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and Volume V.direction with uniform velocity vz . The total charge Q within volume V is moving in z.How Radiations Occur? ‡ Conducting Wires ± motion of Electric Charges & Creation of Current Flow ‡ Assume that an Electric volume charge density qv is distributed uniformly in circular wire of cross sectional area A.

For Perfect Conductor. Current density resides on surface For very thin wire of zero radius For time varying current applied to a thin wire For a wire of length l .

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‡ To create charge acceleration and deceleration. ‡ The declaration of charges at the end is achieved by the internal forces associated with the induced field due to build up of charge concentration at the ends of the wire. ‡ The acceleration of the charges is accomplished by the external source in which the forces set the charges in motion and produce the associated field radiated. the wire must be bent. curved. The internal forces receive energy from the charge build up as its velocity is reduced to zero at the ends of the wire. ‡ Therefore charge acceleration due to an exciting Electric Field and deceleration due to impedance discontinuities or curves of the wires are mechanisms responsible for EM Radiations. . discontinuous or terminated.

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Quarter-Wavelength Antenna Accelerated charges are the source of EM waves. Most common example: Electric Dipole Radiation. P 4 P 4 t=0 t = T/4 t = T/2 t=T .

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Quarter-Wavelength Antenna .

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