The political revolution which took place in the Abbasid period has contributed to a linguistic revolution. This political change paved the way to a new linguistic perspective and awareness.
It scarcely. Beeston et al. Moreover. (Patai. and more emotional. and the lack of a knack of Arabic technical terms use. except that their reaction to the language is probably deeper. As far as rhetoricism is concerned. discrepancy between writing and speaking in the Arab countries where “most people write and study in one language while speaking in another”. Arabic can be compared only to music. I can attest from my own personal experience that no language I know comes even near to Arabic in its power of rhetoricism.” It frequently depends on the use of calques concerning scientific and technical lexicons and tournures from both English and French. the effect their language has on them is very different from that of great music. and that lead to exageration. Arabic language is a language characterized by reluctance to borrow words. 1973: 48) 15 . It can be said that if the French person appears brilliant because of prolixity and the English person looks wise because of taciturnity. For speakers of English. (1983) points out that Arabic language is heavily influenced in terms of “scientific and imaginative writing. Patai (1973: 48. more intense. in its ability to penetrate beneath and beyond intellectual comprehension directly to the emotions and make its impact upon them. Yet the speakers of Arabic react to both language and music in a basically similar manner. borrows words from other languages. the Arab person appears brilliant because of powerful oral eloquence. compared to other languages like English and French.59) states that Arabic language is a language that is characterized by rhetoricism. he writes: Being conversant with several languages. Laroussi (2003) points out that Arabic language faces a serious challenge in its evolution as a technical technological language. which lie inert in dictionaries and specialised works. which become natural aspects of any Arab individual from childhood. and repetition. overassertion.become successful in stopping the emergence of dialects as official languages like what happened to Latin. In this respect. That challenge is due to the lack of linguistic common reforms. Instead. it has a tendency for calque.
Bonjour! Salut! B. Also the word. مدركand .. ب. and Hechaïme. السال م عليكم . وھّاجةThe use of the modus energicus.ب. 1970.االنضباط التزام مدرك واع engagement pleinement commitment conscient. Eckersley and Eckersely (1960) state that despite the fact that the Britons. she is very enthusiastic. the words. the language of the Angles invaders took place after the Romans had left in order to 16 . who are found there by other invaders like the Romans. Romans. The real aborigines are still unknown. Saxons.1 Arabic language French A. Bonjour! Salut! A. انھاin the beginning of the last sentence expresses over assertion. نھاركم سعيد . واعand متلظيةare repetitions because they are synonyms of the previous words. و عليكم السال م و رحمة ﷲ وبركاته أ.2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE It is historically known that England underwent a lot of invasions by Britons. Angles. Good morning/day! Hi! A. and Jutes. و رحمة ﷲ وبركاتهand ومباركare a kind of exaggeration in that they come to express more than what is necessary compared to the English and French texts. The prevalence of English. Good morning/day! Hi! B. Good morning/day! Hi! un Discipline is a conscious Arabic أ. Good morning/day! Hi! B. It literally means “behold. Bonjou! Salut! B. نھاركم سعيد ومبارك .2.For example: Table 1.” 1. 2002) In the above Arabic text. Adapted from (Patai. Elle est brulante She is very enthusiastic . are also invaders. Bonjour! Salut ! La discipline est English A.انھا وھّاجة متلظية d’ardeur.
Eckersly and Eckersly write: This borrowing has made English a rich language with a vocabulary of already about half a million words. (Eckersley and eckersley. English. argue Eckersly and Eckersely (1960). etc. is the language of Angles to whom the language. it has not characterized by a conservative attitude. agreement. Saxons. and Jutes. the dominant one. opt for the use of English. which made Latin and French the languages of the minority rulers and English the language of the powerless majority of the citizens. Manchester. 1960: 432) 17 . and growing daily. has. Dover.61) discusses that survival of the English language despite the invasions that Britain underwent reflects the fact that the invaders came there as rulers and not as citizens. and the country name. the Celts. Arabic. and the aborigines of Australia with English. She mentions that the growth and spread of English is due to (a) colonialism and economic hegemony. and subjunctive. It has become.defend Rome. the language of human kind or globalization as it is studied and used as either a mother tongue. It is this wealth of near-synonyms. It. therefore. borrows from Latin. Greek. bin. Even though English is a hybrid language from different dialects and languages of the invaders. or foreign language all over the world. However. etc. It relies on borrowing to build up its own vocabulary (ibid). Moreover. Roberts (1967: 56.260) points out. York. (b) the replacement of the indigenous languages of American Indians. second language. though few word like ass. as Romaine (1992: 253. (c) the lack of a common language among the various tribes and ethnics in many African countries which. differentiated itself from the other Indo-European languages by getting rid of complicated grammatical aspects like gender. England refer. to avoid linguistic ethnic favouritism feeling. The leaving of the Romans paved the way for the coming of other invaders like Angles. Gloucester. French. survived after the Britons’ language. in its evolution process. English as an Indo-European language. London. which gives to English its power to express exactly the most subtle shades of meaning.
The first language which was used in England was probably the Celtic language. the Latin became the language of the Church. The end of the Old English period underwent another foreign influence of the Normans’ invasion under William the conqueror in 1066. Seaman (1982) argues that the Anglo-Saxons. Thus. they brought with them religious and linguistic influences on the English language and civilization. It has become today the most practical.It is clear that the process of the quick evolution of the English language is due to annulment of complicated grammatical features and its openness in words borrowing. which made it a richer language in terms of vocabulary. and ‘bovine’ are borrowed to build up the vocabulary family of tooth and cow. It often borrows to enrich the word family of the basic English words. who invaded England in the 5th century. unlike other languages in the process of borrowing. for example. by Latin language of the Roman Empire. Linguistically. However.e. a branch of Latin. communicative. Moreover. It was followed. ‘dentist’. and spoke Norman French. were related to Celtic culture. English has a specific way of borrowing. ruling class. and scientific. 1951). The hybridity of the English language occur due to the different tribes that invaded the country. who came from French province. Saxons. and borrowing from the above-mentioned languages and dialects. and the aristocrats. Their rule lasted 200 years. were pagans. some dialects brought by the Scandinavians. Jutes. absorbed the Roman culture. and their culture and languages which they brought to England. and Angles gained ground as the basis of the grammar and vocabulary of what is called today the English language. Normandy. i. it can be said that the hybridity of the English language reflects the symbiosis of those languages and culture. and English had the status of a low class language (Baugh and Cable. then. As they were Christians. ‘dental’. French became the language of the government. Old English is composed by those languages and dialects. Baugh and Cable write: 18 .
53). but Maurais (2003: 20) believes that the internationality of English as a global language will last for a long time despite the fact that its hegemony is. Ewert mentions that the prevalence of the Francien dialect is due to its rich literary tradition compared to the other dialects. Furthermore. however.2. owes its structures and a great deal of its vocabulary from Latin though it possesses several words from Celtic and Germanic origin (Ewert. After the Roman conquest. 1997: 58). but of Vulgar Latin. that globalization can affect the purity of English in that people tend to use simple and informal English (Hale. therefore. 1. 1968).French and English are both languages of wider communication.C. and the invasion of the Germanic tribes known as Franks who were already romanized. The language that was used before the Roman conquest in the 1st and 2nd centuries B. langue d’oïl in the north.3 FRENCH LANGUAGE France is the word that comes to replace the ancient name Gaule. 1933). 1993: 4) It is argued. which made it split into distinct dialects. Latin. and yet the changing positions of the two languages in international affairs during the past century illustrate the extent to which the status of a language depends on extralinguistic factors. It has been said that English is recurringly associated with practical and powerful pursuits. Francien which progressively took the lead (Hare. and the dialect of Ile de France. even though English has become a global language. 2000: 52. the Gaulish language could not stand against the official and religious language of the Roman Empire. was Gaulish which was a Celtic language. There were a lot of differences in terms of pronunciation in all branches of the lingua Romana. French grew up not of Classical Latin. (Baugh and Cable. He writes: 19 . diminishing. to some extent. it will be faced by few other languages that strive also to go global (Gradol. Among those dialects in France were the langue d’oc in the south. Modern French.
It is even extended to the domain of the langue d’oc. passionnés de Scrabble ou de l’émission Le Mot le plus long. In that perception. le bons mots. or a foreign language. it is called Old French. drives the dialects out of literature and reduces them to the status of mere patois. The second phase is between the 14th and the 16th centuries. It has undergone three phases. enfants des cités de banlieue. the French people hold high the art of speech. 20 . Moreover. The first phase is between the 9th and the 13th centuries. and so inherited its grammatical syntactical complexity. its use has been challenged by the wider spread and use of English language. it is known as Middle French. Hand in hand with this extension in the field of literature goes the triumph of French over Latin in the chancelleries and in the royal administration generally. (Steele. The francophone countries have made the French language politically and geographically the second language of wider international communication (ibid: 78). humorists. therefore. Its use. although French is an international language.Francien. 1933: 11) French language developed from Latin. is on the decline due to the poor economic status of the francophone countries in Africa where many people consider English as means to a better life. which begins to furnish outstanding writers in the Northern idiom. hommes politiques. Nevertheless. and the lack of a French government sustainable policy for the majority poor francophone masses (Chaudenson. 2002: 136) The French language is shared by many countries called francophone countries as either mother tongue. as the recognized literary medium. It depends more on denotation and abstractness than connotation and concreteness (ibid). Steele writes: Les Français adorent jouer avec leur langue: qu’ils soient écrivains. (Ewert. bel usage and loquacity. official language. The Modern phase began in the 17th century after the establishment of the French Academy by Cardinal Richelieu to preserve the purity and expressivity of the French language. chauffeurs de taxi. dialoguistes de films. 2003: 291297). tous ont en commun la passion des mots.
Even though the French language is a prolix language it is not characterized by exaggeration.1 WORD FORMATION Every language has its own way of building and structuring its words. suffixes to indicate gender. . These are word formation. unlike French and Arabic. Patai (1973: 181) states that the language that attracts Arabs more is French language. Givón (1978) elucidates that most of the problem of translation are not due to the expressive power or expressive inability of a given language. Arabic language uses inflectional morphology. . These are . They are the devices that may pose some problems in terms of loss or gain in the languages under study. adverbs. and other factors.3.3 THE LANGUAGES UNDER STUDY AND TRANSLATION PROBLEMS In this section.ان.ين. voices. and peculiarities. However.All in all. syntax. agreement. and flexibility in terms of grammatical changes. overassertion.ون. but due to the “complexity of constraints. 1. adjectives.ات. noun gender. languages depend on inflectional morphology and derivational morphology. . case making. it can be said that English is characterized by openness in terms of borrowing. The following are aspects that are conceived to be problematic. prominent aspects concerning language and translatability are discussed. compared to Arabic. . and repetition aspects.” which the translator has to deal with in terms of discourse equivalents. and French).ينMoreover. 21 . or both at the same time. nouns and pronouns. Linguistically. . and number. faux amis. and that may hold some truth in terms of the art of speech. word order. 1. verb classification. cases. ة. verbs. They are discussed in terms of their translatability from the ST (Arabic) to the TLs (English. conjunctions. Both French and Arabic are gender languages. involving syntactic structure.
كتبFor that reason. or borrowed ones mostly from Latin language and Greek language. Wright (1967) clarifies that nouns can be primitive like .e. إنسان. i.ize/ise. etc. Morphemes like –able. compound nouns do not have properties different from single words. etc. Linguistically. they represent only one entity. -ly. -y. -ess. are used to change the premier function of the word in terms of parts of speech into another. i. -neo. -less. -al. -en. The derivative verbs are derived from either the triliteral or the quadriliteral. book + case. homo-. syntactic. bookcase. formed from a noun like مأْسدة ََ َ (place full of lions) from أسدor َْ deverbal.e. The former deals with joining two words together. The latter deals with morphological prefixes or suffixes. -ultra. -ule are used to add more significance to the original words like archbishop. -ic. English built its words by the use of compound nouns or derivation. -ous. etc. بيتetc. So the adjective ‘weak’ can be changed into a verb by suffixing –en to it. Kuiper and Allan (1996) mention that compound lexemes are like simple lexemes in that they both have phonological. weaken. 22 . The compound nouns girlfriend.Arabic depends mostly on building its word by derivation. i. In this case they do not represent two entities. بقرة. geo-.. Others like arch-. verbs can be primitive or derivative. -vice. formed from a verb like ٌ مك َتبfrom . and semantic properties. -ful.e. The following are the paradigms that form and determine the literal and vocal features of the derived verbs: Wright (1967: 29) Nonetheless. they form one word representing one meaning. or derivative which is categorized into denominative. they can be appropriate of the English language. consist of girl +friend. geometry.
etc. verb + noun. noun + adjective. clair-obscur/ gris-pommelé/ivre-mort. etc. etc. Moreover. to change word functions in terms of parts of speech. for example: Ante . What indicates their compounding is the meaning and accentuation. like English. etc. French uses morphological affixes like –aille(trouvaille). chef-d’oeuvre/boîte aux lettres/arc-enciel/licence es letters. cache-nez/garde-manger. etc.(antédeluvien/ antidater)./ anti. Grevice (1969: 75) states that the richness of the French language is due to its process of derivation and word formation rather than borrowing. télé-(télévision). Trouvaille is a noun derived from the verb trouver.. and compounds made of phrases.. Others are formed by affixes of Latin and Greek origins.Like English language French language builds its words by the use of compound nouns and derivation. and foudroyer is a verb derived from the noun foudre. for example: Chou-fleur/chef-lieu/commisvoyageur. gentilhomme/basse- cour/bonjour/amour-propre/fait divers. which will bring about mistranslation. and states they represent. amphi-(amphitheatre). etc. ideas. a lack of good knowledge of word formation can affect the range of word choice in the translation process. Ewert (1933: 316. etc.. 23 . Thus. -oyer (foudroyer). and noun + preposition + noun. mane-/maniemanemanie (cocaïnomane/ bibliomanie). These are used to expand or add extra meanings to the original words. madame/monseigneur/Notre-dame. possessive pronoun + noun.18) argues that compound words can be formed by noun + noun. grandeur is a noun derived from the adjective grand. -eur (grandeur). etc. adjective + adjective.. and comme il faut/ (des) on dit/ (le) qu’en dira-t-on/ (un) sauve qui peut/ (un) je ne sais quoi... and it can also break the bond between the words and the things. etc.
أنت عاقل . ّتجلس على الكرسي . indefinite. They can be personal.2 Nouns Substantive ّكرسي Tree Montre Derivative (مكتبة )كتب Prehistory (history) Fourberie (fourbe) Language Arabic English French Pronouns or pronominals are used to refer to nouns or simply to replace them. In Arabic pronouns can be either separate from the verb or bound to the verb.ذھبت إلى السوق . Tu es allé au marchet. the following table exemplifies more: Table 1. indefinite. You went to the market.3. e.1. Tu t’assois sur la chaise. The following table illustrates more: Table 1.2 NOUNS AND PRONOUNS Nouns in Arabic. Yet. demonstrative.ضربك الولد Possessive and reflexive pronouns are only bound. reflexive. and relative. L’enfant t’a frappé. primitive (substantive) and derivative. English. and French are of two kinds. interrogative. interrogative. possessive.g. You sit on the chair.3 Personal pronouns French Tu es sage. this pen is yours. for example: 24 . The boy beat you. ce stylo est le tien). English You are wise. C’est ton stylo.( ھذا قلمك؛ ھذا القلم لكThis is your pen. Arabic . demonstrative. and relative pronouns are separate.
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